Annual Report (10-k)

Date : 02/14/2020 @ 10:32PM
Source : Edgar (US Regulatory)
Stock : IDEXX Laboratories Inc (IDXX)
Quote : 257.96  -11.85 (-4.39%) @ 7:22PM
IDEXX Laboratories share price Chart

Annual Report (10-k)

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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
 
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _______________ to _______________.
COMMISSION FILE NUMBER: 0-19271

IDEXXIDEXX.JPG
IDEXX LABORATORIES, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
 
 
01-0393723
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation 
or organization)
 
 
(IRS Employer Identification No.)
 
 
 
 
One IDEXX Drive
Westbrook
Maine
04092
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
 
(ZIP Code)
207-556-0300
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Trading Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.10 par value per share
IDXX
NASDAQ Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
 
 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes  No
Based on the closing sale price on June 30, 2019 of the registrant’s Common Stock, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, as reported by the NASDAQ Global Select Market, the aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $23,368,790,688. For these purposes, the registrant considers its directors and executive officers to be its only affiliates.
The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s Common Stock was 85,329,642 on February 10, 2020.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Part III—Specifically identified portions of the Company’s definitive Proxy Statement to be filed in connection with the Company’s 2020 annual meeting of stockholders (the “2020 Annual Meeting”), to be held on May 6, 2020, are incorporated herein by reference.




GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND SELECTED ABBREVIATIONS
Term/Abbreviation
 
Definition
 
 
 
AOCI
 
Accumulated other comprehensive income or loss
ASC
 
Accounting Standards Codification
ASU 2014-09
 
Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), also referred to as the “New Revenue Standard”
ASU 2016-02
 
ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842); also referred to as the "New Leasing Standard"
ASU 2016-16
 
ASU 2016-16, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory,
CAG
 
Companion Animal Group, a reporting segment that provides veterinarians diagnostic products and services and information management solutions that enhance the health and well-being of pets
CDOR
 
Canadian Dollar Offered Rate, a rate at which banks commit to lending to companies
cGMP
 
The FDA’s current Good Manufacturing Practice regulations
Credit Facility
 
Our $850 million five-year unsecured revolving credit facility under an amended and restated credit agreement that was executed in December 2015, also referred to as line of credit
EMA
 
Extended maintenance agreements
EPA
 
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
EPS
 
Earnings per share, if not specifically stated, EPS refers to earnings per share on a diluted basis
EU
 
European Union
FASB
 
U.S. Financial Accounting Standards Board
FDA
 
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
FeLV
 
Feline leukemia virus
FIV
 
Feline immunodeficiency virus, similar to the virus that leads to AIDS in humans
Instrument rebate programs
 
Our customer instrument rebate programs, previously referred to as IDEXX Instrument Marketing Programs, which require an instrument purchase and provide customers the opportunity to earn future rebates based on the volume of products and services they purchase over the term of the program
IVLS
 
IDEXX VetLab Station, connects and integrates the diagnostic information from all the IDEXX VetLab analyzers and thus provides reference laboratory information management system capability
Kits and consumables
 
Rapid assay kits and IDEXX VetLab consumables
LIBOR
 
London Interbank Offered Rate, current benchmark interest rate used between banks and used to set interest rates on loans
LPD
 
Livestock, Poultry and Dairy, a reporting segment that provides diagnostic products and services for livestock and poultry health and ensures the quality and safety of milk and improve producer efficiency
OCI
 
Other comprehensive income or loss
OPTI Medical
 
OPTI Medical Systems, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of IDEXX Laboratories Inc., located in Roswell, Georgia. This business manufactures and supplies blood gas analyzers and consumables worldwide for the human point-of-care medical diagnostics market. The Roswell facility also manufactures electrolytes slides (instrument consumables) to run Catalyst One®, Catalyst Dx®, and blood gas analyzers and consumables for the veterinary market, and is also referred to as OPTI.
Organic revenue growth
 
A non-GAAP financial measure that represents the percentage change in revenue, as compared to the same period for the prior year, net of the effect of changes in foreign currency exchange rates, certain business acquisitions and divestitures. Organic revenue growth should be considered in addition to, and not as a replacement for or as a superior measure to, revenues reported in accordance with U.S. GAAP, and may not be comparable to similarly titled measures reported by other companies.
Ortho
 
Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, Inc., a supplier of dry slide consumables used in our Catalyst One and Catalyst Dx Chemistry Analyzers and VetTest Chemistry Analyzer
Up-Front customer loyalty programs
 
Our up-front loyalty programs provides customers with incentives in the form of cash payments or IDEXX Points upon entering into multi-year agreements to purchase annual minimum amounts of future products or services
PACS
 
Picture archiving and communication software, our software solution for accessing, storing, and sharing diagnostic images
R&D
 
Research and Development

2



Reagent rentals
 
Instruments being placed at customer sites at little or no cost in exchange for a long-term customer commitment to purchase instrument consumables
Reported revenue growth
 
The percentage change in revenue reported in accordance with U.S. GAAP, as compared to the same period in the prior year
S&P
 
Standard & Poor’s
S&P 500 Health Care Index
 
The index for the S&P 500 Health Care (U.S. companies) measures the performance of companies that are classified as members in the Global Industry Classification Standard of health care services sub-industry
S&P 500 Index
 
The S&P 500 Index is a U.S. stock market index based on the market capitalization of 500 large companies having common stock listed on the New York Stock Exchange or NASDAQ, including IDEXX
SaaS
 
Software-as-a-service
SDMA
 
Symmetrical dimethyl arginine, a biomarker that detects kidney disease
SEC
 
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
Senior Note Agreements
 
Note purchase agreements for the private placement of senior notes having an aggregate principal amount of approximately $700 million, referred to as senior notes or long-term debt
T4
 
Thyroxine, a hormone produced by the thyroid gland, tested to indicate thyroid health
2017 Tax Act
 
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act enacted on December 22, 2017, which includes significant changes to the U.S. corporate tax system
U.S. GAAP
 
Accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America
USDA
 
United States Department of Agriculture
Volume commitment programs
 
Programs that provide customers with a free or discounted instrument or system upon entering into multi-year agreements to purchase annual minimum amounts of products and services, such as our IDEXX 360 program.
Water
 
Water, a reporting segment that provides water microbiology testing products


3



IDEXX LABORATORIES, INC.
Annual Report on Form 10-K
Table of Contents

Item No.
 
Page No.

 
 

PART I
 
6
20
31
32
33
33

 
 

PART II
 
34
36
37
65
66
66
67
68

 
 

PART III
 
69
69
69
69
69

 

PART IV
 
70
70

 
F-1

 
 
 


4



The terms “IDEXX,” “Company,” “registrant,” “we,” “us,” and “our” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K mean IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. and all subsidiaries that are consolidated under U.S. GAAP.

We have included certain terms and abbreviations used throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K in the "Glossary of Terms and Selected Abbreviations.” 

Our name, logo and the following terms used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are either registered trademarks or trademarks of IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries: 4Dx®, Animana® Veterinary Software, Catalyst Dx®, Catalyst One®, Coag Dx,  Colilert®,  Colisure®,  Cornerstone®,  DVMAX®,  Enterolert®,  Feline Triple®,  Filta-Max®,  Filta-Max xpress®,  IDEXX I-Vision CR®,  IDEXX I-Vision DR®,  IDEXX I-Vision Mobile,  IDEXX ImageBank  , IDEXX Neo®, IDEXX-PACS, IDEXX SDMA®, IDEXX VetLab®,  IDEXX VPM,  LaserCyte®, LaserCyte® Dx, OPTI®,  PetChek®,  PetDetect®,  Pet Health Network®, Petly® Plans, Practice Profile,  ProCyte Dx®,  Pseudalert®,  Quanti-Tray®, rVetLink®, SediVue Dx®, IDEXX SmartService, Smart Flow, SNAP®,  SNAPduo®,  SNAP Pro®, SNAP® cPL, SNAP® fPL,  SNAPshot Dx®, IDEXX VetAutoread,  VetConnect®, IDEXX VetLab®  UA, VetLINK®,  VetLyte®,  VetStat®,  and VetTest®. VetAutoread is a trademark of QBC Diagnostics.
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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

This Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, contains statements which, to the extent they are not statements of historical fact, constitute “forward-looking statements.” Such forward-looking statements about our business and expectations within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), include statements relating to future revenue growth rates, future tax benefits; business trends, earnings and other measures of financial performance;  the effect of economic downturns on our business performance; projected impact of foreign currency exchange rates; demand for our products; realizability of assets; future cash flow and uses of cash; future repurchases of common stock; future levels of indebtedness and capital spending; interest expense; warranty expense; share-based compensation expense; the adoption and projected impact of new accounting standards; future commercial efforts; future product launches; projected cost and completion of capital investments; and competition. Forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of words such as “expects,” “may,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “would,” “will,” “plans,” “believes,” “estimates,” “should,” “project,” and similar words and expressions. These forward-looking statements are intended to provide our current expectations or forecasts of future events, are based on current estimates, projections, beliefs, and assumptions, and are not guarantees of future performance. Actual events or results may differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements involve a number of risks and uncertainties, including, among other things, the matters described under the headings "Business," "Risk Factors," "Legal Proceedings," "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," and "Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk" in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Any forward-looking statements represent our estimates only as of the day this Annual Report on Form 10-K was first filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and should not be relied upon as representing our estimates as of any subsequent date. From time to time, oral or written forward-looking statements may also be included in other materials released to the public and they are subject to the risks and uncertainties described or cross-referenced in this section. While we may elect to update forward-looking statements at some point in the future, we specifically disclaim any obligation to do so, even if our estimates or expectations change.

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PART I
ITEM 1.    BUSINESS

COMPANY OVERVIEW

IDEXX was incorporated in Delaware in 1983. We develop, manufacture, and distribute products and provide services primarily for the companion animal veterinary, livestock and poultry, dairy and water testing markets. We also sell a line of portable electrolytes and blood gas analyzers for the human point-of-care medical diagnostics market. Our primary products and services are:

Point-of-care veterinary diagnostic products, comprised of instruments, consumables, and rapid assay test kits;
Veterinary reference laboratory diagnostic and consulting services;
Practice management and diagnostic imaging systems and services used by veterinarians;
Health monitoring, biological materials testing, laboratory diagnostic instruments, and services used by the biomedical research community;
Diagnostic, health-monitoring products for livestock, poultry, and dairy;
Products that test water for certain microbiological contaminants; and
Point-of-care electrolytes and blood gas analyzers used in the human point-of-care medical diagnostics market.

Our purpose guides our strategy: to be a great company that creates exceptional long-term value for our customers, employees, and stockholders by enhancing the health and well-being of pets, people, and livestock.

DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS BY SEGMENT

We operate primarily through three business segments:

IDEXXCAG.JPG Companion Animal Group (“CAG”) - Diagnostic and information management-based products and services for the veterinary market.

IDXXWATERDROP.JPG Water quality products (“Water”) - Design, development, manufacture, and distribution of products used in the detection of various microbiological parameters in water.

IDEXXLPD.JPG Livestock, Poultry and Dairy (“LPD”) - Diagnostic products and services for livestock and poultry health and to ensure the quality and safety of milk and food, and improve producer efficiency.  

Our Other operating segment combines and presents products for the human point-of-care medical diagnostics market (“OPTI Medical”) with our out-licensing arrangements because they do not meet the quantitative or qualitative thresholds for reportable segments. 

The performance of our business is particularly subject to various risks that are associated with doing business internationally. For the year ended December 31, 2019, sales of products and services to customers outside the U.S. accounted for approximately 38% of our overall revenue. See “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors”, “Part II, Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 16. Segment Reporting" to the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2019, included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information about our segments and revenue from customers outside of the U.S.




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CAG2019BUSINESSA02.JPG

We believe that the breadth of our full diagnostic solution, including novel products and services developed and made available only by IDEXX, as well as the seamless software integration of our offering provide a unique competitive advantage by giving veterinarians the tools and services to offer advanced veterinary medical care. We believe that with the use of our products and services, veterinary practices significantly improve the quality of veterinary care provided to their patients, increase staff efficiencies, and effectively communicate the value of this medical care to the pet owner. We believe that these capabilities, enabled by the use of IDEXX products and services, improve the financial health of the veterinary practice.

CAG Diagnostics 

We provide diagnostic capabilities that meet veterinarians’ diverse needs through a variety of modalities, including in-clinic diagnostic solutions and outside reference laboratory services. Regardless of modality utilized, veterinarians are provided with clinically relevant data which is integrated within our information management technologies. The result is a comprehensive view of patient diagnostic information that is easily accessible by both the veterinarian and pet owner.
Integrated Diagnostic Information Management
VetConnect PLUS is a cloud-based technology that enables veterinarians to access and analyze patients’ data from all of IDEXX’s diagnostic modalities. These integrated diagnostic results provide the veterinarian with a visualization of patient-specific testing results, allowing the veterinarian to easily see and trend diagnostic results, enabling greater medical insight and enhanced decision-making. In addition, VetConnect PLUS provides instant mobile or browser-based access to results, which can be printed or emailed to pet owners and other veterinarians. In this way, VetConnect PLUS can aid veterinarians and practice staff in engaging the pet owner in the patient’s care, which can support greater compliance with medical recommendations or preventive care protocols. Customers have activated VetConnect PLUS in over 100 countries.


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In-Clinic Diagnostic Solutions

Our in-clinic diagnostic solutions are comprised of our IDEXX VetLab suite of in-clinic chemistry, hematology, immunoassay, urinalysis, and coagulation analyzers, as well as associated proprietary consumable products that provide real-time reference lab quality diagnostic results. Our in-clinic diagnostic solutions also include a broad range of single-use, handheld IDEXX SNAP rapid assay test kits that provide quick, accurate, and convenient point-of-care diagnostic test results for a variety of companion animal diseases and health conditions.

The IDEXX VetLab suite includes several instrument systems, as well as associated proprietary consumable products, all of which are described below. Additionally, we offer extended maintenance agreements in connection with the sale of our instruments.

Blood and Urine Chemistry. We have three blood and urine chemistry analyzers that are used by veterinarians to measure levels of certain enzymes and other substances in blood or urine for monitoring health status and assisting in diagnosing physiologic conditions. We currently sell two of these chemistry analyzers, the Catalyst One Chemistry analyzer and the VetTest Chemistry analyzer. We continue to support our Catalyst Dx Chemistry analyzer, previously sold as part of the Catalyst platform. These three instruments use consumables manufactured for IDEXX by Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, Inc. (“Ortho”) based on Ortho’s dry slide technology. In addition, the Catalyst analyzers also use dry slide electrolyte consumables manufactured by IDEXX at our Roswell, Georgia facility, as well as certain slides that are manufactured at our Westbrook, Maine facility. Blood tests commonly run on these analyzers include glucose, alkaline phosphatase, ALT (alanine aminotransferase), albumin, calcium, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, and many others. Tests are sold individually and in prepackaged panels, called clips. All three analyzers also run a urine test called urine protein:creatinine ratio, which assists in the detection of renal disease. 

The Catalyst analyzers provide significantly improved throughput, ease of use and test menu relative to the VetTest analyzer (our original chemistry analyzer), including the ability to run electrolytes, phenobarbital, fructosamine, total thyroxine (“T4”), C-reactive protein, and SDMA, as part of one run. Key ease-of-use features include the ability to run a whole blood sample using an on-board centrifuge, the ability to run pre-packaged, multi-slide clips in addition to single chemistry slides and an automated metering system. These analyzers also enable automated dilutions, which is an ease-of-use feature both for certain blood chemistries and the test for urine protein:creatinine ratio. The Catalyst Dx analyzer allows a veterinarian to run multiple patient samples simultaneously and both the Catalyst Dx and Catalyst One analyzers run different sample types including whole blood, plasma, serum, and urine. The Catalyst SDMA test allows our customers to use the Catalyst One and Catalyst Dx analyzers to screen for SDMA, an innovative proprietary test that detects the onset of canine and feline kidney disease months or years earlier than traditional methods. The Catalyst SDMA Test is also available in a combo kit with T4.

The Catalyst One analyzer is engineered to deliver the same laboratory-quality results and real-time work flow as the Catalyst Dx analyzer. The Catalyst One analyzer currently offers all the same tests as the Catalyst Dx, including an expanded menu of 33 tests.

We also have two other chemistry analyzers, the VetLyte Electrolyte analyzer and the VetStat Electrolyte and Blood Gas analyzer. The VetStat analyzer runs single-use disposable cassettes that are manufactured by IDEXX at our Roswell, Georgia facility.

Sales of consumables to customers who use our chemistry analyzers provide the majority of our instrument consumables revenues from our installed base of IDEXX VetLab instruments.

Hematology. We sell four hematology analyzers that assess the cellular components of blood, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets (also called a complete blood count). These analyzers include the ProCyte Dx hematology analyzer, the first and only in-clinic analyzer to combine laser-flow cytometry, optical fluorescence, and laminar-flow impedance in its analysis; the LaserCyte Dx hematology analyzer, which uses laser-flow cytometry technology in their analysis; and the IDEXX VetAutoread hematology analyzer, our original hematology analyzer. In addition, the ProCyte Dx hematology analyzer, the LaserCyte Dx hematology analyzer, and the LaserCyte hematology analyzer each have the ability to analyze the components of certain body fluids. We also sell the Coag Dx analyzer, which permits the detection and diagnosis of blood clotting disorders.
 
The ProCyte Dx analyzer, our premier hematology analyzer, provides significantly improved throughput and accuracy and more complete medical information relative to the LaserCyte, LaserCyte Dx and VetAutoread hematology analyzers. The ProCyte Dx analyzer provides up to 27 different blood parameters, including the ability to detect band neutrophils, nucleated red blood cells, and reticulocyte hemoglobin for a more complete picture of a patient’s health. The ProCyte Dx is validated for

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many animal species (canine, feline, equine, bovine, ferret, rabbit, gerbil, pig, guinea pig, mini pig, llama, alpaca, camel, sheep, goat, dolphin, and hamster). The LaserCyte and LaserCyte Dx analyzers are the only other point of care hematology analyzers in the veterinary market able to report absolute reticulocyte counts.

Immunoassay Testing Instruments. Our SNAP Pro Analyzer, which automatically activates a SNAP test, properly times the run, and captures an image of the result. This device improves medical care by allowing veterinarians to share the test results with the pet owner on the SNAP Pro Analyzer screen, or via VetConnect PLUS. In addition, the SNAP Pro Analyzer improves staff efficiency and ensures that all SNAP test runs are captured and entered into the patient record for customer billing. ProRead is a software upgrade that enables the SNAP Pro Analyzer to interpret the test results.

With multiple-patient testing functionality, the SNAPshot Dx analyzer provides quantitative measurements of total T4, cortisol and bile acids to assist in the evaluation of thyroid, adrenal and liver function, respectively. The SNAPshot Dx analyzer also reads, interprets, and records the results of many IDEXX rapid assay SNAP tests, including our canine SNAP 4Dx Plus test, feline SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo test, canine SNAP cPL test, feline SNAP fPL test, and canine SNAP Heartworm RT test.

Urinalysis.  The SediVue Dx analyzer is designed to provide automated real-time results in a fraction of the time of manual microscope analysis. The SediVue Dx analyzer brings automation, speed and consistency to urinalysis, a traditionally laborious and variable process. Its leading-edge technology allows veterinary staff to perform a urine sediment analysis in approximately 3 minutes. The SediVue Dx analyzer uses proprietary image processing algorithms similar to facial recognition technology to identify clinically relevant particles found in urine and to capture high-contrast digital images that become part of the permanent patient record. The SediVue Dx analyzer leverages its algorithmic software and machine-learning, a type of artificial intelligence, to better identify abnormalities with each result generated, which we refer to as Neural Network 4.0. The IDEXX VetLab UA analyzer provides rapid, automated capture of semi-quantitative chemical urinalysis from IDEXX UA strips and is validated specifically for veterinary use.

