As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 21, 2014

1933 Act Registration No. 33-17619

1940 Act Registration No. 811-05349

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D. C. 20549

 

 

FORM N-1A

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

   THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933   x
   Pre-Effective Amendment No.   ¨
   Post-Effective Amendment No. 408   x

and/or

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

   THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940   x
   Amendment No. 409   x

(Check appropriate box or boxes)

 

 

GOLDMAN SACHS TRUST

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)

 

 

71 South Wacker Drive

Chicago, Illinois 60606

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

Registrant’s Telephone Number, including Area Code: (312) 655-4400

CAROLINE KRAUS, ESQ.

Goldman, Sachs & Co.

200 West Street

New York, New York 10282

(Name and Address of Agent for Service)

 

 

Copies to:

STEPHEN H. BIER, ESQ.

Dechert LLP

1095 Avenue of the Americas

New York, NY 10036

 

 

Approximate Date of Proposed Public Offering: As soon as practicable after the effective date of the registration statement

It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box)

¨ immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b)
x on March 24, 2014 pursuant to paragraph (b)
¨ 60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
¨ on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
¨ 75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)
¨ on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of rule 485.

If appropriate, check the following box:

x this post-effective amendment designates a new effective date for a previously filed post-effective amendment.

 

 

 


Title of Securities Being Registered:

Institutional Shares of the Goldman Sachs Long Short Credit Strategies Fund.


Prospectus

 

 

March 24, 2014

 

GOLDMAN SACHS LONG SHORT CREDIT STRATEGIES FUND

 

THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION HAS NOT APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED THESE SECURITIES OR PASSED UPON THE ADEQUACY OF THIS PROSPECTUS. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.

 

AN INVESTMENT IN A FUND IS NOT A BANK DEPOSIT AND IS NOT INSURED BY THE FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION OR ANY OTHER GOVERNMENT AGENCY. AN INVESTMENT IN A FUND INVOLVES INVESTMENT RISKS, AND YOU MAY LOSE MONEY IN A FUND.

 

¢   Goldman Sachs Long Short Credit Strategies

 

  n   Institutional Shares: GSAWX

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Table of Contents

 

  1      Goldman Sachs Long Short Credit Strategies Fund – Summary
  10      Investment Management Approach
  17      Risks of the Fund
  31      Service Providers
  36     

Distributions

  37      Shareholder Guide
 

37   How To Buy Shares

 

45   How To Sell Shares

  54      Taxation
  57      Appendix A
Additional Information on Portfolio Risks, Securities and Techniques
  91      Appendix B
Financial Highlights


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Goldman Sachs Long Short Credit Strategies Fund—Summary

Investment Objective

The Goldman Sachs Long Short Credit Strategies Fund (the “Fund”) seeks an absolute return comprised of income and capital appreciation.

Fees and Expenses of the Fund

This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy and hold shares of the Fund.

 

      Institutional  

Annual Fund Operating Expenses

 
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment):  

Management Fees

    1.00%   

Distribution and Service (12b-1) Fees

    None   

Other Expenses 1

    0.19%   

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses

    1.19%   
1   The Fund’s “Other Expenses” have been estimated to reflect expenses expected to be incurred during the first fiscal year, including the non-reoccurring costs associated with the Fund’s participation in the reorganization (as described below).

Expense Example

This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other mutual funds.

The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in Institutional Shares of the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Institutional Shares at the end of those periods, unless otherwise stated. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

 

      1 Year      3 Years  

Institutional Shares

   $ 121       $ 378   
     

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs when it buys and sells securities or instruments ( i.e. , “turns over” its portfolio). A high rate of portfolio turnover may result in increased

 

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transaction costs, which must be borne by the Fund and its shareholders, and is also likely to result in higher short-term capital gains for taxable shareholders. These costs are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the expense example above, but are reflected in the Fund’s performance. Because the Fund has not yet commenced operations as of the date of this Prospectus, there is no portfolio turnover information quoted for the Fund.

Principal Strategy

The Fund will seek to achieve its investment objective through long and short exposures to “credit related instruments.” Under normal market conditions, the Fund will invest at least 80% of its net assets plus any borrowings for investment purposes (measured at the time of purchase) (“Net Assets”) in the following credit related instruments: (i) fixed rate and floating rate income securities; (ii) loans and loan participations including: (a) senior secured floating rate and fixed rate loans or debt (“Senior Loans”), (b) second lien or other subordinated or unsecured floating rate and fixed rate loans or debt (“Second Lien Loans”) and (c) other types of secured or unsecured loans with fixed, floating, or variable interest rates; (iii) convertible securities; (iv) collateralized debt, bond and loan obligations; (v) bank and corporate debt obligations; (vi) securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises (“U.S. Government Securities”), and securities issued by or on behalf of states, territories, and possessions of the United States (including the District of Columbia); (vii) preferred securities and trust preferred securities; (viii) structured securities, including credit-linked notes; and/or (ix) listed and unlisted, public and private, rated and unrated debt instruments and other obligations, including those of financially troubled companies (sometimes known as “distressed securities” or “defaulted securities”).

The Fund may invest in instruments and obligations directly, or indirectly by investing in derivative or synthetic instruments, including, without limitation, credit default swaps (including credit default swaps on credit related indices) and loan credit default swaps. The Fund will opportunistically seek short exposures to credit related instruments through the use of such derivatives or synthetic instruments, including, but not limited to, credit default swaps (including credit default swaps on credit related indices).

The Fund intends to implement short positions for hedging purposes or to seek to enhance absolute return, and may do so by using swaps or futures, or through short sales of any instrument that the Fund may purchase for investment. For example, the Fund may buy credit default swaps. Credit default swaps involve the receipt of floating or fixed rate payments in exchange for assuming potential credit losses on an underlying security (or group of securities). When the Fund is the buyer of a credit default swap (buying protection), it may make periodic payments to the seller of the credit default swap to obtain protection against a credit default on a specified underlying asset (or group of assets). If a default occurs, the seller of a credit default swap may be required to pay the Fund the notional amount of the credit default swap on a specified security (or group of securities). On the other hand, when the Fund is a seller of a credit default swap (commonly known as selling protection), in addition to the credit exposure the Fund has

 

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on the other assets held in its portfolio, the Fund is also subject to the credit exposure on the notional amount of the swap since, in the event of a credit default, the Fund may be required to pay the notional amount of the credit default swap on a specified security (or group of securities) to the buyer of the credit swap. The Fund will be the seller of a credit default swap only when the credit of the underlying asset is deemed by the Investment Adviser to meet the Fund’s minimum credit criteria at the time the swap is first entered into.

The Fund may invest in U.S. dollar denominated as well as non-U.S. dollar denominated (foreign) securities. The Fund may also hold cash, and/or invest in cash equivalents.

There is no minimum credit rating for instruments in which the Fund may invest, and the Fund may invest without limitation in securities below investment grade. Non-investment grade fixed income securities (commonly known as “junk bonds”) are rated BB+, Ba1 or below by a nationally recognized statistical rating organization (“NRSRO”), or, if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable credit quality. The Fund may also invest in credit instruments of any maturity or duration.

When making investments, the Investment Adviser seeks to identify securities that are both fundamentally mispriced and have a potential catalyst for value creation. Within this universe, the Investment Adviser seeks perceived risk-adjusted return opportunities with a focus on:

¢   Asymmetric return profile ( i.e., upside versus downside potential);
¢   Relative value analysis and impact on the current portfolio;
¢   Technical dynamics in the market ( i.e., understanding the price movements in the market relative to supply and demand); and
¢   Overall risk/return potential.

The Fund employs a strict sell discipline aimed at minimizing losses. There are three primary reasons why the Fund would exit an investment or trade:

¢   Position Target Achieved—Position targets are established at the time of investment and monitored on both an absolute and relative value basis. An asset is typically sold as it approaches the target, unless changes in circumstances dictate a revised target.
¢   Credit Profile Change/Credit Event—The loss of (or change to) a catalyst or change in fundamentals which no longer support the initial investment decision will cause the team to exit a position.
¢   Portfolio Re-Allocation—Each position is monitored on a relative value basis versus other holdings and market opportunities. Positions are sold or reduced to maintain proper portfolio diversification.

The Fund seeks an absolute return comprised of income and capital appreciation. Absolute return performance may be uncorrelated to fixed income and equity markets over the long-term. The Fund’s investment strategies are intended to reduce volatility ( i.e. , the Fund may be less impacted by market fluctuations in rising and falling market conditions).

The Fund’s benchmark index is the Bank of America Merrill Lynch U.S. Dollar Three-Month LIBOR Constant Maturity Index.

 

 

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THE FUND IS NON-DIVERSIFIED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, AS AMENDED (“INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT”), AND MAY INVEST A LARGER PERCENTAGE OF ITS ASSETS IN FEWER ISSUERS THAN DIVERSIFIED MUTUAL FUNDS.

Principal Risks of the Fund

Loss of money is a risk of investing in the Fund. The investment program of the Fund is speculative, entails substantial risks and includes alternative investment techniques not employed by traditional mutual funds. The Fund should not be relied upon as a complete investment program. The Fund’s investment techniques (if they do not perform as designed) may increase the volatility of performance and the risk of investment loss, including the loss of the entire amount that is invested, and there can be no assurance that the investment objective of the Fund will be achieved. Moreover, certain investment techniques which the Fund may employ in its investment program can substantially increase the adverse impact to which the Fund’s investments may be subject. There is no assurance that the investment processes of the Fund will be successful, that the techniques utilized therein will be implemented successfully or that they are adequate for their intended uses, or that the discretionary element of the investment processes of the Fund will be exercised in a manner that is successful or that is not adverse to the Fund. An investment in the Fund is not a bank deposit and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) or any government agency. Investors should carefully consider these risks before investing.

Counterparty Risk.   Many of the protections afforded to cleared transactions, such as the security offered by transacting through a clearing house, might not be available in connection with over the counter (“OTC”) transactions. Therefore, in those instances in which the Fund enters into OTC transactions, the Fund will be subject to the risk that its direct counterparty will not perform its obligations under the transactions and that the Fund will sustain losses.

Credit/Default Risk.   An issuer or guarantor of fixed income securities or instruments held by the Fund (which may have low credit ratings) may default on its obligation to pay interest and repay principal or default on any other obligation. Additionally, the credit quality of securities may deteriorate rapidly, which may impair the Fund’s liquidity and cause significant deterioration in net asset value (“NAV”). To the extent that the Fund holds non-investment grade fixed income securities, these risks may be more pronounced.

Derivatives Risk.   Loss may result from the Fund’s investments in futures, swaps, structured securities ( e.g. , credit linked notes) and other derivative instruments. These instruments may be illiquid, difficult to price and leveraged so that small changes in the value of underlying instruments may produce disproportionate losses to the Fund. Derivatives are also subject to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the other party in the transaction will not fulfill its contractual obligations.

 

Distressed Debt Risk .  When the Fund invests in obligations of financially troubled companies (sometimes known as “distressed” securities), there exists the risk that the

 

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transaction involving such debt obligations will be unsuccessful, take considerable time or will result in a distribution of cash or a new security or obligation in exchange for the stressed and distressed debt obligations, the value of which may be less than the Fund’s purchase price of such debt obligations. Furthermore, if an anticipated transaction does not occur, the Fund may be required to sell its investment at a loss or hold its investment pending bankruptcy proceedings in the event the issuer files for bankruptcy.

Foreign Risk .  Foreign securities may be subject to risk of loss because of more or less foreign government regulation, less public information and less economic, political and social stability in the countries in which the Fund invests. Loss may also result from the imposition of exchange controls, confiscations and other government restrictions, or from problems in registration, settlement or custody. Foreign risk also involves the risk of negative foreign currency rate fluctuations, which may cause the value of securities denominated in such foreign currency (or other instruments through which the Fund has exposure to foreign currencies) to decline in value. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time.

Interest Rate Risk.   When interest rates increase, fixed income securities or instruments held by the Fund will generally decline in value. Long-term fixed income securities or instruments will normally have more price volatility because of this risk than short-term fixed income securities or instruments.

Liquidity Risk.   The Fund may make investments that are illiquid or that may become less liquid in response to market developments or adverse investor perceptions. Illiquid investments may be more difficult to value. Liquidity risk may also refer to the risk that the Fund will not be able to pay redemption proceeds within the allowable time period because of unusual market conditions, an unusually high volume of redemption requests, or other reasons. To meet redemption requests, the Fund may be forced to sell securities at an unfavorable time and/or under unfavorable conditions.

Loan-Related Investments Risk.   In addition to risks generally associated with debt investments, loan-related investments such as loan participations and assignments are subject to other risks. Although a loan obligation may be fully collateralized at the time of acquisition, the collateral may decline in value, be relatively illiquid, or lose all or substantially all of its value subsequent to investment. Many loan investments are subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale and may be relatively illiquid and difficult to value. There is less readily available, reliable information about most loan investments than is the case for many other types of securities. Substantial increases in interest rates may cause an increase in loan obligation defaults. With respect to loan participations, the Fund may not always have direct recourse against a borrower if the borrower fails to pay scheduled principal and/or interest; may be subject to greater delays, expenses and risks than if the Fund had purchased a direct obligation of the borrower; and may be regarded as the creditor of the agent lender (rather than the borrower), subjecting the Fund to the creditworthiness of that lender as well.

Senior Loans hold the most senior position in the capital structure of a business entity, and are typically secured with specific collateral, but are nevertheless usually rated below

 

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investment grade. Because Second Lien Loans are subordinated or unsecured and thus lower in priority of payment to Senior Loans, they are subject to the additional risk that the cash flow of the borrower and property securing the loan or debt, if any, may be insufficient to meet scheduled payments after giving effect to the senior secured obligations of the borrower. Second Lien Loans generally have greater price volatility than Senior Loans and may be less liquid.

 

Management Risk .  A strategy used by the Investment Adviser may fail to produce the intended results.

Market Risk.   The value of the instruments in which the Fund invests may go up or down in response to the prospects of individual companies, particular sectors or governments and/or general economic conditions throughout the world due to increasingly interconnected global economies and financial markets.

 

Non-Diversification Risk.   The Fund is non-diversified, meaning that it is permitted to invest a larger percentage of its assets in fewer issuers than diversified mutual funds. Thus, the Fund may be more susceptible to adverse developments affecting any single issuer held in its portfolio, and may be more susceptible to greater losses because of these developments.

 

Non-Investment Grade Fixed Income Securities Risk.   Non-investment grade fixed income securities and unrated securities of comparable credit quality (commonly known as “junk bonds”) are considered speculative and are subject to the increased risk of an issuer’s inability to meet principal and interest payment obligations. These securities may be subject to greater price volatility due to such factors as specific corporate or municipal developments, interest rate sensitivity, negative perceptions of the junk bond markets generally and less secondary market liquidity.

Short Position Risk.   The Fund may enter into a short position through a futures contract, an option or swap agreement or through short sales of any instrument that the Fund may purchase for Investment. Taking short positions involves leverage of the Fund’s assets and presents various risks. If the price of the underlying instrument or market in which the Fund has taken a short position increases, then the Fund will incur a loss equal to the increase in value from the time that the short position was entered into plus any related interest payments or other fees. Taking short positions involves the risk that losses may be disproportionate, may exceed the amount invested, and, with respect to certain instruments ( e.g. , equities, swap options) may be unlimited.

 

Special Situation Investments Risk .  The Fund may make investments in event-driven situations such as recapitalizations, financings, corporate and financial restructurings, acquisitions, divestitures, reorganizations or other situations in public or private companies that may provide the Fund with an opportunity to provide debt and/or equity financing, typically on a negotiated basis. The Investment Adviser will seek special situation investment opportunities with limited downside risk relative to their potential upside. These investments are complicated and an incorrect assessment of the downside risk associated with an investment could result in significant losses to the Fund.

 

 

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Swaps Risk.   In a standard “swap” transaction, two parties agree to exchange the returns, differentials in rates of return or some other amount earned or realized on the “notional amount” of predetermined investments or instruments, which may be adjusted for an interest factor. Swaps can involve greater risks than direct investment in securities, because swaps may be leveraged and are subject to counterparty risk ( e.g., the risk of a counterparty’s defaulting on the obligation or bankruptcy), credit risk and pricing risk ( i.e., swaps may be difficult to value). Swaps may also be considered illiquid. It may not be possible for the Fund to liquidate a swap position at an advantageous time or price, which may result in significant losses.

U.S. Government Securities Risk.   The U.S. government may not provide financial support to U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises if it is not obligated to do so by law. U.S. Government Securities issued by the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”), Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”) and the Federal Home Loan Banks, are neither issued nor guaranteed by the U.S. Treasury and, therefore, are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States. The maximum potential liability of the issuers of some U.S. Government Securities held by the Fund may greatly exceed their current resources, including any legal right to support from the U.S. Treasury. It is possible that issuers of U.S. Government Securities will not have the funds to meet their payment obligations in the future.

Performance

The bar chart and table below provide an indication of the risks of investing in the Fund by showing: (a) changes in the performance of the Fund’s Institutional Shares from year to year; and (b) how the average annual total returns of the Fund’s Institutional Shares compare to those of a broad-based securities market index. Effective at the close of business on March 21, 2014, the Goldman Sachs Credit Strategies Fund (the “Predecessor Fund”), a closed-end management investment company that was operated as an “interval fund,” was reorganized into the Fund, with shareholders of the Predecessor Fund receiving Institutional Shares of the Fund upon consummation of the reorganization. Because the Predecessor Fund is the accounting survivor, the Fund has assumed the Predecessor Fund’s historical performance. Therefore, the Fund’s performance information shown below is that of the Predecessor Fund for the period prior to March 24, 2014, and performance information prior to this date reflects the Predecessor Fund’s investment strategies and policies. However, the Fund’s investment strategies and policies, including the ability to implement short positions, are different from those of the Predecessor Fund. As a result, the Fund’s performance may differ substantially from the performance information shown below for the period prior to March 24, 2014.

Past performance of the Fund, before and after taxes, is not necessarily an indication of how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information for the Fund is available at no cost at www.gsamfunds.com/performance or by calling the appropriate phone number on the back cover of the Prospectus.

 

 

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The bar chart (including “Best Quarter” and “Worst Quarter” information) does not reflect the sales loads applicable to the Predecessor Fund prior to March 24, 2014. If the sales loads were reflected, returns would be less. Performance reflects applicable fee waivers and/or expense limitations in effect during the periods shown.

 

TOTAL RETURN    CALENDAR YEAR (INSTITUTIONAL)
 

Best Quarter

Q4 ‘11                +4.72%

 

Worst Quarter

Q3 ‘11                –2.54%

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  AVERAGE ANNUAL TOTAL RETURN     

 

For the period ended December 31, 2013    1 Year      Since
Inception
 

Institutional Shares (Inception 3/24/14) *

     

Returns Before Taxes

     5.35%         8.72%   

Returns After Taxes on Distributions

     2.11%         5.89%   

Returns After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares

     3.11%         5.72%   

Bank of America Merrill Lynch U.S. Dollar Three-Month LIBOR Constant Maturity Index (reflects no deduction for fees, expenses or taxes)

     0.30%         0.38%   

 

* The average annual total return figures for the Fund’s Institutional Shares, which do not impose an initial sales charge, do not reflect an initial sales charge for the periods shown. Prior to March 24, 2014 (the effective date of the reorganization of the Predecessor Fund into the Fund), the maximum initial sales charge applicable to sales of Common Shares of the Predecessor Fund was 2.50%, which is not reflected in the average annual total return figures shown.

After-tax returns are calculated using the historical highest individual federal marginal income tax rates and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on an investor’s tax situation and may differ from those shown. In addition, the after-tax returns shown are not relevant to investors who hold Fund shares through tax-deferred arrangements such as 401(k) plans or individual retirement accounts.

Portfolio Management

Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P. is the investment adviser for the Fund (the “Investment Adviser” or “GSAM”).

Portfolio Managers:   Salvatore Lentini, Managing Director, Co-Head Liberty Harbor, has managed the Fund since 2014; and Brendan McGovern, Managing Director, Co-Head Liberty Harbor, has managed the Fund since 2014.

 

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Buying and Selling Fund Shares

The minimum initial investment for Institutional Shares is, generally, $1,000,000 for individual or certain institutional investors, alone or in combination with other assets under the management of the Investment Adviser and its affiliates. Institutional Shares do not impose a minimum initial investment requirement on certain employee benefit plans and on certain investment advisers investing on behalf of other accounts.

There is no minimum subsequent investment for Institutional shareholders.

You may purchase and redeem (sell) shares of the Fund on any business day through certain banks, trust companies, brokers, dealers, investment advisers and other financial institutions (“Authorized Institutions”).

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions are taxable, and will be taxed as ordinary income or capital gains, unless you are investing through a tax-deferred arrangement, such as a 401(k) plan or an individual retirement account. Investments made through tax-deferred arrangements may become taxable upon withdrawal from such arrangements.

Payments to Brokers-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries

If you purchase the Fund through an Authorized Institution, the Fund and/or its related companies may pay the Authorized Institution for the sale of Fund shares and related services. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Authorized Institution and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your salesperson or visit your Authorized Institution’s website for more information.

 

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Investment Management Approach

 

  INVESTMENT OBJECTIVE     

The Fund seeks an absolute return comprised of income and capital appreciation. The Fund’s investment objective may be changed without shareholder approval upon 60 days notice.

 

  PRINCIPAL INVESTMENT STRATEGIES     

The Fund will seek to achieve its investment objective through long and short exposures to “credit related instruments.” Under normal market conditions, the Fund will invest at least 80% of its Net Assets in the following credit related instruments: (i) fixed rate and floating rate income securities; (ii) loans and loan participations including: (a) Senior Loans, (b) Second Lien Loans and (c) other types of secured or unsecured loans with fixed, floating, or variable interest rates; (iii) convertible securities; (iv) collateralized debt, bond and loan obligations; (v) bank and corporate debt obligations; (vi) U.S. Government Securities, and securities issued by or on behalf of states, territories, and possessions of the United States (including the District of Columbia); (vii) preferred securities and trust preferred securities; (viii) structured securities, including credit-linked notes; and/or (ix) listed and unlisted, public and private, rated and unrated debt instruments and other obligations, including those of financially troubled companies (sometimes known as “distressed securities” or “defaulted securities”).

The Fund may invest in instruments and obligations directly, or indirectly by investing in derivative or synthetic instruments, including, without limitation, credit default swaps (including credit default swaps on credit related indices) and loan credit default swaps. The Fund will opportunistically seek short exposures to credit related instruments through the use of such derivatives or synthetic instruments, including, but not limited to, credit default swaps (including credit default swaps on credit related indices).

The Fund intends to implement short positions for hedging purposes or to seek to enhance absolute return, and may do so by using swaps or futures, or through short sales of any instrument that the Fund may purchase for investment. For example, the Fund may buy credit default swaps. Credit default swaps involve the receipt of floating or fixed rate payments in exchange for assuming potential credit losses on an underlying security (or group of securities). When the Fund is the buyer of a credit

 

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INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT APPROACH

 

default swap (buying protection), it may make periodic payments to the seller of the credit default swap to obtain protection against a credit default on a specified underlying asset (or group of assets). If a default occurs, the seller of a credit default swap may be required to pay the Fund the notional amount of the credit default swap on a specified security (or group of securities). On the other hand, when the Fund is a seller of a credit default swap (commonly known as selling protection), in addition to the credit exposure the Fund has on the other assets held in its portfolio, the Fund is also subject to the credit exposure on the notional amount of the swap since, in the event of a credit default, the Fund may be required to pay the notional amount of the credit default swap on a specified security (or group of securities) to the buyer of the credit swap. The Fund will be the seller of a credit default swap only when the credit of the underlying asset is deemed by the Investment Adviser to meet the Fund’s minimum credit criteria at the time the swap is first entered into.

The Fund may invest in U.S. dollar denominated as well as non-U.S. dollar denominated (foreign) securities. The Fund may also hold cash, and/or invest in cash equivalents.

There is no minimum credit rating for instruments in which the Fund may invest, and the Fund may invest without limitation in securities below investment grade. Non-investment grade fixed income securities (commonly known as “junk bonds”) are rated BB+, Ba1 or below by an NRSRO, or, if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable credit quality. The Fund may also invest in credit instruments of any maturity or duration.

The Fund’s benchmark index is the Bank of America Merrill Lynch U.S. Dollar Three-Month LIBOR Constant Maturity Index. The Index tracks the performance of a synthetic asset paying LIBOR to a stated maturity. The Index is based on the assumed purchase at par of a synthetic instrument having exactly its stated maturity and with a coupon equal to that day’s fixing rate. That issue is assumed to be sold the following business day (priced at a yield equal to the current day fixing rate) and rolled into a new instrument.

The Fund seeks an absolute return comprised of income and capital appreciation. Absolute return performance may be uncorrelated to fixed income and equity markets over the long term. The Fund’s investment strategies are intended to reduce volatility ( i.e. , the Fund may be less impacted by market fluctuations in rising and falling market conditions).

THE FUND IS NON-DIVERSIFIED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT, AND MAY INVEST A LARGER PERCENTAGE OF ITS ASSETS IN FEWER ISSUERS THAN DIVERSIFIED MUTUAL FUNDS.

 

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The Fund may, from time to time, take temporary defensive positions in attempting to respond to adverse market, political or other conditions. For temporary defensive purposes, the Fund may invest up to 100% of its total assets in U.S. Government Securities, commercial paper rated at least A-2 by Standard & Poor’s Ratings Services (“Standard & Poor’s”), P-2 by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”), or having a comparable rating by another NRSRO (or if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable credit quality), certificates of deposit, bankers’ acceptances, repurchase agreements and non-convertible corporate bonds with a remaining maturity of less than one year, exchange traded funds (“ETFs”) and other investment companies and cash items. When the Fund’s assets are invested in such instruments, the Fund may not be achieving its investment objective.

GSAM’s Liberty Harbor Portfolio Management Team Investment Philosophy:

Investment ideas are generated internally through collaborative interactions between portfolio managers, research analysts and traders and are supported by in-depth fundamental research. Ideas may also emanate from a multitude of external sources including capital market dialogues, collaborative broker-dealer relationships, industry networks, company managements and macro credit views. Investment ideas begin with the development of an investment thesis and are supported by a fundamental view. The objective of every investment idea is to capture an inefficiency or dislocation in the capital markets.

In-depth, bottom-up fundamental research is the foundation of our investment process. Our investment process consists of four key steps, as outlined below:

Step 1:  Idea Generation

  ¢   Our investment process begins with independent idea generation
  ¢   Every member of our investment team contributes to the research process, creating hypotheses and formulating ideas
  ¢   Investment ideas are generated internally through collaborative interactions between portfolio managers, research analysts and traders
  ¢   Our analysts’ diverse backgrounds and networks create an opportunistic universe
  ¢   Ideas may also emanate from a multitude of external sources including capital market dialogues, collaborative broker-dealer relationships, industry networks, company managements and macro credit views
  ¢   Investment ideas begin with the development of an investment thesis and are supported by a fundamental view

 

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INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT APPROACH

 

Step 2:  Research and Analysis

  ¢   Once an investment idea has been generated and an investment thesis has been formed, analysts work very closely with portfolio managers in refining their investment theses through rigorous bottom-up research
  ¢   Our research process focuses on developing a deep understanding of business drivers, regulatory risks and the capital structure
  ¢   We seek “value with a catalyst” in every position. The credit research process is aimed at gaining a thorough understanding of enterprise value while uncovering potential catalysts for value creation
  ¢   Every corporate bond in the portfolio has undergone our thorough credit research process
  ¢   Frequently, our bottom-up analysis of individual issuers will lead us to uncover market inefficiencies which apply to other individual issuers within our investment universe

Step 3:  Trade Implementation

  ¢   For every investment, we seek to understand the upside potential versus the downside risks
  ¢   In addition, the portfolio management team considers important factors such as instrument and market liquidity, technical dynamics in the market, impact on the current portfolio, overall risk/return potential, and attractiveness of the position relative to others
  ¢   We seek to construct a portfolio that consists of the team’s investment ideas on a risk-adjusted basis

Step 4:  Hedging, Risk Measurement and Monitoring

  ¢   Ongoing risk management and portfolio monitoring are critical to the team’s investment process
  ¢   Our hedging philosophy is centered on the preservation of capital and minimizing the beta (or market exposure) of the Fund’s investment returns to those of the overall fixed income market. Portfolio managers evaluate hedging as part of the regular portfolio management process on an ongoing basis
  ¢   The team uses a multi-layered approach to risk management that begins with the portfolio management team. We use a combination of sensible qualitative metrics and sophisticated quantitative tools
  ¢   Portfolio risk management is supplemented by firmwide risk management, which independently establishes and enforces portfolio guidelines, processes and limits

References in this Prospectus to the Fund’s benchmark are for informational purposes only, and unless otherwise noted, are not necessarily an indication of how the Fund is managed.

 

13


  OTHER INVESTMENT PRACTICES AND SECURITIES     

The following tables identify some of the investment techniques that may (but are not required to) be used by the Fund in seeking to achieve its investment objective. Numbers in these tables show allowable usage only; for actual usage, consult the Fund’s annual/semi-annual reports. For more information about these and other investment practices and securities, see Appendix A. The Fund publishes on its website (http://www.gsamfunds.com) complete portfolio holdings for the Fund as of the end of each fiscal quarter subject to a thirty day lag between the date of the information and the date on which the information is disclosed. In addition, the Fund publishes on its website selected holdings information as of the end of each month subject to a ten day lag between the date of the information and the date on which the information is disclosed. This information will be available on the website until the date on which the Fund files its next quarterly portfolio holdings report on Form N-CSR or Form N-Q with the SEC. In addition, a description of the Fund’s policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio holdings is available in the Fund’s Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”).

 

14


INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT APPROACH

 

 

10   Percent of total assets (including securities lending collateral) (italic type)
10   Percent of net assets (excluding borrowings for investment purposes) (roman type)
 

No specific percentage limitation on usage;

limited only by the objectives and strategies

of the Fund

 

                          
     

Long

Short

Credit

Strategies

Fund

Investment Practices  

Borrowings

  33  1 3

Credit, Currency, Equity, Index, Interest Rate, Total Return and Mortgage Swaps (and options on swaps)

 

Cross Hedging of Currencies

 

Custodial Receipts and Trust Certificates

 

Foreign Currency Transactions (including forward contracts)

 

Futures Contracts and Options and Swaps on Futures Contracts

 

Illiquid Investments *

  15

Interest Rate Caps, Floors and Collars

 

Investment Company Securities (including ETFs) 1

  10

Mortgage Dollar Rolls

 

Options on Foreign Currencies 2

 

Options on Securities and Securities Indices 3

 

Preferred Stock

 

Repurchase Agreements

 

Short Sales

 

Standby Commitments and Tender Bond Options

 

When-Issued Securities and Forward Commitments

 
 

 

* Illiquid investments are any investments which cannot be disposed of in seven days in the ordinary course of business at approximately the price at which the Fund values the instrument.
1   This percentage limitation does not apply to the Fund’s investments in investment companies (including ETFs) where a higher percentage limitation is permitted under the terms of an SEC exemptive order or SEC exemptive rule.
2   The Fund may purchase and sell call and put options on foreign currencies.
3   The Fund may sell covered call and put options and purchase call and put options on securities and securities indices in which it may invest.

 

15


 

10   Percent of total assets (including securities lending collateral) (italic type)
10   Percent of net assets (excluding borrowings for investment purposes) (roman type)
 

No specific percentage limitation on usage;

limited only by the objectives and strategies

of the Fund

 

                          
     

Long

Short

Credit

Strategies

Fund

Investment Securities  

Asset-Backed Securities

 

Bank Obligations

 

Collateralized Debt Obligations

 

Commodity-Linked Derivative Instruments

 

Convertible Securities

 

Corporate Debt Obligations and Trust Preferred Securities

 

Equity Investments

 

Floating and Variable Rate Obligations

 

Foreign Securities 1

 

Loans and Loan Participations

 

Mortgage-Backed Securities

 

Adjustable Rate Mortgage Loans

 

Collateralized Mortgage Obligations

 

Fixed Rate Mortgage Loans

 

Government Issued Mortgage-Backed Securities

 

Multiple Class Mortgage-Backed Securities

 

Privately Issued Mortgage-Backed Securities

 

Stripped Mortgage-Backed Securities

 

Municipal Securities

 

Non-Investment Grade Fixed Income Securities

 

Preferred Stock, Warrants and Rights

 

Real Estate Investment Trusts

 

Structured Securities (which may include credit linked notes)

 

Temporary Investments

  100%

U.S. Government Securities

 
 

 

1   Includes issuers domiciled in one country and issuing securities denominated in the currency of another.

 

16


 

Risks of the Fund

 

Loss of money is a risk of investing in the Fund. The principal risks of the Fund are discussed in the Summary section of this Prospectus. The following section provides additional information on the risks that apply to the Fund. The investment program of the Fund is speculative, entails substantial risks and includes alternative investment techniques not employed by traditional mutual funds. The Fund should not be relied upon as a complete investment program. The Fund’s investment techniques (if they do not perform as designed) may increase the volatility of performance and the risk of investment loss, including the loss of the entire amount that is invested, and there can be no assurance that the investment objective of the Fund will be achieved. Moreover, certain investment techniques which the Fund may employ in its investment program can substantially increase the adverse impact to which the Fund’s investments may be subject. There is no assurance that the investment processes of the Fund will be successful, that the techniques utilized therein will be implemented successfully or that they are adequate for their intended uses, or that the discretionary element of the investment processes of the Fund will be exercised in a manner that is successful or that is not adverse to the Fund. An investment in the Fund is not a bank deposit and is not insured or guaranteed by the FDIC or any other governmental agency. Investors should carefully consider these risks before investing.