IDEXX VetLab Station. The IDEXX VetLab Station (“IVLS”) connects and integrates the diagnostic information from all the IDEXX VetLab analyzers, and thus, provides reference laboratory information management system capability. IVLS securely connects to the Internet, and in this way, enables IDEXX to perform, through its SmartService Solutions wireless services, remote instrument service and software updates to IVLS and certain connected instruments. IVLS also sends all results created on connected instruments instantly to VetConnect PLUS. We sell IVLS as an integral component of the Catalyst One, Catalyst Dx, LaserCyte, LaserCyte Dx and ProCyte Dx analyzers, SNAP Pro Analyzer, SNAPshot Dx analyzer and also as a standalone hardware platform. The IVLS includes a touch screen user interface to simplify laboratory work flow, connect with a practice management system and send information to run the individual analyzers. IVLS also generates one integrated patient report incorporating all of the lab work generated by the IDEXX VetLab suite, stores, retrieves and analyzes historical patient diagnostics data, including SNAP test results, and sends and receives information from practice management systems, including the Cornerstone system, as well as a wide variety of third-party systems. 

The SNAP rapid assays are single-use, handheld test kits that can work without the use of instrumentation, although many kits may also be read and recorded automatically by the SNAPshot Dx analyzer or activated and captured automatically by the SNAP Pro Analyzer and interpreted using ProRead, as discussed above. The principal SNAP rapid assay tests are as follows: 
Single-Use Canine Tests:
SNAP 4Dx Plus, which tests for the six vector-borne diseases; Lyme disease, Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ewingii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma platys, and canine heartworm;
SNAP Heartworm RT, which tests for heartworm;
SNAP Parvo, which tests for parvovirus, a virus causing life-threatening damage to the immune system and intestinal tract;
SNAP cPL, which tests for canine pancreatitis;
SNAP Giardia, which is a fecal test for soluble Giardia antigens, a common cause of waterborne infection; and
SNAP Lepto, which tests for leptospirosis, a life-threatening bacterial infection spread through contact with water or soil that has been contaminated by the urine of infected animals.

Sales of canine vector-borne disease tests, including SNAP 4Dx Plus and SNAP Heartworm RT, are greater in the first half of our fiscal year due to seasonality of disease testing in the veterinary practices in the Northern Hemisphere.      

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Single-Use Feline Tests:
SNAP Feline Triple, which tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (“FIV”) (which is similar to the virus that leads to AIDS in humans), feline leukemia virus (“FeLV”) and feline heartworm;
SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo Test, which tests for FIV and FeLV;
SNAP fPL, which tests for feline pancreatitis;
SNAP Giardia, which is a fecal test for soluble Giardia antigens; and
SNAP Feline proBNP, which uses a cardiac biomarker (NT proBNP) to test for stretch and stress on the heart.

Outside Reference Laboratory Diagnostic and Consulting Services

We offer commercial reference laboratory diagnostic and consulting services to veterinarians in many developed markets worldwide, including customers in the U.S., Europe, Canada, Australia, Japan, New Zealand, South Africa, South Korea, and Brazil, through a network of over 80 laboratories. We have reference laboratories in Memphis, Tennessee; Louisville, Kentucky and Leipzig, Germany that are strategically located near large logistics hubs of major air cargo carriers. Customers use our services by submitting samples by courier or overnight delivery to one of our facilities. Most test results have same-day or next-day turnaround times.

Our reference laboratories offer a large selection of tests and diagnostic panels to detect a number of disease states and other conditions in animals, including all tests that can be run in-clinic at the veterinary practice with our instruments or rapid assays. This menu of tests also includes a number of specialized and proprietary tests that we have developed that allow practitioners to diagnose increasingly relevant diseases and conditions in dogs and cats, including parasites, heart disease, allergies, pancreatitis, diabetes, and infectious diseases. Canine vector-borne disease testing volumes are greater in the first half of our fiscal year due to seasonality of disease testing in the veterinary practices in the Northern Hemisphere.  

Our broad range of innovative tests include our IDEXX SDMA test, which is an innovative proprietary kidney test that detects the onset of canine and feline kidney disease months or years earlier than traditional methods, as well as our hookworm, roundworm, and whipworm antigen tests on all fecal panels that detect the presence of intestinal worms often undiagnosed by current methods, including finding them earlier in the infection cycle and therefore enabling earlier disease diagnosis and treatment intervention.

Additionally, we provide specialized veterinary consultation, telemedicine, and advisory services, including radiology, cardiology, internal medicine, and ultrasound consulting. These services enable veterinarians to obtain readings and interpretations of test results transmitted by telephone and over the Internet. 

Our diagnostic laboratory business also provides health monitoring and diagnostic testing services to biomedical research customers in North America, Europe, and Asia.

Veterinary Software, Services and Diagnostic Imaging Systems

Veterinary Software and Services.  We develop, market, and sell a portfolio of software and services for independent veterinary clinics and corporate groups.  This portfolio includes:
 
Practice management systems. Software, hardware, and integrated services that run key functions of veterinary clinics, including managing patient electronic health records (EHR), scheduling, client communication, billing, and inventory management. Our principal practice management systems are Cornerstone (on-premise), IDEXX Neo (cloud-based), DVMAX (on-premise), and IDEXX Animana (cloud-based, available in Europe).  We also support several other practice management systems including Better Choice, VPM, VetLINK, and BeeFree. To support the software system needs of practices, IDEXX provides integrated services including: Hardware, Payment Solutions, Data Backup & Recovery, and Practice Supplies including PetDetect boarding collars.

Software applications that extend workflow capabilities for practices and groups.  With our Smart Flow cloud offering, which we acquired in the third quarter of 2018, we are able to improve overall patient management and workflow optimization through coordination and tracking of every step of a patient during a hospital stay. Smart Flow works in conjunction with major veterinary practice management systems, including IDEXX Cornerstone, DVMAX, IDEXX Animana, IDEXX Neo, and certain third-party practice management systems.  

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Client marketing and wellness plan management.  In addition, we offer cloud-based client communication (Pet Health Network Pro and Pet Health Network 3D) and preventive care plan management software (Petly Plans) designed to strengthen the relationship between the veterinarian and the pet owner.  To support the communication needs between general practices and specialty referral practices, IDEXX offers rVetLink software, which we acquired in the second quarter of 2017. Lastly, IDEXX Enterprise provides centralized management and reporting capabilities for groups of veterinary practices.

Diagnostic Imaging Systems.  Our diagnostic imaging systems capture radiographic images in digital form, replacing traditional x-ray film and the film development process, which generally requires the use of hazardous chemicals and darkrooms. We market and sell three diagnostic imaging systems primarily used in small animal veterinary applications: the IDEXX ImageVue DR50, the IDEXX ImageVue DR40, and the IDEXX ImageVue CR20.

Our newest radiography system, the IDEXX ImageVue DR50, enables low-dose radiation image capture without sacrificing clear, high-quality images, a component in reducing the risk posed by excess radiation exposure for veterinary professionals. The IDEXX ImageVue DR50 system also offers wireless capabilities for flexibility in patient positioning.

Our diagnostic imaging systems employ picture archiving and communication system (“PACS”) software called IDEXX-PACS, which facilitates radiographic image capture and review. IDEXX Web PACS is our cloud-based software-as-a-service (“SaaS”) offering for viewing, accessing, storing, and sharing multi-modality diagnostic images. IDEXX Web PACS is integrated with Cornerstone, IDEXX Neo and IDEXX VetConnect PLUS to provide centralized access to diagnostic imaging results alongside patient diagnostic results from any internet connected device. IDEXX Web PACS updates automatically and offers secure storage for an unlimited number of diagnostic images. The software features advanced radiology measurement tools as well as an interactive collaboration feature that allows veterinarians to collaborate and consult remotely with other practitioners.

IDEXX I-Vision Mobile is a software application that allows veterinarians with IDEXX digital radiography systems the ability to request, view and send images using an iPad® or an Android mobile tablet. This application integrates with our IDEXX-PACS software. 

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WATER2019BUSINESS.JPG

Our principal products are the Colilert, Colilert-18, and Colisure tests, which detect the presence of total coliforms and E. coli in water. These organisms are broadly used as microbial indicators for potential fecal contamination in water. Our products utilize nutrient-indicators that produce a change in color or fluorescence when metabolized by target microbes in the sample. Our water tests are used by government laboratories, water utilities and private certified laboratories to test drinking water in compliance with regulatory standards, including U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) standards. The tests also are used in evaluating water used in production processes (for example, in beverage and pharmaceutical applications) and in evaluating bottled water, recreational water, wastewater, and water from private wells.

Our Enterolert products detect the presence of enterococci in drinking, waste, and recreational waters. Enterococci, bacteria normally found in human and animal waste, are organisms broadly used as microbial indicators for potential fecal contamination in water. Our Pseudalert products detect the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in pool, spa, and bottled water. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogen that can cause “hot-tub rash,” “swimmer’s ear”, and potentially fatal infections in individuals with weakened immune systems.  Our Filta-Max and Filta-Max xpress products are used in the detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in water. Cryptosporidium and Giardia are parasites that can cause potentially fatal gastrointestinal illness if ingested. We also distribute certain water testing kits manufactured by Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc. that complement our Cryptosporidium and Giardia testing products.

In 2016, we launched Legiolert, a simple culture method test for the detection of Legionella pneumophila, the most common Legionella species in water, and the primary cause of Legionnaires’ disease. The Legiolert test is designed to be used on potable or non-potable water sources with results in seven days.

Our Quanti-Tray products, when used in conjunction with our Colilert, Colilert-18, Colisure, Enterolert, Pseudalert, Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) or Legiolert products, provide users quantitative measurements of microbial contamination rather than a presence/absence indication. In 2015, we launched the Quanti-Tray Sealer PLUS, a next generation instrument of the previously available Quanti-Tray Sealer 2X. These instruments are used with the Quanti-Tray products for the determination of bacterial density in water samples. Our SimPlate for HPC product detects the total number of the most common bacteria in a water sample.

We also sell consumables, parts, and accessories to be used with many of our water testing products.

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A2019LPDBUSINESSA05.JPG

We sell diagnostic tests, services and related instrumentation that are used to manage the health status of livestock and poultry, to improve producer efficiency, and to ensure the quality and safety of milk and food. Our livestock and poultry diagnostic products are purchased by government and private laboratories that provide testing services to livestock veterinarians, producers, and processors. Our herd health screening services are offered to livestock veterinarians and producers. Our principal livestock and poultry diagnostic products include tests for Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (“BVDV”) and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (“PRRS”). BVDV is a common and contagious viral infection that suppresses the immune system, making the animal susceptible to a host of other infections, impacting beef and dairy production yields as a result. PRRS is a contagious virus causing reproductive problems and respiratory diseases in swine, leading to increased piglet mortality, reduced growth, and vulnerability to secondary infections.

Our principal dairy products use our SNAP test platform and are used by dairy producers and processors worldwide to detect antibiotic drug residue in milk. Our primary product lines are SNAP Beta-Lactam ST and SNAPduo Beta-Tetra ST, which detect certain beta lactam and tetracycline antibiotic residues. We also sell SNAP tests for the detection of certain other contaminants in milk, such as Aflatoxin M1. 

In 2016, we launched the RealPCR ASFV Test, which is a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for African Swine Fever (ASFV) in domestic and wild swine species. This test provides early and accurate detection of ASFV supporting prevention, control, and eradication programs by veterinarians and producers.

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OTHER

OPTI Medical

Through OPTI Medical, we sell point-of-care analyzers and related consumables for use in human medical hospitals and clinics to measure electrolytes, blood gases, acid-base balance, glucose, lactate, blood urea nitrogen and ionized calcium, and to calculate other parameters such as base excess and anion gap. These OPTI analyzers are used primarily in emergency rooms, operating rooms, cardiac monitoring areas and other locations where time-critical diagnostic testing is performed within the hospital setting. Our latest generation OPTI CCA-TS2 Blood Gas and Electrolyte analyzer, which launched in 2013, contains many new features relative to previous generation blood gas analyzers including customized work flows, faster time to result, improved communication, and a multi-level electronic control. Similar to our earlier generation OPTI CCA and OPTI Touch Electrolyte analyzers, the OPTI CCA-TS2 runs whole blood, plasma, and serum samples on single-use disposable cassettes that contain various configurations of analytes.

Other Activities

We own certain drug delivery technology intellectual property, that we continue to seek to commercialize through agreements with third parties, such as pharmaceutical companies, that are included in the Other segment.

MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION

We market, sell, and service our products worldwide through our marketing, customer service, sales, and technical service groups, as well as through independent distributors and other resellers. We maintain sales offices outside the U.S. in all major regions including Africa, Asia Pacific, Canada, Europe, Middle East, and Latin America.

Generally, we select the appropriate distribution channel for our products based on the type of product, technical service requirements, number and concentration of customers, regulatory requirements, and other factors. We market our companion animal diagnostic products to veterinarians directly in the U.S. Outside the U.S., we sell our companion animal diagnostic products through our direct sales force and, in certain countries, through distributors and other resellers. We sell our veterinary reference laboratory diagnostic and consulting services worldwide, generally through our direct sales force. We market our diagnostic imaging products primarily through our direct sales force in the U.S. and Canada. We market our software products primarily through our direct sales force in the U.S., Canada, Europe, and Australia. We market our Water and LPD products primarily through our direct sales force in the U.S. and Canada. Outside the U.S. and Canada, we market these products through our direct sales force and, in certain countries, through selected independent distributors. We sell our OPTI electrolyte and blood gas analyzers both directly and through independent human medical product distributors in the U.S. and we sell most of the related consumables through the distribution channel. Outside the U.S., we sell our OPTI products primarily through distributors and other resellers.

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

Our business includes the development and introduction of new products and services and may involve entry into new business areas. We maintain active research and development programs in each of our business segments. Our research and development expenses, which consist of salaries, employee benefits, materials and external consulting and development costs, were $133.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, or 5.5% of our consolidated revenue, $117.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, or 5.3% of our consolidated revenue and $109.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, or 5.5% of our consolidated revenue.


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PATENTS AND LICENSES

We actively seek to obtain patent protection in the U.S. and other countries for inventions covering our products and technologies. We also license patents and technologies from third parties. Patents and licenses of patents and technologies from third parties are considered important to the Company based on a variety of factors, including providing protection for the Company’s inventions and other proprietary intellectual property, affording protection from competitors in certain markets, enabling the use of more effective and efficient technologies in the development and production of our products and offerings, strengthening our reputation and standing among customers, employees and key suppliers, and acting as a deterrent against counterfeiters, imitators and other copiers of technologies. 

Important patents and licenses include:

An exclusive license from Tulane University to patents that started to expire in 2019 and are continuing into 2020 relating to reagents for the detection of Lyme disease utilized in certain of our SNAP products and a reference laboratory diagnostic test;
An exclusive license from Cornell University to patents covering methods for detecting BVDV that started to expire in 2017 and will continue into 2022;
Patents relating to reagents and methods for the detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum utilized in certain of our SNAP products that started to expire in 2017 and will continue into 2022;
Patents relating to reagents and methods for the detection of Ehrlichia canis utilized in certain of our SNAP products that expire beginning in 2019 and continuing into 2022;
A patent concerning LaserCyte consumables that expires in 2020;
Patents concerning Catalyst consumables that expire beginning in 2020 and will continue into 2035;
Patents concerning Catalyst instruments that expire beginning in 2026 and will continue into 2032;
Patents relating to reagents and methods for the detection of canine pancreatic lipase that expire in 2026; and
Patents relating to reagents and methods for the detection of SDMA that expire in 2029.

In addition, we have pending U.S. patent applications concerning reagents and methods for detecting SDMA. If such applications are granted, we expect the associated patents would have expirations ranging from 2036 to 2038.

While we consider these proprietary technology rights to be important to us, a range of factors help to mitigate the future effects of patent and license expiration on our results of operations and financial position. These factors include publications, including peer-reviewed third-party studies, that demonstrate the accuracy of our products; our brand strength and reputation in the marketplace; the breadth, quality and integration of our product offerings; our existing customer relationships and our customer support; our sales force; our online ordering platform that enables direct ordering of (including establishing automatic reorder schedules for) our consumables, tests and other products by our customers; the applicable regulatory approval status for certain products; our continued investments in innovative product improvements that often result in new technologies and/or additional patents; our investment in diagnostic innovations that results in new product offerings that often are patentable and that expand the test menu for our in-clinic instruments and/or reference laboratory business; and our significant know-how, scale and investments related to manufacturing processes of associated product offerings and certain supply arrangements for consumables that are compatible with our instruments. Although we have several patents and licenses of patents and technologies from third parties that expired during 2019, and are expected to expire in 2020 and beyond, the expiration of these patents, individually or in the aggregate, is not expected to have a material effect on the Company’s financial position or future operations. In addition, we already face notable competition in certain areas as other companies have been successful in bringing competitive products to market, despite the protections afforded by these proprietary technology rights.  

To the extent some of our products may now, or in the future, embody technologies protected by patents, copyrights, or trade secrets of others, we may be required to obtain licenses to such technologies in order to continue to sell our products. These licenses may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Our failure to obtain any such licenses may delay or prevent the sale of certain new or existing products. See “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors.”


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PRODUCTION AND SUPPLY

Many of the instruments that we sell are manufactured by third parties. We rely on third parties in our supply chain to supply us, and our direct suppliers, with certain important components, raw materials and consumables used in or with our products. In some cases, these third parties are sole or single source suppliers. From time to time, we seek to qualify alternative suppliers.

Instruments and consumables. Significant products supplied by sole and single source providers include certain Catalyst Dx and Catalyst One consumables (other than electrolyte consumables and the fructosamine, T4, CRP, and SDMA slides), progesterone, VetLyte consumables, LaserCyte and LaserCyte Dx consumables, VetTest, VetAutoread and ProCyte Dx analyzers and consumables, SediVue Dx urinalysis instrument and consumables, and components of our SNAP Pro Mobile Device.

VetTest and certain Catalyst chemistry slides are supplied by Ortho under supply agreements that are currently set to expire in December of 2028. We are required to purchase all of our requirements for our current menu of VetTest and Catalyst chemistry slides from Ortho to the extent Ortho is able to supply those requirements. The agreements provide for pricing based on purchase volumes and a fixed annual inflationary adjustment. The agreements also prohibit Ortho from promoting and selling these chemistry slides in the veterinary market, excluding the EU, other than to IDEXX. 

We purchase other analyzers and consumables under supply agreements with terms extending through 2034, which in some cases may be extended at our option. We have minimum purchase obligations under some of these agreements, and our failure to satisfy these obligations may result in loss of some or all of our rights under these agreements. See “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors.”

Other components. We purchase certain other products, raw materials, and components from sole and single source suppliers. These products include certain diagnostic imaging systems and certain components used in our SNAP rapid assay and dairy devices, livestock, and poultry testing kits and water testing products.

We have been successful in ensuring an uninterrupted supply of products purchased from sole and single source suppliers. However, there can be no assurance that uninterrupted supply can be maintained if these agreements terminate for any reason or our suppliers otherwise are unable to satisfy our requirements for products. See “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors.”

BACKLOG

We do not generally maintain a significant backlog of orders and believe that our backlog at any particular date historically has not been indicative of future sales.

COMPETITION

We compete with many companies ranging from large human and animal health pharmaceutical and medical diagnostics companies to small businesses focused on animal health. Our companion animal veterinary diagnostic products and services compete with both reference laboratory service and in-clinic product providers. Our competitors vary in our different markets. In some markets, academic institutions, governmental agencies, and other public and private research organizations conduct research activities and may commercialize products or services which could compete with our products, on their own or through joint ventures. Several of our direct and potential competitors have substantially greater financial and managerial resources than us, as well as greater experience in manufacturing, marketing, research and development, and obtaining regulatory approvals than we do. For more information on risks related to our competition, see “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors."

Competitive factors in our different business areas are detailed below:

Companion animal diagnostic offerings. We compete primarily on the basis of ease of use and speed of our products, diagnostic accuracy, product quality, breadth of our product line and services, unique product innovations, fully integrated technology, information management capability, availability of medical consultation, effectiveness of our sales and distribution channels, quality of our technical and customer service, and our pricing relative to the value of our products and services in comparison with competitive products and services. Our major competitors in most geographic locations in North America are Antech Diagnostics, a unit of VCA Inc., a division of Mars, Incorporated; Zoetis Inc. (including its wholly-owned subsidiary Abaxis, Inc.); Heska Corporation; Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., and FUJIFILM North America Corporation.  We also compete in certain international markets with Zoetis, Fujifilm Holdings Corporation, Samsung Electronics, Arkray, Inc., and BioNote, Inc.

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Water, livestock, poultry, and dairy testing products. We compete primarily on the basis of the ease of use, speed, accuracy, product quality and other performance characteristics of our products and services (including unique tests), the breadth of our product line and services, the effectiveness of our sales and distribution channels, the quality of our technical and customer service, our ability to receive regulatory approvals from governing agencies and our pricing relative to the value of our products in comparison with competitive products and services. Our competitors include highly focused smaller companies and multibillion-dollar companies with small livestock and poultry diagnostics and water testing solution franchises.
Veterinary Software, Services and Diagnostic Imaging Systems. We compete primarily on the basis of functionality, connectivity to equipment and other systems, performance characteristics, effectiveness of our implementation, training process and customer service, information handling capabilities, advances in technologies and our pricing relative to the value of our products and services. We sell these products primarily in North America and Europe. Our largest competitor in North America and the U.K. is Covetrus, Inc., which offers several systems and leverages its animal health distribution business in sales and service. We also compete with numerous focused smaller companies throughout the markets in which we offer veterinary software, including those offering cloud-based solutions.
Electrolyte and blood gas analyzers for the human point-of-care medical diagnostics market. We compete primarily on the basis of the ease of use, menu, convenience, international distribution and service, instrument reliability, and our pricing relative to the value of our products. We compete primarily with large human medical diagnostics companies such as Radiometer A/S, Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics, Instrumentation Laboratory Company, Abbott Diagnostics, a division of Abbott Laboratories and Roche Diagnostics Corporation.

GOVERNMENT REGULATION

Many of our products are subject to comprehensive regulation by U.S. and foreign regulatory agencies that relate to, among other things, product approvals, product registrations, manufacturing, import, export, distribution, marketing and promotion, labeling, recordkeeping, testing, quality, storage, product disposal, environmental compliance, and workplace safety. The following is a description of the principal regulations affecting our businesses.

Veterinary diagnostic products. These products include our diagnostic test kits for companion and food animal infectious diseases, including most of our livestock and poultry products and our rapid assay products. These products are licensed and regulated in the U.S. by the Center for Veterinary Biologics within the United States Department of Agriculture (“USDA”) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (“APHIS”). These products must be approved by APHIS before they may be sold in and from the U.S. The APHIS regulatory approval process involves the submission of product validation data, including manufacturing process and facility documentation. Following regulatory licensure to market a product, APHIS requires that each lot of product be submitted for test review before release to customers. In addition, APHIS requires special approval to market products where test results are used in part for government-mandated disease management programs. A number of foreign governments accept APHIS approval, to support product registration for sale, distribution, and use within their countries. However, compliance with extensive country-specific regulatory processes is required in connection with importing and marketing diagnostic products in Japan, Germany, Canada, Brazil, the Netherlands, China, and many other countries. We are also required to have a facility license from APHIS to manufacture USDA-licensed products. We have a facility license for our manufacturing facility in Westbrook, Maine which also covers our distribution center in Memphis, Tennessee. Our LPD manufacturing facility in Montpellier, France has been approved by APHIS and we have a permit to import products manufactured in Montpellier, France to the U.S. for distribution.

Our veterinary diagnostic slide and instrument systems, including T4, fructosamine, progesterone, CRP, and SDMA, are veterinary medical devices regulated by the FDA under the Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act (the “FDC Act”). Other FDA regulated products include our non-licensed Rapid Assay products such as SNAP Pancreatic Lipase, Cortisol, Bile Acid, Foal IgG, and ProBNP. While the sale of these products does not require premarket approval by the FDA and does not subject us to the FDA’s current Good Manufacturing Practices regulations (“cGMP”), the FDC Act specifies that these products must not be adulterated, mislabeled, or misbranded.

Water testing products. Our water tests are not subject to formal premarket regulatory approval. However, before a test can be used as part of a water quality monitoring program in the U.S. that is regulated by the EPA, the test must first be approved by the EPA. The EPA approval process involves submission of extensive product performance data in accordance with an EPA-approved protocol, evaluation of the data by the EPA and publication for public comment of any proposed approval in the Federal Register before final approval. Our Colilert, Colilert-18, Colisure, Quanti-Tray, Filta-Max xpress, Enterolert and SimPlate for heterotrophic plate counts products have been approved by the EPA for use under various

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regulatory programs. Water testing products are subject to similarly extensive regulatory processes in other countries around the world.

Dairy testing products. Dairy products used in National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments (“NCIMS”) milk-monitoring programs in the U.S. are regulated by the FDA as veterinary medical devices. However, before products requiring FDA approval can be sold in the U.S., performance data must be submitted in accordance with an FDA-approved protocol administered by an independent body, such as the Association of Analytical Communities Research Institute (“AOAC RI”). Following approval of a product by the FDA, the product must also be approved by NCIMS, an oversight body that includes state, federal and industry representatives. Our SNAP Beta-Lactam antibiotic residue test product has been approved by the FDA, NCIMS and AOAC RI for sale in the U.S. While some foreign countries accept AOAC RI approval as part of their regulatory approval process, many countries have separate regulatory processes.

Human point-of-care electrolyte and blood gas analyzers. Our OPTI instrument systems are classified as Class I and/or Class II medical devices, and their design, manufacture and marketing are regulated by the FDA. Accordingly, we must comply with cGMP in the manufacture of our OPTI products. The FDA’s Quality System regulations further set forth standards for product design and manufacturing processes, require the maintenance of certain records and provide for inspections of our facilities by the FDA. New OPTI products fall into FDA classifications that require notification of and review by the FDA before marketing, and which are submitted as a 510(k) application. OPTI Medical products are also subject to the European Medical Device Directives and regulations governing the manufacture and marketing of medical devices in other countries in which they are sold.

Other Environmental Regulations. All IDEXX products must comply with applicable global product regulations, including those governing consumer product safety and materials requirements such as the Europeans Union's Electromagnetic Compatibility ("EMC") Directive, the European Regulation for Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical Substances ("REACH"), the Restriction of Hazardous Substances ("RoHS") Directive, and the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment ("WEEE") Directive. These complex regulatory requirements create risk to IDEXX’s ability to market and sell our products, our business and our financial performance. For more information about the risks associated with various U.S. and foreign government regulation, see "Various U.S. and foreign government regulations could limit or delay our ability to market and sell our products or otherwise negatively impact our business" under "Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors."

In the European Union, our analyzers and certain associated equipment are subject to the requirements of the RoHS Directive, which regulates and restricts certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment. Other countries, including China, Russia, the United Arab Emirates, and Turkey have implemented or anticipate implementing regulatory regimes similar to the RoHS Directive. Our veterinary diagnostic instrument systems are not subject to regulation under the European Medical Device Directive or the In Vitro Diagnostic Directive, which are both strictly applicable to human use products. However, these systems are required to meet CE certification, which required compliance with the RoHS Directive, the EMC Directive, and other safety requirements. Similar requirements are specified by most counties in which we sell our products and are subject to increasing harmonization globally.

The European Union was among the first to regulate and restrict the use of certain substances that we currently use in our products. These requirements include the Biocidal Products Regulation, which requires the use of approved biocides in our products prior to being exported to the European Union, and REACH, which regulates and restricts the use of certain chemicals in the European Union. Compliance with these regulations (and similar regulations that have been or may be adopted elsewhere, such as Turkey, Korea, and other countries) may require registration of the applicable substances or the redesign or reformulation of our products. Some of our products, including some of our Companion Animal products, may be subject to pending restriction of microplastics pursuant to REACH.
  
In the US, the EPA regulates chemical use similarly to the EU. In addition, certain states have their own chemical regulations, such as California's Proposition 65, which requires businesses to provide warnings to California residents about significant risk of exposures to chemicals in products that are known to cause cancer, birth defects or other reproductive harm. 

In addition to the foregoing, our business is generally subject to various U.S. and foreign regulatory authorities, including the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (the “FTC”) and other anti-competition authorities, and we are also subject to anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, import and export laws and regulations, including U.S. import and export control and sanctions laws, and laws and regulations governing the collection, use, retention, sharing and security of data. Development or acquisition of new products and technologies may subject us to additional areas of government regulation. These may involve medical device, water-quality and other regulations of the FDA, the EPA, the USDA, the FTC, and other federal agencies, as well as state, local and foreign governments.


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EMPLOYEES

As of February 7, 2020, we had approximately 9,200 employees.

AVAILABLE INFORMATION

Our principal executive offices are located at One IDEXX Drive, Westbrook, Maine 04092, our telephone number is 207-556-0300, and our internet address is www.idexx.com. References to our website in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are inactive textual references only and the content of our website should not be deemed incorporated by reference for any purpose.

We make available free of charge at www.idexx.com our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we file such information with, or furnish it to, the SEC. In addition, copies of our reports filed electronically with the SEC may be accessed at www.sec.gov.

Our Corporate Governance Guidelines and our Code of Ethics are also available on our website at www.idexx.com.

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ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS

You should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described below in addition to the other information included or incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K in evaluating our company and our business. Our future operating results involve a number of risks and uncertainties and actual events or results may differ materially from those discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, the factors discussed below, as well as those factors discussed elsewhere herein. Any of these factors, in whole or in part, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and stock price. 

RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS

Because our business lines are highly attractive, they are also highly competitive. Our failure to successfully execute certain strategies within this competitive environment could have a material negative impact on our future growth and profitability
The companion animal healthcare industry is highly competitive, and we anticipate increasing levels of competition from both existing competitors and new market entrants given our performance and the market’s strong growth and returns. Our ability to maintain or enhance our growth rates and our profitability depends on our successful execution of many elements of our strategy, including:
Developing, manufacturing, and marketing innovative new or improved and cost competitive in-clinic laboratory analyzers that drive sales of IDEXX VetLab instruments, grow our installed base of instruments and increase demand for related recurring sales of consumable products, services, and accessories;
Developing and introducing new proprietary diagnostic tests and services for both our reference laboratories and in-clinic applications that provide valuable medical information to our customers and effectively differentiate our products and services from those of our competitors;
Increasing the value to our customers of our companion animal products and services by enhancing the integration of the information and transactions of these products and the management of diagnostic information derived from our products;
Maintaining premium pricing, including by effectively implementing price increases, for our differentiated products and services through, among other things, effective communication and promotion of the value of our products and services in an environment where many of our competitors promote, market, and sell lesser offerings at prices lower than ours;
Providing our veterinary customers with the medical and business tools, information, and resources that enable them to grow their practices and the utilization of our diagnostic products and services, through increased pet visits, use of preventive care protocols and enhanced practice of real-time care;
Achieving cost improvements in our worldwide network of reference laboratories by implementing global best practices, including lean processing techniques, incorporating technological enhancements, including laboratory automation and a global laboratory information management system, employing purchasing strategies to maximize leverage of our global scale, increasing the leverage of existing infrastructure and consolidating testing in high volume laboratory hubs;
Achieving cost improvements in the manufacture and service of our in-clinic laboratory analyzers by employing the benefits of economies of scale in both negotiating supply contracts and leveraging manufacturing overhead, and by improving reliability of our instruments;
Continuing to expand, develop, and advance the productivity of our companion animal diagnostic sales, marketing, customer support and logistics organizations in the U.S. and international markets in support of, among other things, our all-direct sales strategies;
Attracting, developing, and retaining key leadership and talent necessary to support all elements of our strategy, which is challenging due to the increasingly competitive and tight labor markets in which we operate;  
Expanding our served market and growing our market share by strengthening our sales and marketing activities both within the U.S. and in geographies outside of the U.S.;  
Identifying, completing, and integrating acquisitions that enhance our existing businesses or create new business or geographic areas for us;
Developing and implementing new technology and licensing strategies; and
Continuing to effectively manage our growth and expansion on a global scale through, among other things, designing and implementing cost-effective improvements to our processes, procedures, and infrastructure.

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If we are unsuccessful in implementing and executing on some or all of these strategies, our rate of growth or profitability may be negatively impacted.

We depend on key leadership and talent to succeed and compete effectively

Our continued success is substantially dependent on our ability to attract, develop, and retain highly capable and skilled senior leadership and other key personnel. As we continue to grow our business, expand our geographic scope, and develop and offer innovative, new products and services, we require the organizational talent necessary to ensure effective succession for our senior leadership and other key personnel. Competition for experienced leaders and employees, particularly for persons with specialized skills, can be intense. Our ability to recruit and retain such talent will depend on a number of factors, including compensation and benefits, work location, work environment and development opportunities. The loss of the services of, or our failure to recruit or develop and implement effective succession plans for, our senior leadership or other key personnel may significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our strategic objectives, disrupt our operations, and adversely affect our business and our future success. In addition, even if we effectively develop and implement succession plans and make key leadership transitions, we cannot provide assurances as to whether we may experience management or other challenges in connection with any of those leadership transitions that could adversely affect our future success.

Our dependence on suppliers could limit our ability to sell certain products or negatively affect our operating results

We rely on third-party suppliers to provide components for our products, manufacture products that we do not manufacture ourselves, and perform services that we do not provide ourselves, including package-delivery services. Because these suppliers are independent third parties with their own financial objectives, actions taken by them could have a materially negative effect on our results of operations. The risks of relying on suppliers include our inability to enter into contracts with such suppliers on reasonable terms, breach, or termination by suppliers of their contractual obligations, inconsistent or inadequate quality control, relocation of supplier facilities, disruption to suppliers’ business, including work stoppages, suppliers’ failure to comply with complex and changing regulations, and third-party financial failure. Any problems with our suppliers and associated disruptions to our supply chain could materially negatively impact our ability to supply the market, substantially decrease sales, lead to higher costs, or damage our reputation with our customers, and any longer-term disruptions could potentially result in the permanent loss of our customers, which could reduce our recurring revenues and long-term profitability. Disruption to our supply chain could occur as a result of any number of events, including, but not limited to, increases in wages that drive up prices; the imposition of regulations, trade protection measures, tariffs, duties, import/export restrictions, quotas or embargoes on key components; labor stoppages; transportation failures affecting the supply and shipment of materials and finished goods; the unavailability of raw materials; severe weather conditions; natural disasters; public health issues (such as outbreaks, epidemics, or the prospect of a pandemic); climate change-related events; civil unrest, war, terrorism or other geopolitical developments, including the United Kingdom’s exit from the European Union; computer viruses, physical or electronic breaches, or other information system disruptions or security breaches; and disruptions in utility and other services. For more information regarding the risks presented by natural and other disasters and system disruptions and security breaches from cyberattacks, see “We are increasingly dependent on the continuous and reliable operation of our information technology systems, and a disruption of these systems or significant security breaches could adversely affect our business” and "Natural and other disasters could adversely affect our business" below.

In addition, we currently purchase many products and materials from sole or single sources. Some of the products that we purchase from these sources are proprietary and, therefore, cannot be readily or easily replaced by alternative sources. These products include the majority of our Catalyst Dx and Catalyst One consumables; VetLyte electrolyte consumables; ProCyte Dx hematology, IDEXX VetAutoread hematology, and VetTest Chemistry analyzers and related consumables and accessories; SediVue Dx urine sediment analyzer and consumables; image capture plates used in our diagnostic imaging systems; and certain components and raw materials used in our SNAP rapid assay kits and SNAP Pro Mobile Device, Catalyst One, LaserCyte and LaserCyte Dx hematology analyzers, livestock and poultry diagnostic tests, dairy testing products, and water testing products. Even where products and materials are available from alternative suppliers, if any become unavailable to us for any reason, we likely would incur additional costs and delays in identifying or qualifying replacement materials and there can be no assurance that replacements would be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. In certain cases, we may be required to obtain regulatory approval to use alternative suppliers, and this process of approval could delay production of our products or development of product candidates indefinitely.

We seek to mitigate risks associated with sole and single source suppliers on a risk-prioritized basis and in a variety of ways, including, when possible, by identifying and qualifying alternative suppliers, developing applicable in-house manufacturing capabilities and expertise, and entering into escrow arrangements for manufacturing information for certain

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single or sole-sourced products. We also seek to enter into long-term contracts with our sole and single source suppliers that provide for an uninterrupted supply of products at predictable or fixed prices. However, there can be no assurance that we will successfully implement any of these mitigating activities or that, if implemented, any of them will be effective in preventing any delay or other disruption in our ability to supply the market. In addition, suppliers may decline to enter into long-term contracts for any number of reasons, which would require us to purchase products via short-term contracts or on a purchase order basis. There can be no assurance that suppliers with which we do not have long-term contracts will continue to supply our requirements for products, that suppliers with which we do have long-term contracts will always fulfill their obligations under those contracts, or that any of our suppliers will not experience disruptions in their ability to supply our requirements for products. In cases where we purchase sole and single source products or components under purchase orders, we are more susceptible to unanticipated cost increases or changes in other terms of supply. In addition, under some contracts with suppliers we have minimum purchase obligations, and our failure to satisfy those obligations may result in loss of some or all of our rights under these contracts or require us to compensate the supplier. If we are unable to obtain adequate quantities of products in the future from sole and single source suppliers, or if such sole and single source suppliers are unable to obtain the components or other materials required to manufacture the products, we may be unable to supply the market, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, and any longer-term disruptions could potentially result in the permanent loss of customers, which could reduce our recurring revenues and long-term profitability.

Our biologic products are complex and difficult to manufacture, which could negatively affect our ability to supply the market 

Many of our rapid assay, livestock and poultry diagnostic, water and dairy products are biologic products, which are products that include materials from living organisms, such as antibodies, cells, and sera. Manufacturing biologic products is highly complex due to the inherent variability of biological input materials and the difficulty of controlling the interactions of these materials with other components of the products, samples, and the environment. There can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain adequate sources of biological materials or that we will be able to consistently manufacture biologic products that satisfy applicable product release criteria and regulatory requirements. Further, products that meet release criteria at the time of manufacture may fall out of specification while in customer inventory, which could require us to incur expenses associated with recalling products and providing customers with new products, either of which could damage customer relations. Our inability to produce or obtain necessary biological materials or to successfully manufacture biologic products that incorporate such materials could result in our inability to supply the market with these products, which would have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

We are increasingly dependent on the continuous and reliable operation of our information technology systems, and a disruption of these systems or significant security breaches could adversely affect our business.

We rely on several information systems throughout our company, as well as our third-party business partners’ and suppliers’ information systems, to provide access to our web-based products and services, keep financial records, analyze results of operations, process customer orders, manage inventory, process shipments to customers, store confidential or proprietary information and operate other critical functions. Although we maintain information security policies and employ system backup measures and engage in information system redundancy planning and processes, such policies, measures, planning and processes, as well as our current disaster recovery plans, may be ineffective or inadequate to address all eventualities. Further, our information systems and our business partners’ and suppliers’ information systems may be vulnerable to attacks by hackers and other security breaches, including, among other things, computer viruses and malware, denial of service actions, misappropriation of data and similar events through the internet (including via devices and applications connected to the internet), and through email attachments and persons with access to these information systems, such as our employees or third parties with whom we do business. As information systems and the use of software and related applications by us, our business partners, suppliers, and customers become more cloud-based and connected to the “Internet of Things,” which is inherently susceptible to cyberattacks, there has been an increase in global cybersecurity vulnerabilities and threats, including more sophisticated and targeted cyber-related attacks that pose a risk to the security of our information systems and networks and the confidentiality, availability and integrity of data and information. We process credit card payments electronically over secure networks and also offer products and services that connect to and are part of the “Internet of Things,” such as our connected devices (e.g., IDEXX VetLab instruments). Any such attack or breach could compromise our networks and the information stored thereon could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost, or stolen. While we have implemented network security and internal control measures, especially for the purpose of protecting our connected products and services from cyberattacks, and invested in our data and information technology infrastructure, there can be no assurance that these efforts will prevent a system disruption, attack, or security breach and, as such, the risk of system disruptions and security breaches from a cyberattack remains.