 

17


 

 

ü   Principal Risk
  Additional Risk

 

                                                   
     

Long

Short

Credit

Strategies

Fund

Call/Prepayment

 

Collateralized Debt Obligation

 

Counterparty

  ü

Credit/Default

  ü

Derivatives

  ü

Distressed Debt

  ü

Extension

 

Foreign

  ü

Interest Rate

  ü

Leverage

 

Liquidity

  ü

Loan-Related Investments

  ü

Management

  ü

Market

  ü

Mortgage and Other Asset-Backed Securities

 

Municipal Securities

 

NAV

 

Non-Diversification

  ü

Non-Hedging Foreign Currency Trading

 

Non-Investment Grade Fixed Income Securities

  ü

Short Position

  ü

Sovereign

 

Economic

 

Political

 

Repayment

 

Special Situations Investments

  ü

Stock

 

Swaps

  ü

U.S. Government Securities

  ü
 

 

¢   Call/Prepayment Risk —An issuer could exercise its right to pay principal on an obligation held by the Fund (such as a mortgage-backed security) earlier than expected. This may happen when there is a decline in interest rates, when credit spreads change, or when an issuer’s credit quality improves. Under these circumstances, the Fund may be unable to recoup all of its initial investment and will also suffer from having to reinvest in lower-yielding securities.
¢  

Collateralized Debt Obligation Risk —The Fund may invest in collateralized debt obligations (“CDOs”), which include collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”), collateralized bond obligations (“CBOs”), and other similarly structured securities.

 

18


RISKS OF THE FUNDS

 

 

The risks of an investment in a CDO depend largely on the type of the collateral securities and the class of the CDO in which the Fund invests. In addition to the normal risks associated with credit-related securities discussed elsewhere in this Prospectus ( e.g. , interest rate risk and default risk), CDOs carry additional risks including, but not limited to, the risk that: (i) distributions from collateral securities may not be adequate to make interest or other payments; (ii) the quality of the collateral may decline in value or default; (iii) the Fund may invest in CDOs that are subordinate to other classes; and (iv) the complex structure of the security may not be fully understood at the time of investment and may produce disputes with the issuer or unexpected investment results.

Investments in CDOs are also more difficult to value than other investments. In addition, although not required, valuations of Fund holdings are ordinarily verified via a second pricing source. However, second source pricing may not be available with respect to certain CDOs in which the Fund invests as a result of a lack of readily available market quotations. In addition, there may be delays in the Fund’s ability to invest in CDOs at desired levels as a result of the increased time necessary for the Investment Adviser to resolve valuation and operational issues necessary to make these investments.

¢   Counterparty Risk —Many of the protections afforded to cleared transactions, such as the security afforded by transacting through a clearing house, might not be available in connection with OTC transactions. Therefore, in those instances in which the Fund enters into OTC transactions, the Fund will be subject to the risk that its direct counterparty will not perform its obligations under the transactions and that the Fund will sustain losses.
¢   Credit/Default Risk —An issuer or guarantor of fixed income securities or instruments held by the Fund (which may have lower credit ratings) may default on its obligation to pay interest and repay principal or default on any other obligation. The credit quality of the Fund’s portfolio securities or instruments may meet the Fund’s credit quality requirements at the time of purchase but then deteriorate thereafter, and such a deterioration can occur rapidly. In certain instances, the downgrading or default of a single holding or guarantor of the Fund’s holding may impair the Fund’s liquidity and have the potential to cause significant NAV deterioration.

 

¢   Derivatives Risk —Loss may result from the Fund’s investments in forwards, options, futures, swaps, options on swaps, structured securities ( e.g., credit linked notes) and other derivative instruments. These instruments may be illiquid, difficult to price and leveraged so that small changes in the value of the underlying instruments may produce disproportionate losses to the Fund. Derivatives are also subject to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the other party in the transaction will not fulfill its contractual obligations.

 

19


Losses from investments in derivatives can result from a lack of correlation between the value of those derivatives and the value of the portfolio assets (if any) being hedged. In addition, there is a risk that the performance of the derivatives or other instruments used by the Investment Adviser to replicate the performance of a particular asset class may not accurately track the performance of that asset class. Derivatives are also subject to liquidity risk and risks arising from margin requirements. There is also risk of loss if the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its expectation of the timing or level of fluctuations in securities prices, interest rates, currency prices or other variables.

¢   Distressed Debt Risk —The Fund may invest in securities and other obligations of financially troubled companies (sometimes known as “distressed securities”), including stressed, distressed and bankrupt issuers and debt obligations that are in covenant or payment default. Many distressed securities are illiquid or trade in low volumes and thus may be more difficult to value accurately. They generally are considered speculative. In any investment involving distressed securities, there exists the risk that the transaction involving such debt securities will be unsuccessful. Distressed securities might be repaid only after lengthy workout or bankruptcy proceedings, during which the issuer might not make any interest or other payments. Typically such workout or bankruptcy proceedings result in only partial recovery of cash payments or an exchange of the defaulted obligation for other debt or equity securities of the issuer or its affiliates, which may in turn be illiquid or speculative. There are a number of significant risks inherent in the bankruptcy process. Many events in a bankruptcy are the product of contested matters and adversary proceedings and are beyond the control of the creditors. A bankruptcy filing by an issuer may adversely and permanently affect the issuer, and if the proceeding is converted to a liquidation, the value of the issuer may not equal the liquidation value that was believed to exist at the time of the investment. The duration of a bankruptcy proceeding is difficult to predict, and a creditor’s return on investment can be adversely affected by delays until the plan of reorganization ultimately becomes effective. The administrative costs in connection with a bankruptcy proceeding are frequently high and would be paid out of the debtor’s estate prior to any return to creditors. Because the standards for classification of claims under bankruptcy law are vague, there exists the risk that the Fund’s influence with respect to the class of securities or other obligations it owns can be lost by increases in the number and amount of claims in the same class or by different classification and treatment. In the early stages of the bankruptcy process it is often difficult to estimate the extent of, or even to identify, any contingent claims that might be made. In addition, certain claims that have priority by law (for example, claims for taxes) may be substantial.
¢  

Extension Risk —An issuer could exercise its right to pay principal on an obligation held by the Fund (such as a mortgage-backed security) later than expected. This may

 

20


RISKS OF THE FUNDS

 

 

happen when there is a rise in interest rates. Under these circumstances, the value of the obligation will decrease, and the Fund will also suffer from the inability to reinvest in higher yielding securities.

¢   Foreign Risk —When the Fund invests in foreign securities, it may be subject to risk of loss not typically associated with domestic issuers. Loss may result because of more or less foreign government regulation, less public information, less liquidity, greater volatility and less economic, political and social stability in the countries in which the Fund invests. Loss may also result from, among other things, deteriorating economic and business conditions in other countries, including the United States, regional and global conflicts, the imposition of exchange controls, foreign taxes, confiscations, expropriation and other government restrictions, higher transaction costs, difficulty enforcing contractual obligations or from problems in registration, settlement or custody. The Fund will also be subject to the risk of negative foreign currency rate fluctuations, which may cause the value of securities denominated in such foreign currency (or other instruments through which the Fund has exposure to foreign currencies) to decline in value. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time.
¢   Interest Rate Risk —When interest rates increase, fixed income securities or instruments held by the Fund will generally decline in value. Long-term fixed income securities or instruments will normally have more price volatility because of this risk than short-term fixed-income securities or instruments.
¢   Leverage Risk —Leverage creates exposure to potential gains and losses in excess of the initial amount invested. The use of derivatives may result in leverage and may make the Fund more volatile. When the Fund uses leverage the sum of the Fund’s investment exposures may significantly exceed the amount of assets invested in the Fund, although these exposures may vary over time. Relatively small market movements may result in large changes in the value of a leveraged investment. The Fund will identify liquid assets on its books or otherwise cover transactions that may give rise to such risk, to the extent required by applicable law. The use of leverage may cause the Fund to liquidate portfolio positions to satisfy its obligations or to meet segregation requirements when it may not be advantageous to do so. The use of leverage by the Fund can substantially increase the adverse impact to which the Fund’s investment portfolio may be subject.

 

¢  

Liquidity Risk —The Fund may invest to a greater degree in securities or instruments that trade in lower volumes and may make investments that are less liquid than other investments. Also, the Fund may make investments that may become less liquid in response to market developments or adverse investor perceptions. Investments that are illiquid or that trade in lower volumes may be more difficult to value. When there is no willing buyer and investments cannot be readily sold at the desired time or price,

 

21


 

the Fund may have to accept a lower price or may not be able to sell the security or instrument at all. An inability to sell one or more portfolio positions can adversely affect the Fund’s value or prevent the Fund from being able to take advantage of other investment opportunities.

Funds that invest in non-investment grade fixed income securities and/or emerging country issuers may be especially subject to the risk that during certain periods, the liquidity of particular issuers or industries, or all securities within a particular investment category, will shrink or disappear suddenly and without warning as a result of adverse economic, market or political events, or adverse investor perceptions, whether or not accurate.

Liquidity risk may also refer to the risk that the Fund will not be able to pay redemption proceeds within the allowable time period because of unusual market conditions, an unusually high volume of redemption requests, or other reasons. While the Fund reserves the right to meet redemption requests through in-kind distributions, the Fund may instead choose to raise cash to meet redemption requests through sales of portfolio securities or permissible borrowings. If the Fund is forced to sell securities at an unfavorable time and/or under unfavorable conditions, such sales may adversely affect the Fund’s NAV.

Certain shareholders, including clients or affiliates of the Investment Adviser and/or other funds managed by the Investment Adviser, may from time to time own or control a significant percentage of the Fund’s shares. Redemptions by these shareholders of their shares of the Fund may further increase the Fund’s liquidity risk and may impact the Fund’s NAV. These shareholders may include, for example, institutional investors, funds of funds, discretionary advisory clients and other shareholders whose buy-sell decisions are controlled by a single decision-maker.

 

¢  

Loan-Related Investments Risk —In addition to risks generally associated with debt investments, loan-related investments such as loan participations and assignments are subject to other risks. Although a loan obligation may be fully collateralized at the time of acquisition, the collateral may decline in value, be relatively illiquid, or lose all or substantially all of its value subsequent to investment. Many loan investments are subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale and may be relatively illiquid and difficult to value. There is less readily available, reliable information about most loan investments than is the case for many other types of securities, and the Investment Adviser relies primarily on its own evaluation of a borrower’s credit quality rather than on any available independent sources. The ability of the Fund to realize full value in the event of the need to sell a loan investment may be impaired by the lack of an active trading market for certain loans or adverse market conditions limiting liquidity. Loan obligations are not traded on an exchange, and purchasers and

 

22


RISKS OF THE FUNDS

 

 

sellers rely on certain market makers, such as the administrative agent for the particular loan obligation, to trade that loan obligation. To the extent that a secondary market does exist for loan obligations, the market may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods. Substantial increases in interest rates may cause an increase in loan obligation defaults.

With respect to loan participations, the Fund may not always have direct recourse against a borrower if the borrower fails to pay scheduled principal and/or interest; may be subject to greater delays, expenses and risks than if the Fund had purchased a direct obligation of the borrower; and may be regarded as the creditor of the agent lender (rather than the borrower), subjecting the Fund to the creditworthiness of that lender as well and the ability of the lender to enforce appropriate credit remedies against the borrower.

Senior Loans hold the most senior position in the capital structure of a business entity, and are typically secured with specific collateral and have a claim on the assets and/or stock of the borrower that is senior to that held by subordinated debt holders and stockholders of the borrower. Nevertheless, Senior Loans are usually rated below investment grade. Because Second Lien Loans are subordinated or unsecured and thus lower in priority of payment to Senior Loans, they are subject to the additional risk that the cash flow of the borrower and property securing the loan or debt, if any, may be insufficient to meet scheduled payments after giving effect to the senior secured obligations of the borrower. This risk is generally higher for subordinated unsecured loans or debt, which are not backed by a security interest in any specific collateral. Second Lien Loans generally have greater price volatility than Senior Loans and may be less liquid.

¢   Management Risk —A strategy used by the Investment Adviser may fail to produce the intended results.
¢   Market Risk —The value of the instruments in which the Fund invests may go up or down in response to the prospects of individual companies, particular sectors or governments and/or general economic conditions throughout the world. Price changes may be temporary or last for extended periods. The Fund’s investments may be overweighted from time to time in one or more sectors or countries, which will increase the Fund’s exposure to risk of loss from adverse developments affecting those sectors or countries.

Global economies and financial markets are becoming increasingly interconnected, and conditions and events in one country, region or financial market may adversely impact issuers in a different country, region or financial market. In addition, governmental and quasi-governmental organizations have taken a number of unprecedented actions designed to support the markets. Such conditions, events and actions may result in greater market risk.

 

23


¢   Mortgage-Backed and Other Asset-Backed Securities Risk —Mortgage-related and other asset-backed securities are subject to certain additional risks. Generally, rising interest rates tend to extend the duration of fixed rate mortgage-backed securities, making them more sensitive to changes in interest rates. As a result, in a period of rising interest rates, if the Fund holds mortgage-backed securities, it may exhibit additional volatility. This is known as extension risk. In addition, adjustable and fixed rate mortgage-backed securities are subject to prepayment risk. When interest rates decline, borrowers may pay off their mortgages sooner than expected. This can reduce the returns of the Fund because the Fund may have to reinvest that money at the lower prevailing interest rates.

The Fund’s investments in other asset-backed securities are subject to risks similar to those associated with mortgage-backed securities, as well as additional risks associated with the nature of the assets and the servicing of those assets. Asset-backed securities may not have the benefit of a security interest in collateral comparable to that of mortgage assets, resulting in additional credit risk.

The Fund may invest in mortgage-backed securities issued by the U.S. government. (See “U.S. Government Securities Risk”). To the extent that the Fund invests in mortgage-backed securities offered by non-governmental issuers, such as commercial banks, savings and loan institutions, private mortgage insurance companies, mortgage bankers and other secondary market issuers, the Fund may be subject to additional risks. Timely payment of interest and principal of non-governmental issuers are supported by various forms of private insurance or guarantees, including individual loan, title, pool and hazard insurance purchased by the issuer. There can be no assurance that the private insurers can meet their obligations under the policies. An unexpectedly high rate of defaults on the mortgages held by a mortgage pool may adversely affect the value of a mortgage-backed security and could result in losses to the Fund. The risk of such defaults is generally higher in the case of mortgage pools that include subprime mortgages. Subprime mortgages refer to loans made to borrowers with weakened credit histories or with a lower capacity to make timely payments on their mortgages.

¢  

Municipal Securities Risk —Municipal securities are subject to certain additional risks. The Fund may be more sensitive to adverse economic, business or political developments if it invests a substantial portion of its assets in the debt securities of similar projects (such as those relating to education, health care, housing, transportation, and utilities), industrial development bonds, or in particular types of municipal securities (such as general obligation bonds, private activity bonds and moral obligation bonds). Specific risks are associated with different types of municipal securities. With respect to general obligation bonds, the full faith, credit and taxing power of the municipality that issues a general obligation bond secures payment of interest and repayment of

 

24


RISKS OF THE FUNDS

 

 

principal. Timely payments depend on the issuer’s credit quality, ability to raise tax revenues and ability to maintain an adequate tax base. With respect to revenue bonds, payments of interest and principal are made only from the revenues generated by a particular facility, class of facilities or the proceeds of a special tax, or other revenue source, and depends on the money earned by that source. Private activity bonds are issued by municipalities and other public authorities to finance development of industrial facilities for use by a private enterprise. The private enterprise pays the principal and interest on the bond, and the issuer does not pledge its full faith, credit and taxing power for repayment. If the private enterprise defaults on its payments, the Fund may not receive any income or get its money back from the investment. Moral obligation bonds are generally issued by special purpose public authorities of a state or municipality. If the issuer is unable to meet its obligations, repayment of these bonds becomes a moral commitment, but not a legal obligation, of the state or municipality. Municipal notes are shorter term municipal debt obligations. They may provide interim financing in anticipation of, and are secured by, tax collection, bond sales or revenue receipts. If there is a shortfall in the anticipated proceeds, the notes may not be fully repaid and the Fund may lose money. In a municipal lease obligation, the issuer agrees to make payments when due on the lease obligation. The issuer will generally appropriate municipal funds for that purpose, but is not obligated to do so. Although the issuer does not pledge its unlimited taxing power for payment of the lease obligation, the lease obligation is secured by the lease property. However, if the issuer does not fulfill its payment obligation it may be difficult to sell the property and the proceeds of a sale may not cover the Fund’s loss. Municipalities continue to experience difficulties in the current economic and political environment.

¢   NAV Risk —The net asset value of the Fund and the value of your investment will fluctuate.
¢   Non-Diversification Risk —The Fund is non-diversified, meaning that it is permitted to invest a larger percentage of its assets in fewer issuers than diversified mutual funds. Thus, the Fund may be more susceptible to adverse developments affecting any single issuer held in its portfolio, and may be more susceptible to greater losses because of these developments.
¢  

Non-Hedging Foreign Currency Trading Risk —The Fund may engage in forward foreign currency transactions for investment purposes. The Investment Advisers may purchase or sell foreign currencies through the use of forward contracts based on the Investment Adviser’s judgment regarding the direction of the market for a particular foreign currency or currencies. In pursuing this strategy, the Investment Adviser seeks to profit from anticipated movements in currency rates by establishing “long” and/or “short” positions in forward contracts on various foreign currencies. Foreign exchange rates can be extremely volatile and a variance in the degree of volatility of the market or in the direction of the market from the Investment Advisers’ expectations may

 

25


 

produce significant losses to the Fund. Some of the transactions may also be subject to interest rate risk.

¢   Non-Investment Grade Fixed Income Securities Risk —Non-investment grade fixed income securities and unrated securities of comparable credit quality (commonly known as “junk bonds”) are considered speculative and are subject to the increased risk of an issuer’s inability to meet principal and interest payment obligations. These securities may be subject to greater price volatility due to such factors as specific corporate or municipal developments, interest rate sensitivity, negative perceptions of the junk bond markets generally and less secondary market liquidity.
¢   Short Position Risk —The Fund may use derivatives, including options, futures and swaps, to implement short positions, and may engage in short selling. Taking short positions and short selling involve leverage of the Fund’s assets and present various risks. If the value of the instrument or market in which the Fund has taken a short position increases, then the Fund will incur a loss equal to the increase in value from the time that the short position was entered into plus any premiums and interest paid to a third party. Therefore, taking short derivative positions involves the risk that losses may be exaggerated, potentially losing more money than the actual cost of the investment. Also, there is the risk that the counterparty to the short transaction may fail to honor its contract terms, causing a loss to the Fund.

In order to establish a short position in a financial instrument, the Fund must first borrow the instrument from a lender, such as a broker or other institution. The Fund may not always be able to borrow the instrument at a particular time or at an acceptable price. Thus, there is risk that the Fund may be unable to implement its investment strategy due to the lack of available instruments or for other reasons.

After selling a borrowed instrument, the Fund is then obligated to “cover” the short sale by purchasing and returning the instrument to the lender on a later date. The Fund cannot guarantee that the instrument necessary to cover a short position will be available for purchase at the time the Fund wishes to close a short position or, if available, that the instrument will be available at an acceptable price. If the borrowed instrument has appreciated in value, the Fund will be required to pay more for the replacement instrument than the amount it received for selling the instrument short. Moreover, purchasing an instrument to cover a short position can itself cause the price of the instrument to rise further, thereby exacerbating the loss. The potential loss on a short sale may, with respect to certain instruments ( e.g. , equities, swap options), be unlimited because the loss increases as the price of the instrument sold short increases and the price may rise indefinitely. If the price of a borrowed instrument declines before the short position is covered, the Fund may realize a gain. The Fund’s gain on a short sale, before transaction and other costs, is generally limited to the difference between the price at which it sold the borrowed instrument and the price it paid to purchase the instrument to return to the lender.

 

26


RISKS OF THE FUNDS

 

While the Fund has an open short position, it is subject to the risk that the instrument’s lender will terminate the loan at a time when the Fund is unable to borrow the same instrument from another lender. If this happens, the Fund may be required to buy the replacement instrument immediately at the instrument’s then current market price or “buy in” by paying the lender an amount equal to the cost of purchasing the instrument to close out the short position.

Short sales also involve other costs. The Fund must normally repay to the lender an amount equal to any dividends or interest that accrues while a loan is outstanding. In addition, to borrow an instrument, the Fund may be required to pay a premium. The Fund also will incur transaction costs in effecting short sales. The amount of any ultimate gain for the Fund resulting from a short sale will be decreased, and the amount of any ultimate loss will be increased, by the amount of premiums, dividends, interest or expenses the Fund may be required to pay in connection with the short sale.

Until the Fund replaces a borrowed instrument, the Fund will be required to maintain assets as collateral. Moreover, the Fund may be required to make payments to the lender during the term of the borrowing if the value of the security it borrowed (and sold short) increases. Thus, short sales involve credit exposure to the broker that executes the short sales. In addition, the Fund is required to identify on its books, liquid assets (less any additional collateral held by the broker, not including short sale proceeds) to cover short sale obligations, marked-to-market daily. The requirement to identify liquid assets limits the Fund’s leveraging of investments and the related risk of losses from leveraging. However, such identification may also limit the Fund’s investment flexibility, as well as its ability to meet redemption requests or other current obligations.

 

¢   Sovereign Risk —The issuer of the non-U.S. sovereign debt held by the Fund or the governmental authorities that control the repayment of the debt may be unable or unwilling to repay the principal or interest when due. This may result from political or social factors, the general economic environment of a country or levels of foreign debt or foreign currency exchange rates.
  ¢   Economic Risk —The risks associated with the general economic environment of a country. These can encompass, among other things, low quality and growth rate of Gross Domestic Product (“GDP”), high inflation or deflation, high government deficits as a percentage of GDP, weak financial sector, overvalued exchange rate, and high current account deficits as a percentage of GDP.
  ¢  

Political Risk —The risks associated with the general political and social environment of a country. These factors may include among other things government instability, poor socioeconomic conditions, corruption, lack of law and order, lack of democratic accountability, poor quality of the bureaucracy, internal and external

 

27


 

conflict, and religious and ethnic tensions. High political risk can impede the economic welfare of a country.

  ¢   Repayment Risk —A country may be unable to pay its external debt obligations in the immediate future. Repayment risk factors may include but are not limited to high foreign debt as a percentage of GDP, high foreign debt service as a percentage of exports, low foreign exchange reserves as a percentage of short-term debt or exports, and an unsustainable exchange rate structure.
¢   Special Situation Investments Risk —The Fund may make investments in event-driven situations such as recapitalizations, financings, corporate and financial restructurings, acquisitions, divestitures, reorganizations or other situations in public or private companies that may provide the Fund with an opportunity to provide debt and/or equity financing, typically on a negotiated basis. The Investment Adviser will seek special situation investment opportunities with limited downside risk relative to their potential upside. These investments are complicated and an incorrect assessment of the downside risk associated with an investment could result in significant losses to the Fund.
¢   Stock Risk —Stock prices have historically risen and fallen in periodic cycles. U.S. and foreign stock markets have experienced periods of substantial price volatility in the past and may do so again in the future.
¢   Swaps Risk —The use of swaps is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques, risk analyses and tax planning different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. The Fund’s transactions in swaps may be significant. These transactions can result in sizeable realized and unrealized capital gains and losses relative to the gains and losses from the Fund’s direct investments in securities and short sales.

Transactions in swaps can involve greater risks than if the Fund had invested in securities directly since, in addition to general market risks, swaps may be leveraged and are also subject to illiquidity risk, counterparty risk, credit risk and pricing risk. Regulators also may impose limits on an entity’s or group of entities’ positions in certain swaps. However, certain risks are reduced (but not eliminated) if the Fund invests in cleared swaps. Because bilateral swap agreements are two-party contracts and because they may have terms of greater than seven days, these swaps may be considered to be illiquid. Moreover, the Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap (including any margin the Fund may have posted in connection with establishing the swap position) in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap counterparty. Many swaps are complex and valued subjectively. Swaps and other derivatives may also be subject to pricing or “basis” risk, which exists when the price of a particular derivative diverges from the price of corresponding cash market instruments. Under certain market conditions it may not be

 

28


RISKS OF THE FUNDS

 

economically feasible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position in time to avoid a loss or take advantage of an opportunity. If a swap transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is illiquid, it may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price, which may result in significant losses.

The value of swaps can be very volatile, and a variance in the degree of volatility or in the direction of securities prices from the Investment Adviser’s expectations may produce significant losses in the Fund’s investments in swaps. In addition, a perfect correlation between a swap and a security position may be impossible to achieve. As a result, the Investment Adviser’s use of swaps may not be effective in fulfilling the Investment Adviser’s investment strategies and may contribute to losses that would not have been incurred otherwise.

As an investment company registered with the SEC, the Fund must identify on its books (often referred to as “asset segregation”) liquid assets, or engage in other SEC- or SEC staff-approved measures, to “cover” open positions with respect to certain kinds of derivative instruments. In the case of swaps that do not cash settle, for example, the Fund must identify on its books liquid assets equal to the full notional value of the swaps while the positions are open. With respect to swaps that are required to cash settle, however, the Fund may identify liquid assets in an amount equal to the Fund’s daily marked-to-market net obligations ( i.e. the Fund’s daily net liability) under the swaps, if any, rather than their full notional value. The Fund reserves the right to modify its asset segregation policies in the future in its discretion. By identifying assets equal to only its net obligations under cash-settled swaps, the Fund will have the ability to employ leverage to a greater extent than if the Fund was required to identify assets equal to the full notional amount of the swaps.

 

¢  

U.S. Government Securities Risk —The U.S. government may not provide financial support to U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises if it is not obligated to do so by law. U.S. Government Securities issued by those agencies, instrumentalities and sponsored enterprises, including those issued by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and the Federal Home Loan Banks, are neither issued nor guaranteed by the U.S. Treasury and, therefore, are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States. The maximum potential liability of the issuers of some U.S. Government Securities held by the Fund may greatly exceed their current resources, including their legal right to support from the U.S. Treasury. It is possible that issuers of U.S. Government Securities will not have the funds to meet their payment obligations in the future. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have been operating under conservatorship, with the Federal Housing Finance Administration (“FHFA”) acting as their conservator, since September 2008. The entities are dependent upon the

 

29


 

continued support of the U.S. Department of the Treasury and FHFA in order to continue their business operations. These factors, among others, could affect the future status and role of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and the values of their securities and the securities which they guarantee. Additionally, the U.S. government and its agencies and instrumentalities do not guarantee the market value of their securities, which may fluctuate.

More information about the Fund’s portfolio securities and investment techniques, and their associated risks, is provided in Appendix A. You should consider the investment risks discussed in this section and in Appendix A. Both are important to your investment choice.

 

30


 

Service Providers

 

  INVESTMENT ADVISER     

 

Investment Adviser   Fund

Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P. (“GSAM”)

 

Long Short Credit Strategies

200 West Street

 

New York, NY 10282

   
 

GSAM has been registered as an investment adviser with the SEC since 1990 and is an affiliate of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (“Goldman Sachs”). As of December 31, 2013, GSAM, including its investment advisory affiliates, had assets under management of approximately $807.6 billion.

The Investment Adviser provides day-to-day advice regarding the Fund’s portfolio transactions. The Investment Adviser makes the investment decisions for the Fund and places purchase and sale orders for the Fund’s portfolio transactions in U.S. and foreign markets. As permitted by applicable law, these orders may be directed to any executing brokers, dealers, futures commission merchants or clearing brokers, including Goldman Sachs and its affiliates. While the Investment Adviser is ultimately responsible for the management of the Fund, it is able to draw upon the research and expertise of its asset management affiliates for portfolio decisions and management with respect to certain portfolio securities. In addition, the Investment Adviser has access to the research and certain proprietary technical models developed by Goldman Sachs (subject to legal, internal, regulatory and Chinese Wall restrictions), and will apply quantitative and qualitative analysis in determining the appropriate allocations among categories of issuers and types of securities.

The Investment Adviser also performs the following additional services for the Fund:

  ¢   Supervises all non-advisory operations of the Fund
  ¢   Provides personnel to perform necessary executive, administrative and clerical services to the Fund
  ¢   Arranges for the preparation of all required tax returns, reports to shareholders, prospectuses and statements of additional information and other reports filed with the SEC and other regulatory authorities
  ¢   Maintains the records of the Fund
  ¢   Provides office space and all necessary office equipment and services

 

31


  MANAGEMENT FEES AND OTHER EXPENSES     

As compensation for its services and its assumption of certain expenses, the Investment Adviser is entitled to the following fees, computed daily and payable monthly, at the annual rates listed below (as a percentage of the Fund’s average daily net assets):

 

                                                                               
     Contractual
Management Fee
Annual Rate
    Average Daily
Net Assets
Fund:            

Long Short Credit Strategies

    1.00%      First $1 Billion
    0.90%      Next $1 Billion
    0.86%      Next $3 Billion
    0.84%      Next $3 Billion
      0.82%      Over $8 Billion
   

The Investment Adviser may waive a portion of its management fees from time to time, and may discontinue or modify any such waivers in the future, consistent with the terms of any fee waiver arrangement in place.

The Investment Adviser has agreed to reduce or limit “Other Expenses” (excluding acquired fund fees and expenses, transfer agency fees and expenses, taxes, interest, brokerage fees, litigation, indemnification, shareholder meeting and other extraordinary expenses) to 0.204% of average daily net assets for the Fund through at least March 24, 2015, and prior to such date, the Investment Adviser may not terminate the arrangement without the approval of the Board of Trustees. The expense limitation may be modified or terminated by the Investment Adviser at its discretion and without shareholder approval after such date, although the Investment Adviser does not presently intend to do so. The Fund’s “Other Expenses” may be further reduced by any custody and transfer agency fee credits received by the Fund.

A discussion regarding the basis for the Board of Trustees’ approval of the Management Agreement for the Fund will be available in the Fund’s annual report for the period ended March 31, 2014.

 

  FUND MANAGERS     

Liberty Harbor Portfolio Management Team

 

Liberty Harbor is the credit alternatives platform of Goldman Sachs Asset Management and manages approximately $5.0 billion in assets.

The Liberty Harbor team consists of over 25 investment professionals.

 

32


SERVICE PROVIDERS

 

 

Name and Title   Fund Responsibility   Years
Primarily
Responsible
  Five Year Employment History

Salvatore Lentini

Managing Director,

Co-Head Liberty Harbor

 

Portfolio Manager— Long Short Credit Strategies

  Since
2014
*
 

Mr. Lentini is a senior portfolio manager and co-head of the Liberty Harbor team, the credit alternatives platform of Goldman Sachs Asset Management. He oversees the Long Short Credit Strategies Fund and various other opportunistic credit portfolios. He joined the Investment Adviser in 2006.

Brendan McGovern

Managing Director,

Co-Head Liberty Harbor

 

Portfolio Manager— Long Short Credit Strategies

  Since
2014
*
 

Mr. McGovern is a senior portfolio manager and co-head of the Liberty Harbor team, the credit alternatives platform of Goldman Sachs Asset Management. He oversees the Long Short Credit Strategies Fund and various other opportunistic credit portfolios. He joined the Investment Adviser in 2006.

     

 

  * Messrs. Lentini and McGovern also served as portfolio managers of the Predecessor Fund since 2010 and 2013, respectively.

For information about portfolio manager compensation, other accounts managed by the portfolio managers and portfolio manager ownership of securities in the Fund, see the SAI.

 

  DISTRIBUTOR AND TRANSFER AGENT     

Goldman Sachs, 200 West Street, New York, NY 10282, serves as the exclusive distributor (the “Distributor”) of the Fund’s shares. Goldman Sachs, 71 S. Wacker Drive, Chicago, IL 60606, also serves as the Fund’s transfer agent (the “Transfer Agent”) and, as such, performs various shareholder servicing functions.

For its transfer agency services, Goldman Sachs is entitled to receive a transfer agency fee equal, on an annualized basis, to 0.04% of average daily net assets with respect to the Institutional Shares.

From time to time, Goldman Sachs or any of its affiliates may purchase and hold shares of the Fund. Goldman Sachs and its affiliates reserve the right to redeem at any time some or all of the shares acquired for their own accounts.

 

  ACTIVITIES OF GOLDMAN SACHS AND ITS AFFILIATES AND OTHER ACCOUNTS MANAGED BY GOLDMAN SACHS     

The involvement of the Investment Adviser, Goldman Sachs and their affiliates in the management of, or their interest in, other accounts and other activities of Goldman Sachs may present conflicts of interest with respect to the Fund or limit the Fund’s

 

33


investment activities. Goldman Sachs is a worldwide, full service investment banking, broker dealer, asset management and financial services organization and a major participant in global financial markets that provides a wide range of financial services to a substantial and diversified client base that includes corporations, financial institutions, governments and high-net-worth individuals. As such, it acts as an investor, investment banker, research provider, investment manager, financier, adviser, market maker, trader, prime broker, lender, agent and principal. In those and other capacities, Goldman Sachs advises clients in all markets and transactions and purchases, sells, holds and recommends a broad array of investments, including securities, derivatives, loans, commodities, currencies, credit default swaps, indices, baskets and other financial instruments and products for its own account or for the accounts of its customers and has other direct and indirect interests in the global fixed income, currency, commodity, equities, bank loans and other markets in which the Fund directly and indirectly invests. Thus, it is likely that the Fund will have multiple business relationships with and will invest in, engage in transactions with, make voting decisions with respect to, or obtain services from entities for which Goldman Sachs performs or seeks to perform investment banking or other services. The Investment Adviser and/or certain of its affiliates are the managers of the Goldman Sachs Funds. The Investment Adviser and its affiliates earn fees from this and other relationships with the Fund. Although these fees are generally based on asset levels, the fees are not directly contingent on Fund performance, and Goldman Sachs would still receive significant compensation from the Fund even if shareholders lose money. Goldman Sachs and its affiliates engage in proprietary trading and advise accounts and funds which have investment objectives similar to those of the Fund and/or which engage in and compete for transactions in the same types of securities, currencies and instruments as the Fund. Goldman Sachs and its affiliates will not have any obligation to make available any information regarding their proprietary activities or strategies, or the activities or strategies used for other accounts managed by them, for the benefit of the management of the Fund. The results of the Fund’s investment activities, therefore, may differ from those of Goldman Sachs, its affiliates and other accounts managed by Goldman Sachs, and it is possible that the Fund could sustain losses during periods in which Goldman Sachs and its affiliates and other accounts achieve significant profits on their trading for proprietary or other accounts. In addition, the Fund may enter into transactions in which Goldman Sachs or its other clients have an adverse interest. For example, the Fund may take a long position in a security at the same time that Goldman Sachs or other accounts managed by the Investment Adviser take a short position in the same security (or vice versa). These and other transactions undertaken by Goldman Sachs, its affiliates or Goldman Sachs advised clients may, individually or in the aggregate adversely impact the Fund. Transactions by one or more Goldman Sachs advised clients or the Investment Adviser may have the effect of

 

34


SERVICE PROVIDERS

 

diluting or otherwise disadvantaging the values, prices or investment strategies of the Fund. The Fund’s activities may be limited because of regulatory restrictions applicable to Goldman Sachs and its affiliates, and/or their internal policies designed to comply with such restrictions. As a global financial services firm, Goldman Sachs also provides a wide range of investment banking and financial services to issuers of securities and investors in securities. Goldman Sachs, its affiliates and others associated with it may create markets or specialize in, have positions in and effect transactions in, securities of issuers held by the Fund, and may also perform or seek to perform investment banking and financial services for those issuers. Goldman Sachs and its affiliates may have business relationships with and purchase or distribute or sell services or products from or to distributors, consultants or others who recommend the Fund or who engage in transactions with or for the Fund. For more information about conflicts of interest, see the SAI.