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We, and some of our third party vendors, have experienced cybersecurity attacks in the past and may experience further attacks in the future, potentially with more frequency. To our knowledge, most of these attacks have been unsuccessful, and none have resulted in any material adverse impact to our business or operations. We have adopted measures to mitigate potential risks associated with information technology disruptions and cybersecurity threats; however, given the unpredictability of the timing, nature and scope of such disruptions and the evolving nature of cybersecurity threats, which vary in technique and sources, if we or our business partners or suppliers were to experience a system disruption, attack or security breach that impacts any of our critical functions, or our customers were to experience a system disruption, attack or security breach via any of our connected products and services, we could potentially be subject to production downtimes, operational delays, other detrimental impacts on our operations or ability to provide products and services to our customers, the compromising of confidential or otherwise protected information, destruction or corruption of data, security breaches, other manipulation or improper use of our systems or networks, financial losses and additional costs from remedial actions, repairs to infrastructure, physical systems or data processing systems, increased cybersecurity and information technology protection costs, loss of business or potential liability, and/or damage to our reputation, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, cash flows or financial condition. Our customers could also face negative consequences such as the compromises of sensitive or critical information or systems. Furthermore, any access to, public disclosure of, or other loss of data or information (including any of our confidential or proprietary information or personal data or information) as a result of an attack or security breach could result in governmental actions or private claims or proceedings, which could damage our reputation, cause a loss of confidence in our products and services, damage our ability to develop (and protect our rights to) our proprietary technologies and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects. For more information regarding data and information privacy and protection risks, see “Our operations and reputation may be impaired if we, our products, or our services do not comply with our global privacy policy or evolving laws and regulations regarding data privacy and protection” below.
Risks associated with doing business internationally could negatively affect our operating results

For the year ended December 31, 2019, approximately 38% of our revenue was attributable to sales of products and services to customers outside the U.S. Although we intend to continue to expand our international operations and business, we may not be able to successfully promote, market, import, export, sell or distribute our products and services outside the U.S. Various risks associated with foreign operations may impact our international sales, including, but not limited to, disruptions in transportation of our products or our supply chain; fluctuations in oil prices; increased border protection and restriction on travel; the differing product and service needs of foreign customers; difficulties in building, staffing and managing foreign operations (including a geographically dispersed workforce); differing protection of intellectual property; trade protection measures, quotas, embargoes, import/export restrictions, tariffs, duties, and regulatory and licensing requirements; natural and other disasters; public health issues (such as outbreaks, epidemics, or the prospect of a pandemic); ongoing instability or changes in a country’s or region’s regulatory, economic or political conditions, including as a result of the United Kingdom’s exit from the European Union; other unfavorable geopolitical conditions; security concerns; and local business and cultural factors that differ from our normal standards and practices, including business practices prohibited by the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-corruption laws and regulations.

In addition, to market and sell many of our products outside the U.S., we are subject to product approval and registration requirements that often require us to provide confidential, proprietary information about those products to foreign regulatory agencies. There can be no assurance that the confidential, proprietary information provided to foreign regulatory agencies to comply with product approval and registration requirements may not be accessed by unauthorized persons or otherwise stolen, which could negatively affect our ability to protect our proprietary rights in our innovative products and our future success. We also may forgo marketing and selling some of our products in certain foreign jurisdictions due to the risk of intellectual property theft, which could negatively affect our ability to expand our international operations and business. For more information about the risks related to the protection of our proprietary rights in our products and services, see "Our success is heavily dependent on our continued proprietary product and service innovation" below.

Further, prices that we charge to foreign customers may be different than the prices we charge for the same products in the U.S. due to competitive, market or other factors, or changes in foreign currency exchange rates. Our results of operations are also susceptible to changes in foreign currency exchange rates. As a result, the mix of domestic and international sales in a particular period could have an adverse impact on our results of operations for that period.

    

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Various U.S. and foreign government regulations could limit or delay our ability to market and sell our products or otherwise negatively impact our business

As a global business, we sell products and services in more than 175 countries and operate in an increasingly complex legal and regulatory environment. In the U.S., the manufacture and sale of certain of our products are regulated by agencies such as the USDA, the FDA, and the EPA. Our diagnostic tests for animal health applications that involve the detection of infectious diseases, including most rapid assay canine and feline SNAP tests and livestock and poultry diagnostic tests, must be approved by the USDA prior to sale in the U.S. Our dairy testing products as well as the manufacture and sale of our OPTI line of human point-of-care electrolytes and blood gas analyzers require approval by the FDA before they may be sold commercially in the U.S. Our water testing products must be approved by the EPA, as a part of a water quality monitoring program required by the EPA, before they can be used by customers in the U.S. Delays in obtaining regulatory approvals for new products or product upgrades could have a negative impact on our growth and profitability.

The manufacture, import, and sale of our products, as well as our research and development processes, are subject to similar and sometimes more stringent laws in many foreign countries. For example, the European Union regulates the use of certain substances that we currently use in our products or processes. These regulations include the Biocidal Products Regulation, which requires approval for the use of certain biocides in our products prior to being manufactured, used, or sold in the European Union; the European Regulation for Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical Substances, or REACH, which regulates and restricts the use of certain chemicals in the European Union; and the Restriction of Hazardous Substances("RoHS") Directive, which regulates and restricts certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment. Compliance with these regulations (and similar regulations that may be adopted elsewhere, including China and Brazil) may require registration of the applicable substances or the redesign or reformulation of our products and may reduce or eliminate the availability of certain parts and components used in our products and services in the event our suppliers are unable to comply with the applicable regulations in a timely and cost-effective manner. Any redesign or reformulation or restricted supply of parts and components may negatively affect the availability or performance of our products and services, add testing lead-times for products and reformulated products, reduce our margins, result in additional costs, or have other similar effects. In addition, the costs to comply with these regulations may be significant. Any of these could adversely affect our business, financial condition, or results of operations. These legal and regulatory requirements are complex and subject to change, and we continue to evaluate their impact.

In addition, some foreign governments require us to register our products before they can be distributed or sold, and these product registration requirements, which vary among the applicable jurisdictions and change from time to time, are often complex and require us to engage in lengthy and costly processes and provide confidential, proprietary information about those products to foreign regulatory agencies. There can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain or maintain any product registration required by one or more foreign governments. Any inability to obtain or maintain a required product registration in a jurisdiction could adversely affect our ability to market and sell the applicable product in that jurisdiction, which could have a negative effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. There can also be no assurance that confidential, proprietary information provided to foreign regulatory agencies may not be accessed by unauthorized persons or otherwise stolen, which could negatively impact our ability to protect our proprietary rights in our innovative products and our future success. For more information about the risks related to the protection of our proprietary rights in our products and services, see "Our success is heavily dependent on our continued proprietary product and service innovation" below.

We are also subject to a variety of federal, state, local, and international laws and regulations governing, as well as legal and political environments that vary broadly regarding, among other things, the importation and exportation of products; our global business practices, such as anti-corruption, anti-money laundering, and anti-competition laws; and immigration and travel restrictions. These legal, regulatory, and political requirements and environments differ among jurisdictions around the world and are rapidly changing and increasingly complex. The costs associated with compliance with these legal and regulatory requirements and adjusting to changing legal and political environments are significant and likely to increase in the future.

Any failure by us to comply with applicable legal and regulatory requirements, or to adjust to changing legal and political environments, could result in fines, penalties, and sanctions; product recalls; suspensions or discontinuations of, or limitations or restrictions on, our ability to design, manufacture, market, import, export or sell our products; and damage to our reputation. Any of these could negatively impact our business.


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Our success is heavily dependent on our continued proprietary product and service innovation

We believe our future success significantly depends on our ability to continue, on a cost-effective and timely basis, to enhance our existing proprietary product and service offerings and to develop and introduce new and innovative proprietary products and services. As a result, we invest substantial funds and efforts into R&D, investigating new products and technologies being developed by third parties and obtaining certain such new products and technologies through licenses or acquisitions. There can be no assurance that our R&D, licensing, or acquisition efforts will achieve expected results, when or whether any of our products or services now under development will be launched, or whether we may be able to develop, license or otherwise acquire new products or technologies. We also cannot predict whether any product or service offering, once launched, will achieve market acceptance or achieve sales and revenue consistent with our expectations.

We rely on a combination of patent, trade secret, trademark, and copyright laws to protect our proprietary rights. We also license patents and technologies from third parties to enable the use of third-party technologies in the development and production of our products and offerings. If we do not have adequate protection of our proprietary rights or are unable to license third-party patents and technologies on reasonable terms, our business may be affected by competitors who utilize substantially equivalent technologies that compete with us.

We cannot ensure that we will obtain issued patents, that any patents issued or licensed to us will remain valid, or that any patents owned or licensed by us will provide protection against competitors with similar technologies. Even if our patents cover products sold by our competitors, the time and expense of litigating to enforce our patent rights could be substantial and could have an adverse effect on our results of operations. In addition, expiration of patent rights could result in substantial new competition in the markets for products previously covered by those patent rights.

In the past, we have received notices claiming that our products infringe third-party patents and we may receive such notices in the future. Patent litigation is complex and expensive, and the outcome of patent litigation can be difficult to predict. We cannot ensure that we will win a patent litigation case or negotiate an acceptable resolution of such a case. If we lose, we may be prohibited from selling certain products and/or we may be required to pay damages and/or ongoing royalties as a result of the lawsuit. Any such result could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

Increased competition from and technological advances by our competitors could negatively affect our operating results

We face intense competition within the markets in which we sell our products and services, and we expect that future competition will become even more intense as new products, services and technologies become available and new competitors enter the market. Our competitors in the veterinary diagnostic market in the United States and abroad include companies that develop, manufacture, and sell veterinary diagnostic tests and commercial veterinary reference laboratories, certain large and well-funded animal health pharmaceutical companies, as well as corporate hospital chains that operate reference laboratories that serve both their hospitals and unaffiliated hospitals, such as VCA Inc. (formerly named VCA Antech, Inc.), which is wholly owned by Mars, Incorporated, another operator of corporate hospital chains. Consolidation among our competitors and our customers may intensify the competition we face. While we believe that our offerings are competitively differentiated due to our proprietary products and services (such as the IDEXX SDMA test and VetConnect Plus) that offer an integrated, comprehensive diagnostic solution and the quality of our technical and customer service, there can be no assurance that increased consolidation among our competitors or customers (as well as any resulting reference laboratory vertical integration among our customers) would not have a negative impact on our ability to compete successfully. For more information regarding the risks presented by consolidation and reference laboratory vertical integration among our customers, see “Consolidation in our customer base, including through increased corporate hospital ownership, and prevalence of buying consortiums could negatively affect our business” below.

Competition could negatively affect our sales and profitability in a number of ways. New competitors may enter our markets through the development of innovative new technology, the acquisition of rights to use existing technologies or the use of existing technologies when patents protecting such existing technologies expire. New or existing competitors may introduce new, innovative, and competitive products and services, which could be superior, or be perceived by our customers to be superior, to our products and services or lead to the obsolescence of one or more of our products or services. Business combinations and mergers among our competitors may result in competitors that are better positioned to create, market, and sell more compelling product and service offerings. While an important aspect of our strategy is to continue, on a cost-effective and timely basis, to enhance our existing products and services and to develop and introduce new and innovative products and services, there can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully develop such products and services or that those products or services will be superior to our competitors’ products or services or otherwise achieve market acceptance. Some of

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our competitors and potential competitors may choose to differentiate themselves by offering products and services perceived in the eyes of customers as similar, at substantially lower sales prices, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations through loss of market share or a decision to lower our own sales prices to remain competitive. In addition, our ability to attract and retain customers depends on the effectiveness of our customer marketing and incentive programs and multiple competitors could bundle product and service offerings through co-marketing or other arrangements, which could enhance their ability to compete with our broad product and service offering. Certain of our competitors and potential competitors, including large diagnostic and pharmaceutical companies, also have substantially greater financial and managerial resources than us, as well as greater experience in manufacturing, marketing, research and development, and obtaining regulatory approvals than we do.

Consolidation in our customer base, including through increased corporate hospital ownership, and prevalence of buying consortiums could negatively affect our business 

Veterinarians are our primary customers for our CAG products and services, and the veterinary services industry in the U.S. and abroad has been consolidating over time at an accelerating rate in recent years. In the United States, the number of owners of veterinary hospitals has been declining, and an increasing percentage of veterinary hospitals are owned by corporations that are in the business of acquiring veterinary hospitals and/or opening new veterinary hospitals nationally or regionally. Major corporate hospital owners in the U.S. include Mars, Incorporated (owner of Banfield Pet Hospitals, Blue Pearl Veterinary Partners, Pet Partners and VCA Inc.), and National Veterinary Associates, and are joined by dozens of smaller consolidators. A similar trend exists in other regions such as Canada, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, and China. Furthermore, an increasing percentage of individually-owned veterinary hospitals in the U.S. are participating in buying consortiums. Corporate owners of veterinary hospitals and buying consortiums often seek to improve profitability by leveraging the buying power they derive from their scale to obtain favorable pricing from suppliers, which could have a negative impact on our profitability and results of operations. While we have strong supplier relationships with several corporate hospital groups and buying consortiums, decisions by larger corporate owners and buying consortiums to shift their purchasing of products and services away from us and to a competitor would have a negative impact on our results of operations. In addition, certain corporate owners also operate reference laboratories that serve both their hospitals and unaffiliated hospitals. Any hospitals acquired by these companies generally attempt to shift all or a large portion of their testing to the reference laboratories operated by these companies, and there can be no assurance that hospitals that otherwise become affiliated with these companies would not shift all or a portion of their testing to such reference laboratories. Furthermore, because these companies compete with us in the reference laboratory services marketplace, hospitals acquired by these companies or those that establish other affiliations with these companies may cease to be customers or potential customers of our other companion animal products and services, which would cause our sales of these products and services to decline.

Changes in testing patterns could negatively affect our operating results 

The market for our companion animal, livestock and poultry diagnostic tests and our dairy and water testing products could be negatively impacted by a number of factors impacting testing practices. The introduction or broad market acceptance of vaccines or preventatives for the diseases and conditions for which we sell diagnostic tests and services could result in a decline in testing. Changes in accepted medical protocols regarding the diagnosis of certain diseases and conditions could have a similar effect. Eradication or substantial declines in the prevalence of certain diseases also could lead to a decline in diagnostic testing for such diseases. Our livestock and poultry products business in particular is subject to fluctuations resulting from changes in disease prevalence. The outbreak of certain diseases (such as African swine fever) among livestock or poultry, or the adverse impact of climate change-related events (such as hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, and floods), could lead to the widespread death or precautionary destruction of such animals in the affected regions, reducing herd or flock sizes, which could reduce the demand for our testing products for such animals. Changes in government regulations or in the availability of government funds available for monitoring programs could negatively affect sales of our products that are driven by compliance testing, such as our livestock and poultry, dairy and water products. In addition, changes and trends in local dairy, poultry, or other food markets around the world could negatively affect the related production markets resulting in a decline in demand for our testing products. Declines in testing for any reason, including the reasons described above, along with lost opportunities associated with a reduction in veterinary visits, could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

Natural and other disasters could adversely affect our business.

Our business and results of operations could be negatively affected by certain factors beyond our control, such as natural disasters and/or climate change-related events (such as hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, and floods); public health issues (such as outbreaks, epidemics, or the prospect of a pandemic); civil unrest; negative geopolitical conditions and developments; and war, terrorism, or other man-made disasters. Any of these events could result in, among other things, damage to or the

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temporary closure of one or more of our manufacturing or distribution facilities or reference laboratories (damage to one of our facilities or the manufacturing equipment we use could be costly and may require substantial lead-time to repair or replace); damage to or closure of one or more facilities of our third-party business partners or suppliers on which we rely; a temporary lack of an adequate work force in one or more markets; an interruption in power supply; a temporary or long-term disruption in our supply chain (including a disruption to our ability to obtain critical components for the manufacture of our products); a temporary disruption in our ability to deliver (or delays in the delivery of) our products or services; and short- or long-term damage to our customers’ businesses (which would adversely impact customer demand for our products and services). For more information regarding the risks presented by disruption to our suppliers’ operations and supply chain, see “Our dependence on suppliers could limit our ability to sell certain products or negatively affect our operating results” above.

We manufacture many of our significant companion animal products, including our rapid assay devices and certain instruments, many of our water testing products and certain of our livestock, poultry, and dairy testing products, at a single facility in Westbrook, Maine. Certain of our companion animal products, as well as our human point-of-care products, are manufactured in Roswell, Georgia. We also manufacture certain of our livestock and poultry testing products in Bern, Switzerland and Montpellier, France. In addition, we maintain major distribution facilities in North America and in the Netherlands and major reference laboratories in Memphis, Tennessee; Ludwigsburg, Germany; Sacramento, California; Elmhurst, Illinois; North Grafton, Massachusetts; East Brisbane, Australia; Markham, Ontario; Wetherby, U.K.; Tokyo, Japan; and Leipzig, Germany. Interruption of operations at any of these facilities due to the occurrence of one or more of the events described above could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

While we maintain plans to continue business under such circumstances, there can be no assurance that such plans will be successful in fully or partially mitigating the effects of such events. We also maintain property and business interruption insurance to insure against the financial impact of certain events of this nature. However, this insurance may be insufficient to compensate us for the full amount of any losses that we may incur. In addition, such insurance will not compensate us for potential long-term competitive effects of being out of the market for the period of any interruption in operations.

Our operations and reputation may be impaired if we, our products, or our services do not comply with our global privacy policy or evolving laws and regulations regarding data privacy and protection

The nature of our business involves the receipt and storage of information about our customers, pet owners, suppliers, and employees. We collect and use personal data in a variety of ways. We offer products and services that collect and use personal data provided by customer practices, individuals, and third-parties at customers' direction, including practice management systems for veterinary practices, online customer communication tools and services, VetConnect PLUS, two-way integration technology, and use by third-parties authorized by our customers to provide programs and services to such customers. Some of these products and services rely on third-party providers for cloud storage. We also engage in e-commerce through various websites and collect contact and other personal data from our customers and visitors to our websites. The privacy, security, retention, sharing and use of the personal data described above are subject to expanding and increasingly complex laws and regulations in the U.S. (such as the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”), which became effective on January 1, 2020) and abroad (such as the Brazilian General Data Protection Law (“LGPD”), which will become effective on August 15, 2020), some of which impose significant compliance obligations. Some of these laws and regulations apply broadly to the collection, use, storage, disclosure, sharing and security of personal data that identifies or may be used to identify an individual, such as names, contact information, and sensitive personal data. These laws and regulations are subject to frequent revisions and differing interpretations and have generally become more stringent over time. In many cases, the federal, state, and international laws described above apply not only to third-party transactions, but also to transfers of information between us and our subsidiaries, and among us, our subsidiaries, and other parties with which we have commercial relations. For example, we are subject to the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, which became effective in May 2018. The GDPR imposes stringent operational requirements for controllers and processors of personal data, including expanded disclosures about how personal information is to be used, limitations on retention of information and mandatory data breach notification requirements, and could subject us to increased liability for violations. In addition, the laws and regulations related to data privacy and protection continue to develop, are subject to differing interpretations and may be applied inconsistently from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and may be inconsistent with our current global privacy policy and data protection practices. The costs associated with compliance with these evolving legal and regulatory requirements are significant and likely to increase in the future and as a result may cause us to incur substantial costs, require us to change our business practices in a manner adverse to our business or limit our ability to use and share personal data. Additionally, public perception and standards related to the privacy of personal data can shift rapidly, in ways that may affect our reputation or influence regulators in the U.S. and abroad to expand or adopt more stringent regulations and laws.


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While we have policies and procedures in place to comply with all applicable privacy-related laws and regulations (including the GDPR and CCPA), as well as our contractual obligations, any failure or perceived failure by us, the third parties with whom we work or our products and services to so comply could result in damage to our reputation or legal proceedings or actions against us by governmental entities or others, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business. In addition, concerns about our practices with regard to the collection, use, retention, disclosure, or security of personal data or other privacy-related matters, even if unfounded and even if we are in compliance with applicable laws and regulations, could damage our reputation and harm our business.

Strengthening of the rate of exchange for the U.S. dollar has a negative effect on our business

We are a global business, with 38% of our revenue during the year ended December 31, 2019, attributable to sales of products and services to customers outside of the U.S. Any strengthening of the rate of exchange for the U.S. dollar against foreign currencies, and in particular the euro, British pound, Canadian dollar, Chinese renminbi, Japanese yen, Australian dollar and Brazilian real, adversely affects our results, as it reduces the dollar value of sales and profits that are made in those currencies. The strengthening of the U.S. dollar has a greater adverse effect on the profits from products manufactured or sourced in U.S. dollars that are exported to international markets and a lesser effect on profits from foreign sourced products and services due to a natural hedge from international expenses denominated in the corresponding foreign currencies.

For the year ended December 31, 2019, approximately 22% of our consolidated revenue was derived from products manufactured or sourced in U.S. dollars and sold internationally in local currencies, as compared to 22% and 21% for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. A strengthening U.S. dollar could also negatively impact the ability of customers outside the U.S. to pay for purchases denominated in U.S. dollars as well as affect our overall competitiveness in international markets. The accumulated impacts from any continued, longer-term growth in the value of the U.S. dollar against foreign currencies may have a material adverse effect on our operating results. See “Part II, Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information regarding currency impact. In addition, there has been, and may continue to be, volatility in currency exchange rates as a result of the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union, especially between the U.S. dollar and the British pound.

Our foreign currency hedging activities (see "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 18. Hedging Instruments" in the accompanying Notes to consolidated financial statements), which are designed to minimize and delay, but not to eliminate, the effects of foreign currency fluctuations, may not sufficiently offset the adverse financial effect of unfavorable movements in foreign exchange rates on our financial results over the limited time the hedges are in place. In addition, our hedging activities involve costs and risks, such as transactions costs and the risk that our hedging counterparties will default on their obligations.

We primarily hedge intercompany product purchases and sales denominated in the euro, British pound, Canadian dollar, Japanese yen, and Australian dollar. Other foreign currency exposures related to foreign sourced services and emerging markets may not be practical to hedge. In certain cases, these exposures are not offset by foreign currency denominated costs. As we primarily use foreign currency exchange contracts with durations of less than 24 months and enter into contracts to hedge incremental portions of anticipated foreign currency transactions on a quarterly basis for the current and following year, the effectiveness of our foreign currency hedging activities to offset longer-term appreciation in the value of the U.S. dollar against non-U.S. currencies may be limited. Factors that could affect the effectiveness of our hedging activities include accuracy of sales and other forecasts, volatility of currency markets, and the cost and availability of hedging instruments. Since our hedging activities are designed to minimize volatility, they not only temporarily reduce the negative impact of a stronger U.S. dollar, but they also temporarily reduce the positive impact of a weaker U.S. dollar. Our future financial results could be significantly affected by a strengthening value of the U.S. dollar in relation to the foreign currencies in which we conduct business. The degree to which our financial results are affected for any given time period will depend in part upon our hedging activities.

A weak worldwide economy could result in reduced demand for our products and services or increased customer credit risk

A substantial percentage of our sales are made worldwide to the companion animal veterinary market. Demand for our companion animal diagnostic products and services is driven in part by the number of patient visits to veterinary hospitals and the practices of veterinarians with respect to the recommendations for diagnostic testing, as well as pet owner compliance with these recommendations. Pet owners generally pay cash out of pocket for health care services for their pets from veterinary practices. Economic weakness in our significant markets could cause pet owners to forgo or defer visits to veterinary hospitals

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or affect their willingness to approve certain diagnostic tests, comply with a treatment plan or, even more fundamentally, continue to own a pet. In addition, concerns about the financial resources of pet owners could cause veterinarians to be less likely to recommend certain diagnostic tests, and concerns about the economy may cause veterinarians to defer purchasing capital items such as our instruments and systems. These conditions, if they continue, could result in a decrease in sales or decrease in sales growth, of diagnostic products and services, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

Demand for our water products is driven in part by the availability of funds at government laboratories, water utilities and private certified laboratories that utilize our products. Availability of funds also affects demand by government laboratories and cattle, swine and poultry producers that utilize our livestock and poultry diagnostic products, and by users of our human point-of-care diagnostic instruments. Economic weakness in our markets has caused and could continue to cause our customers to reduce their investment in such testing, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

In all of our markets, a weak economy may also cause deterioration in the financial condition of our distributors and customers, which could inhibit their ability to pay us amounts owed for products delivered or services provided in a timely fashion or at all.    

We sell many products through distributors, which presents risks that could negatively affect our operating results

Some of our product sales in international markets occur through third-party distributors. As a result, we are dependent on these distributors to promote and create demand for our products. Our distributors often offer products from several different companies, and certain of our distributors may carry our competitors’ products and promote our competitors’ products over our own products. We have limited ability, if any, to cause our distributors to devote adequate resources to promoting, marketing, selling, and supporting our products or to maintain certain inventory levels, and changes in our distributors’ inventory levels, as compared to comparable prior periods, could negatively impact our revenue growth rates. We cannot assure you that we will be successful in maintaining and strengthening our relationships with our distributors or establishing relationships with new distributors who have the ability to market, sell and support our products effectively. We may rely on one or more key distributors for a product or a region, and the loss of these distributors could reduce our revenue. Distributors may face financial difficulties, including bankruptcy, which could harm our collection of accounts receivable and financial results. While we maintain a rigorous distribution compliance program, violations of anti-corruption or similar laws by our distributors could have a material impact on our business and reputation, and any termination of a distributor relationship may result in increased competition in the applicable jurisdiction. Failure to manage the risks associated with our use of distributors outside of the U.S. may reduce sales, increase expenses, and weaken our competitive position, any of which could have a negative effect on our operating results.

Future operating results could be negatively affected by changes in tax rates, the adoption of new U.S. or international tax legislation or exposure to additional tax liabilities

The nature of our international operations subjects us to local, state, regional and federal tax laws in jurisdictions around the world. Our future tax expense could be affected by changes in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities or changes in tax laws or their interpretation. Additionally, tax rules governing cross-border activities are continually subject to modification as a result of both coordinated actions by governments and unilateral measures designed by individual countries, both intended to tackle concerns over base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS) and perceived international tax avoidance techniques.

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “2017 Tax Act”) was enacted in the U.S. on December 22, 2017 and includes significant changes to the U.S. federal corporate tax system. Effective January 1, 2018, the 2017 Tax Act reduced the U.S. federal corporate tax rate from 35% to 21% and transitioned from a worldwide tax system to a modified territorial tax system. The 2017 Tax Act introduced new provisions including the Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income (“GILTI”), Foreign Derived Intangible Income (“FDII”), Base Erosion Anti-Abuse Tax (“BEAT’), expanded bonus depreciation and changed deductions for executive compensation and interest expense. The U.S. Department of Treasury continues to issue regulations related to the 2017 Tax Act which may increase or decrease our tax liability in future periods. See "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 13. Income Taxes" in the accompanying Notes to consolidated financial statements for more information regarding the impact of the 2017 Tax Act.

We have received a tax ruling from the Netherlands that documents our mutual understanding of how existing tax laws apply to our circumstances. This ruling expires as of December 31, 2022, and we have been informed that it will not be renewed due to changes to the advance ruling policy in the Netherlands. While the absence of an advance agreement does not

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preclude our ability to continue to apply existing tax laws in the same manner as allowed by the existing ruling, the lack of such agreement could create uncertainty as to our future tax rate.

Additionally, the European Commission has opened formal investigations into specific tax rulings granted by several countries to specific taxpayers. While we believe that our rulings are different than those being discussed, the ultimate resolution of such activities cannot be predicted and could also have an adverse impact on future operating results.

Our income tax filings are regularly under audit by various tax authorities, and the final determination of tax audits could be materially different from that which is reflected in historical income tax provisions and accruals. Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes. We regularly assess our exposures related to our worldwide provision for income taxes to determine the adequacy of our provision for taxes. Any reduction in these contingent liabilities or additional assessments would increase or decrease income, respectively, in the period such determination is made.

Our limited experience and small scale in the human point-of-care market could inhibit our success in this market 

We have limited experience in the human point-of-care medical diagnostics market and we operate at a small scale in this market. This market differs in many respects from the veterinary diagnostic market. Significant differences include the impact of third-party reimbursement on diagnostic testing, more extensive regulation, greater product liability risks, larger competitors, a more segmented customer base and more rapid technological innovation. Our limited experience and small scale in the human point-of-care medical diagnostics market could negatively affect our ability to successfully manage the risks and features of this market that differ from the veterinary diagnostic market. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in achieving growth and profitability in the human point-of-care medical diagnostics market comparable to the results we have achieved in the veterinary diagnostic market.

Restrictions in our debt agreements or our inability to obtain financing on favorable terms may increase our cost of borrowing and limit our activities

Our ability to make scheduled payments and satisfy our other obligations under our Credit Facility and senior notes depends on our future operating performance and on economic, financial, competitive, and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not generate sufficient cash flows to meet these obligations or generate sufficient levels of earnings to satisfy the applicable affirmative, negative, and financial covenants. Our failure to comply with these covenants and the other terms of the Credit Facility and senior notes could result in an event of default and acceleration of our obligations under these agreements, which may require us to seek additional financing or restructure existing debt on unfavorable terms. In addition, adverse changes in credit markets could increase our cost of borrowing and make it more difficult for us to obtain financing.

Our senior notes include provisions which stipulate a prepayment penalty for which we will be obligated in the event that we elect to repay the notes prior to their stated maturity dates. Should we elect to repay some or all of the outstanding principal balance on our senior notes, the prepayment penalty we incur could adversely affect our results of operations and cash flows.

We fund our operations, capital purchase requirements and strategic growth needs through cash on hand, funds generated from operations, amounts available under our Credit Facility and senior note financings. If we are unable to obtain financing on favorable terms, we could face restrictions that would limit our ability to execute certain strategies, which could have an adverse effect on our revenue growth and profitability.

Borrowings under our Credit Facility bear interest at variable rates, including rates based on the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR), exposing us to interest rate risk. If interest rates were to increase, our debt service obligations under our variable-rate Credit Facility would increase even if the principal amount borrowed remained the same. While we may enter into interest rate swaps in the future to reduce the impact of interest rate fluctuations associated with our variable-rate indebtedness, we may not maintain interest rate swaps with respect to all of our variable rate indebtedness, and any swaps we enter into may not fully mitigate our interest rate risk.

In addition, the United Kingdom's Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced in July 2017 that it will no longer persuade or require banks to submit rates for LIBOR after 2021 and it is unclear whether new methods of calculating LIBOR will be established. If LIBOR ceases to exist, one or more interest rates under our Credit Facility would, in the absence of an amendment, instead apply (depending on currency of the borrowing and other factors, including the cost of funds of applicable lenders, as determined by them), and similarly we may need to amend certain of our other agreements that

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use LIBOR as a benchmark and we cannot predict what alternative index or other amendments may be negotiated with our counterparties. As a result, our interest expense could increase and our available cash flow for general corporate requirements may be adversely affected. Additionally, uncertainty as to the nature of a potential discontinuance or modification of LIBOR, alternative reference rates, or other reforms may materially adversely affect the trading market for securities linked to such benchmarks.
 
RISKS RELATED TO AN INVESTMENT IN OUR SECURITIES

Fluctuations in our quarterly or annual results may cause our stock price to decline

Our prior operating results have fluctuated due to a number of factors, including seasonality of certain product lines; changes in our accounting estimates; the impact of acquisitions; timing of distributor purchases product launches, operating expenditures, customer marketing and incentive programs; changes in foreign currency exchange rates; timing of regulatory approvals and licenses; litigation and claim-related expenditures; increase in the number and type of competitors; changes in competitors’ product offerings; changes in our sales and distribution model; changes in the economy affecting consumer spending; and other matters. Similarly, our future operating results may vary significantly from quarter to quarter or year to year due to these and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. If our operating results or projections of future operating results do not meet the expectations of securities analysts or investors in future periods, our stock price may fall.

The market price of our common stock may be highly volatile, and you may not be able to resell your shares at or above the price you paid

The trading price of our common stock may be volatile. Securities markets worldwide experience significant price and volume fluctuations. This market volatility, as well as other general economic, market or political conditions, could reduce the market price of our common stock in spite of our operating performance. The following factors, in addition to other factors described in this “Risk Factors” section and elsewhere in this Form 10-K, may have a significant impact on the market price of our common stock:
Changes in customer needs, expectations or trends and our ability to maintain relationships with key customers;
Our ability to implement our business strategy;
Our stock repurchase program;
Changes in our capital structure, including the issuance of additional debt;
Public announcements (including the timing of these announcements) regarding our business, financial performance and prospects or new products or services, product enhancements or technological advances by our competitors or us;
Trading activity in our stock, including portfolio transactions in our stock by us, our executive officers and directors, and significant stockholders or trading activity that results from the ordinary course rebalancing of stock indices in which we may be included, such as the S&P 500 Index;
Short-interest in our common stock, which could be significant from time to time;
Our inclusion in, or removal from, any stock indices;
Investor perception of us and the industry and markets in which we operate;
Changes in earnings estimates or buy/sell recommendations by securities analysts; 
Whether or not we meet earnings estimates of securities analysts who follow us; and
General financial, domestic, international, economic, and market conditions, including overall fluctuations in the U.S. equity markets.
In addition, broad market and industry factors may negatively affect the market price of our common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance, and factors beyond our control may cause our stock price to decline rapidly and unexpectedly. Furthermore, the stock market has experienced extreme volatility that, in some cases, has been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of particular companies.

ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

Not applicable.


31



ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES

Our worldwide headquarters is located in Westbrook, Maine where we engage in manufacturing, research and development, marketing, sales, and general and administrative support functions. Our Hoofddorp, Netherlands location includes distribution, warehousing, and office space. We are also in the process of relocating and expanding our laboratory facility in Ludwigsburg, Germany to Kornwestheim, Germany which is expected to be completed in 2020.

Primary Facility Locations
Location
Functions
Own/Lease
Westbrook, Maine
United States Headquarters
Own
Hoofddorp, Netherlands
European Headquarters
Lease
Memphis, Tennessee
Distribution Center and Reference Lab
Lease
Ludwigsburg, Germany
Reference Lab
Lease
Wetherby, United Kingdom
Reference Lab
Lease
Newmarket, United Kingdom
Water manufacturing
Lease
Bern, Switzerland
LPD manufacturing
Lease
Montpelier, France
LPD manufacturing
Lease
Roswell, Georgia
OPTI Medical manufacturing
Lease
    
Including the locations above, we have over 50 reference laboratories throughout the United States and over 25 reference laboratories internationally, including locations in Europe, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Asia, and South Africa. The majority of our reference laboratories are leased, with the remainder being owned. We also lease space in various locations worldwide for administrative support, manufacturing, sales, distribution, and storage. We believe that our leased and owned properties are generally in good condition, are well-maintained, and are generally suitable and adequate to carry on our business.

32



ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

Due to the nature of our activities, we are at times subject to pending and threatened legal actions that arise out of the ordinary course of business. In the opinion of management, based in part upon advice of legal counsel, the disposition of any such currently pending or threatened matters is not expected to have a material effect on our results of operations, financial condition, or cash flows. However, the results of legal actions cannot be predicted with certainty. Therefore, it is possible that our results of operations, financial condition or cash flows could be materially adversely affected in any particular period by the unfavorable resolution of one or more legal actions.

ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

33



PART II
ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information

Our common stock is quoted on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol IDXX.

Holders of Common Stock

As of February 10, 2020, there were 420 holders of record of our common stock. Because the majority of our common stock is held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of stockholders, we are unable to estimate the total number of stockholders represented by these record holders.

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer

During the three months ended December 31, 2019, we repurchased shares of common stock as described below:
Period
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased
(a)
 
Average Price Paid per Share
(b)
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs (1)
(c)
 
Maximum Number of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs (1)
(d)

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 
October 1, 2019 to October 31, 2019
 
120,339

 
$
273.57

 
120,339

 
2,408,629

November 1, 2019 to November 30, 2019
 
197,421

 
258.96

 
197,421

 
2,211,208

December 1, 2019 to December 31, 2019
 
215,313

 
254.51

 
214,500

 
1,996,708

Total
 
533,073

(2) 
$
260.46

 
532,260

 
1,996,708


(1) As of December 31, 2019, our Board of Directors had approved the repurchase of up to 68 million shares of our common stock in the open market or in negotiated transactions pursuant to the Company’s share repurchase program. The program was approved and announced on August 13, 1999, and the maximum number of shares that may be purchased under the program has been increased by the Board of Directors on numerous occasions. On February 12, 2020, our Board of Directors approved an additional 5.0 million shares to be purchased under the Company's share repurchase program. With this increase, the total amount of shares that may be repurchased pursuant to the Company's share repurchase program is 73 million shares. There is no specified expiration date for this repurchase program. There were no other repurchase programs outstanding during the three months ended December 31, 2019, and no repurchase programs expired during the period. Repurchases of approximately 0.5 million shares were made during the three months ended December 31, 2019, in transactions made pursuant to our repurchase program.

(2) During the three months ended December 31, 2019, we received less than 1,000 shares of our common stock that were surrendered by employees in payment for the minimum required withholding taxes due on the vesting of restricted stock units and settlement of deferred stock units. In the above table, these shares are included in columns (a) and (b) but excluded from columns (c) and (d). These shares do not reduce the number of shares that may yet be purchased under the repurchase program.

During the year ended December 31, 2019, we repurchased approximately 1.2 million shares of our common stock in transactions made pursuant to our repurchase program and received approximately 0.04 million shares of common stock that were surrendered by employees in payment for the minimum required withholding taxes due on the vesting of restricted stock units and settlement of deferred stock units. See "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 19. Repurchases of Common Stock" to the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2019, included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information.

Dividends

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock. From time to time our Board of Directors may consider the declaration of a dividend. However, we have no intention to declare or pay a dividend at this time.

34



Stock Performance

This graph compares our total stockholder returns, the Total Return for the Standard & Poor’s (“S&P”) 500 Index, the Total Return for the S&P 500 Health Care Index, and the Total Return for the NASDAQ Stock Market Index (U.S. Companies) (the “NASDAQ Index”) prepared by the Center for Research in Security Prices. This graph assumes the investment of $100 on December 31, 2014, in IDEXX’s common stock, the S&P 500 Index, the S&P 500 Health Care Index, and the NASDAQ Index and assumes dividends, if any, are reinvested. Measurement points are the last trading days of the years ended December 2014 to 2019.

BUSPERFGRAPHITEMA01.JPG  

 
12/31/2014
 
12/31/2015
 
12/31/2016
 
12/31/2017
 
12/31/2018
 
12/31/2019

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
IDEXX Laboratories, Inc.
 
$100.00
 
$98.36
 
$158.18
 
$210.94
 
$250.92
 
$352.24
NASDAQ Index
 
$100.00
 
$106.96
 
$116.45
 
$150.96
 
$146.67
 
$200.49
S&P 500 Index
 
$100.00
 
$101.38
 
$113.51
 
$138.29
 
$132.23
 
$173.86
S&P 500 Health Care Index
 
$100.00
 
$106.89
 
$104.01
 
$126.98
 
$135.19
 
$163.34

35



ITEM 6.    SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The following table sets forth selected consolidated financial data for each of the last five fiscal years. The selected consolidated financial data presented below has been derived from the consolidated financial statements. This financial data should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements, related notes and other financial information appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 
For the Years Ended December 31,

 
(in thousands, except per share data)

 
2019 (1)
 
2018 (2)
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

INCOME STATEMENT DATA:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Revenue
 
$
2,406,908

 
$
2,213,242

 
$
1,969,058

 
$
1,775,423

 
$
1,601,892

Cost of revenue
 
1,041,359

 
971,700

 
871,676

 
799,987

 
711,622

Gross profit
 
1,365,549

 
1,241,542

 
1,097,382

 
975,436

 
890,270

Expenses:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Sales and marketing
 
418,193

 
387,406

 
354,294

 
317,058

 
299,955

General and administrative
 
261,317

 
244,938

 
220,878

 
207,017

 
182,510

Research and development
 
133,193

 
117,863

 
109,182

 
101,122

 
99,681

Impairment charge
 

 

 

 

 
8,212

Income from operations
 
552,846

 
491,335

 
413,028

 
350,239

 
299,912

Interest expense, net
 
(30,628
)
 
(33,593
)
 
(31,971
)
 
(28,393
)
 
(26,771
)
Income before provision for income taxes
 
522,218

 
457,742

 
381,057

 
321,846

 
273,141

Provision for income taxes
 
94,426

 
80,695

 
117,788

 
99,792

 
81,006

Net income
 
427,792

 
377,047

 
263,269

 
222,054

 
192,135

Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest
 
72

 
16

 
125

 
9

 
57

Net income attributable to IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. stockholders
 
$
427,720

 
$
377,031

 
$
263,144

 
$
222,045

 
$
192,078

Earnings per share:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Basic
 
$
4.97

 
$
4.34

 
$
3.00

 
$
2.47

 
$
2.07

Diluted
 
$
4.89

 
$
4.26

 
$
2.94

 
$
2.44

 
$
2.05

Weighted average shares outstanding:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Basic
 
86,115

 
86,864

 
87,769

 
89,732

 
92,601

Diluted
 
87,542

 
88,470

 
89,567

 
90,884

 
93,649


 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

BALANCE SHEET DATA:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
90,326

 
$
123,794

 
$
187,675

 
$
154,901

 
$
128,994

Marketable securities
 

 

 
284,255

 
236,949

 
213,591

Cash and cash equivalents and marketable securities
 
$
90,326

 
$
123,794

 
$
471,930

 
$
391,850

 
$
342,585

Working capital
 
$
(45,698
)
 
$
(116,272
)
 
$
(32,582
)
 
$
(88,984
)
 
$
(35,127
)
Total assets
 
$
1,832,475

 
$
1,537,349

 
$
1,713,416

 
$
1,530,704

 
$
1,474,993

Total long-term debt
 
$
698,910

 
$
601,348

 
$
606,075

 
$
593,110

 
$
597,085

Total stockholders' equity (deficit)
 
$
177,825

 
$
(9,233
)
 
$
(53,842
)
 
$
(108,213
)
 
$
(83,995
)
໿
(1)
See "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" and "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 7. Leases,"to the consolidated financial statements included in the Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information regarding the adoption of the New Leasing Standard.