The Fund’s Board of Trustees may approve a securities lending program where an affiliate of the Investment Adviser is retained to serve as the securities lending agent for the Fund to the extent that the Fund engages in the securities lending program. For these services, the lending agent may receive a fee from the Fund, including a fee based on the returns earned on the Fund’s investment of the cash received as collateral for the loaned securities. The Board of Trustees periodically reviews all portfolio securities loan transactions for which an affiliated lending agent has acted as lending agent. In addition, the Fund may make brokerage and other payments to Goldman Sachs and its affiliates in connection with the Fund’s portfolio investment transactions, in accordance with applicable law.

 

35


 

Distributions

 

The Fund pays distributions from its investment income and from net realized capital gains. You may choose to have distributions paid in:

  ¢   Cash
  ¢   Additional shares of the same class of the Fund
  ¢   Shares of the same or an equivalent class of another Goldman Sachs Fund. Special restrictions may apply. See the SAI.

You may indicate your election on your account application. Any changes may be submitted in writing, or via telephone, in some instances, to the Transfer Agent (either directly or through your Authorized Institution) at any time before the record date for a particular distribution. If you do not indicate any choice, your distributions will be reinvested automatically in the Fund. Distributions from net investment income are declared daily and paid monthly, and distributions from net capital gains, if any, are declared and paid annually. If cash distributions are elected with respect to the Fund’s distributions from net investment income, then cash distributions must also be elected with respect to the net short-term capital gains component, if any, of the Fund’s annual distributions.

The election to reinvest distributions in additional shares will not affect the tax treatment of such distributions, which will be treated as received by you and then used to purchase the shares.

From time to time a portion of the Fund’s distributions may constitute a return of capital for tax purposes, and/or may include amounts in excess of the Fund’s net investment income for the period calculated in accordance with good accounting practice.

When you purchase shares of the Fund, part of the NAV per share may be represented by undistributed income and/or realized gains that have previously been earned by the Fund. Therefore, subsequent distributions on such shares from such income and/or realized gains may be taxable to you even if the NAV of the shares is, as a result of the distributions, reduced below the cost of such shares and the distributions (or portions thereof) represent a return of a portion of the purchase price.

 

36


 

Shareholder Guide

 

The following section will provide you with answers to some of the most frequently asked questions regarding buying and selling the Fund’s shares.

 

  HOW TO BUY SHARES     

Shares Offering

Shares of the Fund are continuously offered through the Distributor. In addition, certain Authorized Institutions designated by the Fund may be authorized to accept, on behalf of the Fund, purchase and exchange orders and redemption requests placed by or on behalf of their customers, and if approved by the Fund, may designate other financial intermediaries to accept such orders.

The Fund and the Distributor will have the sole right to accept orders to purchase shares and reserve the right to reject any order in whole or in part.

How Can I Purchase Shares Of The Fund?

You may purchase shares of the Fund through certain Authorized Institutions. In order to make an initial investment in the Fund you must furnish to your Authorized Institution the information in the account application.

To open an account, contact your Authorized Institution. Customers of certain Authorized Institutions will normally give their purchase instructions to the Authorized Institution, and the Authorized Institution will, in turn, place purchase orders with Goldman Sachs. Authorized Institutions will set times by which purchase orders and payments must be received by them from their customers.

For purchases by check, the Fund will not accept checks drawn on foreign banks, third party checks, temporary checks, or cash or cash equivalents; e.g. , cashier’s checks, official bank checks, money orders, travelers cheques or credit card checks. In limited situations involving the transfer of retirement assets, the Fund may accept cashier’s checks or official bank checks.

What Is My Minimum Investment In The Fund?

For Institutional Shares, the minimum initial investment is $1,000,000 for individual or Institutional Investors, alone or in combination with other assets under the management of the Investment Adviser and its affiliates, except that no initial minimum will be imposed on (i) Employee Benefit Plans that hold their Institutional Shares through plan-level or omnibus accounts; or (ii) investment advisers investing for accounts for which they receive asset-based fees where the investment adviser or

 

37


its Authorized Institution purchases Institutional Shares through an omnibus account. For this purpose, “Institutional Investors” shall include “wrap” account sponsors (provided they have an agreement covering the arrangement with the Distributor), corporations, qualified non-profit organizations, charitable trusts, foundations and endowments, state, county, city or any instrumentality, department, authority or agency thereof, and banks, trust companies or other depository institutions investing for their own account or on behalf of their clients and “Employee Benefit Plans” shall include Section 401(k), 403(b), 457, profit sharing, money purchase pension, tax-sheltered annuity, defined benefit pension, non-qualified deferred compensation plans and non-qualified pension plans or other employee benefit plans (including health savings accounts) or SIMPLE plans that are sponsored by one or more employers (including governmental or church employers) or employee organizations.

No minimum amount is required for additional investments in Institutional Shares.

The minimum investment requirement for Institutional Shares may be waived for: (i) Goldman Sachs, its affiliates (including Goldman Sachs Trust (the “Trust”)) or their respective Trustees, officers, partners, directors or employees (including retired employees and former partners), as well as certain individuals related to such investors, including spouses or domestic partners, minor children including those of their domestic partners, other family members residing in the same household, and/or financial dependents, provided that all of the above are designated as such with an Authorized Institution or the Fund’s Transfer Agent; (ii) advisory clients of Goldman Sachs Private Wealth Management and accounts for which The Goldman Sachs Trust Company, N.A. acts in a fiduciary capacity ( i.e. , as agent or trustee); (iii) certain mutual fund “wrap” programs at the discretion of the Trust’s officers; and (iv) other investors at the discretion of the Trust’s officers. No minimum amount is required for additional investments in such accounts.

What Should I Know When I Purchase Shares Through An Authorized Institution?

If shares of the Fund are held in an account maintained and serviced by your Authorized Institution, all recordkeeping, transaction processing and payments of distributions relating to your account will be performed by your Authorized Institution, and not by the Fund and its Transfer Agent. Since the Fund will have no record of your transactions, you should contact your Authorized Institution to purchase, redeem or exchange shares, to make changes in or give instructions concerning your account or to obtain information about your account. The transfer of shares from an account with one Authorized Institution to an account with another Authorized Institution involves special procedures and may require you to obtain historical purchase information about the shares in the account from your Authorized

 

38


SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

Institution. If your Authorized Institution’s relationship with Goldman Sachs is terminated, and you do not transfer your account to another Authorized Institution, the Trust reserves the right to redeem your shares. The Trust will not be responsible for any loss in an investor’s account or tax liability resulting from a redemption.

Certain Authorized Institutions may be authorized to accept, on behalf of the Trust, purchase, redemption and exchange orders placed by or on behalf of their customers, and if approved by the Trust, to designate other financial intermediaries to accept such orders. In these cases:

  ¢   The Fund will be deemed to have received an order that is in proper form when the order is accepted by an Authorized Institution on a business day, and the order will be priced at the Fund’s NAV per share (adjusted for any applicable sales charge) next determined after such acceptance.
  ¢   Authorized Institutions are responsible for transmitting accepted orders to the Fund within the time period agreed upon by them.

You should contact your Authorized Institution to learn whether it is authorized to accept orders for the Trust.

Authorized Institutions that invest in shares on behalf of their customers may charge fees directly to their customer accounts in connection with their investments. You should contact your Authorized Institution for information regarding such charges as these fees, if any, may affect the return such customers realize with respect to their investments.

The Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates may make payments or provide services to Authorized Institutions to promote the sale, distribution and/or servicing of shares of the Fund and other Goldman Sachs Funds. These payments are made out of the Investment Adviser’s, Distributor’s and/or their affiliates’ own assets, and are not an additional charge to the Fund. The payments are in addition to the distribution and service fees and sales charges described in this Prospectus. Such payments are intended to compensate Authorized Institutions for, among other things: marketing shares of the Fund and other Goldman Sachs Funds, which may consist of payments relating to the Fund’s inclusion on preferred or recommended fund lists or in certain sales programs sponsored by the Authorized Institutions; access to the Authorized Institutions’ registered representatives or salespersons, including at conferences and other meetings; assistance in training and education of personnel; marketing support; and/or other specified services intended to assist in the distribution and marketing of the Fund and other Goldman Sachs Funds. The payments may also, to the extent permitted by applicable regulations, contribute to various non-cash and cash incentive arrangements to promote the sale of shares, as well as sponsor various educational programs, sales contests and/or promotions. The payments by the Investment

 

39


Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates which are in addition to the fees paid for these services by the Fund, may also compensate Authorized Institutions for sub-accounting, sub-transfer agency, administrative and/or shareholder processing services. These additional payments may exceed amounts earned on these assets by the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates for the performance of these or similar services. The amount of these additional payments is normally not expected to exceed 0.50% (annualized) of the amount sold or invested through the Authorized Institutions. In addition, certain Authorized Institutions may have access to certain services from the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates, including research reports and economic analysis, and portfolio analysis tools. In certain cases, the Authorized Institutions may not pay for these services. Please refer to the “Payments to Intermediaries” section of the SAI for more information about these payments and services.

The payments made by the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates and the services provided by an Authorized Institution may differ for different Authorized Institutions. The presence of these payments, receipt of these services and the basis on which an Authorized Institution compensates its registered representatives or salespersons may create an incentive for a particular Authorized Institution, registered representative or salesperson to highlight, feature or recommend the Fund based, at least in part, on the level of compensation paid. You should contact your Authorized Institution for more information about the payments it receives and any potential conflicts of interest.

What Else Should I Know About Share Purchases?

The Trust reserves the right to:

  ¢   Refuse to open an account or require an Authorized Institution to refuse to open an account if you fail to (i) provide a Social Security Number or other taxpayer identification number; or (ii) certify that such number is correct (if required to do so under applicable law).
  ¢   Reject or restrict any purchase or exchange order by a particular purchaser (or group of related purchasers) for any reason in its discretion. Without limiting the foregoing, the Trust may reject or restrict purchase and exchange orders by a particular purchaser (or group of related purchasers) when a pattern of frequent purchases, sales or exchanges of shares of the Fund is evident, or if purchases, sales or exchanges are, or a subsequent redemption might be, of a size that would disrupt the management of the Fund.
  ¢   Close the Fund to new investors from time to time and reopen the Fund whenever it is deemed appropriate by the Fund’s Investment Adviser.
  ¢   Provide for, modify or waive the minimum investment requirements.
  ¢   Modify the manner in which shares are offered.

 

40


SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

  ¢   Modify the sales charge rate applicable to future purchases of shares.

Shares of the Fund are only registered for sale in the United States and certain of its territories. Generally, shares of the Fund will only be offered or sold to “U.S. persons” and offerings or other solicitation activities will be conducted within the United States, in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (“Securities Act”).

 

The Fund may allow you to purchase shares with securities instead of cash if consistent with the Fund’s investment policies and operations and if approved by the Fund’s Investment Adviser.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Trust and Goldman Sachs reserve the right to reject or restrict purchase or exchange requests from any investor. The Trust and Goldman Sachs will not be liable for any loss resulting from rejected purchase or exchange orders.

Please be advised that abandoned or unclaimed property laws for certain states (to which your account may be subject) require financial organizations to transfer (escheat) unclaimed property (including shares of the Fund) to the appropriate state if no activity occurs in an account for a period of time specified by state law.

Customer Identification Program. Federal law requires the Fund to obtain, verify and record identifying information for certain investors, which will be reviewed solely for customer identification purposes, which may include the name, residential or business street address, date of birth (for an individual), Social Security Number or taxpayer identification number or other information for each investor who opens an account directly with the Fund. Applications without the required information may not be accepted by the Fund. Throughout the life of your account, the Fund may request updated identifying information in accordance with its Customer Identification Program. After accepting an application, to the extent permitted by applicable law or its Customer Identification Program, the Fund reserves the right to: (i) place limits on transactions in any account until the identity of the investor is verified; (ii) refuse an investment in the Fund; or (iii) involuntarily redeem an investor’s shares and close an account in the event that the Fund is unable to verify an investor’s identity or obtain all required information. The Fund and its agents will not be responsible for any loss or tax liability in an investor’s account resulting from the investor’s delay in providing all required information or from closing an account and redeeming an investor’s shares pursuant to the Customer Identification Program.

How Are Shares Priced?

The price you pay when you buy shares is the Fund’s next determined NAV for a share class (as adjusted for any applicable sales charge) after the Fund receives your

 

41


order in proper form. The price you receive when you sell shares is the Fund’s next determined NAV for a share class with the redemption proceeds reduced by any applicable charges ( e.g. , CDSCs) after the Fund receives your order in proper form. Each class calculates its NAV as follows:

 

NAV =  

(Value of Assets of the Class)

– (Liabilities of the Class)

  Number of Outstanding Shares of the Class

The Fund’s investments for which market quotations are readily available are valued at market value on the basis of quotations furnished by a pricing service or provided by securities dealers. If accurate quotations are not readily available, or if the Investment Adviser believes that such quotations do not accurately reflect fair value, the fair value of the Fund’s investments may be determined in good faith, based on yield equivalents, a pricing matrix or other sources, under valuation procedures established by the Board of Trustees. The pricing services may use valuation models or matrix pricing, which considers yield or price with respect to comparable bonds, quotations from bond dealers or by reference to other securities that are considered comparable in such characteristics as rating, interest rate and maturity date, to determine current value. Short-term debt obligations maturing in sixty days or less are valued at amortized cost, which approximates market value. Cases where there is no clear indication of the value of the Fund’s investments include, among others, situations where a security or other asset or liability does not have a price source.

To the extent the Fund invests in foreign equity securities, “fair value” prices are provided by an independent fair value service in accordance with the fair value procedures approved by the Board of Trustees. Fair value prices are used because many foreign markets operate at times that do not coincide with those of the major U.S. markets. Events that could affect the values of foreign portfolio holdings may occur between the close of the foreign market and the time of determining the NAV, and would not otherwise be reflected in the NAV. If the independent fair value service does not provide a fair value price for a particular security, or if the price provided does not meet the established criteria for the Fund, the Fund will price that security at the most recent closing price for that security on its principal exchange.

In addition, the Investment Adviser, consistent with its procedures and applicable regulatory guidance, may (but need not) determine to make an adjustment to the previous closing prices of either domestic or foreign securities in light of significant events, to reflect what it believes to be the fair value of the securities at the time of determining the Fund’s NAV. Significant events that could affect a large number of securities in a particular market may include, but are not limited to: situations relating to one or more single issuers in a market sector; significant fluctuations in U.S. or

 

42


SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

foreign markets; market dislocations; market disruptions or unscheduled market closings; equipment failures; natural or man made disasters or acts of God; armed conflicts; governmental actions or other developments; as well as the same or similar events which may affect specific issuers or the securities markets even though not tied directly to the securities markets. Other significant events that could relate to a single issuer may include, but are not limited to: corporate actions such as reorganizations, mergers and buy-outs; corporate announcements, including those relating to earnings, products and regulatory news; significant litigation; ratings downgrades; bankruptcies; and trading suspensions.

One effect of using an independent fair value service and fair valuation may be to reduce stale pricing arbitrage opportunities presented by the pricing of Fund shares. However, it involves the risk that the values used by the Fund to price its investments may be different from those used by other investment companies and investors to price the same investments.

Investments in other open-end registered investment companies (if any), excluding investments in ETFs, are valued based on the NAV of those open-end registered investment companies (which may use fair value pricing as discussed in their prospectuses).

Please note the following with respect to the price at which your transactions are processed:

  ¢   NAV per share of each share class is generally calculated by the accounting agent on each business day as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (normally 4:00 p.m. Eastern time) or such other times as the New York Stock Exchange or bond market may officially close. This occurs after the determination, if any, of the income to be declared as a dividend. Fund shares will generally not be priced on any day the New York Stock Exchange is closed, although Fund shares may be priced on such days if the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association (“SIFMA”) recommends that the bond markets remain open for all or part of the day.
  ¢   On any business day when the SIFMA recommends that the bond markets close early, the Fund reserves the right to close at or prior to the SIFMA recommended closing time. If the Fund does so, it will cease granting same business day credit for purchase and redemption orders received after the Fund’s closing time and credit will be given on the next business day.
  ¢   The Trust reserves the right to reprocess purchase (including dividend reinvestments), redemption and exchange transactions that were processed at a NAV that is subsequently adjusted, and to recover amounts from (or distribute amounts to) shareholders accordingly based on the official closing NAV, as adjusted.

 

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  ¢   The Trust reserves the right to advance the time by which purchase and redemption orders must be received for same business day credit as otherwise permitted by the SEC.

Consistent with industry practice, investment transactions not settling on the same day are recorded and factored into the Fund’s NAV on the business day following trade date (T+1). The use of T+1 accounting generally does not, but may, result in a NAV that differs materially from the NAV that would result if all transactions were reflected on their trade dates.

Note: The time at which transactions and shares are priced and the time by which orders must be received may be changed in case of an emergency or if regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange and/or bond markets is stopped at a time other than in its regularly scheduled closing time. In the event the New York Stock Exchange and/or the bond markets do not open for business, the Trust may, but is not required to, open the Fund for purchase, redemption and exchange transactions if the Federal Reserve wire payment system is open. To learn whether the Fund is open for business during this situation, please call the appropriate phone number located on the back cover of this Prospectus.

Foreign securities may trade in their local markets on days the Fund is closed. As a result, if the Fund holds foreign securities, its NAV may be impacted on days when investors may not purchase or redeem Fund shares.

When Will Shares Be Issued And Dividends Begin To Be Accrued?

  ¢   Shares Purchased by Federal Funds Wire or ACH Transfer:
  ¢   If a purchase order is received in proper form before the Fund closes, shares will generally be issued and dividends will generally begin to accrue on the purchased shares on the later of (i) the business day after the payment order is received, or (ii) the day that the federal funds wire is received by The Northern Trust Company. Failure to provide payment on settlement date may result in a delay in accrual.
  ¢   If a purchase order is placed through an Authorized Institution that settles through the National Securities Clearing Corporation (the “NSCC”), the purchase order will begin accruing dividends on the NSCC settlement date.
  ¢   Shares Purchased by Check:
  ¢   If a purchase order is received in proper form before the Fund closes, shares will generally be issued and dividends will generally begin to accrue on the purchased shares no later than two business days after payment is received.

 

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  HOW TO SELL SHARES     

How Can I Sell Shares Of The Fund?

Generally, Shares may be sold (redeemed) through your Authorized Institution. Customers of an Authorized Institution will normally give their redemption instructions to the Authorized Institution, and the Authorized Institution will, in turn, place redemption orders with the Fund. Redemptions may be requested by electronic trading platform (through your Authorized Institution), in writing or by telephone (unless the Authorized Institution opts out of the telephone redemption privilege on the account application). The Fund will generally redeem its Shares upon request on any business day when the Fund is open at the NAV next determined after receipt of such request in proper form, subject to any applicable CDSC. You should contact your Authorized Institution to discuss redemptions and redemption proceeds. Certain Authorized Institutions are authorized to accept redemption requests on behalf of the Fund as described under “How to Buy Shares—Shares Offering.” The Fund may transfer redemption proceeds to an account with your Authorized Institution. In the alternative, your Authorized Institution may request that redemption proceeds be sent to you by check or wire (if the wire instructions are designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent).

Generally, any redemption request that requires money to go to an account or address other than that designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent must be in writing and signed by an authorized person with a Medallion signature guarantee. The written request may be confirmed by telephone with both the requesting party and the designated bank to verify instructions. Other restrictions may apply in these situations.

When Do I Need A Medallion Signature Guarantee To Redeem Shares?

A Medallion signature guarantee may be required if:

  ¢   You would like the redemption proceeds sent to an address that is not your address of record; or
  ¢   You would like the redemption proceeds sent to a domestic bank account that is not designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent.

A Medallion signature guarantee must be obtained from a bank, brokerage firm or other financial intermediary that is a member of an approved Medallion Guarantee Program or that is otherwise approved by the Trust. A notary public cannot provide a Medallion signature guarantee. Additional documentation may be required.

What Do I Need To Know About Telephone Redemption Requests?

The Trust, the Distributor and the Transfer Agent will not be liable for any loss or tax liability you may incur in the event that the Trust accepts unauthorized telephone redemption requests that the Trust reasonably believes to be genuine. The Trust may

 

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accept telephone redemption instructions from any person identifying himself or herself as the owner of an account or the owner’s registered representative where the owner has not declined in writing to use this service. Authorized Institutions may submit redemption requests by telephone. Thus, you risk possible losses if a telephone redemption is not authorized by you.

In an effort to prevent unauthorized or fraudulent redemption and exchange requests by telephone, Goldman Sachs and Boston Financial Data Services, Inc. (“BFDS”) each employ reasonable procedures specified by the Trust to confirm that such instructions are genuine. If reasonable procedures are not employed, the Trust may be liable for any loss due to unauthorized or fraudulent transactions. The following general policies are currently in effect:

  ¢   Telephone requests are recorded.
  ¢   Proceeds of telephone redemption requests will be sent to your address of record or authorized account designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent (unless you provide written instructions and a Medallion signature guarantee indicating another address or account).
  ¢   For the 30-day period following a change of address, telephone redemptions will only be filled by a wire transfer to the authorized account designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent (see immediately preceding bullet point). In order to receive the redemption by check during this time period, the redemption request must be in the form of a written, Medallion signature guaranteed letter.
  ¢   The telephone redemption option does not apply to Shares held in an account maintained and serviced by your Authorized Institution. If your Shares are held in an account with an Authorized Institution, you should contact your registered representative of record, who may make telephone redemptions on your behalf.
  ¢   The telephone redemption option may be modified or terminated at any time without prior notice.

Note: It may be difficult to make telephone redemptions in times of unusual economic or market conditions.

How Are Redemption Proceeds Paid?

By Wire:   You may arrange for your redemption proceeds to be paid as federal funds to an account with your Authorized Institution or to a domestic bank account designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent. In addition, redemption proceeds may be transmitted through an electronic trading platform to an account with

 

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your Authorized Institution. The following general policies govern wiring redemption proceeds:

  ¢   Redemption proceeds will normally be paid on the next business day in federal funds, but may be paid up to three business days following receipt of a properly executed wire transfer redemption request.
  ¢   Although redemption proceeds will normally be paid as described above, under certain circumstances, redemption requests or payments may be postponed or suspended as permitted under Section 22(e) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the “Investment Company Act”). Generally, under that section, redemption requests or payments may be postponed or suspended if (i) the New York Stock Exchange is closed for trading or trading is restricted; (ii) an emergency exists which makes the disposal of securities owned by the Fund or the fair determina- tion of the value of the Fund’s net assets not reasonably practicable; or (iii) the SEC, by order or regulation, permits the suspension of the right of redemption.
  ¢   If you are selling shares you recently paid for by check or purchased by Automated Clearing House (“ACH”), the Fund will pay you when your check or ACH has cleared, which may take up to 15 days.
  ¢   If the Federal Reserve Bank is closed on the day that the redemption proceeds would ordinarily be wired, wiring the redemption proceeds may be delayed until the Federal Reserve Bank reopens.
  ¢   To change the bank wiring instructions designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent, you must send written instructions signed by an authorized person designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent. A Medallion signature guarantee may be required if you are requesting a redemption in conjunction with the change.
  ¢   None of the Trust, the Investment Adviser or Goldman Sachs assumes any responsibility for the performance of your bank or any other financial intermediary in the transfer process. If a problem with such performance arises, you should deal directly with your bank or such financial intermediary.

By Check:   You may elect to receive redemption proceeds by check. Redemption proceeds paid by check will normally be mailed to the address of record within three business days of receipt of a properly executed redemption request. If you are selling shares you recently paid for by check or ACH, the Fund will pay you when your check or ACH has cleared, which may take up to 15 days.

What Else Do I Need To Know About Redemptions?

The following generally applies to redemption requests:

  ¢   Additional documentation may be required when deemed appropriate by the Transfer Agent. A redemption request will not be in proper form until such additional documentation has been received.

 

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  ¢   Authorized Institutions are responsible for the timely transmittal of redemption requests by their customers to the Transfer Agent. In order to facilitate the timely transmittal of redemption requests, Authorized Institutions may set times by which they must receive redemption requests. Authorized Institutions may also require additional documentation from you.

The Trust reserves the right to:

  ¢   Redeem your shares in the event your Authorized Institution’s relationship with Goldman Sachs is terminated, and you do not transfer your account to another Authorized Institution with a relationship with Goldman Sachs or in the event that the Fund is no longer an option in your Employee Benefit Plan or no longer available through your Eligible Fee-Based Program. For this purpose, “Eligible Fee-Based Program” shall mean an account established under a fee-based program that is sponsored and maintained by an Authorized Institution and that is approved by Goldman Sachs.
  ¢   Redeem your shares if your account balance is below the required Fund minimum. The Fund will not redeem your shares on this basis if the value of your account falls below the minimum account balance solely as a result of market conditions. The Fund will give you 60 days prior written notice to allow you to purchase sufficient additional shares of the Fund in order to avoid such redemption. Different rules may apply to investors who have established brokerage accounts with Goldman Sachs in accordance with the terms and conditions of their account agreements.
  ¢   Subject to applicable law, redeem your shares in other circumstances determined by the Board of Trustees to be in the best interest of the Trust.
  ¢   Pay redemptions by a distribution in-kind of securities (instead of cash). If you receive redemption proceeds in-kind, you should expect to incur transaction costs upon the disposition of those securities.
  ¢  

Reinvest any amounts ( e.g., dividends, distributions or redemption proceeds) which you have elected to receive by check should your check remain uncashed for more than 180 days. No interest will accrue on amounts represented by uncashed checks. Your check will be reinvested in your account at the NAV on the day of the reinvestment. When reinvested, those amounts are subject to the risk of loss like any Fund investment. If you elect to receive distributions in cash and a check remains uncashed for more than 180 days, your cash election may be changed automatically to reinvest and your future dividend and capital gains distributions will be reinvested in the Fund at the NAV as of the date of payment of the distribution. This provision may not apply to certain retirement or qualified accounts, accounts with a non-U.S. address or closed accounts. Your participation

 

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in a systematic withdrawal program may be terminated if a check remain uncashed.

  ¢   Charge an additional fee in the event a redemption is made via wire transfer.

None of the Trust, the Investment Adviser or Goldman Sachs will be responsible for any loss in an investor’s account or tax liability resulting from an involuntary redemption.

Can I Reinvest Redemption Proceeds In The Same Or Another Goldman Sachs Fund?

You may redeem shares of the Fund and reinvest a portion or all of the redemption proceeds (plus any additional amounts needed to round off purchases to the nearest full share) at NAV. To be eligible for this privilege, you must have held the shares you want to redeem for at least 30 days and you must reinvest the share proceeds within 90 days after you redeem. You should obtain and read the applicable prospectus before investing in any other Goldman Sachs Fund.

You may reinvest redemption proceeds as follows:

  ¢   The reinvestment privilege may be exercised at any time in connection with transactions in which the proceeds are reinvested at NAV in a tax-sheltered Employee Benefit Plan. In other cases, the reinvestment privilege may be exercised once per year upon receipt of a written request.
  ¢   You may be subject to tax as a result of a redemption. You should consult your tax adviser concerning the tax consequences of a redemption and reinvestment.

Can I Exchange My Investment From One Goldman Sachs Fund To Another Goldman Sachs Fund?

You may exchange shares of a Goldman Sachs Fund at NAV without the imposition of an initial sales charge or CDSC, if applicable, at the time of exchange for certain shares of another Goldman Sachs Fund. Redemption (including by exchange) of certain Goldman Sachs Funds offered in other prospectuses may, however, be subject to a redemption fee for shares that are held for either 30 or 60 days or less, subject to certain exceptions as described in those Goldman Sachs Funds’ prospectuses. The exchange privilege may be materially modified or withdrawn at any time upon 60 days written notice. You should contact your Authorized Institution to arrange for exchanges of shares of the Fund for shares of another Goldman Sachs Fund.

You should keep in mind the following factors when making or considering an exchange:

  ¢   You should obtain and carefully read the prospectus of the Goldman Sachs Fund you are acquiring before making an exchange. You should be aware that not all Goldman Sachs Funds may offer all share classes.

 

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  ¢   Currently, the Fund does not impose any charge for exchanges, although the Fund may impose a charge in the future.
  ¢   Eligible investors may exchange certain classes of shares for another class of shares of the same Fund. For further information, contact your Authorized Institution.
  ¢   All exchanges which represent an initial investment in a Goldman Sachs Fund must satisfy the minimum initial investment requirement of that Fund. This requirement may be waived at the discretion of the Trust. Exchanges into the Fund need not meet the traditional minimum investment requirement for that Fund if the entire balance of the original Fund account is exchanged.
  ¢   Exchanges are available only in states where exchanges may be legally made.
  ¢   It may be difficult to make telephone exchanges in times of unusual economic or market conditions.
  ¢   Goldman Sachs and BFDS may use reasonable procedures described under “What Do I Need To Know About Telephone Redemption Requests?” in an effort to prevent unauthorized or fraudulent telephone exchange requests.
  ¢   Normally, a telephone exchange will be made only to an identically registered account.
  ¢   Exchanges into Goldman Sachs Funds or certain share classes of Goldman Sachs Funds that are closed to new investors may be restricted.
  ¢   Exchanges into the Fund from another Goldman Sachs Fund may be subject to any redemption fee imposed by the other Goldman Sachs Fund.
  ¢   Exchanges into the Fund from another Goldman Sachs Fund received by the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange will normally begin to accrue dividends on the next business day.

For federal income tax purposes, an exchange from one Goldman Sachs Fund to another is treated as a redemption of the shares surrendered in the exchange, on which you may be subject to tax, followed by a purchase of shares received in the exchange. Exchanges within Employee Benefit Plan accounts will not result in capital gains or loss for federal or state income tax purposes. You should consult your tax adviser concerning the tax consequences of an exchange.

 

  SHAREHOLDER SERVICES     

Can My Distributions From The Fund Be Invested In Other Goldman Sachs Funds?

You may elect to cross-reinvest distributions paid by a Goldman Sachs Fund in shares of the same class of other Goldman Sachs Funds.

  ¢   Shares will be purchased at NAV.

 

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  ¢   You may elect to cross-reinvest into an identically registered account or a similarly registered account provided that at least one name on the account is registered identically.
  ¢   You cannot make cross-reinvestments into a Goldman Sachs Fund unless that Fund’s minimum initial investment requirement is met.
  ¢   You should obtain and read the prospectus of the Goldman Sachs Fund into which distributions are invested.

What Types Of Reports Will I Be Sent Regarding My Investment?

Authorized Institutions are responsible for providing any communication from the Fund to shareholders, including but not limited to, prospectuses, prospectus supplements, proxy materials and notices regarding the source of dividend payments under Section 19 of the Investment Company Act. They may charge additional fees not described in this Prospectus to their customers for such services.

You will be provided with a printed confirmation of each transaction in your account and a monthly account statement. If your account is held through your Authorized Institution, you will receive this information from your Authorized Institution.

You will also receive an annual shareholder report containing audited financial statements and a semi-annual shareholder report. If you have consented to the delivery of a single copy of shareholder reports, prospectuses and other information to all shareholders who share the same mailing address with your account, you may revoke your consent at any time by contacting your Authorized Institution or Goldman Sachs Funds at the appropriate phone number found on the back cover of this Prospectus. The Fund will begin sending individual copies to you within 30 days after receipt of your revocation. If your account is held through an Authorized Institution, please contact the Authorized Institution to revoke your consent.

 

  RESTRICTIONS ON EXCESSIVE TRADING PRACTICES     

Policies and Procedures on Excessive Trading Practices.   In accordance with the policy adopted by the Board of Trustees, the Trust discourages frequent purchases and redemptions of Fund shares and does not permit market timing or other excessive trading practices. Purchases and exchanges should be made with a view to longer-term investment purposes only that are consistent with the investment policies and practices of the Fund. Excessive, short-term (market timing) trading practices may disrupt portfolio management strategies, increase brokerage and administrative costs, harm Fund performance and result in dilution in the value of Fund shares held by longer-term shareholders. The Trust and Goldman Sachs reserve the right to reject or restrict purchase or exchange requests from any investor. The Trust and Goldman

 

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Sachs will not be liable for any loss resulting from rejected purchase or exchange orders. To minimize harm to the Trust and its shareholders (or Goldman Sachs), the Trust (or Goldman Sachs) will exercise this right if, in the Trust’s (or Goldman Sachs’) judgment, an investor has a history of excessive trading or if an investor’s trading, in the judgment of the Trust (or Goldman Sachs), has been or may be disruptive to the Fund. In making this judgment, trades executed in multiple accounts under common ownership or control may be considered together to the extent they can be identified. No waivers of the provisions of the policy established to detect and deter market timing and other excessive trading activity are permitted that would harm the Trust or its shareholders or would subordinate the interests of the Trust or its shareholders to those of Goldman Sachs or any affiliated person or associated person of Goldman Sachs.

To deter excessive shareholder trading, certain Goldman Sachs Funds offered in other prospectuses impose a redemption fee on redemptions made within 30 or 60 days of purchase subject to certain exceptions as described in those Goldman Sachs Funds’ prospectuses. As a further deterrent to excessive trading, many foreign equity securities held by the Goldman Sachs Funds are priced by an independent pricing service using fair valuation. For more information on fair valuation, please see “How To Buy Shares—How Are Shares Priced?”

Pursuant to the policy adopted by the Board of Trustees of the Trust, Goldman Sachs has developed criteria that it uses to identify trading activity that may be excessive. Excessive trading activity in the Fund is measured by the number of “round trip” transactions in a shareholder’s account. A “round trip” includes a purchase or exchange into the Fund followed or preceded by a redemption or exchange out of the same Fund. If the Fund detects that a shareholder has completed two or more round trip transactions in a single Fund within a rolling 90-day period, the Fund may reject or restrict subsequent purchase or exchange orders by that shareholder permanently. In addition, the Fund may, in its sole discretion, permanently reject or restrict purchase or exchange orders by a shareholder if the Fund detects other trading activity that is deemed to be disruptive to the management of the Fund or otherwise harmful to the Fund. For purposes of these transaction surveillance procedures, the Fund may consider trading activity in multiple accounts under common ownership, control, or influence. A shareholder that has been restricted from participation in the Fund pursuant to this policy will be allowed to apply for re-entry after one year. A shareholder applying for re-entry must provide assurances acceptable to the Fund that the shareholder will not engage in excessive trading activities in the future.