(2)
See "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 3. Revenue Recognition" to the consolidated financial statements included in the Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information regarding the adoption of the New Revenue Standard.





36



ITEM 7.    MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K. The discussion of our financial condition and results of operations and liquidity and capital resources for the year ended December 31, 2017, is included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, within Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, and is incorporated by reference herein.

We have included certain terms and abbreviations used throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K in the "Glossary of Terms and Selected Abbreviations.” 

Description of Business Segments. We operate primarily through three business segments: diagnostic and information management-based products and services for the veterinary market, which we refer to as the Companion Animal Group (“CAG”); water quality products (“Water”); and diagnostic products and services for livestock and poultry health and to ensure the quality and safety of milk and food, which we refer to as Livestock, Poultry and Dairy (“LPD”). Our Other operating segment combines and presents products for the human point-of-care medical diagnostics market (“OPTI Medical”) with our out-licensing arrangements because they do not meet the quantitative or qualitative thresholds for reportable segments. See "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 3. Revenue Recognition and Note 16. Segment Reporting" to the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2019, included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for financial information about our segments, including our product and service categories, and our geographic areas.

Certain costs are not allocated to our operating segments and are instead reported under the caption “Unallocated Amounts”. These costs include costs that do not align with one of our existing operating segments or are cost prohibitive to allocate, which primarily consist of our R&D function, regional or country expenses, certain foreign currency revaluation and settlement gains and losses on monetary balances in currencies other than our subsidiaries’ functional currency, and unusual items. Corporate support function costs (such as information technology, facilities, human resources, finance and legal), health benefits and incentive compensation are charged to our business segments at pre-determined budgeted amounts or rates. Differences from these pre-determined budgeted amounts or rates are also captured within Unallocated Amounts.

The following is a discussion of the strategic and operating factors that we believe have the most significant effect on the performance of our business.

IDEXXCAGA02.JPG Companion Animal Group

Our strategy is to provide veterinarians with both the highest quality diagnostic information to support more advanced medical care and information management solutions that help demonstrate the value of diagnostics to pet owners and enable efficient practice management. By doing so, we are able to build a mutually successful relationship with our veterinarian customers based on healthy pets, loyal customers and expanding practice revenues.

CAG Diagnostics. We provide diagnostic capabilities that meet veterinarians’ diverse needs through a variety of modalities including in-clinic diagnostic solutions and outside reference laboratory services. Veterinarians that utilize our full line of diagnostic modalities obtain a single view of a patient’s diagnostic results, which allows them to track and evaluate trends and achieve greater medical insight.

Our diagnostic capabilities generate both recurring and non-recurring revenues. Revenues related to capital placements of our in-clinic IDEXX VetLab suite of instruments and our SNAP Pro Analyzer are non-recurring in nature in that they are sold to a particular customer only once. Revenues from the associated proprietary IDEXX VetLab consumables, SNAP rapid assay test kits, reference laboratory and consulting services, and extended maintenance agreements and accessories related to our IDEXX VetLab instruments and our SNAP Pro Analyzer are recurring in nature, in that they are regularly purchased by our customers, typically as they perform diagnostic testing as part of ongoing veterinary care services. Our recurring revenues, most prominently IDEXX VetLab consumables and rapid assay test kits, have significantly higher gross margins than those provided by our instrument sales. Therefore, the mix of recurring and non-recurring revenues in a particular period will impact our gross margins.


37



Diagnostic Capital Revenue. Revenues related to the placement of the IDEXX VetLab suite of instruments are non-recurring in nature, in that the customer will buy an instrument once over its respective product life cycle, but will purchase consumables for that instrument on a recurring basis as they use that instrument for testing purposes. During the early stage of an instrument’s life cycle, we derive relatively greater revenues from instrument placements, while consumable sales become relatively more significant in later stages as the installed base of instruments increases and instrument placement revenues begin to decline. In the early stage of an instrument’s life cycle, placements are made primarily through sales transactions. As the market for the product matures, an increasing percentage of placements are made in transactions, sometimes referred to as volume commitments, such as our IDEXX 360 program, or reagent rentals, in which instruments are placed at customer sites at little or no cost in exchange for a multi-year customer commitment to purchase recurring products and services.

We place our Catalyst chemistry analyzers through sales, leases, rental, and other programs. In addition, we continue to place VetTest instruments through sales, lease, rental, and other programs, with substantially all of our revenues from that product line currently derived from consumable sales. As of December 31, 2019, our Catalyst and VetTest chemistry analyzers provided for a combined active installed base of approximately 56,200 units globally, as compared to approximately 50,800 units in 2018 and approximately 47,000 units in 2017. As of December 31, 2019, our premium Catalyst chemistry analyzers provided for an active installed base of approximately 43,900 units globally, as compared to approximately 37,000 units in 2018 and approximately 30,000 units in 2017. A majority of our Catalyst chemistry analyzer placements were to customers that are new to IDEXX, including customers who had been using instruments from one of our competitors, sometimes referred to as competitive accounts. Generally, placement of an instrument with a new or competitive account has the highest economic value as the entire consumable stream associated with that placement represents incremental recurring revenue, whereas the consumable stream associated with a Catalyst placement at a VetTest customer substitutes a Catalyst consumable stream for a VetTest consumable stream. We have found that the consumables revenues increase when a customer upgrades from a VetTest analyzer to a Catalyst analyzer due to the superior test menu capability, flexibility, and ease of use of the Catalyst analyzers, which leads to additional testing by the customer.

As we continue to experience growth in placements of Catalyst analyzers and in sales of related consumables, we expect this growth to be partly offset by a decline in placements of VetTest analyzers and in sales of related consumables.

The ProCyte Dx analyzer is our latest generation hematology analyzer.  In addition, we sell the LaserCyte Dx and VetAutoread analyzers. As of December 31, 2019, these hematology analyzers provided for a combined active installed base of approximately 38,200 units, as compared to 35,900 units in 2018 and 33,400 units in 2017. As of December 31, 2019, our premium ProCyte Dx and LaserCyte Dx hematology analyzers provided for an active installed base of approximately 31,500 units globally, as compared to approximately 29,000 units in 2018 and approximately 26,000 units in 2017. A majority of our Procyte analyzer placements were made to new or competitive accounts. We also continue to place a substantial number of LaserCyte Dx instruments, both new and recertified, as trade-ups from the VetAutoread analyzer and at new and competitive accounts. As we continue to experience growth in placements of ProCyte Dx analyzers and in sales of related consumables, we expect this growth to be partly offset by a decline in placements of LaserCyte Dx and VetAutoread analyzers and a decrease in the associated recurring revenue stream.  

Our SediVue Dx instrument was launched in North America early in 2016 and in the U.K. and Australia in the fourth quarter of 2016. During 2017, we continued to launch SediVue Dx internationally. As of December 31, 2019, our premium SediVue Dx analyzers provided for an active installed base of nearly 8,900 units globally, as compared to approximately 6,600 units in 2018 and approximately 4,000 units in 2017. This instrument and single-use consumable system provides a highly accurate way to automate the process of examining urine under a microscope. We provide customers with SediVue Dx consumables that are charged upon utilization, which we refer to as pay-per-run, as compared to other instruments where we charge upon shipment of consumables. This new pay-per-run consumable revenue stream is contributing to our continuing growth, however is not currently material relative to IDEXX’s overall revenue.

We seek to enhance the attractiveness and customer loyalty of our SNAP rapid assay tests, including by providing the SNAP Pro Analyzer, which activates SNAP tests, properly times the run, captures, and saves images of the results and, in conjunction with IVLS, records invoice charges in the patient record. Beginning in January of 2017, with our ProRead software, the SNAP Pro Analyzer interprets results. These features promote practice efficiency by eliminating manual entry of test results in patient records and also helps ensure that the services are recorded and accurately invoiced. In addition, SNAP Pro Analyzer results can be shared with pet owners on the SNAP Pro screen or, in conjunction with IVLS, via VetConnect PLUS. We also sell the SNAPshot Dx, which automatically reads certain SNAP test results and, in conjunction with IVLS, records those results in the electronic medical record. We continue to work on enhancing the functionality of our analyzers to read the results of additional tests from our canine and feline family of rapid assay products.


38



Our long-term success in the continuing growth of our CAG recurring diagnostic product and services is dependent upon: growing volumes at existing customers by increasing their utilization of existing and new test offerings, acquiring new customers, maintaining high customer loyalty and retention, our ability to realize modest annual price increases based on our differentiated products and the growing value of our diagnostic offering. We continuously seek opportunities to enhance the care that veterinary professionals give to their patients and clients through supporting the implementation of real-time care testing work flows, which is performing tests and sharing test results with the client at the time of the patient visit. Our latest generation of chemistry and hematology instruments demonstrates this commitment by offering enhanced ease of use, faster time to results, broader test menu and connectivity to various information technology platforms that enhance the value of the diagnostic information generated by the instruments. In addition, we provide marketing tools and customer support that help drive efficiencies in veterinary practice processes and allow practices to increase the number of clients they see on a daily basis.

With all of our instrument product lines, we seek to differentiate our products from our competitors’ products based on time-to-result, ease-of-use, throughput, breadth of diagnostic menu, flexibility of menu selection, accuracy, reliability, ability to handle compromised samples, analytical capability of diagnostics software, integration with the IVLS and VetConnect PLUS, client communications capabilities, education and training, and superior sales and customer service. Our success depends, in part, on our ability to differentiate our products in a way that justifies a premium price.

Recurring Diagnostic Revenue. Revenues from our proprietary IDEXX VetLab consumable products, our SNAP rapid assay test kits, outside reference laboratory and consulting services, and extended maintenance agreements and accessories related to our CAG Diagnostics instruments are considered recurring in nature. For the year ended December 31, 2019, recurring diagnostic revenue, which is both highly durable and profitable, accounted for approximately 76% of our consolidated revenue.

Our in-clinic diagnostic solutions, consisting of our IDEXX VetLab consumable products and SNAP rapid assay test kits, provide real-time reference lab quality diagnostic results for a variety of companion animal diseases and health conditions. Our outside reference laboratories provide veterinarians with the benefits of a more comprehensive list of diagnostic tests and access to consultations with board-certified veterinary specialists and pathologists, combined with the benefit of same-day or next-day turnaround times.

We derive substantial revenues and margins from the sale of consumables that are used in IDEXX VetLab instruments and the multi-year consumable revenue stream is significantly more valuable than the placement of the instrument. Our strategy is to increase diagnostic testing within veterinary practices by placing IDEXX VetLab instruments and increasing instrument utilization of consumables. Utilization can increase due to a greater number of patient samples being run or to an increase in the number of tests being run per patient sample. Our strategy is to increase both drivers. To increase utilization, we seek to educate veterinarians about best medical practices that emphasize the importance of chemistry, hematology, and urinalysis testing for a variety of diagnostic purposes, as well as by introducing new testing capabilities that were previously not available to veterinarians.

Our in-clinic diagnostic solutions also include SNAP rapid assay tests that address important medical needs for particular diseases prevalent in the companion animal population. We seek to differentiate these tests from those of other in-clinic test providers and reference laboratory diagnostic service providers based on critically important sensitivity and specificity, as demonstrated by peer-reviewed third-party research, as well as overall superior performance and ease of use by providing our customers with combination tests that test a single sample for up to six diseases at once, including the ability to utilize our SNAP Pro Analyzer. We further augment our product development and customer service efforts with sales and marketing programs that enhance medical awareness and understanding regarding certain diseases and the importance of diagnostic testing.

We believe approximately half of all diagnostic testing by U.S. veterinarians is provided by outside reference laboratories such as IDEXX Reference Laboratories. In certain markets outside the U.S., in-clinic testing may be less prevalent, and an even greater percentage of diagnostic testing is done in reference laboratories. We attempt to differentiate our reference laboratory testing services from those of competitive reference laboratories and competitive in-clinic offerings primarily on the basis of a unique and proprietary test menu, technology employed, quality, turnaround time, customer service and tools such as VetConnect PLUS that demonstrate the complementary manner in which our laboratory services work with our in-clinic offerings.

Profitability in our lab business is supported, in part, by our expanding business scale globally. Profit improvements also reflect benefits from price increases and our ability to achieve operational efficiencies. When possible, we utilize core reference laboratories to service samples from other states or countries, expanding our customer reach without an associated

39



expansion in our reference laboratory footprint. New laboratories that we open typically will operate at a loss until testing volumes achieve sufficient scale. Acquired laboratories frequently operate less profitably than our existing laboratories and acquired laboratories may not achieve the profitability of our existing laboratory network for several years until we complete the implementation of operating improvements and efficiencies. Therefore, in the short term, new and acquired reference laboratories generally will have a negative effect on our operating margin.

Recurring reference lab revenue growth is achieved both through increased testing volumes with existing customers and through the acquisition of new customers, net of customer losses. We believe the increased number of customer visits by our sales professionals as a result of the growth in our field sales organization has led to increased reference laboratory opportunities with customers who already use one of our in-clinic diagnostic modalities. In recent years, recurring reference laboratory diagnostic and consulting revenues have also been increased through reference laboratory acquisitions, customer list acquisitions, the opening of new reference laboratories, including laboratories that are co-located with large practice customers, and as a result of our up-front customer loyalty programs and our volume commitment programs. Our up-front customer loyalty programs are associated with customer acquisitions and retention and provide incentives to customers in the form of cash payments or IDEXX Points upon entering multi-year contractual agreements to purchase annual minimum amounts of products or services, including reference laboratory services. Our volume commitment programs, such as IDEXX 360, provide customers with a free or discounted instrument or system upon entering into multi-year agreements to purchase annual minimum amounts of products and services.

Health Monitoring and Biological Materials Testing.  We believe the acquisition of the research and diagnostic laboratory business of the College of Veterinary Medicine from the University of Missouri has allowed us to leverage our expertise in veterinary diagnostics and expand our integrated offering of reference laboratory diagnostic and consulting services and in-clinic testing solutions in the adjacent bioresearch market.

Veterinary Software, Services and Diagnostic Imaging Systems.  Our portfolio of practice management offerings is designed to serve the full range of customers within the North American, Australian, and European markets. Cornerstone, DVMAX, IDEXX Animana and IDEXX Neo practice management systems provide superior integrated information solutions, backed by exceptional customer support and education. These practice management systems allow the veterinarian to practice better medicine and achieve the practice’s business objectives, including a quality client experience, staff efficiency and practice profitability. We market Cornerstone, DVMAX and IDEXX Neo practice management systems to customers primarily in North America and Australia. We market our IDEXX Animana offering to customers primarily throughout Europe.

IDEXX Animana and IDEXX Neo practice management systems are subscription-based SaaS offerings designed to provide flexible pricing and a durable, recurring revenue stream, while utilizing cloud technology instead of a client server platform. While we continue to develop, sell, and support our licensed-based Cornerstone and DVMAX software, we are growing our installed base of subscription-based practice management offerings for new customers of IDEXX practice management systems. We believe that once established, this subscription-based model will provide higher profitability as compared to the historical license-based placements. Our Cornerstone and DVMAX customer base continues to be an important driver of growth through enhanced diagnostic integrations and high value add-on subscription services, such as Pet Health Network Pro, Petly Plans, and credit card processing, and we continue to make investments to enhance the customer experience of all of our license-based software offerings. We also offer rVetLink, a comprehensive referral management solution for specialty care hospitals that streamlines the referral process between primary care and specialty care veterinarians. rVetLink’s cloud technology integrates with major specialty hospital management systems, including Cornerstone Software and DVMAX Software.

We differentiate our practice management systems through enhanced functionality, ease of use, and embedded integration with in-clinic IDEXX VetLab instruments and outside reference laboratory test results. Our client communication services create more meaningful pet owner experiences through personalized communication. With our Smart Flow cloud technology, we are able to improve overall patient management through coordination and tracking of every step in a patient workflow. Pet Health Network Pro online client communication and education service complements the entire IDEXX product offering by educating pet owners and building loyalty through engaging the pet owner before, during and after the visit, thereby building client loyalty and driving more patient visits.

Our diagnostic imaging systems offer a convenient radiographic solution that provides superior image quality and the ability to share images with clients virtually anywhere. IDEXX imaging software enables enhanced diagnostic features and streamlined integration with our other products and services. Our newest digital radiography systems, the ImageVue DR50 Digital Imaging System enables low-dose radiation image capture without sacrificing clear, high-quality diagnostic images, reducing the risk posed by excess radiation exposure for veterinary professionals. Placements of imaging systems are

40



important to the growth of revenue streams that are recurring in nature, including extended maintenance agreements and IDEXX Web PACS, which is our cloud-based SaaS offering for viewing, accessing, storing, and sharing multi-modality diagnostic images. We derive relatively higher margins from our subscription-based products. IDEXX Web PACS is integrated with Cornerstone, IDEXX Neo and IDEXX VetConnect PLUS to provide centralized access to diagnostic imaging results alongside patient diagnostic results from any internet connected device. 

IDXXWATERDROPA02.JPG Water

Our strategy in the water testing business is to develop, manufacture, market and sell proprietary products that test primarily for the presence of microbial contamination in water matrices, including drinking water supplies, with superior performance, supported by exceptional customer service. Our customers primarily consist of water utilities, government laboratories and private certified laboratories that highly value strong relationships and customer support. We expect that future growth in this business will be partially dependent on our ability to increase international sales. Growth also will be dependent on our ability to enhance and broaden our product line. Most water microbiological testing is driven by regulation, and, in many countries, a test may not be used for compliance testing unless it has been approved by the applicable regulatory body and integrated into customers’ testing protocols. As a result, we maintain an active regulatory program that involves applying for a growing number of regulatory approvals in a number of countries, primarily in Europe. Further, we seek to receive regulatory approvals from governing agencies as a means to differentiate our products from the competition.

IDEXXLPDA02.JPG Livestock, Poultry and Dairy

We develop, manufacture, market and sell a broad range of tests and perform services for various livestock diseases and conditions, and have active research and development and in-licensing programs in this area. Our strategy is to offer proprietary tests with superior performance characteristics for use in government programs to control or eradicate disease and disease outbreaks and in livestock and poultry producers’ disease, reproductive, and herd health and production management programs. Disease outbreaks are episodic and unpredictable, and certain diseases that are prevalent at one time may be substantially contained or eradicated at a later time. In response to outbreaks, testing initiatives may lead to exceptional demand for certain products in certain periods. Conversely, successful eradication programs may result in significantly decreased demand for certain products. In addition, increases in government funding may lead to increased demand for certain products and budgetary constraints may lead to decreased demand for certain products. As result, the performance in certain sectors of this business can fluctuate.