Goldman Sachs may modify its surveillance procedures and criteria from time to time without prior notice regarding the detection of excessive trading or to address specific

 

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circumstances. Goldman Sachs will apply the criteria in a manner that, in Goldman Sachs’ judgment, will be uniform.

Fund shares may be held through omnibus arrangements maintained by Authorized Institutions such as broker-dealers, investment advisers and insurance companies. In addition, Fund shares may be held in omnibus Employee Benefit Plans, Eligible Fee-Based Programs and other group accounts. Omnibus accounts include multiple investors and such accounts typically provide the Fund with a net purchase or redemption request on any given day where the purchases and redemptions of Fund shares by the investors are netted against one another. The identity of individual investors whose purchase and redemption orders are aggregated are ordinarily not tracked by the Fund on a regular basis. A number of these Authorized Institutions may not have the capability or may not be willing to apply the Fund’s market timing policies or any applicable redemption fee. While Goldman Sachs may monitor share turnover at the omnibus account level, the Fund’s ability to monitor and detect market timing by shareholders or apply any applicable redemption fee in these omnibus accounts may be limited in certain circumstances, and certain of these Authorized Institutions may charge the Fund a fee for providing certain shareholder financial information requested as part of the Fund’s surveillance process. The netting effect makes it more difficult to identify, locate and eliminate market timing activities. In addition, those investors who engage in market timing and other excessive trading activities may employ a variety of techniques to avoid detection. There can be no assurance that the Fund and Goldman Sachs will be able to identify all those who trade excessively or employ a market timing strategy, and curtail their trading in every instance. If necessary, the Trust may prohibit additional purchases of Fund shares by an Authorized Institution or by certain customers of the Authorized Institution. Authorized Institutions may also monitor their customers’ trading activities in the Fund. The criteria used by Authorized Institutions to monitor for excessive trading may differ from the criteria used by the Fund. If an Authorized Institution fails to cooperate in the implementation or enforcement of the Trust’s excessive trading policies, the Trust may take certain actions including terminating the relationship.

 

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Taxation

 

As with any investment, you should consider how your investment in the Fund will be taxed. The tax information below is provided as general information. More tax information is available in the SAI. You should consult your tax adviser about the federal, state, local or foreign tax consequences of your investment in the Fund. Except as otherwise noted, the tax information provided assumes that you are a U.S. citizen or resident.

Unless your investment is through an Employee Benefit Plan or other tax-advantaged account, you should carefully consider the possible tax consequences of Fund distributions and the sale of your Fund shares.

 

  DISTRIBUTIONS     

The Fund contemplates declaring as dividends each year all or substantially all of its taxable income. Distributions you receive from the Fund are generally subject to federal income tax, and may also be subject to state or local taxes. This is true whether you reinvest your distributions in additional Fund shares or receive them in cash. For federal tax purposes, Fund distributions attributable to net investment income and short-term capital gains are taxable to you as ordinary income, while any distributions of long-term capital gains are taxable to you as long-term capital gains, no matter how long you have owned your Fund shares.

Under current provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), the maximum individual rate applicable to long-term capital gains is generally either 15% or 20%, depending on whether the individual’s income exceeds certain threshold amounts. The preferential rates described above also apply to certain qualifying dividend income, but Fund distributions will not qualify for that favorable treatment and will also not qualify for the corporate dividends received deduction because the Fund will be earning interest income rather than dividend income.

An additional 3.8% Medicare tax is imposed on certain net investment income (including ordinary dividends and capital gain distributions received from the Fund and net gains from redemptions or other taxable dispositions of Fund shares) of U.S. individuals, estates and trusts to the extent that such person’s “modified adjusted gross income” (in the case of an individual) or “adjusted gross income” (in the case of an estate or trust) exceeds certain threshold amounts.

The Fund’s transactions in derivatives (such as futures contracts and swaps) will be subject to special tax rules, the effect of which may be to accelerate income to the

 

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TAXATION

 

Fund, defer losses to the Fund, cause adjustments in the holding periods of the Fund’s securities and convert short-term capital losses into long-term capital losses. These rules could therefore affect the amount, timing and character of distributions to you. The Fund’s use of derivatives may result in the Fund realizing more short-term capital gains and ordinary income subject to tax at ordinary income tax rates than it would if it did not use derivatives.

Although distributions are generally treated as taxable to you in the year they are paid, distributions declared in October, November or December but paid in January are taxable as if they were paid in December. The character and tax status of all distributions will be available to shareholders after the close of each calendar year.

If you buy shares of the Fund before it makes a distribution, the distribution will be taxable to you even though it may actually be a return of a portion of your investment. This is known as “buying into a dividend.”

The Fund may be subject to foreign withholding or other foreign taxes on income or gain from certain foreign securities. In general, the Fund may deduct these taxes in computing its taxable income.

 

  SALES AND EXCHANGES     

Your sale of Fund shares is a taxable transaction for federal income tax purposes, and may also be subject to state and local taxes. For tax purposes, the exchange of your Fund shares for shares of a different Goldman Sachs Fund is the same as a sale. When you sell your shares, you will generally recognize a capital gain or loss in an amount equal to the difference between your adjusted tax basis in the shares and the amount received. Generally, this capital gain or loss will be long-term or short-term depending on whether your holding period for the shares exceeds one year, except that any loss realized on shares held for six months or less will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent of any long-term capital gain dividends that were received on the shares. Additionally, any loss realized on a sale, exchange or redemption of shares of the Fund may be disallowed under “wash sale” rules to the extent the shares disposed of are replaced with other shares of the Fund within a period of 61 days beginning 30 days before and ending 30 days after the date of disposition (such as pursuant to a dividend reinvestment in shares of the Fund.) If disallowed, the loss will be reflected in an adjustment to the basis of the shares acquired.

 

  OTHER INFORMATION     

When you open your account, you should provide your Social Security Number or Tax Identification Number on your account application. By law, the Fund must

 

55


withhold 28% of your taxable distributions and any redemption proceeds if you do not provide your correct taxpayer identification number, or certify that it is correct, or if the IRS instructs the Fund to do so.

Non-U.S. investors are generally subject to U.S. withholding tax with respect to dividends received from the Fund and may be subject to estate tax with respect to their Fund shares. However, withholding is generally not required on properly designated distributions to non-U.S. investors of long-term capital gains, or, for distributions before September 1, 2014, of short-term capital gains and qualified interest income. Although this designation will be made for capital gain distributions, the Fund does not anticipate making any qualified interest income designations. Therefore, all distributions of interest income will be subject to withholding when paid to non-U.S. investors.

Effective July 1, 2014, the Fund will be required to withhold U.S. tax (at a 30% rate) on payments of dividends and, effective January 1, 2017, on redemption proceeds and certain capital gain dividends made to certain non-U.S. entities that fail to comply (or be deemed compliant) with extensive new reporting and withholding requirements designed to inform the U.S. Department of the Treasury of U.S.-owned foreign investment accounts. Shareholders may be requested to provide additional information to enable the Fund to determine whether withholding is required.

The Fund is required to report to you and the IRS annually on Form 1099-B not only the gross proceeds of Fund shares you sell or redeem but also, for shares purchased on or after January 1, 2012, their cost basis.  Cost basis will be calculated using the Fund’s default method of average cost, unless you instruct   the Fund to use a different methodology.  If you would like to use the average cost method of calculation, no action is required. To elect an alternative method, you should contact Goldman Sachs Funds at the address or phone number on the back cover of this Prospectus. If your account is held with an Authorized Institution, contact your representative with respect to reporting of cost basis and available elections for your account.

You should carefully review the cost basis information provided by the Fund and make any additional basis, holding period or other adjustments that are required when reporting these amounts on your federal income tax returns.

 

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Appendix A

Additional Information on Portfolio Risks, Securities and Techniques

 

  A.    General Portfolio Risks     

The Fund will be subject to the risks associated with fixed income securities. These risks include interest rate risk, credit/default risk and call/extension risk. In general, interest rate risk involves the risk that when interest rates decline, the market value of fixed income securities tends to increase (although many mortgage-related securities will have less potential than other debt securities for capital appreciation during periods of declining rates). Conversely, when interest rates increase, the market value of fixed income securities tends to decline. Credit/default risk involves the risk that an issuer or guarantor could default on its obligations, and the Fund will not recover its investment. Call risk and extension risk are normally present in adjustable rate mortgage loans (“ARMs”), mortgage-backed securities and asset-backed securities. For example, homeowners have the option to prepay their mortgages. Therefore, the duration of a security backed by home mortgages can either shorten (call risk) or lengthen (extension risk). In general, if interest rates on new mortgage loans fall sufficiently below the interest rates on existing outstanding mortgage loans, the rate of prepayment would be expected to increase. Conversely, if mortgage loan interest rates rise above the interest rates on existing outstanding mortgage loans, the rate of prepayment would be expected to decrease. In either case, a change in the prepayment rate can result in losses to investors. The same would be true of asset-backed securities such as securities back by car loans.

To the extent the Fund invests in pooled investment vehicles (including investment companies and ETFs) and partnerships, the Fund will be affected by the investment policies, practices and performances of such entities in direct proportion to the amount of assets the Fund invests therein.

To the extent the Fund’s net assets decrease or increase in the future due to price volatility or share redemption or purchase activity, the Fund’s expense ratio may correspondingly increase or decrease from the expense ratio disclosed in this Prospectus.

The Investment Adviser will not consider the portfolio turnover rate a limiting factor in making investment decisions for the Fund. A high rate of portfolio turnover (100% or more) involves correspondingly greater expenses which must be borne by the Fund and its shareholders and is also likely to result in higher short-term capital gains taxable to certain shareholders. The portfolio turnover rate is calculated by dividing

 

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the lesser of the dollar amount of sales or purchases of portfolio securities by the average monthly value of the Fund’s portfolio securities, excluding securities having a maturity at the date of purchase of one year or less.

The Fund’s duration approximates its price sensitivity to changes in interest rates. For example, suppose that interest rates in one day fall by one percent which, in turn, causes yields on every bond in the market to fall by the same amount. In this example, the price of a bond with a duration of three years may be expected to rise approximately three percent and the price of a bond with a five year duration may be expected to rise approximately five percent. The converse is also true. Suppose interest rates in one day rise by one percent which, in turn, causes yields on every bond in the market to rise by the same amount. In this second example, the price of a bond with a duration of three years may be expected to fall approximately three percent and the price of a bond with a five year duration may be expected to fall approximately five percent. The longer the duration of a bond, the more sensitive the bond’s price is to changes in interest rates. In computing portfolio duration, the Fund will estimate the duration of obligations that are subject to prepayment or redemption by the issuer, taking into account the influence of interest rates on prepayments and coupon flows. This method of computing duration is known as “option-adjusted” duration. The Fund will not be limited as to its maximum weighted average portfolio maturity or the maximum stated maturity with respect to individual securities unless otherwise noted. The Fund may invest in credit instruments of any maturity or duration and will not be managed for maturity or any target duration. The Investment Adviser may use derivative instruments to manage the duration of the Fund’s investment portfolio. These derivative instruments may include futures contracts, options on futures contracts and swap transactions, as well as other types of derivatives, and can be used to shorten or lengthen the duration of the Fund.

Maturity measures the time until final payment is due; it takes no account of the pattern of a security’s cash flows over time. In calculating maturity, the Fund may determine the maturity of a variable or floating rate obligation according to its interest rate reset date, or the date principal can be recovered on demand, rather than the date of ultimate maturity. Similarly, to the extent that a fixed income obligation has a call, refunding or redemption provision, the date on which the instrument is expected to be called, refunded or redeemed may be considered to be its maturity date. There is no guarantee that the expected call, refund or redemption will occur, and the Fund’s average maturity may lengthen beyond the Investment Adviser’s expectations should the expected call, refund or redemption not occur.

The Fund’s investments in derivative instruments, including financial futures contracts, options and swaps, can be significant. These transactions can result in

 

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sizeable realized and unrealized capital gains and losses relative to the gains and losses from the Fund’s investments in bonds and other securities. Short-term and long-term realized capital gains distributions paid by the Fund are taxable to its shareholders.

Interest rates, fixed income securities prices, the prices of futures and other derivatives, and currency exchange rates can be volatile, and a variance in the degree of volatility or in the direction of the market from the Investment Adviser’s expectations may produce significant losses in the Fund’s investments in derivatives. In addition, a perfect correlation between a derivatives position and a fixed income security position is generally impossible to achieve. As a result, the Investment Adviser’s use of derivatives may not be effective in fulfilling the Investment Adviser’s investment strategies and may contribute to losses that would not have been incurred otherwise.

As discussed below, the Fund may invest in credit default swaps and loan credit default swaps, which are derivative instruments.

Financial futures contracts used by the Fund include interest rate futures contracts including, among others, Eurodollar futures contracts. Eurodollar futures contracts are U.S. dollar-denominated futures contracts that are based on the implied forward London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) of a three-month deposit. Further information is included in this Prospectus regarding futures contracts, swaps and other derivative instruments used by the Fund, including information on the risks presented by these instruments and other purposes for which they may be used by the Fund.

The following sections provide further information on certain types of securities and investment techniques that may be used by the Fund, including their associated risks. Additional information is provided in the SAI, which is available upon request. Among other things, the SAI describes certain fundamental investment restrictions that cannot be changed without shareholder approval. You should note, however, that all investment objectives and all investment policies not specifically designated as fundamental are non-fundamental, and may be changed without shareholder approval. If there is a change in the Fund’s investment objective, you should consider whether the Fund remains an appropriate investment in light of your then current financial position and needs.

 

  B.    Other Portfolio Risks     

Credit/Default Risks.   Debt securities purchased by the Fund may include U.S. Government Securities (including zero coupon bonds) and securities issued by foreign governments, domestic and foreign corporations, banks and other issuers. Some of

 

59


these fixed income securities are described in the next section below. Further information is provided in the SAI.

Debt securities rated BBB– or higher by Standard & Poor’s, or Baa3 or higher by Moody’s or having a comparable rating by another NRSRO are considered “investment grade.” Securities rated BBB– or Baa3 are considered medium-grade obligations with speculative characteristics, and adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances may weaken their issuers’ capacity to pay interest and repay principal.

The Fund may invest in fixed income securities rated BB+ or Ba1 or below (or comparable unrated securities) which are commonly referred to as “junk bonds.” Junk bonds are considered speculative and may be questionable as to principal and interest payments.

In some cases, junk bonds may be highly speculative, have poor prospects for reaching investment grade standing and be in default. As a result, investment in such bonds will present greater speculative risks than those associated with investment in investment grade bonds. Also, to the extent that the rating assigned to a security in the Fund’s portfolio is downgraded by a rating organization, the market price and liquidity of such security may be adversely affected.

Risks of Derivative Investments.   The Fund may invest in derivative instruments including, without limitation, options, futures, options on futures, swaps, interest rate caps, floors and collars, structured securities and forward contracts and other derivatives relating to foreign currency transactions. Investments in derivative instruments may be for both hedging and nonhedging purposes (that is, to seek to increase total return), although suitable derivative instruments may not always be available to an Investment Adviser for these purposes. Losses from investments in derivative instruments can result from a lack of correlation between changes in the value of derivative instruments and the portfolio assets (if any) being hedged, the potential illiquidity of the markets for derivative instruments, the failure of the counterparty to perform its contractual obligations, or the risks arising from margin requirements and related leverage factors associated with such transactions. Losses may also arise if the Fund receives cash collateral under the transactions and some or all of that collateral is invested in the market. To the extent that cash collateral is so invested, such collateral will be subject to market depreciation or appreciation, and the Fund may be responsible for any loss that might result from its investment of the counterparty’s cash collateral. The use of these management techniques also involves the risk of loss if the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its expectation of the timing or level of fluctuations in securities prices, interest rates or currency prices. Investments in derivative instruments may be harder to value, subject to greater volatility and more

 

60


APPENDIX A

 

likely subject to changes in tax treatment than other investments. For these reasons, the Investment Adviser’s attempts to hedge portfolio risk through the use of derivative instruments may not be successful, and the Investment Adviser may choose not to hedge certain portfolio risks. Investing for nonhedging purposes presents even greater risk of loss.

Derivative mortgage-backed securities (such as principal-only (“POs”), interest-only (“IOs”) or inverse floating rate securities) are particularly exposed to call and extension risks. Small changes in mortgage prepayments can significantly impact the cash flow and the market value of these securities. In general, the risk of faster than anticipated prepayments adversely affects IOs, super floaters and premium priced mortgage-backed securities. The risk of slower than anticipated prepayments generally adversely affects POs, floating-rate securities subject to interest rate caps, support tranches and discount priced mortgage-backed securities. In addition, particular derivative securities may be leveraged such that their exposure ( i.e. , price sensitivity) to interest rate and/or prepayment risk is magnified.

 

Some floating-rate derivative debt securities can present more complex types of derivative and interest rate risks. For example, range floaters are subject to the risk that the coupon will be reduced below market rates if a designated interest rate floats outside of a specified interest rate band or collar. Dual index or yield curve floaters are subject to lower prices in the event of an unfavorable change in the spread between two designated interest rates.

Risk of Equity Swap Transactions.   In a standard “swap” transaction, two parties agree to exchange the returns, differentials in rates of return or some other amount earned or realized on a particular predetermined asset (or group of assets) which may be adjusted for transaction costs, interest payments, dividends paid on the reference asset or other factors. The gross returns to be exchanged or “swapped” between the parties are generally calculated with respect to a “notional amount,” for example, the increase or decrease in value of a particular dollar amount invested in the asset.

Equity swaps may be structured in different ways. For example, when the Fund takes a long position, a counterparty may agree to pay the Fund the amount, if any, by which the notional amount of the equity swap would have increased in value had it been invested in a particular stock (or group of stocks), plus the dividends that would have been received on the stock. In these cases, the Fund may agree to pay to the counterparty interest on the notional amount of the equity swap plus the amount, if any, by which that notional amount would have decreased in value had it been invested in such stock (or group of stocks). Therefore, in this case the return to the Fund on the equity swap should be the gain or loss on the notional amount plus dividends on the stock less the interest paid by the Fund on the notional amount. In

 

61


other cases, when the Fund takes a short position, a counterparty may agree to pay the Fund the amount, if any, by which the notional amount of the equity swap would have decreased in value had the Fund sold a particular stock (or group of stocks) short, less the dividend expense that the Fund would have paid on the stock (or group of stocks), as adjusted for interest payments or other economic factors.

Under an equity swap, payments may be made at the conclusion of the equity swap or periodically during its term. Sometimes, however, the Investment Adviser may be able to terminate a swap contract prior to its term, subject to any potential termination fee that is in addition to the Fund’s accrued obligations under the swap.

Equity swaps are derivatives and their value can be very volatile. To the extent that the Investment Adviser does not accurately analyze and predict future market trends, the values of assets or economic factors, or the creditworthiness of the counterparty, the Fund may suffer a loss, which may be substantial.

Risks of Foreign Investments.   The Fund may make foreign investments. Foreign investments involve special risks that are not typically associated with U.S. dollar denominated or quoted securities of U.S. issuers. Foreign investments may be affected by changes in currency rates, changes in foreign or U.S. laws or restrictions applicable to such investments and changes in exchange control regulations ( e.g. , currency blockage). A decline in the exchange rate of the currency ( i.e. , weakening of the currency against the U.S. dollar) in which a portfolio security is quoted or denominated relative to the U.S. dollar would reduce the value of the portfolio security. In addition, if the currency in which the Fund receives dividends, interest or other payments declines in value against the U.S. dollar before such income is distributed as dividends to shareholders or converted to U.S. dollars, the Fund may have to sell portfolio securities to obtain sufficient cash to pay such dividends.

Brokerage commissions, custodial services and other costs relating to investment in international securities markets generally are more expensive than in the United States. In addition, clearance and settlement procedures may be different in foreign countries and, in certain markets, such procedures have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions, thus making it difficult to conduct such transactions.

Foreign issuers are not generally subject to uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards comparable to those applicable to U.S. issuers. There may be less publicly available information about a foreign issuer than a U.S. issuer. In addition, there is generally less government regulation of foreign markets, companies and securities dealers than in the United States, and the legal remedies for investors may be more limited than the remedies available in the United States. Foreign securities

 

62


APPENDIX A

 

markets may have substantially less volume than U.S. securities markets and securities of many foreign issuers are less liquid and more volatile than securities of comparable domestic issuers. Furthermore, with respect to certain foreign countries, there is a possibility of nationalization, expropriation or confiscatory taxation, imposition of withholding or other taxes on dividend or interest payments (or, in some cases, capital gains distributions), limitations on the removal of funds or other assets from such countries, and risks of political or social instability or diplomatic developments which could adversely affect investments in those countries.

Concentration of the Fund’s assets in one or a few countries and currencies will subject the Fund to greater risks than if the Fund’s assets were not so geographically concentrated.

Risks of Sovereign Debt.   Investment in sovereign debt obligations by the Fund involves risks not present in debt obligations of corporate issuers. The issuer of the debt or the governmental authorities that control the repayment of the debt may be unable or unwilling to repay principal or interest when due in accordance with the terms of such debt, and the Fund may have limited recourse to compel payment in the event of a default. Periods of economic uncertainty may result in the volatility of market prices of sovereign debt, and in turn the Fund’s NAV, to a greater extent than the volatility inherent in debt obligations of U.S. issuers.

A sovereign debtor’s willingness or ability to repay principal and pay interest in a timely manner may be affected by, among other factors, its cash flow situation, the extent of its foreign currency reserves, the availability of sufficient foreign exchange on the date a payment is due, the relative size of the debt service burden to the economy as a whole, the sovereign debtor’s policy toward international lenders, and the political constraints to which a sovereign debtor may be subject.

Foreign Custody Risk.   The Fund may hold foreign securities with foreign banks, agents, and securities depositories appointed by the Fund’s custodian (each a “Foreign Custodian”). Some Foreign Custodians may be recently organized or new to the foreign custody business. In some countries, Foreign Custodians may be subject to little or no regulatory oversight over or independent evaluation of their operations. Further, the laws of certain countries may place limitations on the Fund’s ability to recover its assets if a Foreign Custodian enters bankruptcy.

Risks of Illiquid Securities.   The Fund may invest up to 15% of its net assets in illiquid securities which cannot be disposed of in seven days in the ordinary course of business at fair value. Illiquid securities in which the Fund may invest include:

 

  ¢   Both domestic and foreign securities that are not readily marketable
  ¢  

Certain municipal leases and participation interests

 

63


  ¢   Certain stripped mortgage-backed securities
  ¢   Repurchase agreements and time deposits with a notice or demand period of more than seven days
  ¢   Certain over-the-counter options
  ¢   Certain structured securities and swap transactions
  ¢   Certain Senior Loans and Second Lien Loans
  ¢   Certain CDOs, CBOs, CLOs, bank obligations, non-investment grade securities and other credit instruments
  ¢   Certain restricted securities, unless it is determined, based upon a review of the trading markets for a specific restricted security, that such restricted security is liquid because it is so-called “4(2) commercial paper” or is otherwise eligible for resale pursuant to Rule 144A under the Securities Act (“144A Securities”).

Investing in 144A Securities may decrease the liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio to the extent that qualified institutional buyers become for a time uninterested in purchasing these restricted securities. The purchase price and subsequent valuation of restricted and illiquid securities normally reflect a discount, which may be significant, from the market price of comparable securities for which a liquid market exists.

Investments purchased by the Fund, particularly debt securities and over-the-counter traded instruments, that are liquid at the time of purchase may subsequently become illiquid due to events relating to the issuer of the securities, markets events, economic conditions or investor perceptions. Domestic and foreign markets are becoming more and more complex and interrelated, so that events in one sector of the market or the economy, or in one geographical region, can reverberate and have negative consequences for other market, economic or regional sectors in a manner that may not be reasonably foreseen. With respect to over-the-counter traded securities, the continued viability of any over-the-counter secondary market depends on the continued willingness of dealers and other participants to purchase the instruments.

If one or more instruments in the Fund’s portfolio become illiquid, the Fund may exceed its 15 percent limitation in illiquid instruments. In the event that changes in the portfolio or other external events cause the investments in illiquid instruments to exceed 15 percent of the Fund’s net assets, the Fund must take steps to bring the aggregate amount of illiquid instruments back within the prescribed limitations as soon as reasonably practicable. This requirement would not force the Fund to liquidate any portfolio instrument where the Fund would suffer a loss on the sale of that instrument.

In cases where no clear indication of the value of the Fund’s portfolio instruments is available, the portfolio instruments will be valued at their fair value according to the valuation procedures approved by the Board of Trustees. These cases include, among

 

64


APPENDIX A

 

others, situations where a security or other asset or liability does not have a price source, or the secondary markets on which an investment has previously been traded are no longer viable due to its lack of liquidity. For more information on fair valuation, please see “Shareholder Guide—How to Buy Shares—How Are Shares Priced?”

Risks of Structured Investment Vehicles.   Structured Investment Vehicles (“SIVs”) are legal entities that are sponsored by banks, broker-dealers or other financial firms specifically created for the purpose of issuing particular securities or instruments. SIVs are often leveraged and securities issued by SIVs may have differing credit preferences. Investments in SIVs present counterparty risks, although they may be subject to a guarantee or other financial support by the sponsoring entity. Investments in SIVs may be more volatile, less liquid and more difficult to price accurately than other types of investments.

Temporary Investment Risks.   The Fund may, for temporary defensive purposes, invest up to 100% of its total assets in:

  ¢   U.S. Government Securities
  ¢   Commercial paper rated at least A-2 by Standard & Poor’s, P-2 by Moody’s or having a comparable rating by another NRSRO (or, if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable credit quality)
  ¢   Certificates of deposit
  ¢   Bankers’ acceptances
  ¢   Repurchase agreements
  ¢   Non-convertible preferred stocks and non-convertible corporate bonds with a remaining maturity of less than one year
  ¢   ETFs
  ¢   Other investment companies
  ¢   Cash items

When the Fund’s assets are invested in such instruments, the Fund may not be achieving its investment objective.

Risks of Large Shareholder Redemptions.    Certain funds, accounts, individuals or Goldman Sachs affiliates may from time to time own (beneficially or of record) or control a significant percentage of the Fund’s shares. Redemptions by these funds, accounts or individuals of their holdings in the Fund may impact the Fund’s liquidity and NAV. These redemptions may also force the Fund to sell securities, which may negatively impact the Fund’s brokerage and tax costs.

Risks of Short Selling.   The Fund may engage in short selling. In these transactions, the Fund sells a security it does not own in anticipation of a decline in the market value of the security, then must borrow the security to make delivery to the buyer. The

 

65


Fund is obligated to replace the security borrowed by purchasing it at the market price at the time of replacement. The price at such time may be more or less than the price at which the security was sold by the Fund, which may result in a loss or gain, respectively. Unlike purchasing a security, where potential losses are limited to the purchase price and there is no upside limit on potential gain, short sales involve no cap on maximum losses, while gains are limited to the price of the security at the time of the short sale.

The Fund may, during the term of any short sale, withdraw the cash proceeds of such short sale and use these cash proceeds to purchase additional securities or for any other Fund purposes. Because cash proceeds are Fund assets which are typically used to satisfy the collateral requirements for the short sale, the reinvestment of these cash proceeds may require the Fund to post as collateral other securities that it owns. If the Fund reinvests the cash proceeds, the Fund might be required to post an amount greater than its net assets (but less than its total assets) as collateral. For these or other reasons, the Fund might be required to liquidate long and short positions at times or in amounts that may be disadvantageous to the Fund.

The Fund may make short sales against the box, in which the Fund enters into a short sale of a security which it owns or has the right to obtain at no additional cost.

 

  C.    Portfolio Securities and Techniques     

This section provides further information on certain types of securities and investment techniques that may be used by the Fund, including their associated risks.

The Fund may purchase other types of securities or instruments similar to those described in this section if otherwise consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and policies. Further information is provided in the SAI, which is available upon request.

U.S. Government Securities.   The Fund may invest in U.S. Government Securities. U.S. Government Securities include U.S. Treasury obligations and obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. U.S. Government Securities may be supported by (i) the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury; (ii) the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury; (iii) the discretionary authority of the U.S. government to purchase certain obligations of the issuer; or (iv) only the credit of the issuer. U.S. Government Securities also include Treasury receipts, zero coupon bonds and other stripped U.S. Government Securities where the interest and principal components are traded independently. U.S. Government Securities may also include Treasury inflation-protected securities whose principal value is periodically adjusted according to the rate of inflation.

 

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APPENDIX A

 

U.S. Treasury obligations include, among other things, the separately traded principal and interest components of securities guaranteed or issued by the U.S. Treasury if such components are traded independently under the Separate Trading of Registered Interest and Principal of Securities program (“STRIPS”).

U.S. Government Securities are deemed to include (i) securities for which the payment of principal and interest is backed by an irrevocable letter of credit issued by the U.S. government, its agencies, authorities or instrumentalities; and (ii) participations in loans made to foreign governments or their agencies that are so guaranteed. Certain of these participations may be regarded as illiquid.

U.S. Government Securities have historically involved little risk of loss of principal if held to maturity. However, no assurance can be given that the U.S. government will be able or willing to repay the principal or interest when due or will provide financial support to U.S. government agencies, authorities, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises if it is not obligated to do so by law.

Custodial Receipts and Trust Certificates.   The Fund may invest in custodial receipts and trust certificates representing interests in securities held by a custodian or trustee. The securities so held may include U.S. Government Securities, Municipal Securities or other types of securities in which the Fund may invest. The custodial receipts or trust certificates may evidence ownership of future interest payments, principal payments or both on the underlying securities, or, in some cases, the payment obligation of a third party that has entered into an interest rate swap or other arrangement with the custodian or trustee. For certain securities laws purposes, custodial receipts and trust certificates may not be considered obligations of the U.S. government or other issuer of the securities held by the custodian or trustee. If for tax purposes the Fund is not considered to be the owner of the underlying securities held in the custodial or trust account, the Fund may suffer adverse tax consequences. As a holder of custodial receipts and trust certificates, the Fund will bear its proportionate share of the fees and expenses charged to the custodial account or trust. The Fund may also invest in separately issued interests in custodial receipts and trust certificates.

Mortgage-Backed Securities.   The Fund may invest in mortgage-backed securities. Mortgage-backed securities represent direct or indirect participations in, or are collateralized by and payable from, mortgage loans secured by real property. Mortgage-backed securities can be backed by either fixed rate mortgage loans or adjustable rate mortgage loans, and may be issued by either a governmental or non-governmental entity. The value of some mortgage-backed securities may be particularly sensitive to changes in prevailing interest rates. The value of these securities may also fluctuate in response to the market’s perception of the creditworthiness of the issuers. Early repayment of principal

 

67


on mortgage- or asset-backed securities may expose the Fund to the risk of earning a lower rate of return upon reinvestment of principal.

The Fund may invest in privately-issued mortgage pass-through securities that represent interests in pools of mortgage loans that are issued by trusts formed by originators of and institutional investors in mortgage loans (or represent interests in custodial arrangements administered by such institutions). These originators and institutions include commercial banks, savings and loans associations, credit unions, savings banks, mortgage bankers, insurance companies, investment banks or special purpose subsidiaries of the foregoing. The pools underlying privately-issued mortgage pass-through securities consist of mortgage loans secured by mortgages or deeds of trust creating a first lien on commercial, residential, residential multi-family and mixed residential/commercial properties. These mortgage-backed securities typically do not have the same credit standing as U.S. government guaranteed mortgage-backed securities.

Privately-issued mortgage pass-through securities generally offer a higher yield than similar securities issued by a government entity because of the absence of any direct or indirect government or agency payment guarantees. However, timely payment of interest and principal on mortgage loans in these pools may be supported by various other forms of insurance or guarantees, including individual loan, pool and hazard insurance, subordination and letters of credit. Such insurance and guarantees may be issued by private insurers, banks and mortgage poolers. There is no assurance that private guarantors or insurers, if any, will meet their obligations. Mortgage-backed securities without insurance or guarantees may also be purchased by the Fund if they have the required rating from an NRSRO. Some mortgage-backed securities issued by private organizations may not be readily marketable, may be more difficult to value accurately and may be more volatile than similar securities issued by a government entity.

Mortgage-backed securities may include multiple class securities, including collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”) and Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit (“REMIC”) pass-through or participation certificates. A REMIC is a CMO that qualifies for special tax treatment under the Code and invests in certain mortgages principally secured by interests in real property and other permitted investments. CMOs provide an investor with a specified interest in the cash flow from a pool of underlying mortgages or of other mortgage-backed securities. CMOs are issued in multiple classes each with a specified fixed or floating interest rate and a final scheduled distribution date. In many cases, payments of principal are applied to the CMO classes in the order of their respective stated maturities, so that no principal payments will be

 

68


APPENDIX A

 

made on a CMO class until all other classes having an earlier stated maturity date are paid in full.

Sometimes, however, CMO classes are “parallel pay,” i.e., payments of principal are made to two or more classes concurrently. In some cases, CMOs may have the characteristics of a stripped mortgage-backed security whose price can be highly volatile. CMOs may exhibit more or less price volatility and interest rate risk than other types of mortgage-backed securities, and under certain interest rate and payment scenarios, the Fund may fail to recoup fully its investment in certain of these securities regardless of their credit quality.

To the extent the Fund concentrates its investments in pools of mortgage-backed securities sponsored by the same sponsor or serviced by the same servicer, it may be subject to additional risks. Servicers of mortgage-related pools collect payments on the underlying mortgage assets for pass-through to the pool on a periodic basis. Upon insolvency of the servicer, the pool may be at risk with respect to collections received by the servicer but not yet delivered to the pool.

Mortgaged-backed securities also include stripped mortgage-backed securities (“SMBS”), which are derivative multiple class mortgage-backed securities. SMBS are usually structured with two different classes: one that receives substantially all of the interest payments and the other that receives substantially all of the principal payments from a pool of mortgage loans. The market value of SMBS consisting entirely of principal payments generally is unusually volatile in response to changes in interest rates. The yields on SMBS that receive all or most of the interest from mortgage loans are generally higher than prevailing market yields on other mortgage-backed securities because their cash flow patterns are more volatile and there is a greater risk that the initial investment will not be fully recouped. Throughout 2008, the market for mortgage-backed securities began experiencing substantially, often dramatically, lower valuations and greatly reduced liquidity. Markets for other asset-backed securities have also been affected. These instruments are increasingly subject to liquidity constraints, price volatility, credit downgrades and unexpected increases in default rates and, therefore, may be more difficult to value and more difficult to dispose of than previously. These events may have an adverse effect on the Fund to the extent it invests in mortgage-backed or other fixed income securities or instruments affected by the volatility in the fixed income markets.

Asset-Backed Securities.   The Fund may invest in asset-backed securities. Asset-backed securities are securities whose principal and interest payments are collateralized by pools of assets such as auto loans, credit card receivables, leases, installment contracts and personal property. Asset-backed securities may also include home equity line of credit loans and other second-lien mortgages. Asset-backed securities

 

69


are often subject to more rapid repayment than their stated maturity date would indicate as a result of the pass-through of prepayments of principal on the underlying loans. During periods of declining interest rates, prepayment of loans underlying asset-backed securities can be expected to accelerate. Accordingly, the Fund’s ability to maintain positions in such securities will be affected by reductions in the principal amount of such securities resulting from prepayments, and its ability to reinvest the returns of principal at comparable yields is subject to generally prevailing interest rates at that time. Asset-backed securities present credit risks that are not presented by mortgage-backed securities. This is because asset-backed securities generally do not have the benefit of a security interest in collateral that is comparable to mortgage assets. Some asset-backed securities have only a subordinated claim or security interest in collateral. If the issuer of an asset-backed security defaults on its payment obligations, there is the possibility that, in some cases, the Fund will be unable to possess and sell the underlying collateral and that the Fund’s recoveries on repossessed collateral may not be available to support payments on the securities. In the event of a default, the Fund may suffer a loss if it cannot sell collateral quickly and receive the amount it is owed. The value of some asset-backed securities may be particularly sensitive to changes in the prevailing interest rates. There is no guarantee that private guarantors or insurers of an asset-backed security, if any, will meet their obligations. Asset-backed securities may also be subject to increased volatility and may become illiquid and more difficult to value even when there is no default or threat of default due to the market’s perception of the creditworthiness of the issuers and market conditions impacting asset-backed securities more generally.

 

Municipal Securities.   The Fund may invest in securities and instruments issued by state and local government issuers. Municipal Securities in which the Fund may invest consist of bonds, notes, commercial paper and other instruments (including participation interests in such securities) issued by or on behalf of the states, territories and possessions of the United States (including the District of Columbia) and their political subdivisions, agencies or instrumentalities. Such securities may pay fixed, variable or floating rates of interest. The interest on tax-free Municipal Securities will normally be exempt from regular federal income tax (i.e., excluded from gross income for federal income tax purposes but not necessarily exempt from federal alternative minimum tax or from state or local taxes). Because of their tax-exempt status, the yields and market values of Municipal Securities may be more adversely impacted by changes in tax rates and policies than taxable fixed income securities.

Municipal Securities include both “general” obligation and “revenue” bonds and may be issued to obtain funds for various purposes. General obligations are secured by the issuer’s pledge of its full faith, credit and taxing power. Revenue obligations are payable only from the revenues derived from a particular facility or class of facilities.

 

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APPENDIX A

 

Municipal Securities are often issued to obtain funds for various public purposes, including the construction of a wide range of public facilities such as bridges, highways, housing, hospitals, mass transportation, schools, streets and water and sewer works. Other purposes for which Municipal Securities may be issued include refunding outstanding obligations, obtaining funds for general operating expenses, and obtaining funds to lend to other public institutions and facilities. Municipal Securities in which the Fund may invest include private activity bonds, pre-refunded municipal securities and auction rate securities.

The obligations of the issuer to pay the principal of and interest on a Municipal Security are subject to the provisions of bankruptcy, insolvency and other laws affecting the rights and remedies of creditors, such as the Federal Bankruptcy Act, and laws, if any, that may be enacted by Congress or state legislatures extending the time for payment of principal or interest or imposing other constraints upon the enforcement of such obligations. There is also the possibility that, as a result of litigation or other conditions, the power or ability of the issuer to pay when due the principal of or interest on a Municipal Security may be materially affected.

In addition, Municipal Securities include municipal leases, certificates of participation and “moral obligation” bonds. A municipal lease is an obligation issued by a state or local government to acquire equipment or facilities. Certificates of participation represent interests in municipal leases or other instruments, such as installment purchase agreements. Moral obligation bonds are supported by a moral commitment but not a legal obligation of a state or local government. Municipal leases, certificates of participation and moral obligation bonds frequently involve special risks not normally associated with general obligation or revenue bonds. In particular, these instruments permit governmental issuers to acquire property and equipment without meeting constitutional and statutory requirements for the issuance of debt. If, however, the governmental issuer does not periodically appropriate money to enable it to meet its payment obligations under these instruments, it cannot be legally compelled to do so. If a default occurs, it is likely that the Fund would be unable to obtain another acceptable source of payment. Some municipal leases, certificates of participation and moral obligation bonds may be illiquid.

Municipal Securities may also be in the form of a tender option bond, which is a Municipal Security (generally held pursuant to a custodial arrangement) having a relatively long maturity and bearing interest at a fixed rate substantially higher than prevailing short-term, tax-exempt rates. The bond is typically issued with the agreement of a third party, such as a bank, broker-dealer or other financial institution, which grants the security holders the option, at periodic intervals, to tender their securities to the institution. After payment of a fee to the financial institution that

 

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provides this option, the security holder effectively holds a demand obligation that bears interest at the prevailing short-term, tax-exempt rate. An institution may not be obligated to accept tendered bonds in the event of certain defaults or a significant downgrading in the credit rating assigned to the issuer of the bond. The tender option will be taken into account in determining the maturity of the tender option bonds and the Fund’s duration. There is risk that the Fund will not be considered the owner of a tender option bond for federal income tax purposes, and thus will not be entitled to treat such interest as exempt from federal income tax. Certain tender option bonds may be illiquid.

Municipal Securities may be backed by letters of credit or other forms of credit enhancement issued by domestic or foreign banks or by other financial institutions. The deterioration of the credit quality of these banks and financial institutions could, therefore, cause a loss to the Fund. Letters of credit and other obligations of foreign banks and financial institutions may involve risks in addition to those of domestic obligations because of less publicly available financial and other information, less securities regulation, potential imposition of foreign withholding and other taxes, war, expropriation or other adverse governmental actions. Foreign banks and their foreign branches are not regulated by U.S. banking authorities, and are generally not bound by the accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards applicable to U.S. banks.

New Types of Instruments.   From time to time the instruments discussed in this Prospectus have been, and may in the future be, offered having features other than those described herein. The Fund reserves the right to invest in these instruments and newly created instruments if the Investment Adviser believes that doing so would be consistent with the Fund’s investment objectives and policies.

Brady Bonds and Similar Instruments.   The Fund may invest in debt obligations commonly referred to as “Brady Bonds.” Brady Bonds are created through the exchange of existing commercial bank loans to foreign borrowers for new obligations in connection with debt restructurings under a plan introduced by former U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, Nicholas F. Brady (the “Brady Plan”).

Brady Bonds involve various risk factors including the history of defaults with respect to commercial bank loans by public and private entities of countries issuing Brady Bonds. There can be no assurance that Brady Bonds in which the Fund may invest will not be subject to restructuring arrangements or to requests for new credit, which may cause the Fund to suffer a loss of interest or principal on its holdings.

In addition, the Fund may invest in other interests issued by entities organized and operated for the purpose of restructuring the investment characteristics of instruments issued by emerging country issuers. These types of restructuring involve the deposit

 

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with or purchase by an entity of specific instruments and the issuance by that entity of one or more classes of securities backed by, or representing interests in, the underlying instruments. Certain issuers of such structured securities may be deemed to be “investment companies” as defined in the Investment Company Act. As a result, the Fund’s investment in such securities may be limited by certain investment restrictions contained in the Investment Company Act.

Corporate Debt Obligations, Trust Preferred Securities and Convertible Securities.   The Fund may invest in corporate debt obligations, trust preferred securities and convertible securities. Corporate debt obligations include bonds, notes, debentures, commercial paper and other obligations of corporations to pay interest and repay principal. A trust preferred security is a long dated bond (for example, 30 years) with preferred features. The preferred features are that payment of interest can be deferred for a specified period without initiating a default event. The securities are generally senior in claim to standard preferred stock but junior to other bondholders. The Fund may also invest in other short-term obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. corporations, non-U.S. corporations or other entities.

Convertible securities are preferred stock or debt obligations that are convertible into common stock. Convertible securities generally offer lower interest or dividend yields than non-convertible securities of similar quality. Convertible securities have both equity and fixed income risk characteristics. Like all fixed income securities, the value of convertible securities is susceptible to the risk of market losses attributable to changes in interest rates. Generally, the market value of convertible securities tends to decline as interest rates increase and, conversely, to increase as interest rates decline. However, when the market price of the common stock underlying a convertible security exceeds the conversion price of the convertible security, the convertible security tends to reflect the market price of the underlying common stock. As the market price of the underlying common stock declines, the convertible security, like a fixed income security, tends to trade increasingly on a yield basis, and thus may not decline in price to the same extent as the underlying common stock.

Bank Obligations.   The Fund may invest in obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. or foreign banks. Bank obligations, including without limitation, time deposits, bankers’ acceptances and certificates of deposit, may be general obligations of the parent bank or may be limited to the issuing branch by the terms of the specific obligations or by government regulations. Banks are subject to extensive but different governmental regulations which may limit both the amount and types of loans which may be made and interest rates which may be charged. In addition, the profitability of the banking industry is largely dependent upon the availability and cost of funds for the purpose of financing lending operations under prevailing money market

 

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conditions. General economic conditions as well as exposure to credit losses arising from possible financial difficulties of borrowers play an important part in the operation of this industry.

Foreign Currency Transactions.   The Fund may, to the extent consistent with its investment policies, purchase or sell foreign currencies on a cash basis or through forward contracts. A forward contract involves an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date at a price set at the time of the contract.

The Fund may engage in foreign currency transactions for hedging purposes and to seek to protect against anticipated changes in future foreign currency exchange rates. In addition, the Fund may enter into foreign currency transactions to seek a closer correlation between the Fund’s overall currency exposures and the currency exposures of the Fund’s performance benchmark. The Fund may also enter into such transactions to seek to increase total return, which presents additional risk.

The Fund may also engage in cross-hedging by using forward contracts in a currency different from that in which the hedged security is denominated or quoted. The Fund may hold foreign currency received in connection with investments in foreign securities when, in the judgment of the Investment Adviser, it would be beneficial to convert such currency into U.S. dollars at a later date ( e.g. , the Investment Adviser may anticipate the foreign currency to appreciate against the U.S. dollar).

The Fund may, from time to time, engage in non-deliverable forward transactions to manage currency risk or to gain exposure to a currency without purchasing securities denominated in that currency. A non-deliverable forward is a transaction that represents an agreement between the Fund and a counterparty (usually a commercial bank) to buy or sell a specified (notional) amount of a particular currency at an agreed upon foreign exchange rate on an agreed upon future date. If the counterparty defaults, the Fund will have contractual remedies pursuant to the agreement related to the transaction, but the Fund may be delayed or prevented from obtaining payments owed to it pursuant to non-deliverable forward transactions.

 

Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time, causing, along with other factors, the Fund’s NAV to fluctuate (when the Fund’s NAV fluctuates, the value of your shares may go up or down). Currency exchange rates also can be affected unpredictably by the intervention of U.S. or foreign governments or central banks, or the failure to intervene, or by currency controls or political developments in the United States or abroad.

The market in forward foreign currency exchange contracts, currency swaps and other privately negotiated currency instruments offers less protection against defaults by the other party to such instruments than is available for currency instruments traded on an

 

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APPENDIX A

 

exchange. Such contracts are subject to the risk that the counterparty to the contract will default on its obligations. Since these contracts are not guaranteed by an exchange or clearinghouse, a default on a contract would deprive the Fund of unrealized profits, transaction costs or the benefits of a currency hedge or could force the Fund to cover its purchase or sale commitments, if any, at the current market price.

The Fund is not required to post cash collateral with its non-U.S. counterparties in certain foreign currency transactions. Accordingly, the Fund may remain more fully invested (and more of the Fund’s assets may be subject to investment and market risk) than if it were required to post collateral with its counterparties (which is the case with U.S. counterparties). Because the Fund’s non-U.S. counterparties are not required to post cash collateral with the Fund, the Fund will be subject to additional counterparty risk.

As an investment company registered with the SEC, the Fund must identify on its books (often referred to as “asset segregation”) liquid assets, or engage in other appropriate measures, to “cover” open positions with respect to its transactions in forward contracts. In the case of forward contracts that do not cash settle, for example, the Fund must identify on its books liquid assets equal to the full notional value of the forward contracts while the positions are open. With respect to forward contracts that do cash settle, however, the Fund is permitted to identify liquid assets in an amount equal to the Fund’s daily marked-to-market net obligations ( i.e. , the Fund’s daily net liability) under the forward contracts, if any, rather than their full notional value. The Fund reserves the right to modify its asset segregation policies in the future in its discretion. By identifying assets equal to only its net obligations under cash-settled forward contracts, the Fund will have the ability to employ leverage to a greater extent than if the Fund were required to identify assets equal to the full notional amount of the forward contracts.

Collateralized Debt Obligations.   The Fund may invest in CDOs, which include CBOs, CLOs and other similarly structured securities. CBOs and CLOs are types of asset-backed securities. A CBO is a trust which is backed by a diversified pool of high risk, below investment grade fixed income securities. A CLO is a trust typically collateralized by a pool of loans, which may include, among others, domestic and foreign senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans, and subordinate corporate loans, including loans that may be rated below investment grade or equivalent unrated loans. CDOs may charge management fees and other administrative expenses.

For both CBOs and CLOs, the cash flows from the trust are split into two or more portions, called tranches, varying in risk and yield. The riskiest portion is the “equity” tranche which bears the bulk of defaults from the bonds or loans in the trust and serves to protect the other, more senior tranches from default in all but the most severe

 

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circumstances. Since it is partially protected from defaults, a senior tranche from a CBO trust or CLO trust typically has higher ratings and lower yields than its underlying securities, and can be rated investment grade. Despite the protection from the equity tranche, CBO or CLO tranches can experience substantial losses due to actual defaults, increased sensitivity to defaults due to collateral default and disappearance of protecting tranches, market anticipation of defaults, as well as aversion to CBO or CLO securities as a class.

The risks of an investment in a CDO depend largely on the type of the collateral securities and the class of the CDO in which the Fund invests. Normally, CBOs, CLOs and CDOs are privately offered and sold, and thus, are not registered under the securities laws. As a result, investments in CDOs may be characterized by the Fund as illiquid securities. However, an active dealer market may exist for CDOs that qualify under the Rule 144A “safe harbor” from the registration requirements of the Securities Act for resales of certain securities to qualified institutional buyers, and such CDOs may be characterized by the Fund as liquid securities. In addition to the normal risks associated with fixed income securities discussed elsewhere in this Prospectus (e.g., interest rate risk and default risk), CDOs carry additional risks including, but not limited to, the risk that: (i) distributions from collateral securities may not be adequate to make interest or other payments; (ii) the quality of the collateral may decline in value or default; (iii) the Fund may invest in CDOs that are subordinate to other classes; and (iv) the complex structure of the security may not be fully understood at the time of investment and may produce disputes with the issuer or unexpected investment results.

Structured Securities and Inverse Floaters.   The Fund may invest in structured securities. Structured securities are securities whose value is determined by reference to changes in the value of specific currencies, securities, interest rates, commodities, indices or other financial indicators (the “Reference”) or the relative change in two or more References. Investments in structured securities may provide exposure to certain securities or markets in situations where regulatory or other restrictions prevent direct investments in such issuers or markets.

The interest rate or the principal amount payable upon maturity or redemption may be increased or decreased depending upon changes in the applicable Reference. Structured securities may be positively or negatively indexed, so that appreciation of the Reference may produce an increase or decrease in the interest rate or value of the security at maturity. In addition, changes in the interest rates or the value of the security at maturity may be a multiple of changes in the value of the Reference effectively leveraging the Fund’s investment so that small changes in the value of the reference may result in disproportionate gains or losses to the Fund. Consequently, structured

 

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APPENDIX A

 

securities may present a greater degree of market risk than many types of securities and may be more volatile, less liquid and more difficult to price accurately than less complex securities. Structured securities are also subject to the risk that the issuer of the structured securities may fail to perform its contractual obligations. Certain issuers of structured products may be deemed to be investment companies as defined in the Investment Company Act. As a result, the Fund’s investments in structured securities may be subject to the limits applicable to investments in other investment companies.

Structured securities may also include credit linked notes. Credit linked notes are securities with embedded credit default swaps. An investor holding a credit linked note generally receives a fixed or floating coupon and the note’s par value upon maturity, unless the referred credit defaults or declares bankruptcy, in which case the investor receives the amount recovered. In effect, investors holding credit linked notes receive a higher yield in exchange for assuming the risk of a specified credit event.

Structured securities may also include inverse floating rate debt securities (“inverse floaters”). The interest rate on inverse floaters resets in the opposite direction from the market rate of interest to which the inverse floater is indexed. An inverse floater may be considered to be leveraged to the extent that its interest rate varies by a magnitude that exceeds the magnitude of the change in the index rate of interest. The higher the degree of leverage of an inverse floater, the greater the volatility of its market value.

Floating and Variable Rate Obligations.   The Fund may purchase floating and variable rate obligations. The value of these obligations is generally more stable than that of a fixed rate obligation in response to changes in interest rate levels. The issuers or financial intermediaries providing demand features may support their ability to purchase the obligations by obtaining credit with liquidity supports. These may include lines of credit, which are conditional commitments to lend, and letters of credit, which will ordinarily be irrevocable both of which may be issued by domestic banks or foreign banks. The Fund may purchase variable or floating rate obligations from the issuers or may purchase certificates of participation, a type of floating or variable rate obligation, which are interests in a pool of debt obligations held by a bank or other financial institutions.

Floating and variable rate obligations may be transferable among financial institutions, but may not have the liquidity of conventional debt securities and are often subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale. Floating and variable rate obligations are not currently listed on any securities exchange or automatic quotation system. As a result, no active market may exist for some floating and variable rate obligations. To the extent a secondary market exists for other floating and variable rate obligations, such market may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads, and extended trade settlement periods. The lack of a highly liquid secondary

 

77


market for floating and variable rate obligations may have an adverse effect on the value of such obligations and may make it more difficult to value the obligations for purposes of calculating their respective net asset value.

Zero Coupon, Deferred Interest, Pay-In-Kind and Capital Appreciation Bonds.   The Fund may invest in zero coupon bonds, deferred interest, pay-in-kind and capital appreciation bonds. These bonds are issued at a discount from their face value because interest payments are typically postponed until maturity. Pay-in-kind securities are securities that have interest payable by the delivery of additional securities. The market prices of these securities generally are more volatile than the market prices of interest-bearing securities and are likely to respond to a greater degree to changes in interest rates than interest-bearing securities having similar maturities and credit quality.

Mortgage Dollar Rolls.   The Fund may enter into mortgage dollar rolls. A mortgage dollar roll involves the sale by the Fund of securities for delivery in the current month. The Fund simultaneously contracts with the same counterparty to repurchase substantially similar (same type, coupon and maturity) but not identical securities on a specified future date. During the roll period, the Fund loses the right to receive principal and interest paid on the securities sold. However, the Fund benefits to the extent of any difference between (a) the price received for the securities sold and (b) the lower forward price for the future purchase and/or fee income plus the interest earned on the cash proceeds of the securities sold. Unless the benefits of a mortgage dollar roll exceed the income, capital appreciation and gain or loss due to mortgage prepayments that would have been realized on the securities sold as part of the roll, the use of this technique will diminish the Fund’s performance.

Successful use of mortgage dollar rolls depends upon the Investment Adviser’s ability to predict correctly interest rates and mortgage prepayments. If the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its prediction, the Fund may experience a loss. The Fund does not currently intend to enter into mortgage dollar rolls for financing and does not treat them as borrowings.

 

Options on Securities, Securities Indices and Foreign Currencies.   A put option gives the purchaser of the option the right to sell, and the writer (seller) of the option the obligation to buy, the underlying instrument during the option period. A call option gives the purchaser of the option the right to buy, and the writer (seller) of the option the obligation to sell, the underlying instrument during the option period. The Fund may purchase and sell (write) put and call options on any securities in which the Fund may invest or on any securities index consisting of securities in which it may invest. The Fund may also purchase and sell (write) put and call options on foreign currencies.

 

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APPENDIX A

 

The writing and purchase of options is a highly specialized activity which involves special investment risks. Options may be used for either hedging or cross-hedging purposes, or to seek to increase total return (which presents additional risk). The successful use of options depends in part on the ability of the Investment Adviser to anticipate future price fluctuations and the degree of correlation between the options and securities (or currency) markets. If the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its expectation of changes in market prices or determination of the correlation between the instruments or indices on which options are written and purchased and the instruments in the Fund’s investment portfolio, the Fund may incur losses that it would not otherwise incur. The use of options can also increase the Fund’s transaction costs. Options written or purchased by the Fund may be traded on either U.S. or foreign exchanges or over-the-counter. Foreign and over-the-counter options will present greater possibility of loss because of their greater illiquidity and credit risks. When writing an option, the Fund must identify on its books liquid assets, or engage in other appropriate measures, to “cover” its obligation under the option contract.

Yield Curve Options.   The Fund may enter into options on the yield “spread” or differential between two securities. Such transactions are referred to as “yield curve” options. In contrast to other types of options, a yield curve option is based on the difference between the yields of designated securities, rather than the prices of the individual securities, and is settled through cash payments. Accordingly, a yield curve option is profitable to the holder if this differential widens (in the case of a call) or narrows (in the case of a put), regardless of whether the yields of the underlying securities increase or decrease. The trading of yield curve options is subject to all of the risks associated with the trading of other types of options. In addition, such options present a risk of loss even if the yield of one of the underlying securities remains constant, or if the spread moves in a direction or to an extent which was not anticipated. When writing an option, the Fund must identify on its books liquid assets, or engage in other appropriate measures, to “cover” its obligation under the option contract.

Futures Contracts and Options and Swaps on Futures Contracts.   Futures contracts are standardized, exchange-traded contracts that provide for the sale or purchase of a specified financial instrument or currency at a future time at a specified price. An option on a futures contract gives the purchaser the right (and the writer of the option the obligation) to assume a position in a futures contract at a specified exercise price within a specified period of time. A swap on a futures contract provides an investor with the ability to gain economic exposure to a particular futures market; however, unlike a futures contract that is exchange-traded, a swap on a futures contract is an over-the-counter transaction. A futures contract may be based on particular securities,

 

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foreign currencies, securities indices and other financial instruments and indices. The Fund may engage in futures transactions on U.S. and foreign exchanges.

The Fund may purchase and sell futures contracts, purchase and write call and put options on futures contracts and enter into swaps on futures contracts, in order to seek to increase total return or to hedge against changes in interest rates, securities prices or currency exchange rates, or to otherwise manage its term structure, sector selection and duration in accordance with its investment objective and policies. The Fund may also enter into closing purchase and sale transactions with respect to such contracts and options.

Futures contracts and related options and swaps present the following risks:

  ¢   While the Fund may benefit from the use of futures and options and swaps on futures, unanticipated changes in interest rates, securities prices or currency exchange rates may result in poorer overall performance than if the Fund had not entered into any futures contracts, options transactions or swaps.
  ¢   Because perfect correlation between a futures position and a portfolio position that is intended to be protected is impossible to achieve, the desired protection may not be obtained and the Fund may be exposed to additional risk of loss.
  ¢   The loss incurred by the Fund in entering into futures contracts and in writing call options and entering into swaps on futures is potentially unlimited and may exceed the amount of the premium received.
  ¢   Futures markets are highly volatile and the use of futures may increase the volatility of the Fund’s NAV.
  ¢   As a result of the low margin deposits normally required in futures trading, a relatively small price movement in a futures contract may result in substantial losses to the Fund.
  ¢   Futures contracts and options and swaps on futures may be illiquid, and exchanges may limit fluctuations in futures contract prices during a single day.
  ¢   Foreign exchanges may not provide the same protection as U.S. exchanges.

The Fund must identify on its books liquid assets, or engage in other appropriate measures, to “cover” open positions with respect to its transactions in futures contracts and options and swaps on futures contracts. In the case of futures contracts that do not cash settle, for example, the Fund must identify on its books liquid assets equal to the full notional amount of the futures contracts while the positions are open. With respect to futures contracts that are required to cash settle, however, the Fund may identify liquid assets in an amount equal to the Fund’s daily marked-to-market net obligations ( i.e. , the Fund’s daily net liability) under the futures contracts, if any, rather than their full notional amount. The Fund reserves the right to modify its asset segregation policies in the future in its discretion. By identifying assets equal to only

 

80


APPENDIX A

 

its net obligations under cash-settled futures contracts, the Fund will have the ability to employ leverage to a greater extent than if the Fund were required to identify assets equal to the full notional amount of the futures contracts.

When-Issued Securities and Forward Commitments.   The Fund may purchase when-issued securities and make contracts to purchase or sell securities for a fixed price at a future date beyond customary settlement time. When-issued securities are securities that have been authorized, but not yet issued. When-issued securities are purchased in order to secure what is considered to be an advantageous price or yield to the Fund at the time of entering into the transaction. A forward commitment involves entering into a contract to purchase or sell securities for a fixed price at a future date beyond the customary settlement period.

The purchase of securities on a when-issued or forward commitment basis involves a risk of loss if the value of the security to be purchased declines before the settlement date. Conversely, the sale of securities on a forward commitment basis involves the risk that the value of the securities sold may increase before the settlement date. Although the Fund will generally purchase securities on a when-issued or forward commitment basis with the intention of acquiring the securities for its portfolio, the Fund may dispose of when-issued securities or forward commitments prior to settlement if the Investment Adviser deems it appropriate. When purchasing a security on a when-issued basis or entering into a forward commitment, the Fund must identify on its books liquid assets, or engage in other appropriate measures, to “cover” its obligations.

Lending of Portfolio Securities.   The Fund may engage in securities lending. Securities lending involves the lending of securities owned by the Fund to financial institutions such as certain broker-dealers, including, as permitted by the SEC, Goldman Sachs. The borrowers are required to secure their loans continuously with cash, cash equivalents, U.S. Government Securities or letters of credit in an amount at least equal to the market value of the securities loaned. Cash collateral may be invested by the Fund in short-term investments, including registered and unregistered investment pools managed by the Investment Adviser, or its affiliates and from which the Investment Adviser or its affiliates may receive fees. To the extent that cash collateral is so invested, such collateral will be subject to market depreciation or appreciation, and the Fund will be responsible for any loss that might result from its investment of the borrowers’ collateral. If the Investment Adviser determines to make securities loans, the value of the securities loaned may not exceed 33  1 3 % of the value of the total assets of the Fund (including the loan collateral). Loan collateral (including any investment of that collateral) is not subject to the percentage limitations regarding investments.

 

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The Fund may lend its securities to increase its income. The Fund may, however, experience delay in the recovery of its securities or incur a loss if the institution with which it has engaged in a portfolio loan transaction breaches its agreement with the Fund or becomes insolvent.

Repurchase Agreements.   Repurchase agreements involve the purchase of securities subject to the seller’s agreement to repurchase them at a mutually agreed upon date and price. The Fund may enter into repurchase agreements with eligible counterparties which furnish collateral at least equal in value or market price to the amount of their repurchase obligation. The collateral may consist of any type of security (government or corporate) of any or no credit rating. Repurchase agreements involving obligations other than U.S. Government Securities (such as foreign securities, commercial paper, corporate bonds, mortgage loans and equities) may be subject to special risks and may not have the benefit of certain protections in the event of the counterparty’s insolvency.

If the other party or “seller” defaults, the Fund might suffer a loss to the extent that the proceeds from the sale of the underlying securities and other collateral held by the Fund are less than the repurchase price and the Fund’s costs associated with delay and enforcement of the repurchase agreement. In addition, in the event of bankruptcy of the seller, the Fund could suffer additional losses if a court determines that the Fund’s interest in the collateral is not enforceable.

The Fund, together with other registered investment companies having advisory agreements with the Investment Adviser or any of its affiliates, may transfer uninvested cash balances into a single joint account, the daily aggregate balance of which will be invested in one or more repurchase agreements.

Borrowings.   The Fund can borrow money from banks and other financial institutions, in amounts not exceeding one-third of the Fund’s total assets (including the amount borrowed). The Fund generally may not make additional investments if borrowings exceed 5% of its net assets.

Equity Swaps, Index Swaps, Interest Rate Swaps, Mortgage Swaps, Credit Swaps, Currency Swaps, Total Return Swaps, Options on Swaps and Interest Rate Caps, Floors and Collars.   Equity swaps allow the parties to a swap agreement to exchange the dividend income or other components of return on an equity investment (for example, a group of equity securities or an index) for another payment stream. An equity swap may be used by the Fund to invest in a market without owning or taking physical custody of securities in circumstances in which direct investment may be restricted for legal reasons or is otherwise deemed impractical or disadvantageous. Index swaps allow one party or both parties to a swap agreement to receive one or

 

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APPENDIX A

 

more payments based off of the return, performance or volatility of an index or of certain securities which comprise the index. Interest rate swaps involve the exchange by the Fund with another party of their respective commitments to pay or receive interest, such as an exchange of fixed-rate payments for floating rate payments. Mortgage swaps are similar to interest rate swaps in that they represent commitments to pay and receive interest. The notional principal amount, however, is tied to a reference pool or pools of mortgages. Credit swaps, which may include credit default swaps and loan credit default swaps, involve the receipt of floating or fixed rate payments in exchange for assuming potential credit losses on an underlying security. Credit swaps give one party to a transaction (the buyer of the credit swap) the right to dispose of or acquire an asset (or group of assets or exposure to the performance of an index), or the right to receive a payment from the other party, upon the occurrence of specified credit events. Currency swaps involve the exchange of the parties’ respective rights to make or receive payments in specified currencies. Loan credit default swaps are similar to credit default swaps on bonds, except that the underlying protection is sold on secured loans of a reference entity rather than a broader category of bonds or loans. Loan credit default swaps may be on single names or on baskets of loans, both tranched and untranched. Total return swaps give the Fund the right to receive the appreciation in the value of a specified security, index or other instrument in return for a fee paid to the counterparty, which will typically be based on an agreed upon interest rate. If the underlying asset in a total return swap declines in value over the term of the swap, the Fund may also be required to pay the dollar value of that decline to the counterparty.

The Fund may also purchase and write (sell) options contracts on swaps, commonly referred to as swaptions. A swaption is an option to enter into a swap agreement. Like other types of options, the buyer of a swaption pays a non-refundable premium for the option and obtains the right, but not the obligation, to enter into an underlying swap or to modify the terms of an existing swap on agreed-upon terms. The seller of a swaption, in exchange for the premium, becomes obligated (if the option is exercised) to enter into or modify an underlying swap on agreed-upon terms, which generally entails greater risk of loss than the Fund incurs in buying a swaption. The purchase of an interest rate cap entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index exceeds a predetermined interest rate, to receive payment of interest on a notional principal amount from the party selling such interest rate cap. The purchase of an interest rate floor entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index falls below a predetermined interest rate, to receive payments of interest on a notional principal amount from the party selling the interest rate floor. An interest rate collar is the combination of a cap and a floor that preserves a certain return within a predetermined range of interest rates.

 

 

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The Fund may enter into swap transactions for hedging purposes or to seek to increase total return. As an example, when the Fund is the buyer of a credit default swap (commonly known as buying protection), it may make periodic payments to the seller of the credit default swap to obtain protection against a credit default on a specified underlying asset (or group of assets). If a default occurs, the seller of a credit default swap may be required to pay the Fund the notional amount of the credit default swap on a specified security (or group of securities). On the other hand, when the Fund is a seller of a credit default swap (commonly known as selling protection), in addition to the credit exposure the Fund has on the other assets held in its portfolio, the Fund is also subject to the credit exposure on the notional amount of the swap since, in the event of a credit default, the Fund may be required to pay the notional amount of the credit default swap on a specified security (or group of securities) to the buyer of the credit swap. The Fund will be the seller of a credit default swap only when the credit of the underlying asset is deemed by the Investment Adviser to meet the Fund’s minimum credit criteria at the time the swap is first entered into.

When the Fund writes (sells) credit default swaps on individual securities or instruments, the Fund must identify on its books liquid assets equal to the full notional amount of the swaps while the positions are open.

The use of swaps, options on swaps, and interest rate caps, floors and collars, is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. If the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its forecasts of market values, interest rates and currency exchange rates, or in its evaluation of the creditworthiness of swap counterparties and the issuers of the underlying assets, the investment performance of the Fund would be less favorable than it would have been if these investment techniques were not used. To the extent that the Investment Adviser does not accurately analyze and predict the potential relative fluctuation of the components swapped with another party, the Fund may suffer a loss, which may be substantial. The value of some components of a swap (such as the dividends on a common stock of an equity swap) may also be sensitive to changes in interest rates. Furthermore, the Fund may suffer a loss if the counterparty defaults. Because swaps are normally illiquid, the Fund may be unable to terminate its obligations when desired.

Currently, certain standardized swap transactions are subject to mandatory central clearing. Although central clearing is expected to decrease counterparty risk and increase liquidity compared to bilaterally negotiated swaps, central clearing does not eliminate counterparty risk or illiquidity risk entirely.

As an investment company registered with the SEC, the Fund must identify on its books (often referred to as “asset segregation”) liquid assets, or engage in other SEC

 

84


APPENDIX A

 

or SEC-staff approved measures, to “cover” open positions with respect to certain kinds of derivatives instruments. In the case of swaps that do not cash settle, for example, the Fund must identify on its books liquid assets equal to the full notional amount of the swaps while the positions are open. With respect to swaps that are required to cash settle, however, the Fund may identify liquid assets in an amount equal to the Fund’s daily marked-to-market net obligations ( i.e. the Fund’s daily net liability) under the swaps, if any, rather than their full notional amount. The Fund reserves the right to modify its asset segregation policies in the future in its discretion. By identifying assets equal to only its net obligations under cash settled swaps, the Fund will have the ability to employ leverage to a greater extent than if the Fund were required to identify assets equal to the full notional amount of the swaps.