Our strategy in the dairy testing business is to develop, manufacture and sell antibiotic residue and contaminant testing products that satisfy applicable regulatory requirements or dairy processor standards for testing of milk and provide reliable field performance. The manufacture of these testing products leverages the SNAP platform and production assets that also support our rapid assay business, which also leverages the SNAP platform. The dairy SNAP products incorporate customized reagents for antibiotic and contaminant detection. To successfully increase sales of dairy testing products, we believe that we need to increase penetration in dairy processors and develop product line enhancements and extensions. Our Rapid Visual Pregnancy Test for cattle can detect pregnancy 28 days after breeding. This test provides a quick and accurate identifier using whole blood samples.

The performance of the business is particularly subject to the various risks that are associated with doing business internationally.  See “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors.”

Other

OPTI Medical. Our strategy in the OPTI Medical business for the human market is to develop, manufacture, and sell electrolyte and blood gas analyzers and related consumable products for the medical point-of-care diagnostics market worldwide, with a focus on small to mid-sized hospitals. We seek to differentiate our products based on ease of use, convenience, international distribution and service and instrument reliability. Similar to our veterinary instruments and consumables strategy, a substantial portion of the revenues from this product line is derived from the sale of consumables for use on the installed base of electrolyte and blood gas analyzers. During the early stage of an instrument’s life cycle, relatively greater revenues are derived from instrument placements, while consumable sales become relatively more significant in later stages as the installed base of instruments increases and instrument placement revenues begin to decline. Our long-term success

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in this area of our business is dependent upon new customer acquisition, customer retention and increased customer utilization of existing and new assays introduced on these instruments.

Our facility in Roswell, Georgia develops and manufactures the OPTI product lines using the same or similar technology to support the electrolyte needs of the veterinary market. We leverage this facility’s know-how, intellectual property, and manufacturing capability to continue to expand the menu and instrument capability of the VetStat and Catalyst platforms for veterinary applications, while reducing our cost of consumables by leveraging experience and economies of scale.

The performance of the business is particularly subject to the various risks that are associated with doing business internationally.  See “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors.”

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CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES AND ASSUMPTIONS

The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based upon the consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. We evaluate our estimates on an ongoing basis. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates. See "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" to the consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K describes the significant accounting policies used in preparation of these consolidated financial statements.

We believe the following critical accounting estimates and assumptions may have a material impact on reported financial condition and operating performance and involve significant levels of judgment to account for highly uncertain matters or are susceptible to significant change.

Revenue Recognition

See "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 3. Revenue Recognition" to the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2019, included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information about our revenue recognition policy and criteria for recognizing revenue.

We enter into contracts with multiple performance obligations where customers purchase a combination of IDEXX products and services. Determining whether products and services are considered distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately requires judgment. We determine the transaction price for a contract based on the consideration we expect to receive in exchange for the transferred goods or services. To the extent the transaction price includes variable consideration, such as volume rebates or expected price adjustments, we apply judgment in constraining the estimated variable consideration due to factors that may cause reversal of revenue recognized. We evaluate constraints based on our historical and projected experience with similar customer contracts.

We allocate revenue to each performance obligation in proportion to the relative standalone selling prices and recognize revenue when control of the related goods or services is transferred for each obligation. We utilize the observable standalone selling price when available, which represents the price charged for the performance obligation when sold separately. When standalone selling prices for our products or services are not directly observable we determine the standalone selling prices using relevant information available and apply suitable estimation methods including, but not limited to, the cost plus a margin approach.

Our up-front loyalty programs provide customers with incentives in the form of cash payments or IDEXX Points upon entering into multi-year agreements to purchase annual minimum amounts of future products or services. If a customer breaches its agreement, they are required to refund all or a portion of the up-front cash or IDEXX Points, or make other repayments, remedial actions, or both. Up-front incentives to customers in the form of cash or IDEXX Points are not made in exchange for distinct goods or services and are capitalized as customer acquisition costs within other current and long-term assets, which are subsequently recognized as a reduction to revenue over the term of the customer agreement. If these up-front incentives are subsequently utilized to purchase instruments, we allocate total consideration, including future committed purchases less up-front incentives and estimates of expected price adjustments, based on relative standalone selling prices to identified performance obligations and recognize instrument revenue and cost at the time of installation and customer acceptance. We estimate, based on historical experience, and apply judgment to predict the amounts of future customer purchases and expected price adjustments related to these multi-year agreements. Differences between estimated and actual customer purchases may impact the amount and timing of revenue recognition and a 10% change in these estimates would have increased or reduced other assets and cumulative revenue related to these programs by approximately $1.6 million at December 31, 2019.

Our volume commitment programs, such as our IDEXX 360 program, provide customers with free or discounted instrument or system upon entering into multi-year agreements to purchase annual minimum amounts of products and services. We allocate total consideration, including future committed purchases and expected price adjustments, based on relative standalone selling prices to identified performance obligations and recognize instrument revenue and cost at the time of installation and customer acceptance in advance of billing the customer, which is also when the customer obtains control of the instrument based on legal title transfer. Our right to future consideration related to instrument revenue is recorded as a contract

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asset within other current and long-term assets. The contract asset is transferred to accounts receivable when customers are billed for future products and services over the term of the contract. We estimate, based on historical experience, and apply judgment to predict the amounts of future customer purchases and expected price adjustments related to these multi-year agreements. Differences between estimated and actual customer purchases may impact the amount and timing of revenue recognition and a 10% change in these estimates would have increased or reduced contract assets and cumulative revenue related to these programs by approximately $2.2 million at December 31, 2019.

Our instrument rebate programs, previously referred to as IDEXX Instrument Marketing Programs, require an instrument purchase and provide customers the opportunity to earn future rebates based on the volume of products and services they purchase over the term of the program. We account for the customer’s right to earn rebates on future purchases as a separate performance obligation and determine the standalone selling price based on an estimate of rebates the customer will earn over the term of the program. Total consideration allocated to identified performance obligations is limited to goods and services that the customer is presently obligated to purchase and does not include estimates of future purchases that are optional. We allocate total consideration to identified performance obligations, including a customer’s right to earn rebates on future purchases, which is deferred and recognized upon the purchase of future products and services, offsetting future rebates as they are earned. We estimate, based on historical experience, and apply judgment to predict the amounts of future customer rebates related to these multi-year agreements. Differences between estimated and actual customer rebates may impact the amount and timing of revenue recognition and a 10% change in these estimates would have increased or reduced deferred revenue and cumulative revenue related to these programs by approximately $2.4 million at December 31, 2019.

Future market conditions and changes in product offerings may cause us to change marketing strategies to increase or decrease customer incentive offerings, possibly resulting in incremental reductions of revenue in future periods as compared to reductions in the current or prior periods. Additionally, certain customer programs require us to estimate, based on historical experience, and apply judgment to predict the amounts of future customer purchases, customer rebates and other incentive payments, and price adjustments related to multi-year agreements. Differences between estimated and actual customer purchases may impact the amount and timing of revenue recognition as described above.

Valuation of Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets

A significant portion of the purchase price for acquired businesses is generally assigned to intangible assets. Intangible assets other than goodwill are initially valued at fair value. If a quoted price in an active market for the identical asset is not readily available at the measurement date, the fair value of the intangible asset is estimated based on discounted cash flows using market participant assumptions, which are assumptions that are not specific to IDEXX. The selection of appropriate valuation methodologies and the estimation of discounted cash flows require significant assumptions about the timing and amounts of future cash flows, risks, appropriate discount rates, and the useful lives of intangible assets. When material, we utilize independent valuation experts to advise and assist us in determining the fair values of the identified intangible assets acquired in connection with a business acquisition and in determining appropriate amortization methods and periods for those intangible assets. Goodwill is initially valued based on the excess of the purchase price of a business combination over the fair value of acquired net assets recognized and represents the future economic benefits arising from other assets acquired that could not be individually identified and separately recognized.

We assess goodwill for impairment annually, at the reporting unit level, in the fourth quarter and whenever events or circumstances indicate impairment may exist. An impairment charge is recorded for the amount, if any, by which the carrying amount of goodwill exceeds its implied fair value. Our reporting units are the individual product and service categories that comprise our CAG operating segment, our Water and LPD operating segments and goodwill remaining from the restructuring of our pharmaceutical business in the fourth quarter of 2008. A substantial portion of the goodwill remaining from the pharmaceutical business, included in our “Other Segment”, is associated with intellectual property that has been, or that we expect to be, licensed to third parties. Realization of this goodwill is dependent upon the success of those third parties in developing and commercializing products, which will result in our receipt of royalties and other payments.

As part of our goodwill testing process, we evaluate factors specific to a reporting unit as well as industry and macroeconomic factors that are reasonably likely to have a material impact on the fair value of a reporting unit. Examples of the factors considered in assessing the fair value of a reporting unit include: the results of the most recent impairment test, the competitive environment, the regulatory environment, anticipated changes in product or labor costs, revenue growth trends, the consistency of operating margins and cash flows and current and long-range financial forecasts. The long-range financial forecasts of the reporting units, which are based upon management’s long-term view of our markets, are used by senior management and the Board of Directors to evaluate operating performance.    


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In the fourth quarters of 2019 and 2018, we elected to bypass the qualitative approach that allows the assessment of qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount and instead proceeded directly to assessing the fair value of all of our reporting units and comparing the fair value of to the carrying value to determine if any impairment is necessary.

We estimate the fair values of applicable reporting units using an income approach based on discounted forecasted cash flows. We make significant assumptions about the extent and timing of future cash flows, growth rates and discount rates. Model assumptions are based on our projections and best estimates, using appropriate and customary market participant assumptions. In addition, we make certain assumptions in allocating shared assets and liabilities to individual reporting units in determining the carrying value of each reporting unit. To validate the reasonableness of our reporting units' estimated fair values, we reconcile the aggregate fair values of our reporting units to our total market capitalization. Valuation assumptions reflect our projections and best estimates, based on significant assumptions about the extent and timing of future cash flows, growth rates and discount rates.

We maintain approximately $6.5 million of goodwill associated with our remaining pharmaceutical intellectual property, out-licensing arrangements, and certain retained drug delivery technologies (collectively “Pharmaceutical Activities”) that we seek to commercialize through arrangements with third parties. Currently, our primary support for the carrying value of this goodwill is royalty revenue associated with the commercialization of certain intellectual property. There is no guarantee that we will be able to maintain or increase revenues from our remaining Pharmaceutical Activities. The results of our goodwill impairment test for these Pharmaceutical Activities indicate an excess of estimated fair value over the carrying amount of this reporting unit by approximately $4.7 million and 71% of the reporting unit’s carrying value. Excluding these Pharmaceutical Activities, the results of our goodwill impairment test indicate an excess of estimated fair value over the carrying amount for each of our reporting units with a minimum of 217% and an average of approximately 1,060%. 

While we believe that the assumptions used to determine the estimated fair values of each of our reporting units are reasonable, a change in assumptions underlying these estimates could result in a material negative effect on the estimated fair value of the reporting units. Our fair value estimate assumes the achievement of future financial results contemplated in our forecasted cash flows, and there can be no assurance that we will realize that value. We use forecasts to estimate future cash flows and include an estimate of long-term future growth rates based on our most recent views of the long-term outlooks for our reporting units. Actual results may differ from those assumed in our forecasts. The discount rate is based on a weighted average cost of capital derived from industry peers. Changes in market conditions, interest rates, growth rates, tax rates, costs, pricing, or the discount rate would affect the estimated fair values of our reporting units and could result in a goodwill impairment charge in a future period. No goodwill impairments were identified during the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017.

A prolonged economic downturn in the U.S. or internationally resulting in lower long-term growth rates and reduced long-term profitability may reduce the fair value of our reporting units. Industry specific events or circumstances could have a negative impact on our reporting units and may also reduce the fair value of our reporting units. Should such events occur, and it becomes more likely than not that a reporting unit’s fair value has fallen below its carrying value, we will perform an interim goodwill impairment test, in addition to the annual impairment test. Future impairment tests may result in an impairment of goodwill, depending on the outcome of future impairment tests. An impairment of goodwill would be reported as a non-cash charge to earnings.

We assess the realizability of intangible assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. If an impairment review is triggered, we evaluate the carrying value of intangible assets, other than goodwill, based on estimated undiscounted future cash flows over the remaining useful life of the primary asset of the asset group and compare that value to the carrying value of the asset group. The cash flows that are used contain our best estimates, using appropriate and customary assumptions and projections at the time. If the net carrying value of an intangible asset exceeds the related estimated undiscounted future cash flows, an impairment to adjust the intangible asset to its fair value would be reported as a non-cash charge to earnings. If necessary, we would calculate the fair value of an intangible asset using the present value of the estimated future cash flows to be generated by the intangible asset and applying a risk-adjusted discount rate.

We had no impairments of our intangible assets during the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017.


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Share-Based Compensation

Our share-based compensation programs provide for grants of stock options, restricted stock units and deferred stock units, along with the issuance of employee stock purchase rights. The total fair value of future awards may vary significantly from past awards based on a number of factors, including our share-based award practices. Therefore, share-based compensation expense is likely to fluctuate, possibly significantly, from year to year.

We use the Black-Scholes-Merton option-pricing model to determine the fair value of options granted. Option-pricing models require the input of highly subjective assumptions, particularly for the expected stock price volatility and the expected term of options. The risk-free interest rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield for a duration similar to the expected term at the date of grant. We have never paid any cash dividends on our common stock and we have no intention to pay a dividend at this time; therefore, we assume that no dividends will be paid over the expected terms of option awards. We determine the assumptions to be used in the valuation of option grants as of the date of grant. As such, we use different assumptions during the year if we grant options at different dates. Substantially all our options granted during the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017 were granted in the first quarter of each year. The weighted average of each of the valuation assumptions used to determine the fair value of each option grant during each of the previous three years is as follows:

 
For the Years Ended December 31,

 
2019
 
2018
 
2017

 
 
 
 

 
 

Expected stock price volatility
 
26
%
 
24
%
 
26
%
Expected term, in years (1)
 
6.0

 
5.8

 
5.8

Risk-free interest rate
 
2.4
%
 
2.7
%
 
2.0
%
(1)
Options granted have a contractual term of ten years.

Changes in these subjective assumptions, particularly for the expected stock price volatility and the expected term of options, can materially affect the fair value estimate. Our expected stock price volatility assumption is based on the historical volatility of our stock over a period similar to the expected term and other relevant factors. Higher estimated volatility increases the fair value of a stock option, while lower estimated volatility has the opposite effect. The total fair value of stock options granted during the year ended December 31, 2019, was $23.1 million. If the weighted average of the stock price volatility assumption was increased or decreased by 5%, the total fair value of stock options awarded during the year ended December 31, 2019, would have increased or decreased by approximately $3.3 million and the total expense recognized for the year ended December 31, 2019, for options awarded during the same period would have increased or decreased by approximately $0.6 million.

We derive the expected term assumption for stock options based on historical experience and other relevant factors concerning expected behavior with regard to option exercises. The expected term is determined using a consistent method at each grant date. A longer expected term assumption increases the fair value of stock option awards, while a shorter expected term assumption has the opposite effect. If the weighted average of the expected term was increased or decreased by one year, the total fair value of stock options awarded during the year ended December 31, 2019, would have increased or decreased by approximately $2.1 million, and the total expense recognized for the year ended December 31, 2019, for options awarded during 2019 would have increased or decreased by approximately $0.4 million.

For a significant majority of our awards, share-based compensation expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period, which ranges from one to five years, depending on the award. Share-based compensation expense is recognized on a grade-vesting methodology for performance-based restricted stock units. Share-based compensation expense is based on the number of awards expected to vest and is, therefore, reduced for an estimate of the number of awards that are expected to be forfeited. The forfeiture estimates are based on historical data and other factors; share-based compensation expense is adjusted annually for actual results. Total share-based compensation expense for the year ended December 31, 2019, was $39.3 million, which is net of a reduction of approximately $3.7 million for actual and estimated forfeitures. Fluctuations in our overall employee turnover rate may result in changes in estimated forfeiture rates and differences between estimated forfeiture rates and actual experience and, therefore could have a significant unanticipated impact on share-based compensation expense.

Modifications of the terms of outstanding awards may result in significant increases or decreases in share-based compensation. During the fourth quarter of 2019, we entered a mutual separation agreement with our former CEO, pursuant to which his outstanding stock options were modified, which resulted in $10.9 million of share-based compensation expense in the quarter related to the acceleration and revaluation of his stock options. There were no material modifications to the terms of outstanding options, restricted stock units or deferred stock units during 2018 or 2017.

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The fair value of stock options, restricted stock units, deferred stock units and employee stock purchase rights issued totaled $42.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, $34.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, and $31.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The total unrecognized compensation expense, net of estimated forfeitures, for unvested share-based compensation awards outstanding at December 31, 2019, was $50.1 million, which will be recognized over a weighted average period of approximately 1.7 years. 

Income Taxes

The provision for income taxes is determined using the asset and liability approach of accounting for income taxes. Under this approach, deferred taxes represent the estimated future tax effects of temporary differences between book and tax treatment of assets and liabilities and carryforwards to the extent they are realizable.

On a quarterly basis, we assess our current and projected earnings by jurisdiction to determine whether or not our earnings during the periods when the temporary differences become deductible will be sufficient to realize the related future tax benefits. Should we determine that we would not be able to realize all or part of our net deferred tax asset in a particular jurisdiction in the future, an adjustment to the deferred tax asset would be charged to income in the period such determination was made.

For those jurisdictions where tax carryforwards are likely to expire unused or the projected operating results indicate that realization is not more likely than not, a valuation allowance is recorded to offset the deferred tax asset within that jurisdiction. In assessing the need for a valuation allowance, we consider future taxable income and ongoing prudent and feasible tax planning strategies. In the event that we determine that we would be able to realize our deferred tax assets in the future in excess of the net recorded amount, a reduction of the valuation allowance would increase income in the period such determination was made. Likewise, should we determine that we would not be able to realize all or part of our net deferred tax asset in the future, a reduction to the deferred tax asset would be charged to income in the period such determination was made. 

Our net taxable temporary differences and tax carryforwards are recorded using the enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the periods in which the deferred tax liability or asset is expected to be settled or realized. Should the expected applicable tax rates change in the future, an adjustment to our deferred taxes would be credited or charged, as appropriate, to income in the period such determination was made.

We periodically assess our exposures related to our worldwide provision for income taxes and believe that we have appropriately accrued taxes for contingencies. Any reduction of these contingent liabilities or additional assessment would increase or decrease income, respectively, in the period such determination was made.

We record a liability for uncertain tax positions that do not meet the more likely than not standard as prescribed by the authoritative guidance for income tax accounting. We record tax benefits for only those positions that we believe will more likely than not be sustained. For positions that we believe that it is more likely than not that we will prevail, we record a benefit considering the amounts and probabilities that could be realized upon ultimate settlement. If our judgment as to the likely resolution of the uncertainty changes, if the uncertainty is ultimately settled or if the statute of limitation related to the uncertainty expires, the effects of the change would be recognized in the period in which the change, resolution or expiration occurs. Our net liability for uncertain tax positions was $29.7 million as of December 31, 2019, and $26.0 million as of December 31, 2018, which includes estimated interest expense and penalties. See "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 13. Income Taxes" in the accompanying Notes to consolidated financial statements for more information.

RECENT ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS

In addition to the impacts from new accounting pronouncements included above, see "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (v) and (w)" to the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2019, included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a complete discussion of recent accounting pronouncements adopted and not adopted.