Other Investment Companies.   The Fund may invest in securities of other investment companies, including ETFs, subject to statutory limitations prescribed by the Investment Company Act. These limitations include in certain circumstances a prohibition on the Fund acquiring more than 3% of the voting shares of any other investment company, and a prohibition on investing more than 5% of the Fund’s total assets in securities of any one investment company or more than 10% of its total assets in securities of all investment companies. Many ETFs, however, have obtained exemptive relief from the SEC to permit unaffiliated funds to invest in the ETFs’ shares beyond these statutory limitations, subject to certain conditions and pursuant to a contractual arrangement between the ETFs and the investing funds. The Fund may rely on these exemptive orders to invest in unaffiliated ETFs.

The use of ETFs is intended to help the Fund match the total return of the particular market segments or indices represented by those ETFs, although that may not be the result. Most ETFs are passively managed investment companies whose shares are purchased and sold on a securities exchange. An ETF represents a portfolio of securities designed to track a particular market segment or index. An investment in an ETF generally presents the same primary risks as an investment in a conventional fund ( i.e. , one that is not exchange-traded) that has the same investment objectives, strategies and policies. In addition, an ETF may fail to accurately track the market segment or index that underlies its investment objective. The price of an ETF can fluctuate, and the Fund could lose money investing in an ETF. Moreover, ETFs are subject to the following risks that do not apply to conventional funds: (i) the market price of the ETF’s shares may trade at a premium or a discount to their NAV; (ii) an active trading market for an ETF’s shares may not develop or be maintained; and (iii) there is no assurance that the requirements of the exchange necessary to maintain the listing of an ETF will continue to be met or remain unchanged.

 

85


Pursuant to an exemptive order obtained from the SEC or under an exemptive rule adopted by the SEC, the Fund may invest in certain other investment companies and money market funds beyond the statutory limits described above. Some of those investment companies and money market funds may be funds for which the Investment Adviser or any of its affiliates serves as investment adviser, administrator or distributor.

The Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any management fees and other expenses paid by such other investment companies, in addition to the fees and expenses regularly borne by the Fund. Although the Fund does not expect to do so in the foreseeable future, the Fund is authorized to invest substantially all of its assets in a single open-end investment company or series thereof that has substantially the same investment objective, policies and fundamental restrictions as the Fund.

Non-Investment Grade Fixed Income Securities.   Non-investment grade fixed-income securities and unrated securities of comparable credit quality (commonly known as “junk bonds”) are considered speculative. In some cases, these obligations may be highly speculative and have poor prospects for reaching investment grade standing. Non-investment grade fixed income securities are subject to the increased risk of an issuer’s inability to meet principal and interest obligations. These securities, also referred to as high yield securities, may be subject to greater price volatility due to such factors as specific corporate or municipal developments, interest rate sensitivity, negative perceptions of the junk bond markets generally and less secondary market liquidity.

Non-investment grade fixed income securities are often issued in connection with a corporate reorganization or restructuring or as part of a merger, acquisition, takeover or similar event. They are also issued by less established companies seeking to expand. Such issuers are often highly leveraged and generally less able than more established or less leveraged entities to make scheduled payments of principal and interest in the event of adverse developments or business conditions. Non-investment grade securities are also issued by governmental bodies that may have difficulty in making all scheduled interest and principal payments.

The market value of non-investment grade fixed income securities tends to reflect individual corporate or municipal developments to a greater extent than that of higher rated securities which react primarily to fluctuations in the general level of interest rates. As a result, the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objectives may depend to a greater extent on the Investment Adviser’s judgment concerning the creditworthiness of issuers than funds which invest in higher-rated securities. Issuers of non-investment grade fixed income securities may not be able to make use of more traditional methods of financing and their ability to service debt obligations may be

 

86


APPENDIX A

 

affected more adversely than issuers of higher-rated securities by economic downturns, specific corporate or financial developments or the issuer’s inability to meet specific projected business forecasts. Negative publicity about the junk bond market and investor perceptions regarding lower rated securities, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may depress the prices for such securities.

A holder’s risk of loss from default is significantly greater for non-investment grade fixed income securities than is the case for holders of other debt securities because such non-investment grade securities are generally unsecured and are often subordinated to the rights of other creditors of the issuers of such securities. Investment by the Fund in defaulted securities poses additional risk of loss should nonpayment of principal and interest continue in respect of such securities. Even if such securities are held to maturity, recovery by the Fund of its initial investment and any anticipated income or appreciation is uncertain.

The secondary market for non-investment grade fixed income securities is concentrated in relatively few market makers and is dominated by institutional investors, including mutual funds, insurance companies and other financial institutions. Accordingly, the secondary market for such securities is not as liquid as, and is more volatile than, the secondary market for higher-rated securities. In addition, market trading volume for high yield fixed income securities is generally lower and the secondary market for such securities could shrink or disappear suddenly and without warning as a result of adverse market or economic conditions, independent of any specific adverse changes in the condition of a particular issuer. The lack of sufficient market liquidity may cause the Fund to incur losses because it will be required to effect sales at a disadvantageous time and then only at a substantial drop in price. These factors may have an adverse effect on the market price and the Fund’s ability to dispose of particular portfolio investments. A less liquid secondary market also may make it more difficult for the Fund to obtain precise valuations of the high yield securities in its portfolio.

Credit ratings issued by credit rating agencies are designed to evaluate the safety of principal and interest payments of rated securities. They do not, however, evaluate the market value risk of non-investment grade securities and, therefore, may not fully reflect the true risks of an investment. In addition, credit rating agencies may or may not make timely changes in a rating to reflect changes in the economy or in the conditions of the issuer that affect the market value of the security. Consequently, credit ratings are used only as a preliminary indicator of investment quality.

Downgraded Securities.   After its purchase, a portfolio security may be assigned a lower rating or cease to be rated. If this occurs, the Fund may continue to hold the

 

87


security if the Investment Adviser believes it is in the best interest of the Fund and its shareholders.

Equity Investments.   After its purchase, a portfolio investment (such as a convertible debt obligation) may convert to an equity security. Alternatively, the Fund may acquire equity securities in connection with a restructuring event related to one or more of its investments. If this occurs, the Fund may continue to hold the investment if the Investment Adviser believes it is in the best interest of the Fund and its shareholders.

Loan-Related Investments.   The Fund may invest in loan-related investments such as loan participations and assignments. A loan participation is an interest in a loan to a U.S. or foreign company or other borrower (the “borrower”) which is administered and sold by a financial intermediary. The Fund may only invest in loans to issuers in whose obligations it may otherwise invest. Loan interests may take the form of a direct or co-lending relationship with the borrower, an assignment of an interest in the loan by a co-lender or another participant, or a participation in the seller’s share of the loan. When the Fund acts as co-lender in connection with a loan interest or when it acquires certain interests, the Fund will have direct recourse against the borrower if the borrower fails to pay scheduled principal and interest. In cases where the Fund lacks direct recourse, it will look to an agent for the lenders (the “agent lender”) to enforce appropriate credit remedies against the borrower. In these cases, the Fund may be subject to delays, expenses and risks that are greater than those that would have been involved if the Fund had purchased a direct obligation (such as commercial paper) of such borrower.

An assignment typically succeeds to all the rights and obligations of the assigning institution and becomes a lender under the credit agreement with respect to the debt obligation; however, the purchaser’s rights can be more restricted than those of the assigning institution, and, in any event, the Fund may not be able to unilaterally enforce all rights and remedies under the loan and with regard to any associated collateral. A participation typically results in a contractual relationship only with the institution participating out the interest, not with the borrower. In purchasing participations, the Fund generally will have no right to enforce compliance by the borrower with the terms of the loan agreement against the borrower, and the Fund may not directly benefit from the collateral supporting the debt obligation in which it has purchased the participation. As a result, the Fund will be exposed to the credit risk of both the borrower and the institution selling the participation.

Senior Loans hold the most senior position in the capital structure of a borrower, are typically secured with specific collateral and have a claim on the assets and/or stock of the borrower that is senior to that held by subordinated debt holders and

 

88


APPENDIX A

 

stockholders of the borrower. The proceeds of Senior Loans primarily are used to finance leveraged buyouts, recapitalizations, mergers, acquisitions, stock repurchases, refinancings and to finance internal growth and for other corporate purposes. Senior Loans typically have a stated term of between five and nine years, and have rates of interest which typically are redetermined daily, monthly, quarterly or semi-annually by reference to a base lending rate, plus a premium or credit spread. Longer interest rate reset periods generally increase fluctuations in the Fund’s net asset value as a result of changes in market interest rates. As a result, as short-term interest rates increase, interest payable to the Fund from its investments in Senior Loans should increase, and as short-term interest rates decrease, interest payable to the Fund from its investments in Senior Loans should decrease. Second Lien Loans have the same characteristics as Senior Loans except that such loans are subordinated or unsecured and thus lower in priority of payment to Senior Loans. Accordingly, the risks associated with Second Lien Loans are higher than the risk of loans with first priority over the collateral. In the event of default on a Second Lien Loan, the first priority lien holder has first claim to the underlying collateral of the loan. It is possible that no collateral value would remain for the second priority lien holder and therefore result in a loss of investment to the Fund. Second Lien Loans typically have adjustable floating rate interest payments.

 

Special Situation Investments .  The Fund may make investments in special situation financings, including in event-driven situations such as recapitalizations, financings, corporate and financial restructurings, acquisitions, divestitures, reorganizations or other situations in public or private companies that may provide the Fund with an opportunity to provide debt and/or equity financing, and such investments will typically be made on a negotiated basis. The Investment Adviser will seek special situation investment opportunities with limited downside risk relative to their potential upside. These investments are complicated and an incorrect assessment of the downside risk associated with an investment could result in significant losses to the Fund.

Preferred Stock, Warrants and Stock Purchase Rights.   The Fund may invest in preferred stock, warrants and stock purchase rights (or “rights”). Preferred stocks are securities that represent an ownership interest providing the holder with claims on the issuer’s earnings and assets before common stock owners but after bond owners. Unlike debt securities, the obligations of an issuer of preferred stock, including dividend and other payment obligations, may not typically be accelerated by the holders of such preferred stock on the occurrence of an event of default or other non-compliance by the issuer of the preferred stock.

 

89


Warrants and other rights are options to buy a stated number of shares of common stock at a specified price at any time during the life of the warrant or right. The holders of warrants and rights have no voting rights, receive no dividends and have no rights with respect to the assets of the issuer.

Distressed Debt.   By investing in distressed debt the Fund may risk holding the securities through bankruptcy proceedings. There are a number of significant risks inherent in the bankruptcy process. Many events in a bankruptcy are the product of contested matters and adversary proceedings and are beyond the control of the creditors. A bankruptcy filing by an issuer may adversely and permanently affect the issuer, and if the proceeding is converted to liquidation, the value of the issuer may not equal the liquidation value that was believed to exist at the time of the investment. The duration of a bankruptcy proceeding is difficult to predict, and a creditor’s return on investment can be adversely affected by delays until the plan of reorganization ultimately becomes effective. The administrative costs in connection with a bankruptcy proceeding are frequently high and would be paid out of the debtor’s estate prior to any return to creditors. Because the standards for classification of claims under bankruptcy law are vague, there exists the risk that the Fund’s influence with respect to the class of securities or other obligations it owns can be lost by increases in the number and amount of claims in the same class or by different classification and treatment. In the early stages of the bankruptcy process it is often difficult to estimate the extent of, or even to identify, any contingent claims that might be made. In addition, certain claims that have priority by law (for example, claims for taxes) may be substantial.

 

90


 

Appendix B

Financial Highlights

 

The financial highlights tables are intended to help you understand the Fund’s financial performance. Certain information reflects financial results for a single Fund share. The total returns in the table represent the rate that an investor would have earned or lost on an investment in the Fund (assuming reinvestment of all dividends and distributions). As the accounting survivor of the Fund, the Predecessor Fund’s operating history for the period prior to March 24, 2014 is shown. The information has been audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, whose report, along with the Predecessor Fund’s financial statements, is included in the Predecessor Fund’s most recent annual report (available upon request). The financial highlights table includes unaudited information for the Predecessor Fund for the six months ended September 30, 2013.

 

   

For the Six
Months Ended
September 30,

2013
(Unaudited)

  For the Fiscal
Years Ended
March 31,
 

For the Period
Ended
March 31,

2010
(Commenced
June 15,
2009)

        2013   2012   2011  

Net asset value, beginning of period

    $ 10.80       $ 10.58       $ 10.70       $ 10.75       $ 10.00  
   

 

 

 

Income (loss) from investment operations

                   

Net investment income a

      0.21         0.45         0.51         0.56         0.48  

Net realized and unrealized gain (loss)

      (0.12 )       0.45         0.17         0.26         0.82  
   

 

 

 

Total from investment operations

      0.09         0.90         0.68         0.82         1.30  
   

 

 

 

Distributions to shareholders

                   

From net investment income

      (0.21 )       (0.47 )       (0.51 )       (0.56 )       (0.45 )

From net realized gains

              (0.21 )       (0.29 )       (0.31 )       (0.10 )
   

 

 

 

Total distributions

      (0.21 )       (0.68 )       (0.80 )       (0.87 )       (0.55 )
   

 

 

 

Net asset value, end of period

    $ 10.68       $ 10.80       $ 10.58       $ 10.70       $ 10.75  
   

 

 

 

Total return b

      0.92 %       8.74 %       6.69 %       7.94 %       13.33 %

Net assets, end of period (in 000s)

    $ 448,832       $ 506,996       $ 533,499       $ 531,797       $ 431,676  

Ratio of net expenses to average net assets

      1.46 % d       1.47 %       1.48 %       1.50 %       1.60 % d

Ratio of net investment income to average net assets

      3.91 % d       4.23 %       4.81 %       5.23 %       5.88 % d

Ratios assuming no expense reductions

                   

Ratio of total expenses to average net assets

      1.46 % d       1.47 %       1.48 %       1.50 %       1.67 % d

Portfolio turnover rate c

      89 %       204 %       215 %       204 %       122 %

See page 92 for all other footnotes.

 

91


Footnotes:

a   Calculated based on the average shares outstanding methodology.
b   Assumes investment at the net asset value at the beginning of the period, reinvestment of all dividends and distributions, a complete redemption of the investment at the net asset value at the end of the period and no sales or redemption charges. Total returns would be reduced if a sales or redemption charge was taken into account. Returns do not reflect the deduction of taxes that a shareholder would pay on Fund distributions or the redemption of Fund shares. Total returns for periods less than one full year are not annualized.
c   The Fund’s portfolio turnover rate is calculated in accordance with regulatory requirements, without regard to transactions involving short term investments and certain derivatives. If such transactions were included, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate may be higher.
d   Annualized.

 

92


 

Long Short Credit Strategies Fund

Prospectus

 

  FOR MORE INFORMATION     

Annual/Semi-annual Report

Additional information about the Fund’s investments will be available in the Fund’s annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders. In the Fund’s annual reports, you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Fund’s performance during the last fiscal year.

Statement Of Additional Information

Additional information about the Fund and its policies is also available in the Fund’s SAI. The SAI is incorporated by reference into this Prospectus (is legally considered part of this Prospectus).

The Fund’s annual and semi-annual reports (when available) and SAI are available free upon request by calling Goldman Sachs at 1-800-526-7384. You can also access and download the annual and semi-annual reports and the SAI at the Fund’s web site: http://www.gsamfunds.com/summaries.

From time to time, certain announcements and other information regarding the Fund may be found at http://www.gs.com/gsam/redirect/announcements/individuals for individual investors, http://www.gs.com/gsam/redirect/announcements/institutions for institutional investors or http://www.gs.com/gsam/redirect/announcements/advisors for advisers.

To obtain other information and for shareholder inquiries:

 

     Institutional  

¢    By telephone:

     1-800-621-2550  

¢    By mail:

    

Goldman Sachs Funds

P.O. Box 06050

Chicago, Illinois 60606-6306

 

¢    On the  Internet:

     SEC EDGAR database – http://www.sec.gov

You may review and obtain copies of Fund documents (including the SAI) by visiting the SEC’s public reference room in Washington, D.C. You may also obtain copies of Fund documents, after paying a duplicating fee, by writing to the SEC’s Public Reference Section, Washington, D.C. 20549-1520 or by electronic request to: publicinfo@sec.gov. Information on the operation of the public reference room may be obtained by calling the SEC at (202) 551-8090.

 

LSCRPRO14   

The Fund’s investment company registration number is 811-05349.

GSAM ® is a registered service mark of Goldman, Sachs & Co.

  LOGO


STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

DATED MARCH 24, 2014

 

FUND

   INSTITUTIONAL
SHARES
 

GOLDMAN SACHS LONG SHORT CREDIT STRATEGIES FUND

    
 
GSAWX
 
  
  

(a series of Goldman Sachs Trust)

71 South Wacker Drive

Chicago, Illinois 60606

This Statement of Additional Information (the “SAI”) is not a prospectus. This SAI should be read in conjunction with the prospectus for the Goldman Sachs Long Short Credit Strategies Fund, dated March 24, 2014, as it may be further amended and/or supplemented from time to time (the “Prospectus”), which may be obtained without charge from Goldman, Sachs & Co. by calling the applicable telephone number or writing to one of the addresses listed below, or from institutions (“Authorized Institutions”) acting on behalf of their customers.

The Fund’s Annual Report (when available) may be obtained upon request and without charge by calling Goldman, Sachs & Co. toll free at 1-800-621-2550.

GSAM ® is a registered service mark of Goldman, Sachs & Co.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

INTRODUCTION

     B-1   

INVESTMENT OBJECTIVE AND POLICIES

     B-1   

DESCRIPTION OF INVESTMENT SECURITIES AND PRACTICES

     B-2   

INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS

     B-48   

TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS

     B-50   

MANAGEMENT SERVICES

     B-62   

POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

     B-67   

PORTFOLIO TRANSACTIONS AND BROKERAGE

     B-74   

SHARES OF THE TRUST

     B-75   

NET ASSET VALUE

     B-77   

TAXATION

     B-79   

PROXY VOTING

     B-84   

PAYMENTS TO INTERMEDIARIES

     B-85   

OTHER INFORMATION

     B-90   

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     B-92   

APPENDIX A DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES RATINGS

     1-A   

APPENDIX B GSAM PROXY VOTING GUIDELINES SUMMARY

     1-B   

The date of this SAI is March 24, 2014.

 

-i-


GOLDMAN SACHS ASSET MANAGEMENT, L.P.

Investment Adviser

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

GOLDMAN, SACHS & CO.

Distributor

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

GOLDMAN, SACHS & CO.

Transfer Agent

71 South Wacker Drive

Chicago, IL 60606

Toll free (in U.S.): 1-800-621-2550


INTRODUCTION

Goldman Sachs Trust (the “Trust”) is an open-end, management investment company. The Trust is organized as a Delaware statutory trust and was established by a Declaration of Trust dated January 28, 1997. The Trust is a successor to a Massachusetts business trust that was combined with the Trust on April 30, 1997. The following series of the Trust is described in this SAI: Goldman Sachs Long Short Credit Strategies Fund (the “Fund”).

The Trustees of the Trust have authority under the Declaration of Trust to create and classify shares into separate series and to classify and reclassify any series or portfolio of shares into one or more classes without further action by shareholders. Pursuant thereto, the Trustees have created the Fund and other series. Additional series may be added in the future from time to time. The Fund currently offers one class of shares: Institutional Shares. See “SHARES OF THE TRUST.”

Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P. (“GSAM” or the “Investment Adviser”), an affiliate of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (“Goldman Sachs”), serves as the investment adviser to the Fund. In addition, Goldman Sachs serves as the Fund’s distributor and transfer agent. The Fund’s custodian is State Street Bank & Trust Company (“State Street”).

The following information relates to and supplements the description of the Fund’s investment objective and policies contained in the Prospectus. See the Prospectus for a more complete description of the Fund’s investment objectives and policies. Investing in the Fund entails certain risks. Capitalized terms used but not defined herein have the same meaning as in the Prospectus.

INVESTMENT OBJECTIVE AND POLICIES

The Fund has a distinct investment objective and policies. There can be no assurance that the Fund’s objective will be achieved. The Fund is a non-diversified, open-end management investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Act”). The investment objective and policies of the Fund, and the associated risks of the Fund, are discussed in the Fund’s Prospectus, which should be read carefully before an investment is made. All investment objectives and investment policies not specifically designated as fundamental may be changed without shareholder approval. However, to the extent required by U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) regulations, shareholders will be provided with sixty days’ notice in the manner prescribed by the SEC before any change in the Fund’s policy to invest at least 80% of its net assets plus any borrowings for investment purposes (measured at the time of purchase) (“Net Assets”), in the particular type of investment suggested by its name. Additional information about the Fund, its policies, and the investment instruments it may hold is provided below.

The Fund’s share price will fluctuate with market, economic and, to the extent applicable, foreign exchange conditions, so that an investment in the Fund may be worth more or less when redeemed than when purchased. The Fund should not be relied upon as a complete investment program.

The Investment Adviser has claimed temporary relief from registration as a “commodity pool operator” (“CPO”) under the Commodity Exchange Act (“CEA”) for the Fund and therefore is not subject to registration or regulation as a CPO under the CEA. If and when the temporary relief expires, to the extent the Trust, on behalf of the Fund, is not otherwise eligible to claim an exclusion from the definition of the term CPO, the Fund will incur additional compliance and other expenses in connection with certain applicable U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission disclosure, reporting and other requirements.

The following discussion supplements the information in the Prospectus.

General Information Regarding the Fund

The Fund will seek to achieve its investment objective through long and short exposures to “credit related instruments.” Under normal market conditions, the Fund will invest at least 80% of its net assets plus any borrowings for investment purposes (measured at the time of purchase) (“Net Assets”) in the following credit related instruments: (i) fixed rate and floating rate income securities; (ii) loans and loan participations including: (a) senior secured floating rate and fixed rate loans or debt (“Senior Loans”), (b) second lien or other subordinated or unsecured floating rate and fixed rate loans or debt (“Second Lien Loans”) and (c) other types of secured or unsecured loans with fixed, floating, or variable interest rates; (iii) convertible securities; (iv) collateralized debt, bond and loan obligations; (v) bank and corporate debt obligations; (vi) securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises (“U.S. Government Securities”), and securities issued by or on behalf of states, territories, and possessions of the United States (including the District of Columbia); (vii) preferred securities and trust preferred securities; (viii) structured securities, including credit-linked notes; and/or (ix) listed and unlisted, public and private, rated and unrated debt instruments and other obligations, including those of financially troubled companies (sometimes known as “distressed securities” or “defaulted securities”).

 

B-1


The Fund may invest in instruments and obligations directly, or indirectly by investing in derivative or synthetic instruments, including, without limitation, credit default swaps and loan credit default swaps. The Fund will opportunistically seek short exposures to credit related instruments through the use of such derivatives or synthetic instruments, including, but not limited to, credit related indices.

The Fund may invest in U.S. dollar denominated as well as non-U.S. dollar denominated (foreign) securities. The Fund may also hold cash, and/or invest in cash equivalents.

The Fund intends to implement short positions for hedging purposes or to seek to enhance absolute return, and may do so by using swaps or futures, or through short sales of any instrument that the Fund may purchase for investment. For example, the Fund may buy credit default swaps. Credit default swaps involve the receipt of floating or fixed rate payments in exchange for assuming potential credit losses on an underlying security (or group of securities). When the Fund is the buyer of a credit default swap (buying protection), it may make periodic payments to the seller of the credit default swap to obtain protection against a credit default on a specified underlying asset (or group of assets). If a default occurs, the seller of a credit default swap may be required to pay the Fund the notional amount of the credit default swap on a specified security (or group of securities).

There is no minimum credit rating for instruments in which the Fund may invest, and the Fund may invest without limitation in securities below investment grade. Non-investment grade securities are rated BB+, Ba1 or below by a nationally recognized statistical rating organization (“NRSRO”), or, if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable credit quality. The Fund may also invest in credit instruments of any maturity or duration.

The Fund’s benchmark index is the Bank of America Merrill Lynch U.S. Dollar Three-Month LIBOR Constant Maturity Index. References to the Fund’s benchmark are for informational purposes only and are not an indication of how the Fund is managed.

DESCRIPTION OF INVESTMENT SECURITIES AND PRACTICES

U.S. Government Securities

The Fund may invest in U.S. Government Securities. Some U.S. Government Securities (such as Treasury bills, notes and bonds, which differ only in their interest rates, maturities and times of issuance) are supported by the full faith and credit of the United States. Others, such as obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. Government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises, are supported either by (i) the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury, (ii) the discretionary authority of the U.S. government to purchase certain obligations of the issuer or (iii) only the credit of the issuer. The U.S. Government is under no legal obligation, in general, to purchase the obligations of its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. No assurance can be given that the U.S. Government will provide financial support to U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises in the future, and the U.S. Government may be unable to pay debts when due.

U.S. Government Securities include (to the extent consistent with the Act) securities for which the payment of principal and interest is backed by an irrevocable letter of credit issued by the U.S. Government, or its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. U.S. Government Securities may also include (to the extent consistent with the Act) participations in loans made to foreign governments or their agencies that are guaranteed as to principal and interest by the U.S. Government or its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. The secondary market for certain of these participations is extremely limited. In the absence of a suitable secondary market, such participations are regarded as illiquid.

The Fund may also purchase U.S. Government Securities in private placements and may also invest in separately traded principal and interest components of securities guaranteed or issued by the U.S. Treasury that are traded independently under the separate trading of registered interest and principal of securities program (“STRIPS”). The Fund may also invest in zero coupon U.S. Treasury securities and in zero coupon securities issued by financial institutions which represent a proportionate interest in underlying U.S. Treasury securities.

Inflation-Protected Securities . The Fund may invest in inflation protected securities (“IPS”), including treasury inflation protected securities (“TIPS”) and corporate inflation protected securities (“CIPS”), which are securities whose principal value is periodically adjusted according to the rate of inflation. The interest rate on IPS is fixed at issuance, but over the life of the bond this interest may be paid on an increasing or decreasing principal value that has been adjusted for inflation. Although repayment of the original bond principal upon maturity is guaranteed, the market value of IPS is not guaranteed, and will fluctuate.

 

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The values of IPS generally fluctuate in response to changes in real interest rates, which are in turn tied to the relationship between nominal interest rates and the rate of inflation. If inflation were to rise at a faster rate than nominal interest rates, real interest rates might decline, leading to an increase in the value of IPS. In contrast, if nominal interest rates were to increase at a faster rate than inflation, real interest rates might rise, leading to a decrease in the value of IPS. If inflation is lower than expected during the period the Fund holds IPS, the Fund may earn less on the IPS than on a conventional bond. If interest rates rise due to reasons other than inflation (for example, due to changes in the currency exchange rates), investors in IPS may not be protected to the extent that the increase is not reflected in the bonds’ inflation measure. There can be no assurance that the inflation index for IPS will accurately measure the real rate of inflation in the prices of goods and services.

Any increase in principal value of IPS caused by an increase in the consumer price index is taxable in the year the increase occurs, even though the Fund holding IPS will not receive cash representing the increase at that time. As a result, the Fund could be required at times to liquidate other investments, including when it is not advantageous to do so, in order to satisfy its distribution requirements as a regulated investment company.

If the Fund invests in IPS, it will be required to treat as original issue discount any increase in the principal amount of the securities that occurs during the course of its taxable year. If the Fund purchases such IPS that are issued in stripped form either as stripped bonds or coupons, it will be treated as if it had purchased a newly issued debt instrument having original issue discount.

Because the Fund is required to distribute substantially all of its net investment income (including accrued original issue discount), the Fund’s investment in either zero coupon bonds or IPS may require the Fund to distribute to shareholders an amount greater than the total cash income it actually receives. Accordingly, in order to make the required distributions, the Fund may be required to borrow or liquidate securities.

Custodial Receipts and Trust Certificates

The Fund may invest in custodial receipts and trust certificates, which may be underwritten by securities dealers or banks, representing interests in securities held by a custodian or trustee. The securities so held may include U.S. Government Securities, municipal securities or other types of securities in which the Fund may invest. The custodial receipts or trust certificates are underwritten by securities dealers or banks and may evidence ownership of future interest payments, principal payments or both on the underlying securities, or, in some cases, the payment obligation of a third party that has entered into an interest rate swap or other arrangement with the custodian or trustee. For certain securities laws purposes, custodial receipts and trust certificates may not be considered obligations of the U.S. Government or other issuer of the securities held by the custodian or trustee. As a holder of custodial receipts and trust certificates, the Fund will bear its proportionate share of the fees and expenses charged to the custodial account or trust. The Fund may also invest in separately issued interests in custodial receipts and trust certificates.

Although under the terms of a custodial receipt or trust certificate the Fund would typically be authorized to assert its rights directly against the issuer of the underlying obligation, the Fund could be required to assert through the custodian bank or trustee those rights as may exist against the underlying issuers. Thus, in the event an underlying issuer fails to pay principal and/or interest when due, the Fund may be subject to delays, expenses and risks that are greater than those that would have been involved if the Fund had purchased a direct obligation of the issuer. In addition, in the event that the trust or custodial account in which the underlying securities have been deposited is determined to be an association taxable as a corporation, instead of a non-taxable entity, the yield on the underlying securities would be reduced in recognition of any taxes paid.

Certain custodial receipts and trust certificates may be synthetic or derivative instruments that have interest rates that reset inversely to changing short-term rates and/or have embedded interest rate floors and caps that require the issuer to pay an adjusted interest rate if market rates fall below or rise above a specified rate. Because some of these instruments represent relatively recent innovations, and the trading market for these instruments is less developed than the markets for traditional types of instruments, it is uncertain how these instruments will perform under different economic and interest-rate scenarios. Also, because these instruments may be leveraged, their market values may be more volatile than other types of fixed income instruments and may present greater potential for capital gain or loss. The possibility of default by an issuer or the issuer’s credit provider may be greater for these derivative instruments than for other types of instruments. In some cases, it may be difficult to determine the fair value of a derivative instrument because of a lack of reliable objective information and an established secondary market for some instruments may not exist. In many cases, the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) has not ruled on the tax treatment of the interest or payments received on the derivative instruments and, accordingly, purchases of such instruments are based on the opinion of counsel to the sponsors of the instruments.

 

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Mortgage Loans and Mortgage-Backed Securities

The Fund may invest in mortgage loans, mortgage pass-through securities and other securities representing an interest in or collateralized by adjustable and fixed-rate mortgage loans, including collateralized mortgage obligations, real estate mortgage investment conduits (“REMICs”) and stripped mortgage-backed securities, as described below (“Mortgage-Backed Securities”).

Mortgage-Backed Securities are subject to both call risk and extension risk. Because of these risks, these securities can have significantly greater price and yield volatility than traditional fixed income securities.

General Characteristics of Mortgage Backed Securities.

In general, each mortgage pool underlying Mortgage-Backed Securities consists of mortgage loans evidenced by promissory notes secured by first mortgages or first deeds of trust or other similar security instruments creating a first lien on owner occupied and non-owner occupied one-unit to four-unit residential properties, multi-family (i.e., five-units or more) properties, agricultural properties, commercial properties and mixed use properties (the “Mortgaged Properties”). The Mortgaged Properties may consist of detached individual dwelling units, multi-family dwelling units, individual condominiums, townhouses, duplexes, triplexes, fourplexes, row houses, individual units in planned unit developments, other attached dwelling units (“Residential Mortgaged Properties”) or commercial properties, such as office properties, retail properties, hospitality properties, industrial properties, healthcare related properties or other types of income producing real property (“Commercial Mortgaged Properties”). Residential Mortgaged Properties may also include residential investment properties and second homes. In addition, the Mortgage-Backed Securities which are residential mortgage-backed securities may also consist of mortgage loans evidenced by promissory notes secured entirely or in part by second priority mortgage liens on Residential Mortgaged Properties.

The investment characteristics of adjustable and fixed rate Mortgage-Backed Securities differ from those of traditional fixed income securities. The major differences include the payment of interest and principal on Mortgage-Backed Securities on a more frequent (usually monthly) schedule, and the possibility that principal may be prepaid at any time due to prepayments on the underlying mortgage loans or other assets. These differences can result in significantly greater price and yield volatility than is the case with traditional fixed income securities. As a result, if the Fund purchases Mortgage-Backed Securities at a premium, a faster than expected prepayment rate will reduce both the market value and the yield to maturity from their anticipated levels. A prepayment rate that is slower than expected will have the opposite effect, increasing yield to maturity and market value. Conversely, if the Fund purchases Mortgage-Backed Securities at a discount, faster than expected prepayments will increase, while slower than expected prepayments will reduce yield to maturity and market value. To the extent that the Fund invests in Mortgage-Backed Securities, the Investment Adviser may seek to manage these potential risks by investing in a variety of Mortgage-Backed Securities and by using certain hedging techniques.

Prepayments on a pool of mortgage loans are influenced by changes in current interest rates and a variety of economic, geographic, social and other factors (such as changes in mortgagor housing needs, job transfers, unemployment, mortgagor equity in the mortgage properties and servicing decisions). The timing and level of prepayments cannot be predicted. A predominant factor affecting the prepayment rate on a pool of mortgage loans is the difference between the interest rates on outstanding mortgage loans and prevailing mortgage loan interest rates (giving consideration to the cost of any refinancing). Generally, prepayments on mortgage loans will increase during a period of falling mortgage interest rates and decrease during a period of rising mortgage interest rates. Accordingly, the amounts of prepayments available for reinvestment by the Fund are likely to be greater during a period of declining mortgage interest rates. If general interest rates decline, such prepayments are likely to be reinvested at lower interest rates than the Fund was earning on the Mortgage-Backed Securities that were prepaid. Due to these factors, Mortgage-Backed Securities may be less effective than U.S. Treasury and other types of debt securities of similar maturity at maintaining yields during periods of declining interest rates. Because the Fund’s investments in Mortgage-Backed Securities are interest-rate sensitive, the Fund’s performance will depend in part upon the ability of the Fund to anticipate and respond to fluctuations in market interest rates and to utilize appropriate strategies to maximize returns to the Fund, while attempting to minimize the associated risks to its investment capital. Prepayments may have a disproportionate effect on certain Mortgage-Backed Securities and other multiple class pass-through securities, which are discussed below.

The rate of interest paid on Mortgage-Backed Securities is normally lower than the rate of interest paid on the mortgages included in the underlying pool due to (among other things) the fees paid to any servicer, special servicer and trustee for the trust fund which holds the mortgage pool, other costs and expenses of such trust fund, fees paid to any guarantor, such as Ginnie Mae (as defined below) or to any credit enhancers, mortgage pool insurers, bond insurers and/or hedge providers, and due to any yield retained by the issuer. Actual yield to the holder may vary from the coupon rate, even if adjustable, if the Mortgage-Backed Securities are purchased

 

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or traded in the secondary market at a premium or discount. In addition, there is normally some delay between the time the issuer receives mortgage payments from the servicer and the time the issuer (or the trustee of the trust fund which holds the mortgage pool) makes the payments on the Mortgage-Backed Securities, and this delay reduces the effective yield to the holder of such securities.

The issuers of certain mortgage-backed obligations may elect to have the pool of mortgage loans (or indirect interests in mortgage loans) underlying the securities treated as a REMIC, which is subject to special federal income tax rules. A description of the types of mortgage loans and mortgage-backed securities in which the Fund may invest is provided below. The descriptions are general and summary in nature, and do not detail every possible variation of the types of securities that are permissible investments for the Fund.

Certain General Characteristics of Mortgage Loans

Adjustable Rate Mortgage Loans (“ARMs”) . The Fund may invest in ARMs. ARMs generally provide for a fixed initial mortgage interest rate for a specified period of time. Thereafter, the interest rates (the “Mortgage Interest Rates”) may be subject to periodic adjustment based on changes in the applicable index rate (the “Index Rate”). The adjusted rate would be equal to the Index Rate plus a fixed percentage spread over the Index Rate established for each ARM at the time of its origination. ARMs allow the Fund to participate in increases in interest rates through periodic increases in the securities coupon rates. During periods of declining interest rates, coupon rates may readjust downward resulting in lower yields to the Fund.

Adjustable interest rates can cause payment increases that some mortgagors may find difficult to make. However, certain ARMs may provide that the Mortgage Interest Rate may not be adjusted to a rate above an applicable lifetime maximum rate or below an applicable lifetime minimum rate for such ARM. Certain ARMs may also be subject to limitations on the maximum amount by which the Mortgage Interest Rate may adjust for any single adjustment period (the “Maximum Adjustment”). Other ARMs (“Negatively Amortizing ARMs”) may provide instead or as well for limitations on changes in the monthly payment on such ARMs. Limitations on monthly payments can result in monthly payments which are greater or less than the amount necessary to amortize a Negatively Amortizing ARM by its maturity at the Mortgage Interest Rate in effect in any particular month. In the event that a monthly payment is not sufficient to pay the interest accruing on a Negatively Amortizing ARM, any such excess interest is added to the principal balance of the loan, causing negative amortization, and will be repaid through future monthly payments. It may take borrowers under Negatively Amortizing ARMs longer periods of time to build up equity and may increase the likelihood of default by such borrowers. In the event that a monthly payment exceeds the sum of the interest accrued at the applicable Mortgage Interest Rate and the principal payment which would have been necessary to amortize the outstanding principal balance over the remaining term of the loan, the excess (or “accelerated amortization”) further reduces the principal balance of the ARM. Negatively Amortizing ARMs do not provide for the extension of their original maturity to accommodate changes in their Mortgage Interest Rate. As a result, unless there is a periodic recalculation of the payment amount (which there generally is), the final payment may be substantially larger than the other payments. After the expiration of the initial fixed rate period and upon the periodic recalculation of the payment to cause timely amortization of the related mortgage loan, the monthly payment on such mortgage loan may increase substantially which may, in turn, increase the risk of the borrower defaulting in respect of such mortgage loan. These limitations on periodic increases in interest rates and on changes in monthly payments protect borrowers from unlimited interest rate and payment increases, but may result in increased credit exposure and prepayment risks for lenders. When interest due on a mortgage loan is added to the principal balance of such mortgage loan, the related mortgaged property provides proportionately less security for the repayment of such mortgage loan. Therefore, if the related borrower defaults on such mortgage loan, there is a greater likelihood that a loss will be incurred upon any liquidation of the mortgaged property which secures such mortgage loan.

ARMs also have the risk of prepayment. The rate of principal prepayments with respect to ARMs has fluctuated in recent years. The value of Mortgage-Backed Securities collateralized by ARMs is less likely to rise during periods of declining interest rates than the value of fixed-rate securities during such periods. Accordingly, ARMs may be subject to a greater rate of principal repayments in a declining interest rate environment resulting in lower yields to the Fund. For example, if prevailing interest rates fall significantly, ARMs could be subject to higher prepayment rates (than if prevailing interest rates remain constant or increase) because the availability of low fixed-rate mortgages may encourage mortgagors to refinance their ARMs to “lock-in” a fixed-rate mortgage. On the other hand, during periods of rising interest rates, the value of ARMs will lag behind changes in the market rate. ARMs are also typically subject to maximum increases and decreases in the interest rate adjustment which can be made on any one adjustment date, in any one year, or during the life of the security. In the event of dramatic increases or decreases in prevailing market interest rates, the value of the Fund’s investment in ARMs may fluctuate more substantially because these limits may prevent the security from fully adjusting its interest rate to the prevailing market rates. As with fixed-rate mortgages, ARM prepayment rates vary in both stable and changing interest rate environments.

 

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There are two main categories of indices which provide the basis for rate adjustments on ARMs: those based on U.S. Treasury securities and those derived from a calculated measure, such as a cost of funds index or a moving average of mortgage rates. Indices commonly used for this purpose include the one-year, three-year and five-year constant maturity Treasury rates, the three-month Treasury bill rate, the 180-day Treasury bill rate, rates on longer-term Treasury securities, the 11th District Federal Home Loan Bank Cost of Funds, the National Median Cost of Funds, the one-month, three-month, six-month or one-year London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), the prime rate of a specific bank, or commercial paper rates. Some indices, such as the one-year constant maturity Treasury rate, closely mirror changes in market interest rate levels. Others, such as the 11th District Federal Home Loan Bank Cost of Funds index, tend to lag behind changes in market rate levels and tend to be somewhat less volatile. The degree of volatility in the market value of ARMs in the Fund’s portfolio and, therefore, in the net asset value of the Fund’s shares, will be a function of the length of the interest rate reset periods and the degree of volatility in the applicable indices.

Fixed-Rate Mortgage Loans . Generally, fixed-rate mortgage loans included in mortgage pools (the “Fixed-Rate Mortgage Loans”) will bear simple interest at fixed annual rates and have original terms to maturity ranging from 5 to 40 years. Fixed-Rate Mortgage Loans generally provide for monthly payments of principal and interest in substantially equal installments for the term of the mortgage note in sufficient amounts to fully amortize principal by maturity, although certain Fixed-Rate Mortgage Loans provide for a large final “balloon” payment upon maturity.

Certain Legal Considerations of Mortgage Loans . The following is a discussion of certain legal and regulatory aspects of the mortgage loans in which the Fund may invest. This discussion is not exhaustive, and does not address all of the legal or regulatory aspects affecting mortgage loans. These regulations may impair the ability of a mortgage lender to enforce its rights under the mortgage documents. These regulations may also adversely affect the Fund’s investments in Mortgage-Backed Securities (including those issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities) by delaying the Fund’s receipt of payments derived from principal or interest on mortgage loans affected by such regulations.

 

  1. Foreclosure . A foreclosure of a defaulted mortgage loan may be delayed due to compliance with statutory notice or service of process provisions, difficulties in locating necessary parties or legal challenges to the mortgagee’s right to foreclose. Depending upon market conditions, the ultimate proceeds of the sale of foreclosed property may not equal the amounts owed on the Mortgage-Backed Securities. Furthermore, courts in some cases have imposed general equitable principles upon foreclosure generally designed to relieve the borrower from the legal effect of default and have required lenders to undertake affirmative and expensive actions to determine the causes for the default and the likelihood of loan reinstatement.

 

  2. Rights of Redemption . In some states, after foreclosure of a mortgage loan, the borrower and foreclosed junior lienors are given a statutory period in which to redeem the property, which right may diminish the mortgagee’s ability to sell the property.

 

  3. Legislative Limitations . In addition to anti-deficiency and related legislation, numerous other federal and state statutory provisions, including the federal bankruptcy laws and state laws affording relief to debtors, may interfere with or affect the ability of a secured mortgage lender to enforce its security interest. For example, a bankruptcy court may grant the debtor a reasonable time to cure a default on a mortgage loan, including a payment default. The court in certain instances may also reduce the monthly payments due under such mortgage loan, change the rate of interest, reduce the principal balance of the loan to the then-current appraised value of the related mortgaged property, alter the mortgage loan repayment schedule and grant priority of certain liens over the lien of the mortgage loan. If a court relieves a borrower’s obligation to repay amounts otherwise due on a mortgage loan, the mortgage loan servicer will not be required to advance such amounts, and any loss may be borne by the holders of securities backed by such loans. In addition, numerous federal and state consumer protection laws impose penalties for failure to comply with specific requirements in connection with origination and servicing of mortgage loans.

 

  4. “Due-on-Sale” Provisions . Fixed-rate mortgage loans may contain a so-called “due-on-sale” clause permitting acceleration of the maturity of the mortgage loan if the borrower transfers the property. The Garn-St. Germain Depository Institutions Act of 1982 sets forth nine specific instances in which no mortgage lender covered by that Act may exercise a “due-on-sale” clause upon a transfer of property. The inability to enforce a “due-on-sale” clause or the lack of such a clause in mortgage loan documents may result in a mortgage loan being assumed by a purchaser of the property that bears an interest rate below the current market rate.

 

  5. Usury Laws . Some states prohibit charging interest on mortgage loans in excess of statutory limits. If such limits are exceeded, substantial penalties may be incurred and, in some cases, enforceability of the obligation to pay principal and interest may be affected.

 

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  6. Recent Governmental Action, Legislation and Regulation . The rise in the rate of foreclosures of properties in certain states or localities has resulted in legislative, regulatory and enforcement action in such states or localities seeking to prevent or restrict foreclosures, particularly in respect of residential mortgage loans. Actions have also been brought against issuers and underwriters of residential Mortgage-Backed Securities collateralized by such residential mortgage loans and investors in such residential Mortgage-Backed Securities. Legislative or regulatory initiatives by federal, state or local legislative bodies or administrative agencies, if enacted or adopted, could delay foreclosure or the exercise of other remedies, provide new defenses to foreclosure, or otherwise impair the ability of the loan servicer to foreclose or realize on a defaulted residential mortgage loan included in a pool of residential mortgage loans backing such residential Mortgage-Backed Securities. While the nature or extent of limitations on foreclosure or exercise of other remedies that may be enacted cannot be predicted, any such governmental actions that interfere with the foreclosure process could increase the costs of such foreclosures or exercise of other remedies in respect of residential mortgage loans which collateralize Mortgage-Backed Securities held by the Fund, delay the timing or reduce the amount of recoveries on defaulted residential mortgage loans which collateralize Mortgage-Backed Securities held by the Fund, and consequently, could adversely impact the yields and distributions the Fund may receive in respect of its ownership of Mortgage-Backed Securities collateralized by residential mortgage loans. For example, the Helping Families Save Their Homes Act of 2009 authorized bankruptcy courts to assist bankrupt borrowers by restructuring residential mortgage loans secured by a lien on the borrower’s primary residence. Bankruptcy judges are permitted to reduce the interest rate of the bankrupt borrower’s residential mortgage loan, extend its term to maturity to up to 40 years or take other actions to reduce the borrower’s monthly payment. As a result, the value of, and the cash flows in respect of, the Mortgage-Backed Securities collateralized by these residential mortgage loans may be adversely impacted, and, as a consequence, the Fund’s investment in such Mortgage-Backed Securities could be adversely impacted. Other federal legislation, including the Home Affordability Modification Program (“ HAMP ”), encourages servicers to modify residential mortgage loans that are either already in default or are at risk of imminent default. Furthermore, HAMP provides incentives for servicers to modify residential mortgage loans that are contractually current. This program, as well other legislation and/or governmental intervention designed to protect consumers, may have an adverse impact on servicers of residential mortgage loans by increasing costs and expenses of these servicers while at the same time decreasing servicing cash flows. Such increased financial pressures may have a negative effect on the ability of servicers to pursue collection on residential mortgage loans that are experiencing increased delinquencies and defaults and to maximize recoveries on the sale of underlying residential mortgaged properties following foreclosure. Other legislative or regulatory actions include insulation of servicers from liability for modification of residential mortgage loans without regard to the terms of the applicable servicing agreements. The foregoing legislation and current and future governmental regulation activities may have the effect of reducing returns to the Fund to the extent it has invested in Mortgage-Backed Securities collateralized by these residential mortgage loans.

Government Guaranteed Mortgage-Backed Securities . There are several types of government guaranteed Mortgage-Backed Securities currently available, including guaranteed mortgage pass-through certificates and multiple class securities, which include guaranteed Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit Certificates (“REMIC Certificates”), other collateralized mortgage obligations and stripped Mortgage-Backed Securities. The Fund is permitted to invest in other types of Mortgage-Backed Securities that may be available in the future, to the extent consistent with its investment policies and objective.

The Fund’s investments in Mortgage-Backed Securities may include securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government or one of its agencies, authorities, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises, such as the Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”), the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”). Ginnie Mae securities are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government, which means that the U.S. Government guarantees that the interest and principal will be paid when due. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac securities are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have the ability to borrow from the U.S. Treasury, and as a result, have historically been viewed by the market as high quality securities with low credit risks. From time to time, proposals have been introduced before Congress for the purpose of restricting or eliminating federal sponsorship of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. The Trust cannot predict what legislation, if any, may be proposed in the future in Congress as regards such sponsorship or which proposals, if any, might be enacted. Such proposals, if enacted, might materially and adversely affect the availability of government guaranteed Mortgage-Backed Securities and the liquidity and value of the Fund’s portfolio.

There is risk that the U.S. Government will not provide financial support to its agencies, authorities, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. The Fund may purchase U.S. Government Securities that are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government, such as those issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. The maximum potential liability of the issuers of some U.S. Government Securities held by the Fund may greatly exceed such issuers’ current resources, including such issuers’ legal right to support from the U.S. Treasury. It is possible that these issuers will not have the funds to meet their payment obligations in the future.

 

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Below is a general discussion of certain types of guaranteed Mortgage-Backed Securities in which the Fund may invest.

Ÿ Ginnie Mae Certificates . Ginnie Mae is a wholly-owned corporate instrumentality of the United States. Ginnie Mae is authorized to guarantee the timely payment of the principal of and interest on certificates that are based on and backed by a pool of mortgage loans insured by the Federal Housing Administration (“FHA”), or guaranteed by the Veterans Administration (“VA”), or by pools of other eligible mortgage loans. In order to meet its obligations under any guaranty, Ginnie Mae is authorized to borrow from the United States Treasury in an unlimited amount. The National Housing Act provides that the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government is pledged to the timely payment of principal and interest by Ginnie Mae of amounts due on Ginnie Mae certificates.

Ÿ Fannie Mae Certificates . Fannie Mae is a stockholder-owned corporation chartered under an act of the United States Congress. Generally, Fannie Mae Certificates are issued and guaranteed by Fannie Mae and represent an undivided interest in a pool of mortgage loans (a “Pool”) formed by Fannie Mae. A Pool consists of residential mortgage loans either previously owned by Fannie Mae or purchased by it in connection with the formation of the Pool. The mortgage loans may be either conventional mortgage loans (i.e., not insured or guaranteed by any U.S. Government agency) or mortgage loans that are either insured by the FHA or guaranteed by the VA. However, the mortgage loans in Fannie Mae Pools are primarily conventional mortgage loans. The lenders originating and servicing the mortgage loans are subject to certain eligibility requirements established by Fannie Mae. Fannie Mae has certain contractual responsibilities. With respect to each Pool, Fannie Mae is obligated to distribute scheduled installments of principal and interest after Fannie Mae’s servicing and guaranty fee, whether or not received, to Certificate holders. Fannie Mae also is obligated to distribute to holders of Certificates an amount equal to the full principal balance of any foreclosed mortgage loan, whether or not such principal balance is actually recovered. The obligations of Fannie Mae under its guaranty of the Fannie Mae Certificates are obligations solely of Fannie Mae. See “Certain Additional Information with Respect to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae” below.

Ÿ Freddie Mac Certificates . Freddie Mac is a publicly held U.S. Government sponsored enterprise. A principal activity of Freddie Mac currently is the purchase of first lien, conventional, residential and multifamily mortgage loans and participation interests in such mortgage loans and their resale in the form of mortgage securities, primarily Freddie Mac Certificates. A Freddie Mac Certificate represents a pro rata interest in a group of mortgage loans or participations in mortgage loans (a “Freddie Mac Certificate group”) purchased by Freddie Mac. Freddie Mac guarantees to each registered holder of a Freddie Mac Certificate the timely payment of interest at the rate provided for by such Freddie Mac Certificate (whether or not received on the underlying loans). Freddie Mac also guarantees to each registered Certificate holder ultimate collection of all principal of the related mortgage loans, without any offset or deduction, but does not, generally, guarantee the timely payment of scheduled principal. The obligations of Freddie Mac under its guaranty of Freddie Mac Certificates are obligations solely of Freddie Mac. See “Certain Additional Information with Respect to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae” below.

The mortgage loans underlying the Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae Certificates consist of adjustable rate or fixed-rate mortgage loans with original terms to maturity of up to forty years. These mortgage loans are usually secured by first liens on one-to-four-family residential properties or multi-family projects. Each mortgage loan must meet the applicable standards set forth in the law creating Freddie Mac or Fannie Mae. A Freddie Mac Certificate group may include whole loans, participation interests in whole loans, undivided interests in whole loans and participations comprising another Freddie Mac Certificate group.

Conventional Mortgage Loans . The conventional mortgage loans underlying the Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae Certificates consist of adjustable rate or fixed-rate mortgage loans normally with original terms to maturity of between five and thirty years. Substantially all of these mortgage loans are secured by first liens on one- to four-family residential properties or multi-family projects. Each mortgage loan must meet the applicable standards set forth in the law creating Freddie Mac or Fannie Mae. A Freddie Mac Certificate group may include whole loans, participation interests in whole loans, undivided interests in whole loans and participations comprising another Freddie Mac Certificate group.

Certain Additional Information with Respect to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae . The volatility and disruption that impacted the capital and credit markets during late 2008 and into 2009 have led to increased market concerns about Freddie Mac’s and Fannie Mae’s ability to withstand future credit losses associated with securities held in their investment portfolios, and on which they provide guarantees, without the direct support of the federal government. On September 6, 2008, both Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae were placed under the conservatorship of the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”). Under the plan of conservatorship, the FHFA has assumed control of, and generally has the power to direct, the operations of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, and is empowered to exercise all powers collectively held by their respective shareholders, directors and officers, including the power to (1) take over the assets of and operate Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae with all the powers of the shareholders, the directors, and the officers of Freddie

 

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Mac and Fannie Mae and conduct all business of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae; (2) collect all obligations and money due to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae; (3) perform all functions of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae which are consistent with the conservator’s appointment; (4) preserve and conserve the assets and property of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae; and (5) contract for assistance in fulfilling any function, activity, action or duty of the conservator. In addition, in connection with the actions taken by the FHFA, the U.S. Treasury entered into certain preferred stock purchase agreements with each of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae which established the U.S. Treasury as the holder of a new class of senior preferred stock in each of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, which stock was issued in connection with financial contributions from the U.S. Treasury to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. The conditions attached to the financial contribution made by the U.S. Treasury to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae and the issuance of this senior preferred stock placed significant restrictions on the activities of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae must obtain the consent of the U.S. Treasury to, among other things, (i) make any payment to purchase or redeem its capital stock or pay any dividend other than in respect of the senior preferred stock issued to the U.S. Treasury, (ii) issue capital stock of any kind, (iii) terminate the conservatorship of the FHFA except in connection with a receivership, or (iv) increase its debt beyond certain specified levels. In addition, significant restrictions were placed on the maximum size of each of Freddie Mac’s and Fannie Mae’s respective portfolios of mortgages and Mortgage-Backed Securities, and the purchase agreements entered into by Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae provide that the maximum size of their portfolios of these assets must decrease by a specified percentage each year. On June 16, 2010, FHFA ordered Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac’s stock de-listed from the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) after the price of common stock in Fannie Mae fell below the NYSE minimum average closing price of $1 for more than 30 days.

The future status and role of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae could be impacted by (among other things) the actions taken and restrictions placed on Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae by the FHFA in its role as conservator, the restrictions placed on Freddie Mac’s and Fannie Mae’s operations and activities as a result of the senior preferred stock investment made by the U.S. Treasury, market responses to developments at Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, and future legislative and regulatory action that alters the operations, ownership, structure and/or mission of these institutions, each of which may, in turn, impact the value of, and cash flows on, any Mortgage-Backed Securities guaranteed by Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, including any such Mortgage-Backed Securities held by the Fund.

Privately Issued Mortgage-Backed Securities . The Fund may invest in privately issued Mortgage-Backed Securities. Privately issued Mortgage-Backed Securities are generally backed by pools of conventional (i.e., non-government guaranteed or insured) mortgage loans. The seller or servicer of the underlying mortgage obligations will generally make representations and warranties to certificate-holders as to certain characteristics of the mortgage loans and as to the accuracy of certain information furnished to the trustee in respect of each such mortgage loan. Upon a breach of any representation or warranty that materially and adversely affects the interests of the related certificate-holders in a mortgage loan, the seller or servicer generally will be obligated either to cure the breach in all material respects, to repurchase the mortgage loan or, if the related agreement so provides, to substitute in its place a mortgage loan pursuant to the conditions set forth therein. Such a repurchase or substitution obligation may constitute the sole remedy available to the related certificate-holders or the trustee for the material breach of any such representation or warranty by the seller or servicer.

Mortgage Pass-Through Securities

To the extent consistent with its investment policies, the Fund may invest in both government guaranteed and privately issued mortgage pass-through securities (“Mortgage Pass-Throughs”) that are fixed or adjustable rate Mortgage-Backed Securities which provide for monthly payments that are a “pass-through” of the monthly interest and principal payments (including any prepayments) made by the individual borrowers on the pooled mortgage loans, net of any fees or other amounts paid to any guarantor, administrator and/or servicer of the underlying mortgage loans. The seller or servicer of the underlying mortgage obligations will generally make representations and warranties to certificate-holders as to certain characteristics of the mortgage loans and as to the accuracy of certain information furnished to the trustee in respect of each such mortgage loan. Upon a breach of any representation or warranty that materially and adversely affects the interests of the related certificate-holders in a mortgage loan, the seller or servicer may be obligated either to cure the breach in all material respects, to repurchase the mortgage loan or, if the related agreement so provides, to substitute in its place a mortgage loan pursuant to the conditions set forth therein. Such a repurchase or substitution obligation may constitute the sole remedy available to the related certificate-holders or the trustee for the material breach of any such representation or warranty by the seller or servicer.

The following discussion describes certain aspects of only a few of the wide variety of structures of Mortgage Pass-Throughs that are available or may be issued.

General Description of Certificates . Mortgage Pass-Throughs may be issued in one or more classes of senior certificates and one or more classes of subordinate certificates. Each such class may bear a different pass-through rate. Generally, each certificate will evidence the specified interest of the holder thereof in the payments of principal or interest or both in respect of the mortgage pool comprising part of the trust fund for such certificates.

 

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Any class of certificates may also be divided into subclasses entitled to varying amounts of principal and interest. If a REMIC election has been made, certificates of such subclasses may be entitled to payments on the basis of a stated principal balance and stated interest rate, and payments among different subclasses may be made on a sequential, concurrent, pro rata or disproportionate basis, or any combination thereof. The stated interest rate on any such subclass of certificates may be a fixed rate or one which varies in direct or inverse relationship to an objective interest index.

Generally, each registered holder of a certificate will be entitled to receive its pro rata share of monthly distributions of all or a portion of principal of the underlying mortgage loans or of interest on the principal balances thereof, which accrues at the applicable mortgage pass-through rate, or both. The difference between the mortgage interest rate and the related mortgage pass-through rate (less the amount, if any, of retained yield) with respect to each mortgage loan will generally be paid to the servicer as a servicing fee. Because certain adjustable rate mortgage loans included in a mortgage pool may provide for deferred interest (i.e., negative amortization), the amount of interest actually paid by a mortgagor in any month may be less than the amount of interest accrued on the outstanding principal balance of the related mortgage loan during the relevant period at the applicable mortgage interest rate. In such event, the amount of interest that is treated as deferred interest will generally be added to the principal balance of the related mortgage loan and will be distributed pro rata to certificate-holders as principal of such mortgage loan when paid by the mortgagor in subsequent monthly payments or at maturity.

Ratings . The ratings assigned by a rating organization to Mortgage Pass-Throughs generally address the likelihood of the receipt of distributions on the underlying mortgage loans by the related certificate-holders under the agreements pursuant to which such certificates are issued. A rating organization’s ratings normally take into consideration the credit quality of the related mortgage pool, including any credit support providers, structural and legal aspects associated with such certificates, and the extent to which the payment stream on such mortgage pool is adequate to make payments required by such certificates. A rating organization’s ratings on such certificates do not, however, constitute a statement regarding frequency of prepayments on the related mortgage loans. In addition, the rating assigned by a rating organization to a certificate may not address the possibility that, in the event of the insolvency of the issuer of certificates where a subordinated interest was retained, the issuance and sale of the senior certificates may be recharacterized as a financing and, as a result of such recharacterization, payments on such certificates may be affected. A rating organization may downgrade or withdraw a rating assigned by it to any Mortgage Pass-Through at any time, and no assurance can be made that any ratings on any Mortgage Pass-Throughs included in the Fund will be maintained, or that if such ratings are assigned, they will not be downgraded or withdrawn by the assigning rating organization.

In the past, rating agencies have placed on credit watch or downgraded the ratings previously assigned to a large number of mortgage-backed securities (which may include certain of the Mortgage-Backed Securities in which the Fund may have invested or may in the future be invested), and may continue to do so in the future. In the event that any Mortgage-Backed Security held by the Fund is placed on credit watch or downgraded, the value of such Mortgage-Backed Security may decline and the Fund may consequently experience losses in respect of such Mortgage-Backed Security.

Credit Enhancement . Mortgage pools created by non-governmental issuers generally offer a higher yield than government and government-related pools because of the absence of direct or indirect government or agency payment guarantees. To lessen the effect of failures by obligors on underlying assets to make payments, Mortgage Pass-Throughs may contain elements of credit support. Credit support falls generally into two categories: (i) liquidity protection and (ii) protection against losses resulting from default by an obligor on the underlying assets. Liquidity protection refers to the provision of advances, generally by the entity administering the pools of mortgages, the provision of a reserve fund, or a combination thereof, to ensure, subject to certain limitations, that scheduled payments on the underlying pool are made in a timely fashion. Protection against losses resulting from default ensures ultimate payment of the obligations on at least a portion of the assets in the pool. Such credit support can be provided by, among other things, payment guarantees, letters of credit, pool insurance, subordination, or any combination thereof.

Subordination; Shifting of Interest; Reserve Fund . In order to achieve ratings on one or more classes of Mortgage Pass-Throughs, one or more classes of certificates may be subordinate certificates which provide that the rights of the subordinate certificate-holders to receive any or a specified portion of distributions with respect to the underlying mortgage loans may be subordinated to the rights of the senior certificate holders. If so structured, the subordination feature may be enhanced by distributing to the senior certificate-holders on certain distribution dates, as payment of principal, a specified percentage (which generally declines over time) of all principal payments received during the preceding prepayment period (“shifting interest credit enhancement”). This will have the effect of accelerating the amortization of the senior certificates while increasing the interest in the trust fund evidenced by the subordinate certificates. Increasing the interest of the subordinate certificates relative to that of the senior certificates is intended

 

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to preserve the availability of the subordination provided by the subordinate certificates. In addition, because the senior certificate-holders in a shifting interest credit enhancement structure are entitled to receive a percentage of principal prepayments which is greater than their proportionate interest in the trust fund, the rate of principal prepayments on the mortgage loans may have an even greater effect on the rate of principal payments and the amount of interest payments on, and the yield to maturity of, the senior certificates.

In addition to providing for a preferential right of the senior certificate-holders to receive current distributions from the mortgage pool, a reserve fund may be established relating to such certificates (the “Reserve Fund”). The Reserve Fund may be created with an initial cash deposit by the originator or servicer and augmented by the retention of distributions otherwise available to the subordinate certificate-holders or by excess servicing fees until the Reserve Fund reaches a specified amount.

The subordination feature, and any Reserve Fund, are intended to enhance the likelihood of timely receipt by senior certificate-holders of the full amount of scheduled monthly payments of principal and interest due to them and will protect the senior certificate-holders against certain losses; however, in certain circumstances the Reserve Fund could be depleted and temporary shortfalls could result. In the event that the Reserve Fund is depleted before the subordinated amount is reduced to zero, senior certificate-holders will nevertheless have a preferential right to receive current distributions from the mortgage pool to the extent of the then outstanding subordinated amount. Unless otherwise specified, until the subordinated amount is reduced to zero, on any distribution date any amount otherwise distributable to the subordinate certificates or, to the extent specified, in the Reserve Fund will generally be used to offset the amount of any losses realized with respect to the mortgage loans (“Realized Losses”). Realized Losses remaining after application of such amounts will generally be applied to reduce the ownership interest of the subordinate certificates in the mortgage pool. If the subordinated amount has been reduced to zero, Realized Losses generally will be allocated pro rata among all certificate-holders in proportion to their respective outstanding interests in the mortgage pool.

Alternative Credit Enhancement . As an alternative, or in addition to the credit enhancement afforded by subordination, credit enhancement for Mortgage Pass-Throughs may be provided through bond insurers, or at the mortgage loan-level through mortgage insurance, hazard insurance, or through the deposit of cash, certificates of deposit, letters of credit, a limited guaranty or by such other methods as are acceptable to a rating agency. In certain circumstances, such as where credit enhancement is provided by bond insurers, guarantees or letters of credit, the security is subject to credit risk because of its exposure to the credit risk of an external credit enhancement provider.

Voluntary Advances . Generally, in the event of delinquencies in payments on the mortgage loans underlying the Mortgage Pass-Throughs, the servicer may agree to make advances of cash for the benefit of certificate-holders, but generally will do so only to the extent that it determines such voluntary advances will be recoverable from future payments and collections on the mortgage loans or otherwise.

Optional Termination . Generally, the servicer may, at its option with respect to any certificates, repurchase all of the underlying mortgage loans remaining outstanding at such time if the aggregate outstanding principal balance of such mortgage loans is less than a specified percentage (generally 5-10%) of the aggregate outstanding principal balance of the mortgage loans as of the cut-off date specified with respect to such series.

Multiple Class Mortgage-Backed Securities and Collateralized Mortgage Obligations . The Fund may invest in multiple class securities including collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”) and REMIC Certificates. These securities may be issued by U.S. Government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises such as Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac or by trusts formed by private originators of, or investors in, mortgage loans, including savings and loan associations, mortgage bankers, commercial banks, insurance companies, investment banks and special purpose subsidiaries of the foregoing. In general, CMOs are debt obligations of a legal entity that are collateralized by, and multiple class Mortgage-Backed Securities represent direct ownership interests in, a pool of mortgage loans or Mortgage-Backed Securities the payments on which are used to make payments on the CMOs or multiple class Mortgage-Backed Securities.

Fannie Mae REMIC Certificates are issued and guaranteed as to timely distribution of principal and interest by Fannie Mae. In addition, Fannie Mae will be obligated to distribute the principal balance of each class of REMIC Certificates in full, whether or not sufficient funds are otherwise available.

Freddie Mac guarantees the timely payment of interest on Freddie Mac REMIC Certificates and also guarantees the payment of principal as payments are required to be made on the underlying mortgage participation certificates (“PCs”). PCs represent undivided interests in specified level payment, residential mortgages or participations therein purchased by Freddie Mac and placed in a PC pool. With respect to principal payments on PCs, Freddie Mac generally guarantees ultimate collection of all principal of the related mortgage loans without offset or deduction but the receipt of the required payments may be delayed. Freddie Mac also guarantees timely payment of principal of certain PCs.

 

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CMOs and guaranteed REMIC Certificates issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are types of multiple class Mortgage-Backed Securities. The REMIC Certificates represent beneficial ownership interests in a REMIC trust, generally consisting of mortgage loans or Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac or Ginnie Mae guaranteed Mortgage-Backed Securities (the “Mortgage Assets”). The obligations of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac under their respective guaranty of the REMIC Certificates are obligations solely of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, respectively. See “Certain Additional Information with Respect to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae.”

CMOs and REMIC Certificates are issued in multiple classes. Each class of CMOs or REMIC Certificates, often referred to as a “tranche,” is issued at a specific adjustable or fixed interest rate and must be fully retired no later than its final distribution date. Principal prepayments on the mortgage loans or the Mortgage Assets underlying the CMOs or REMIC Certificates may cause some or all of the classes of CMOs or REMIC Certificates to be retired substantially earlier than their final distribution dates. Generally, interest is paid or accrues on all classes of CMOs or REMIC Certificates on a monthly basis.

The principal of and interest on the Mortgage Assets may be allocated among the several classes of CMOs or REMIC Certificates in various ways. In certain structures (known as “sequential pay” CMOs or REMIC Certificates), payments of principal, including any principal prepayments, on the Mortgage Assets generally are applied to the classes of CMOs or REMIC Certificates in the order of their respective final distribution dates. Thus, no payment of principal will be made on any class of sequential pay CMOs or REMIC Certificates until all other classes having an earlier final distribution date have been paid in full.

Additional structures of CMOs and REMIC Certificates include, among others, “parallel pay” CMOs and REMIC Certificates. Parallel pay CMOs or REMIC Certificates are those which are structured to apply principal payments and prepayments of the Mortgage Assets to two or more classes concurrently on a proportionate or disproportionate basis. These simultaneous payments are taken into account in calculating the final distribution date of each class.