ENVIRONMENTAL, SOCIAL AND GOVERNANCE

Our purpose is to be a great company that creates exceptional long-term value for our customers, employees, and stockholders by enhancing the health and well-being of pets, people, and livestock. Corporate Responsibility is core to IDEXX culture and is reflected in our environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) performance across the company. We prioritize

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community investments and partnerships that are aligned with our purpose, conduct ourselves with the highest ethical standards and demonstrate environmental responsibility in our facilities and operations. Our Corporate Responsibility Report is available on our website and features examples of our ESG activities and performance metrics.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS AND TRENDS

Effects of Certain Factors on Results of Operations

Distributor Purchasing and Inventories.  When selling our products through distributors, changes in distributors’ inventory levels can impact our reported sales, and these changes may be affected by many factors, which may not be directly related to underlying demand for our products by veterinary practices, which are the end users. If during the current year, distributors’ inventories grew by less than those inventories grew in the comparable period of the prior year, then changes in distributors’ inventories would have an unfavorable impact on our reported sales growth in the current period. Conversely, if during the current year, distributors’ inventories grew by more than those inventories grew in the comparable period of the prior year, then changes in distributors’ inventories would have a favorable impact on our reported sales growth in the current period. 

In certain countries, we sell our products through third-party distributors and may be unable to obtain data for sales to end users. We do not believe the impact of changes in these distributors’ inventories had or would have a material impact on our growth rates. See “Part I, Item 1. Business, Marketing and Distribution” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information regarding distribution channels.

Currency Impact. For the year ended December 31, 2019, approximately 22% of our consolidated revenue was derived from products manufactured or sourced in U.S. dollars and sold internationally in local currencies, as compared to 22% and 21% for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Strengthening of the rate of exchange for the U.S. dollar relative to other currencies has a negative impact on our revenues derived in currencies other than the U.S. dollar and on profits of products manufactured or purchased in U.S. dollars and sold internationally, and a weakening of the U.S. dollar has the opposite effect. Similarly, to the extent that the U.S. dollar is stronger in current or future periods relative to the exchange rates in effect in the corresponding prior periods, our growth rate will be negatively affected. The impact of foreign currency denominated operating expenses and foreign currency denominated supply contracts partly offsets this exposure. Additionally, our designated hedges of intercompany inventory purchases and sales help delay the impact of certain exchange rate fluctuations on non-U.S. denominated revenues. See “Part II, Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information regarding currency impact. Our future income tax expense could also be affected by changes in the mix of earnings, including as a result of changes in the rate of exchange for the U.S. dollar relative to currencies in countries with differing statutory tax rates. See “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information regarding tax impacts. 

Effects of Economic Conditions.  Pet owners generally pay cash out of pocket for health care services for their pets from veterinary practices. Demand for our products and services is vulnerable to changes in the economic environment, including slow economic growth, high unemployment, and credit availability. Negative or cautious consumer sentiment can lead to reduced or delayed consumer spending, resulting in a decreased number of patient visits to veterinary clinics. Unfavorable economic conditions can impact sales of instruments, diagnostic imaging and practice management systems, which are larger capital purchases for veterinarians. Additionally, economic turmoil can cause our customers to remain sensitive to the pricing of our products and services. In the U.S., we monitor patient visits and clinic revenue data provided by a subset of our CAG customers. Although this data is a limited sample and susceptible to short-term impacts such as weather, which may affect the number of patient visits in a given period, we believe that this data provides a fair and meaningful long-term representation of the trend in patient visit activity in the U.S., providing us insight regarding demand for our products and services.

Economic conditions can also affect the purchasing decisions of our Water and LPD business customers. Water testing volumes may be susceptible to declines in discretionary testing for existing home and commercial sales and in mandated testing as a result of decreases in home and commercial construction. Testing volumes may also be impacted by severe weather conditions such as drought. In addition, fiscal difficulties can also reduce government funding for water and herd health screening services.

We believe that the diversity of our products and services and the geographic diversity of our markets partially mitigate the potential effects of the economic environment and negative consumer sentiment on our revenue growth rates.


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Effects of Patent Expiration. Although we have several patents and licenses of patents and technologies from third parties that expired during 2019, and several that are expected to expire in 2020 and beyond, the expiration of these patents or licenses, individually or in the aggregate, is not expected to have a material effect on our financial position or future operations due to a range of factors as described in "Part I, Item 1. Business, Patents and Licenses”. 

Non-GAAP Financial Measures. The following revenue analysis and discussion focuses on organic revenue growth, and references in this analysis and discussion to “revenue,” “revenues” or “revenue growth” are references to “organic revenue growth.” Organic revenue growth is a non-GAAP financial measure and represents the percentage change in revenue during the current year, as compared to the same period for the prior year, net of the effect of changes in foreign currency exchange rates, certain business acquisitions, and divestitures. Organic revenue growth should be considered in addition to, and not as a replacement for, or as a superior measure to, revenues reported in accordance with U.S. GAAP, and may not be comparable to similarly titled measures reported by other companies. Management believes that reporting organic revenue growth provides useful information to investors by facilitating easier comparisons of our revenue performance with prior and future periods and to the performance of our peers.

We exclude from organic revenue growth the effect of changes in foreign currency exchange rates because changes in foreign currency exchange rates are not under management’s control, are subject to volatility and can obscure underlying business trends. We calculate the impact on revenue resulting from changes in foreign currency exchange rates by applying the difference between the weighted average exchange rates during the current year period and the comparable prior year period to foreign currency denominated revenues for the prior year period. 

We also exclude from organic revenue growth the effect of certain business acquisitions and divestitures because the nature, size and number of these transactions can vary dramatically from period to period, and because they either require or generate cash as an inherent consequence of the transaction, and therefore can also obscure underlying business and operating trends. We consider acquisitions to be a business when all three elements of inputs, processes and outputs are present, consistent with ASU 2017-01, “Business Combinations: (Topic 805) Clarifying the Definition of a Business.” In a business combination, if substantially all the fair value of the assets acquired is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or group of similar identifiable assets, we do not consider these assets to be a business. A typical acquisition that we do not consider a business is a customer list asset acquisition, which does not have all elements necessary to operate a business, such as employees or infrastructure. We believe the efforts required to convert and retain these acquired customers are similar in nature to our existing customer base and therefore are included in organic revenue growth.

We also use Adjusted EBITDA, gross debt, net debt, gross debt to Adjusted EBITDA ratio and net debt to Adjusted EBITDA ratio, all of which are non-GAAP financial measures that should be considered in addition to, and not as a replacement for, financial measures presented according to U.S. GAAP. Management believes that reporting these non-GAAP financial measures provides supplemental analysis to help investors further evaluate our business performance and available borrowing capacity under our Credit Facility. 

Executive Officers and Directors. As reported previously, effective October 23, 2019, our Board of Directors (our “Board”) appointed Jonathan (Jay) Mazelsky as our President and Chief Executive Officer and as a director of the Company. Mr. Mazelsky had been serving as our Interim President and Chief Executive Officer since June 28, 2019. Prior to that time, since August 2012, Mr. Mazelsky had been an Executive Vice President of the Company. In addition, effective November 1, 2019, Lawrence D. Kingsley, a Company director since October 2016 and Lead Independent Director since May 2018, was appointed as Independent Non-Executive Chairman of our Board. Also, effective November 1, 2019, Jonathan W. Ayers, our Chairman and former President and Chief Executive Officer, who had been on a medical leave of absence since June 28, 2019, stepped down as Chairman of our Board, ceased to be an employee of the Company and transitioned to the role of external Senior Advisor to the Company. Mr. Ayers continues to serve as a member of our Board. While we cannot provide assurances as to whether we may experience management or other challenges in connection with our leadership transition that could adversely affect our future success, we believe that under the leadership of Mr. Mazelsky as President and Chief Executive Officer and Mr. Kingsley as Independent Non-Executive Chairman, we will continue to successfully execute our strategy and create long-term value for shareholders, customers, and employees.

In connection with the foregoing, Mr. Ayers and IDEXX entered into a mutual separation agreement pursuant to which severance payments will be made to Mr. Ayers, in accordance with the terms of his pre-existing employment agreement, and his outstanding stock options were modified. As a result of his severance payments and the modification of Mr. Ayers’s outstanding stock options, we recognized a charge to operating income of approximately $13.4 million in the fourth quarter of 2019, representing the cost of the severance and an acceleration of the cost of the equity awards, which was offset by a reduction to our provision for income taxes of approximately $1.2 million, resulting in a total charge to net income of approximately $12.2

49



million, net of tax impacts. This total charge to net income is less than our previously communicated expectation of approximately $15.5 million, as a result of finalizing our income tax provision.

Comparisons to Prior Periods. Our fiscal years end on December 31. Unless otherwise stated, the analysis and discussion of our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity, including references to growth and organic growth and increases and decreases, are being compared to the equivalent prior year period. 




50



Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2019, Compared to Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2018

Total Company

The following table presents revenue by operating segment by U.S. markets and non-U.S., or international markets: 
 
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net Revenue
(dollars in thousands)
 
2019
 
2018
 
Dollar Change
 
Reported Revenue Growth (1)
 
Percentage Change from Currency
 
Percentage Change from Acquisitions
 
Organic Revenue Growth (1)

 
 

 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 

CAG
 
$
2,119,183

 
$
1,935,428

 
$
183,755

 
9.5
%
 
(1.5
%)
 
0.2
%
 
10.8
%
United States
 
1,410,278

 
1,277,146

 
133,132

 
10.4
%
 

 
0.3
%
 
10.1
%
International
 
708,905

 
658,282

 
50,623

 
7.7
%
 
(4.6
%)
 

 
12.2
%

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Water
 
132,850

 
125,198

 
7,652

 
6.1
%
 
(2.6
%)
 

 
8.7
%
United States
 
62,673

 
58,774

 
3,899

 
6.6
%
 

 

 
6.6
%
International
 
70,177

 
66,424

 
3,753

 
5.7
%
 
(4.9
%)
 

 
10.6
%

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
LPD
 
132,635

 
130,581

 
2,054

 
1.6
%
 
(4.2
%)
 

 
5.8
%
United States
 
14,230

 
13,932

 
298

 
2.1
%
 

 

 
2.1
%
International
 
118,405

 
116,649

 
1,756

 
1.5
%
 
(4.7
%)
 

 
6.2
%

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other
 
22,240

 
22,035

 
205

 
0.9
%
 

 

 
0.9
%

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total Company
 
$
2,406,908

 
$
2,213,242

 
$
193,666

 
8.8
%
 
(1.8
%)
 
0.2
%
 
10.3
%
United States
 
1,495,516

 
1,357,909

 
137,607

 
10.1
%
 

 
0.3
%
 
9.8
%
International
 
911,392

 
855,333

 
56,059

 
6.6
%
 
(4.6
%)
 

 
11.1
%
(1)
Reported revenue growth and organic revenue growth may not recalculate due to rounding.

Total Company Revenue. The increase in both U.S. and international organic revenues was driven by strong volume gains in CAG Diagnostics recurring revenue, supported by our differentiated diagnostic technologies and expanded commercial organization that are driving increased volumes from new and existing customers in our reference laboratory business. We also had high growth in consumable revenues, supported by the impact of the continued expansion of our CAG Diagnostics instrument installed base globally. Our Water business also contributed to our overall growth, primarily from higher sales volumes of our Colilert test products and related accessories. Our LPD business growth was primarily due to increased demand for African swine fever testing programs and diagnostic testing for alternative food sources, including poultry, which more than offset lower recurring swine testing in China, as well as increased herd health screening. The impact of currency movements decreased revenue by 1.8%.

51



The following table presents our total Company results of operations:

 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
Change
Total Company - Results of Operations
(dollars in thousands)
 
2019
 
Percent of Revenue
 
2018
 
Percent of Revenue
 
Amount
 
Percentage

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 
 
 

Revenues
 
$
2,406,908

 
 

 
$
2,213,242

 
 
 
$
193,666

 
8.8
%
Cost of revenue
 
1,041,359

 
 

 
971,700

 
 
 
69,659

 
7.2
%
Gross profit
 
1,365,549

 
56.7
%
 
1,241,542

 
56.1
%
 
124,007

 
10.0
%

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales and marketing
 
418,193

 
17.4
%
 
387,406

 
17.5
%
 
30,787

 
7.9
%
General and administrative
 
261,317

 
10.9
%
 
244,938

 
11.1
%
 
16,379

 
6.7
%
Research and development
 
133,193

 
5.5
%
 
117,863

 
5.3
%
 
15,330

 
13.0
%
Total operating expenses
 
812,703

 
33.8
%
 
750,207

 
33.9
%
 
62,496

 
8.3
%
Income from operations
 
$
552,846

 
23.0
%
 
$
491,335

 
22.2
%
 
$
61,511

 
12.5
%
    
Gross Profit. The total Company gross profit increase was due to higher sales volumes and a 60 basis point increase in the gross profit margin. The increase in the gross profit margin was driven by mix benefits from high growth in IDEXX VetLab consumable revenues, volume leverage, the favorable impact of lower product costs in our CAG business, as well as the net benefit of price increases in our CAG Diagnostics recurring revenue portfolio and Water business. The impact from foreign currency movements increased the gross profit margin by approximately 20 basis points, including the impact of hedge gains in the current year, as compared to hedge losses in the prior year.

Operating Expenses. Sales and marketing expense increased approximately 10%, excluding the impact of foreign currency, primarily due to increased personnel-related costs as we continue to invest in and grow our global commercial infrastructure. General and administrative expense increased approximately 9%, excluding the impact of foreign currency, primarily from higher personnel-related costs, including costs associated with the separation agreement of our former CEO, partially offset by the benefits of cost control initiatives across our business segments. Research and development expense increased primarily due to higher personnel-related costs, with an immaterial impact from foreign currency. The overall change in currency exchange rates resulted in a decrease in operating expenses of approximately 2%, including lower foreign exchange losses on settlements of foreign currency denominated transactions recorded within Unallocated Amounts.

52



IDEXXCAGA01.JPG Companion Animal Group 

The following table presents revenue by product and service category for CAG: ໿
 
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net Revenue
(dollars in thousands)
 
2019
 
2018
 
Dollar Change
 
Reported Revenue Growth (1)
 
Percentage Change from Currency
 
Percentage Change from Acquisitions
 
Organic Revenue Growth (1)

 
 

 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 

 
 
 
 

CAG Diagnostics recurring revenue:
 
$
1,828,329

 
$
1,654,530

 
$
173,799

 
10.5
%
 
(1.6
%)
 
0.2
%
 
11.9
%
IDEXX VetLab consumables
 
693,360

 
617,237

 
76,123

 
12.3
%
 
(2.0
%)
 

 
14.3
%
Rapid assay products
 
232,149

 
217,541

 
14,608

 
6.7
%
 
(0.8
%)
 

 
7.6
%
Reference laboratory diagnostic and consulting services
 
822,497

 
746,794

 
75,703

 
10.1
%
 
(1.5
%)
 
0.4
%
 
11.2
%
CAG Diagnostics services and accessories
 
80,323

 
72,958

 
7,365

 
10.1
%
 
(1.9
%)
 

 
12.0
%
CAG Diagnostics capital - instruments
 
132,685

 
134,264

 
(1,579
)
 
(1.2
%)
 
(2.0
%)
 

 
0.9
%
Veterinary software, services and diagnostic imaging systems
 
158,169

 
146,634

 
11,535

 
7.9
%
 
(0.3
%)
 
0.9
%
 
7.3
%
Net CAG revenue
 
$
2,119,183

 
$
1,935,428

 
$
183,755

 
9.5
%
 
(1.5
%)
 
0.2
%
 
10.8
%
(1)
Reported revenue growth and organic revenue growth may not recalculate due to rounding.

CAG Diagnostics Recurring Revenue. The increase in CAG Diagnostics recurring revenue was primarily due to increased volumes in IDEXX VetLab consumables and reference laboratory diagnostic services, and to a lesser extent, higher realized prices.

The increase in IDEXX VetLab consumables revenue was primarily due to higher sales volumes across all regions for our Catalyst consumables, and to a lesser extent, Procyte Dx consumables. These increases were supported by an expansion of our instruments installed base, growth in testing by new and existing customers, our expanded menu of available tests, and to a lesser extent, benefits from higher average unit sales prices.

The increase in rapid assay revenue resulted from higher sales volumes across our SNAP product portfolio, driven by SNAP® 4Dx Plus tests, and to a lesser extent, higher average unit sales prices.

The increase in reference laboratory diagnostic and consulting services revenue was primarily due to the impact of higher testing volumes throughout our worldwide network of laboratories, most prominently in the U.S., resulting from increased testing from new and existing customers, supported by our differentiated diagnostic technologies, such as IDEXX SDMAand fecal antigen testing, and to a lesser extent, higher average unit sales prices.

CAG Diagnostic services and accessories revenue growth was primarily a result of the increase in our active installed base of instruments.

CAG Diagnostics Capital – Instruments Revenue. The decrease in CAG Diagnostics capital instrument revenue reflects the impact of foreign currency movements, which reduced revenues 2.0%. Excluding the impact of foreign currency movements, our revenues increased slightly, primarily due to higher Catalyst and Procyte instrument placements, partially offset by product mix, including lower Sedivue Dx placements compared to high prior year levels, as well as the lower allocated revenue per unit on our IDEXX VetLab instruments related to increased international placements under our customer volume commitment programs.

Veterinary Software, Services, and Diagnostic Imaging Systems Revenue. The increase in revenue was primarily due to increased veterinary software and hardware upgrades, subscription-based services, as well as higher realized prices on these

53



service offerings, and to a lesser extent, higher diagnostic imaging services as a result of the increase in our active installed base. These increases were partially offset by lower allocated revenue per unit on our diagnostic imaging systems related to increased placements under volume commitment programs. Our acquisition of a software company in the second half of 2018 contributed 0.9% to reported revenue growth.

The following table presents the CAG segment results of operations:

 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
Change
Results of Operations
(dollars in thousands)
 
2019
 
Percent of Revenue
 
2018
 
Percent of Revenue
 
Amount
 
Percentage

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 
 
 

Revenues
 
$
2,119,183

 
 
 
$
1,935,428

 
 
 
$
183,755

 
9.5
%
Cost of revenue
 
938,423

 
 
 
868,919

 
 
 
69,504

 
8.0
%
Gross profit
 
1,180,760

 
55.7
%
 
1,066,509

 
55.1
%
 
114,251

 
10.7
%

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales and marketing
 
378,302

 
17.9
%
 
345,737

 
17.9
%
 
32,565

 
9.4
%
General and administrative
 
212,794

 
10.0
%
 
204,425

 
10.6
%
 
8,369

 
4.1
%
Research and development
 
98,062

 
4.6
%
 
86,864

 
4.5
%
 
11,198

 
12.9
%
Total operating expenses
 
689,158

 
32.5
%
 
637,026

 
32.9
%
 
52,132

 
8.2
%
Income from operations
 
$
491,602

 
23.2
%
 
$
429,483

 
22.2
%
 
$
62,119

 
14.5
%

Gross Profit. Gross profit increased primarily due to higher sales volumes, as well as a 60 basis point increase in the gross profit margin. The increase in gross profit margin was driven by mix benefits from high growth in IDEXX VetLab consumable revenues, volume leverage, lower product costs, as well as the benefit of price increases in our CAG Diagnostics recurring revenue portfolio, partially offset by incremental investments in reference laboratory capacity and software services field resources. The impact from foreign currency movements increased the gross profit margin by approximately 10 basis points, including the impact of hedge gains in the current year, compared to hedge losses in the prior year.

Operating Expenses. Sales and marketing expenses increased approximately 11%, excluding the impact of foreign currency, primarily due to increased personnel-related costs as we continue to invest in our global commercial infrastructure. General and administrative costs increased 5%, excluding the impact of foreign currency, primarily from higher personnel-related costs. The increase in research and development expense was primarily due to increased personnel-related costs, with an immaterial impact from foreign currency. The overall change in currency exchange rates resulted in a decrease in operating expenses of approximately 1%.

54



IDXXWATERDROPA01.JPG Water

The following table presents the Water segment results of operations:

 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
Change
Results of Operations
(dollars in thousands)
 
2019
 
Percent of Revenue
 
2018
 
Percent of Revenue
 
Amount
 
Percentage

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 
 
 

Revenues
 
$
132,850

 
 
 
$
125,198

 
 
 
$
7,652

 
6.1
 %
Cost of revenue
 
36,915

 
 
 
37,106

 
 
 
(191
)
 
(0.5
%)
Gross profit
 
95,935

 
72.2
%
 
88,092

 
70.4
%
 
7,843

 
8.9
 %

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales and marketing
 
15,980

 
12.0
%
 
15,900

 
12.7
%
 
80

 
0.5
 %
General and administrative
 
13,388

 
10.1
%
 
13,005