A wide variety of REMIC Certificates may be issued in parallel pay or sequential pay structures. These securities include accrual certificates (also known as “Z-Bonds”), which only accrue interest at a specified rate until all other certificates having an earlier final distribution date have been retired and are converted thereafter to an interest-paying security, and planned amortization class (“PAC”) certificates, which are parallel pay REMIC Certificates that generally require that specified amounts of principal be applied on each payment date to one or more classes or REMIC Certificates (the “PAC Certificates”), even though all other principal payments and prepayments of the Mortgage Assets are then required to be applied to one or more other classes of the PAC Certificates. The scheduled principal payments for the PAC Certificates generally have the highest priority on each payment date after interest due has been paid to all classes entitled to receive interest currently. Shortfalls, if any, are added to the amount payable on the next payment date. The PAC Certificate payment schedule is taken into account in calculating the final distribution date of each class of PAC. In order to create PAC tranches, one or more tranches generally must be created that absorb most of the volatility in the underlying mortgage assets. These tranches tend to have market prices and yields that are much more volatile than other PAC classes.

Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities . Commercial mortgage-backed securities (“CMBS”) are a type of Mortgage Pass-Through that are primarily backed by a pool of commercial mortgage loans. The commercial mortgage loans are, in turn, generally secured by commercial mortgaged properties (such as office properties, retail properties, hospitality properties, industrial properties, healthcare related properties or other types of income producing real property). CMBS generally entitle the holders thereof to receive payments that depend primarily on the cash flow from a specified pool of commercial or multifamily mortgage loans. CMBS will be affected by payments, defaults, delinquencies and losses on the underlying mortgage loans. The underlying mortgage loans generally are secured by income producing properties such as office properties, retail properties, multifamily properties, manufactured housing, hospitality properties, industrial properties and self storage properties. Because issuers of CMBS have no significant assets other than the underlying commercial real estate loans and because of the significant credit risks inherent in the underlying collateral, credit risk is a correspondingly important consideration with respect to the related CMBS. Certain of the mortgage loans underlying CMBS constituting part of the collateral interests may be delinquent, in default or in foreclosure.

Commercial real estate lending may expose a lender (and the related Mortgage-Backed Security) to a greater risk of loss than certain other forms of lending because it typically involves making larger loans to single borrowers or groups of related borrowers. In addition, in the case of certain commercial mortgage loans, repayment of loans secured by commercial and multifamily properties depends upon the ability of the related real estate project to generate income sufficient to pay debt service, operating expenses and leasing commissions and to make necessary repairs, tenant improvements and capital improvements, and in the case of loans that do not fully amortize over their terms, to retain sufficient value to permit the borrower to pay off the loan at maturity through a sale or refinancing of the mortgaged property. The net operating income from and value of any commercial property is subject to various

 

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risks, including changes in general or local economic conditions and/or specific industry segments; declines in real estate values; declines in rental or occupancy rates; increases in interest rates, real estate tax rates and other operating expenses; changes in governmental rules, regulations and fiscal policies; acts of God; terrorist threats and attacks and social unrest and civil disturbances. In addition, certain of the mortgaged properties securing the pools of commercial mortgage loans underlying CMBS may have a higher degree of geographic concentration in a few states or regions. Any deterioration in the real estate market or economy or adverse events in such states or regions, may increase the rate of delinquency and default experience (and as a consequence, losses) with respect to mortgage loans related to properties in such state or region. Pools of mortgaged properties securing the commercial mortgage loans underlying CMBS may also have a higher degree of concentration in certain types of commercial properties. Accordingly, such pools of mortgage loans represent higher exposure to risks particular to those types of commercial properties. Certain pools of commercial mortgage loans underlying CMBS consist of a fewer number of mortgage loans with outstanding balances that are larger than average. If a mortgage pool includes mortgage loans with larger than average balances, any realized losses on such mortgage loans could be more severe, relative to the size of the pool, than would be the case if the aggregate balance of the pool were distributed among a larger number of mortgage loans. Certain borrowers or affiliates thereof relating to certain of the commercial mortgage loans underlying CMBS may have had a history of bankruptcy. Certain mortgaged properties securing the commercial mortgage loans underlying CMBS may have been exposed to environmental conditions or circumstances. The ratings in respect of certain of the CMBS comprising the Mortgage-Backed Securities may have been withdrawn, reduced or placed on credit watch since issuance. In addition, losses and/or appraisal reductions may be allocated to certain of such CMBS and certain of the collateral or the assets underlying such collateral may be delinquent and/or may default from time to time.

CMBS held by the Fund may be subordinated to one or more other classes of securities of the same series for purposes of, among other things, establishing payment priorities and offsetting losses and other shortfalls with respect to the related underlying mortgage loans. Realized losses in respect of the mortgage loans included in the CMBS pool and trust expenses generally will be allocated to the most subordinated class of securities of the related series. Accordingly, to the extent any CMBS is or becomes the most subordinated class of securities of the related series, any delinquency or default on any underlying mortgage loan may result in shortfalls, realized loss allocations or extensions of its weighted average life and will have a more immediate and disproportionate effect on the related CMBS than on a related more senior class of CMBS of the same series. Further, even if a class is not the most subordinate class of securities, there can be no assurance that the subordination offered to such class will be sufficient on any date to offset all losses or expenses incurred by the underlying trust. CMBS are typically not guaranteed or insured, and distributions on such CMBS generally will depend solely upon the amount and timing of payments and other collections on the related underlying commercial mortgage loans.

Stripped Mortgage-Backed Securities . The Fund may invest in stripped mortgage-backed securities (“SMBS”), which are derivative multiclass mortgage securities, issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities or non-governmental originators. SMBS are usually structured with two different classes: one that receives substantially all of the interest payments (the interest-only, or “IO” and/or the high coupon rate with relatively low principal amount, or “IOette”), and the other that receives substantially all of the principal payments (the principal-only, or “PO”), from a pool of mortgage loans.

Certain SMBS may not be readily marketable and will be considered illiquid for purposes of the Fund’s limitation on investments in illiquid securities. The Investment Adviser may determine that SMBS which are U.S. Government Securities are liquid for purposes of the Fund’s limitation on investments in illiquid securities. The market value of POs generally is unusually volatile in response to changes in interest rates. The yields on IOs and IOettes are generally higher than prevailing market yields on other Mortgage-Backed Securities because their cash flow patterns are more volatile and there is a greater risk that the initial investment will not be fully recouped. The Fund’s investments in SMBS may require the Fund to sell certain of its portfolio securities to generate sufficient cash to satisfy certain income distribution requirements.

Asset-Backed Securities

The Fund may invest in asset-backed securities. Asset-backed securities represent participations in, or are secured by and payable from, assets such as motor vehicle installment sales, installment loan contracts, leases of various types of real and personal property, receivables from revolving credit (credit card) agreements and other categories of receivables. Such assets are securitized through the use of trusts and special purpose corporations. Payments or distributions of principal and interest may be guaranteed up to certain amounts and for a certain time period by a letter of credit or a pool insurance policy issued by a financial institution unaffiliated with the trust or corporation, or other credit enhancements may be present.

Such securities are often subject to more rapid repayment than their stated maturity date would indicate as a result of the pass-through of prepayments of principal on the underlying loans. During periods of declining interest rates, prepayment of loans underlying asset-backed securities can be expected to accelerate. Accordingly, the Fund’s ability to maintain positions in such

 

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securities will be affected by reductions in the principal amount of such securities resulting from prepayments, and its ability to reinvest the returns of principal at comparable yields is subject to generally prevailing interest rates at that time. To the extent that the Fund invests in asset-backed securities, the values of the Fund’s portfolio securities will vary with changes in market interest rates generally and the differentials in yields among various kinds of asset-backed securities.

Asset-backed securities present certain additional risks because asset-backed securities generally do not have the benefit of a security interest in collateral that is comparable to mortgage assets. Credit card receivables are generally unsecured and the debtors on such receivables are entitled to the protection of a number of state and federal consumer credit laws, many of which give such debtors the right to set-off certain amounts owed on the credit cards, thereby reducing the balance due. Automobile receivables generally are secured, but by automobiles rather than residential real property. Most issuers of automobile receivables permit the loan servicers to retain possession of the underlying obligations. If the servicer were to sell these obligations to another party, there is a risk that the purchaser would acquire an interest superior to that of the holders of the asset-backed securities. In addition, because of the large number of vehicles involved in a typical issuance and technical requirements under state laws, the trustee for the holders of the automobile receivables may not have a proper security interest in the underlying automobiles. Therefore, if the issuer of an asset-backed security defaults on its payment obligations, there is the possibility that, in some cases, the Fund will be unable to possess and sell the underlying collateral and that the Fund’s recoveries on repossessed collateral may not be available to support payments on these securities.

Events Relating to the Mortgage and Asset-Backed Securities Markets and the Overall Economy

The unprecedented disruption in the residential mortgage-backed securities market (and in particular, the “subprime” residential mortgage market), the broader mortgage-backed securities market and the asset-backed securities market in 2008 and 2009 resulted in downward price pressures and increasing foreclosures and defaults in residential and commercial real estate. Concerns over inflation, energy costs, geopolitical issues, the availability and cost of credit, the mortgage market and a depressed real estate market contributed to increased volatility and diminished expectations for the economy and markets going forward, and have contributed to dramatic declines in the housing market, with falling home prices and increasing foreclosures and unemployment, and significant asset write-downs by financial institutions. These conditions prompted a number of financial institutions to seek additional capital, to merge with other institutions and, in some cases, to fail or seek bankruptcy protection. Between 2008 and 2009, the market for Mortgage-Backed Securities (as well as other asset-backed securities) was particularly adversely impacted by, among other factors, the failure and subsequent sale of Bear, Stearns & Co. Inc. to J.P. Morgan Chase, the merger of Bank of America Corporation and Merrill Lynch & Co., the insolvency of Washington Mutual Inc., the failure and subsequent bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers Holdings, Inc., the extension of approximately $152 billion in emergency credit by the U.S. Treasury to American International Group Inc., and, as described above, the conservatorship and the control by the U.S. Government of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. The global markets also saw an increase in volatility due to uncertainty surrounding the level and sustainability of sovereign debt of certain countries that are part of the European Union, including Greece, Spain, Portugal, Ireland and Italy, as well as the sustainability of the European Union itself. Concerns over the level and sustainability of the sovereign debt of the United States have aggravated this volatility. No assurance can be made that this uncertainty will not lead to further disruption of the credit markets in the United States or around the globe. These events, coupled with the general global economic downturn, have resulted in a substantial level of uncertainty in the financial markets, particularly with respect to mortgage-related investments.

These events may lead to further declines in income from, or the value of, real estate, including the real estate which secures the Mortgage-Backed Securities which may be held by the Fund. Additionally, a lack of credit liquidity, adjustments of mortgages to higher rates and decreases in the value of real property have occurred and may reoccur, and potentially prevent borrowers from refinancing their mortgages, which may increase the likelihood of default on their mortgage loans. These economic conditions, coupled with high levels of real estate inventory and elevated incidence of underwater mortgages, may also adversely affect the amount of proceeds the holder of a mortgage loan or mortgage-backed securities (including the Mortgaged-Backed Securities in which the Fund may invest) would realize in the event of a foreclosure or other exercise of remedies. Moreover, even if such Mortgage-Backed Securities are performing as anticipated, the value of such securities in the secondary market may nevertheless fall or continue to fall as a result of deterioration in general market conditions for such Mortgage-Backed Securities or other asset-backed or structured products. Trading activity associated with market indices may also drive spreads on those indices wider than spreads on Mortgage-Backed Securities, thereby resulting in a decrease in value of such Mortgage-Backed Securities, including the Mortgage-Backed Securities which may be owned by the Fund.

The U.S. Government, the Federal Reserve, the U.S. Treasury, the SEC, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the “FDIC”) and other governmental and regulatory bodies have taken or are considering taking actions to address the financial crisis. These actions include, but are not limited to, the enactment by the U.S. Congress of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd Frank Act”), which was signed into law on July 21, 2010 and imposes a new regulatory framework over the U.S. financial services industry and the consumer credit markets in general, and the promulgation of additional regulations in this area which could affect these securities. Given the broad scope, sweeping nature, and relatively recent enactment of some of these

 

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regulatory measures, the potential impact they could have on any of the asset-backed or Mortgage-Backed Securities which may be held by the Fund is unknown. There can be no assurance that these measures will not have an adverse effect on the value or marketability of any asset-backed or Mortgage-Backed Securities which may be held by the Fund. Furthermore, no assurance can be made that the U.S. Government or any U.S. regulatory body (or other authority or regulatory body) will not continue to take further legislative or regulatory action in response to the economic crisis or otherwise, and the effect of such actions, if taken, cannot be known.

Among its other provisions, the Dodd-Frank Act creates a liquidation framework under which the FDIC, may be appointed as receiver following a “systemic risk determination” by the Secretary of Treasury (in consultation with the President) for the resolution of certain nonbank financial companies and other entities, defined as “covered financial companies”, and commonly referred to as “systemically important entities”, in the event such a company is in default or in danger of default and the resolution of such a company under other applicable law would have serious adverse effects on financial stability in the United States, and also for the resolution of certain of their subsidiaries. No assurances can be given that this new liquidation framework would not apply to the originators of asset-backed securities, including Mortgage-Backed Securities, or their respective subsidiaries, including the issuers and depositors of such securities, although the expectation embedded in the Dodd-Frank Act is that the framework will be invoked only very rarely. Guidance from the FDIC indicates that such new framework will largely be exercised in a manner consistent with the existing bankruptcy laws, which is the insolvency regime that would otherwise apply to the sponsors, depositors and issuing entities with respect to asset-backed securities, including Mortgage-Backed Securities. The application of such liquidation framework to such entities could result in decreases or delays in amounts paid on, and hence the market value of, the Mortgage-Backed or asset-backed securities that may be owned by the Fund.

Delinquencies, defaults and losses on residential mortgage loans may increase substantially over certain periods, which may affect the performance of the Mortgage-Backed Securities in which the Fund may invest. Mortgage loans backing non-agency Mortgage-Backed Securities are more sensitive to economic factors that could affect the ability of borrowers to pay their obligations under the mortgage loans backing these securities. In addition, housing prices and appraisal values in many states and localities over certain periods have declined or stopped appreciating. A continued decline or an extended flattening of those values may result in additional increases in delinquencies and losses on Mortgage-Backed Securities generally (including the Mortgaged-Backed Securities that the Fund may invest in as described above).

The foregoing adverse changes in market conditions and regulatory climate may reduce the cash flow which the Fund, to the extent it invests in Mortgage-Backed Securities or other asset-backed securities, receives from such securities and increase the incidence and severity of credit events and losses in respect of such securities. In addition, interest rate spreads for Mortgage-Backed Securities and other asset-backed securities and other asset-backed securities are subject to widening and increased volatility due to these adverse changes in market conditions. In the event that interest rate spreads for Mortgage-Backed Securities and other asset-backed securities widen following the purchase of such assets by the Fund, the market value of such securities is likely to decline and, in the case of a substantial spread widening, could decline by a substantial amount. Furthermore, adverse changes in market conditions may result in reduced liquidity in the market for Mortgage-Backed Securities and other asset-backed securities (including the Mortgage-Backed Securities and other asset-backed securities in which the Fund may invest) and increased unwillingness by banks, financial institutions and investors to extend credit to servicers, originators and other participants in the market for Mortgage-Backed and other asset-backed securities. As a result, the liquidity and/or the market value of any Mortgage-Backed or asset-backed securities that are owned by the Fund may experience further declines after they are purchased by the Fund.

Collateralized Debt Obligations

The Fund may invest in collateralized debt obligations (“CDOs”), which include collateralized bond obligations (“CBOs”), collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”), and other similarly structured securities. CBOs and CLOs are types of asset-backed securities. A CBO is a trust which is backed by a diversified pool of high risk, below investment grade fixed income securities. A CLO is a trust typically collateralized by a pool of loans, which may include, among others, domestic and foreign senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans, and subordinate corporate loans, including loans that may be rated below investment grade or equivalent unrated loans. CDOs may charge management fees and other administrative expenses.

For both CBOs and CLOs, the cash flows from the trust are split into two or more portions, called tranches, varying in risk and yield. The riskiest portion is the “equity” tranche which bears the bulk of defaults from the bonds or loans in the trust and serves to protect the other, more senior tranches from default in all but the most severe circumstances. Since it is partially protected from defaults, a senior tranche from a CBO trust or CLO trust typically has higher ratings and lower yields than its underlying securities, and can be rated investment grade. Despite the protection from the equity tranche, CBO or CLO tranches can experience substantial losses due to actual defaults, increased sensitivity to defaults due to collateral default and disappearance of protecting tranches, market anticipation of defaults, as well as aversion to CBO or CLO securities as a class.

 

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The risks of an investment in a CDO depend largely on the type of the collateral securities and the class of the CDO in which the Fund invests. Normally, CBOs, CLOs and CDOs are privately offered and sold, and thus, are not registered under the securities laws. As a result, investments in CDOs may be characterized by the Fund as illiquid securities. However, an active dealer market may exist for CDOs that qualify under the Rule 144A “safe harbor” from the registration requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (“1933 Act”) for resales of certain securities to qualified institutional buyers, and such CDOs may be characterized by the Fund as liquid securities. In addition to the normal risks associated with fixed income securities discussed elsewhere in this SAI and the Fund’s Prospectus ( e.g. , interest rate risk and credit/default risk), CDOs carry additional risks including, but not limited to, the risk that: (i) distributions from collateral securities may not be adequate to make interest or other payments; (ii) the quality of the collateral may decline in value or default; (iii) the Fund may invest in CDOs that are subordinate to other classes; and (iv) the complex structure of the security may not be fully understood at the time of investment and may produce disputes with the issuer or unexpected investment results.

Equity Investments

The Fund may purchase equity investments. In addition, after its purchase, a portfolio investment (such as a convertible debt obligation) may convert to an equity security. The Fund may also acquire equity securities in connection with a restructuring event related to one or more of its investments. If this occurs, the Fund may continue to hold the investment if the Investment Adviser believes it is in the best interest of the Fund and its shareholders.

Zero Coupon, Deferred Interest, Pay-in-Kind and Capital Appreciation Bonds

The Fund may invest in zero coupon, deferred interest, pay-in-kind (“PIK”) and capital appreciation bonds. Zero coupon, deferred interest and capital appreciation bonds are debt securities issued or sold at a discount from their face value and which do not entitle the holder to any periodic payment of interest prior to maturity or a specified date. The original issue discount varies depending on the time remaining until maturity or cash payment date, prevailing interest rates, the liquidity of the security and the perceived credit quality of the issuer. These securities also may take the form of debt securities that have been stripped of their unmatured interest coupons, the coupons themselves or receipts or certificates representing interests in such stripped debt obligations or coupons. The market prices of zero coupon, deferred interest, capital appreciation bonds and PIK securities generally are more volatile than the market prices of interest bearing securities and are likely to respond to a greater degree to changes in interest rates than interest bearing securities having similar maturities and credit quality.

PIK securities may be debt obligations or preferred shares that provide the issuer with the option of paying interest or dividends on such obligations in cash or in the form of additional securities rather than cash. Similar to zero coupon bonds and deferred interest bonds, PIK securities are designed to give an issuer flexibility in managing cash flow. PIK securities that are debt securities can be either senior or subordinated debt and generally trade flat ( i.e ., without accrued interest). The trading price of PIK debt securities generally reflects the market value of the underlying debt plus an amount representing accrued interest since the last interest payment.

Zero coupon, deferred interest, capital appreciation and PIK securities involve the additional risk that, unlike securities that periodically pay interest to maturity, the Fund will realize no cash until a specified future payment date unless a portion of such securities is sold and, if the issuer of such securities defaults, the Fund may obtain no return at all on its investment. In addition, even though such securities do not provide for the payment of current interest in cash, the Fund is nonetheless required to accrue income on such investments for each taxable year and generally are required to distribute such accrued amounts (net of deductible expenses, if any) to avoid being subject to tax. Because no cash is generally received at the time of the accrual, the Fund may be required to liquidate other portfolio securities to obtain sufficient cash to satisfy federal tax distribution requirements applicable to the Fund. A portion of the discount with respect to stripped tax exempt securities or their coupons may be taxable. See “TAXATION.”

Floating Rate Loans and Other Variable and Floating Rate Securities

The interest rates payable on certain securities in which the Fund may invest are not fixed and may fluctuate based upon changes in market rates. Variable and floating rate obligations are debt instruments issued by companies or other entities with interest rates that reset periodically (typically, daily, monthly, quarterly, or semi-annually) in response to changes in the market rate of interest on which the interest rate is based. Moreover, such obligations may fluctuate in value in response to interest rate changes if there is a delay between changes in market interest rates and the interest reset date for the obligation. The value of these obligations is generally more stable than that of a fixed rate obligation in response to changes in interest rate levels, but they may decline in value if their interest rates do not rise as much, or as quickly, as interest rates in general. Conversely, floating rate securities will not generally increase in value if interest rates decline.

 

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Floating rate loans consist generally of obligations of companies or other entities ( e.g. , a U.S. or foreign bank, insurance company or finance company) (collectively, “borrowers”) incurred for a variety of purposes. Floating rate loans may be acquired by direct investment as a lender or as an assignment of the portion of a floating rate loan previously attributable to a different lender. The Fund may also invest in floating rate loans through a participation interest (which represents a fractional interest in a floating rate loan) issued by a lender or other financial institution.

Floating rate loans may be obligations of borrowers who are highly leveraged. Floating rate loans may be structured to include both term loans, which are generally fully funded at the time of the making of the loan, and revolving credit facilities, which would require additional investments upon the borrower’s demand. A revolving credit facility may require a purchaser to increase its investment in a floating rate loan at a time when it would not otherwise have done so, even if the borrower’s condition makes it unlikely that the amount will ever be repaid.

A floating rate loan offered as part of the original lending syndicate typically is purchased at par value. As part of the original lending syndicate, a purchaser generally earns a yield equal to the stated interest rate. In addition, members of the original syndicate typically are paid a commitment fee. In secondary market trading, floating rate loans may be purchased or sold above, at, or below par, which can result in a yield that is below, equal to, or above the stated interest rate, respectively. At certain times when reduced opportunities exist for investing in new syndicated floating rate loans, floating rate loans may be available only through the secondary market. There can be no assurance that an adequate supply of floating rate loans will be available for purchase.

Historically, floating rate loans have not been registered with the SEC or any state securities commission or listed on any securities exchange. As a result, the amount of public information available about a specific floating rate loan historically has been less extensive than if the floating rate loan were registered or exchange-traded. As a result, no active market may exist for some floating rate loans.

Purchasers of floating rate loans and other forms of debt obligations depend primarily upon the creditworthiness of the borrower for payment of interest and repayment of principal. If scheduled interest or principal payments are not made, the value of the obligation may be adversely affected. Floating rate loans and other debt obligations that are fully secured provide more protections than unsecured obligations in the event of failure to make scheduled interest or principal payments. Indebtedness of borrowers whose creditworthiness is poor involves substantially greater risks and may be highly speculative. Borrowers that are in bankruptcy or restructuring may never pay off their indebtedness, or may pay only a small fraction of the amount owed. Some floating rate loans and other debt obligations are not rated by any nationally recognized statistical rating organization (“NRSRO”). In connection with the restructuring of a floating rate loan or other debt obligation outside of bankruptcy court in a negotiated work-out or in the context of bankruptcy proceedings, equity securities or junior debt obligations may be received in exchange for all or a portion of an interest in the obligation.

From time to time, Goldman Sachs and its affiliates may borrow money from various banks in connection with their business activities. These banks also may sell floating rate loans to the Fund or acquire floating rate loans from the Fund, or may be intermediate participants with respect to floating rate loans owned by the Fund. These banks also may act as agents for floating rate loans that the Fund owns.

Agents . Floating rate loans typically are originated, negotiated, and structured by a bank, insurance company, finance company, or other financial institution (the “agent”) for a lending syndicate of financial institutions. The borrower and the lender or lending syndicate enter into a loan agreement. In addition, an institution (typically, but not always, the agent) holds any collateral on behalf of the lenders.

In a typical floating rate loan, the agent administers the terms of the loan agreement and is responsible for the collection of principal and interest and fee payments from the borrower and the apportionment of these payments to all lenders that are parties to the loan agreement. Purchasers will rely on the agent to use appropriate creditor remedies against the borrower. Typically, under loan agreements, the agent is given broad discretion in monitoring the borrower’s performance and is obligated to use the same care it would use in the management of its own property. Upon an event of default, the agent typically will enforce the loan agreement after instruction from the lenders. The borrower compensates the agent for these services. This compensation may include special fees paid on structuring and funding the floating rate loan and other fees paid on a continuing basis. The typical practice of an agent or a lender in relying exclusively or primarily on reports from the borrower may involve a risk of fraud by the borrower.

If an agent becomes insolvent, or has a receiver, conservator, or similar official appointed for it by the appropriate bank or other regulatory authority, or becomes a debtor in a bankruptcy proceeding, the agent’s appointment may be terminated, and a successor agent would be appointed. If an appropriate regulator or court determines that assets held by the agent for the benefit of the purchasers of floating rate loans are subject to the claims of the agent’s general or secured creditors, the purchasers might incur certain costs and delays in realizing payment on a floating rate loan or suffer a loss of principal and/or interest. Furthermore, in the event of the borrower’s bankruptcy or insolvency, the borrower’s obligation to repay a floating rate loan may be subject to certain defenses that the borrower can assert as a result of improper conduct by the agent.

 

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Assignments . The Fund may purchase an assignment of a portion of a floating rate loan from an agent or from another group of investors. The purchase of an assignment typically succeeds to all the rights and obligations under the original loan agreement; however, assignments may also be arranged through private negotiations between potential assignees and potential assignors, and the rights and obligations acquired by the purchaser of an assignment may differ from, and be more limited than, those held by the assigning agent or investor.

Loan Participation Interests . Purchasers of participation interests do not have any direct contractual relationship with the borrower. Purchasers rely on the lender who sold the participation interest not only for the enforcement of the purchaser’s rights against the borrower but also for the receipt and processing of payments due under the floating rate loan. For additional information, see the section “Loans and Loan Participations” below.

Liquidity . Floating rate loans may be transferable among financial institutions, but may not have the liquidity of conventional debt securities and are often subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale. Floating rate loans are not currently listed on any securities exchange or automatic quotation system. As a result, no active market may exist for some floating rate loans. To the extent a secondary market exists for other floating rate loans, such market may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads, and extended trade settlement periods. The lack of a highly liquid secondary market for floating rate loans may have an adverse affect on the value of such loans and may make it more difficult to value the loans for purposes of calculating their respective net asset value.

Collateral . Most floating rate loans are secured by specific collateral of the borrower and are senior to most other securities or obligations of the borrower. The collateral typically has a market value, at the time the floating rate loan is made, that equals or exceeds the principal amount of the floating rate loan. The value of the collateral may decline, be insufficient to meet the obligations of the borrower, or be difficult to liquidate. As a result, a floating rate loan may not be fully collateralized and can decline significantly in value.

Floating rate loan collateral may consist of various types of assets or interests, including working capital assets, such as accounts receivable or inventory; tangible or intangible assets; or assets or other types of guarantees of affiliates of the borrower.

Generally, floating rate loans are secured unless (i) the purchaser’s security interest in the collateral is invalidated for any reason by a court, or (ii) the collateral is fully released with the consent of the agent bank and lenders or under the terms of a loan agreement as the creditworthiness of the borrower improves. Collateral impairment is the risk that the value of the collateral for a floating rate loan will be insufficient in the event that a borrower defaults. Although the terms of a floating rate loan generally require that the collateral at issuance have a value at least equal to 100% of the amount of such floating rate loan, the value of the collateral may decline subsequent to the purchase of a floating rate loan. In most loan agreements there is no formal requirement to pledge additional collateral. There is no guarantee that the sale of collateral would allow a borrower to meet its obligations should the borrower be unable to repay principal or pay interest or that the collateral could be sold quickly or easily.

In addition, most borrowers pay their debts from the cash flow they generate. If the borrower’s cash flow is insufficient to pay its debts as they come due, the borrower may seek to restructure its debts rather than sell collateral.

Borrowers may try to restructure their debts by filing for protection under the federal bankruptcy laws or negotiating a work-out. If a borrower becomes involved in bankruptcy proceedings, access to the collateral may be limited by bankruptcy and other laws. In the event that a court decides that access to the collateral is limited or void, it is unlikely that purchasers could recover the full amount of the principal and interest due.

There may be temporary periods when the principal asset held by a borrower is the stock of a related company, which may not legally be pledged to secure a floating rate loan. On occasions when such stock cannot be pledged, the floating rate loan will be temporarily unsecured until the stock can be pledged or is exchanged for, or replaced by, other assets.

Some floating rate loans are unsecured. The claims of holders under unsecured loans are subordinated to claims of creditors holding secured indebtedness and possibly also to claims of other creditors holding unsecured debt. Unsecured loans have a greater risk of default than secured loans, particularly during periods of deteriorating economic conditions. If the borrower defaults on an unsecured floating rate loan, there is no specific collateral on which the purchaser can foreclose.

 

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Floating Interest Rates . The rate of interest payable on floating rate loans and other floating or variable rate obligations is the sum of a base lending rate plus a specified spread. Base lending rates are generally LIBOR, the Prime Rate of a designated U.S. bank, the Federal Funds Rate, or another base lending rate used by commercial lenders. A borrower usually has the right to select the base lending rate and to change the base lending rate at specified intervals. The applicable spread may be fixed at time of issuance or may adjust upward or downward to reflect changes in credit quality of the borrower.

The interest rate on LIBOR-based floating rate loans/obligations is reset periodically at intervals ranging from 30 to 180 days, while the interest rate on Prime Rate- or Federal Funds Rate-based floating rate loans/obligations floats daily as those rates change. Investment in floating rate loans/obligations with longer interest rate reset periods can increase fluctuations in the floating rate loans’ values when interest rates change.

The yield on a floating rate loan/obligation will primarily depend on the terms of the underlying floating rate loan/obligation and the base lending rate chosen by the borrower. The relationship between LIBOR, the Prime Rate, and the Federal Funds Rate will vary as market conditions change.

Maturity . Floating rate loans typically will have a stated term of five to nine years. However, because floating rate loans are frequently prepaid, their average maturity is expected to be two to three years. The degree to which borrowers prepay floating rate loans, whether as a contractual requirement or at their election, may be affected by general business conditions, the borrower’s financial condition, and competitive conditions among lenders. Prepayments cannot be predicted with accuracy. Prepayments of principal to the purchaser of a floating rate loan may result in the principal’s being reinvested in floating rate loans with lower yields.

Supply of Floating Rate Loans . The legislation of state or federal regulators that regulate certain financial institutions may impose additional requirements or restrictions on the ability of such institutions to make loans, particularly with respect to highly leveraged transactions. The supply of floating rate loans may be limited from time to time due to a lack of sellers in the market for existing floating rate loans or the number of new floating rate loans currently being issued. As a result, the floating rate loans available for purchase may be lower quality or higher priced.

Restrictive Covenants . A borrower must comply with various restrictive covenants contained in the loan agreement. In addition to requiring the scheduled payment of interest and principal, these covenants may include restrictions on dividend payments and other distributions to stockholders, provisions requiring the borrower to maintain specific financial ratios, and limits on total debt. The loan agreement may also contain a covenant requiring the borrower to prepay the floating rate loan with any free cash flow. A breach of a covenant that is not waived by the agent (or by the lenders directly) is normally an event of default, which provides the agent or the lenders the right to call the outstanding floating rate loan.

Fees . Purchasers of floating rate loans may receive and/or pay certain fees. These fees are in addition to interest payments received and may include facility fees, commitment fees, commissions, and prepayment penalty fees. When a purchaser buys a floating rate loan, it may receive a facility fee; and when it sells a floating rate loan, it may pay a facility fee. A purchaser may receive a commitment fee based on the undrawn portion of the underlying line of credit portion of a floating rate loan or a prepayment penalty fee on the prepayment of a floating rate loan. A purchaser may also receive other fees, including covenant waiver fees and covenant modification fees.

Other Types of Floating Rate Debt Obligations . Floating rate debt obligations include other forms of indebtedness of borrowers such as notes and bonds, obligations with fixed rate interest payments in conjunction with a right to receive floating rate interest payments, and shares of other investment companies. These instruments are generally subject to the same risks as floating rate loans but are often more widely issued and traded.

Inverse Floating Rate Debt Obligations . The Fund may invest in “leveraged” inverse floating rate debt instruments (“inverse floaters”), including “leveraged inverse floaters.” The interest rate on inverse floaters resets in the opposite direction from the market rate of interest to which the inverse floater is indexed. An inverse floater may be considered to be leveraged to the extent that its interest rate varies by a magnitude that exceeds the magnitude of the change in the index rate of interest. The higher the degree of leverage inherent in inverse floaters is associated with greater volatility in their market values. Accordingly, the duration of an inverse floater may exceed its stated final maturity. Certain inverse floaters may be deemed to be illiquid securities for purposes of the Fund’s limitation on illiquid investments.

Loans and Loan Participations

The Fund may invest in loans and loan participations. A loan participation is an interest in a loan to a U.S. or foreign company or other borrower which is administered and sold by a financial intermediary. In a typical corporate loan syndication, a number of lenders, usually banks (co-lenders), lend a corporate borrower a specified sum pursuant to the terms and conditions of a loan agreement. One of the co-lenders usually agrees to act as the agent bank with respect to the loan.

 

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Participation interests acquired by the Fund may take the form of a direct or co-lending relationship with the corporate borrower, an assignment of an interest in the loan by a co-lender or another participant, or a participation in the seller’s share of the loan. The participation by the Fund in a lender’s portion of a loan typically will result in the Fund having a contractual relationship only with such lender, not with the business entity borrowing the funds (the “Borrower”). As a result, the Fund may have the right to receive payments of principal, interest and any fees to which it is entitled only from the lender selling the participation and only upon receipt by such lender of payments from the Borrower. Such indebtedness may be secured or unsecured. Under the terms of the loan participation, the Fund may be regarded as a creditor of the agent bank (rather than of the underlying corporate borrower), so that the Fund may also be subject to the risk that the agent bank may become insolvent. Loan participations typically represent direct participations in a loan to a Borrower, and generally are offered by banks or other financial institutions or lending syndicates. The Fund may participate in such syndicates, or can buy part of a loan, becoming a part lender. The participation interests in which the Fund may invest may not be rated by any NRSRO. The secondary market, if any, for loan participations may be limited and loan participations purchased by the Fund may be regarded as illiquid.

When the Fund acts as co-lender in connection with a participation interest or when the Fund acquires certain participation interests, the Fund may have direct recourse against the borrower if the borrower fails to pay scheduled principal and interest. In cases where the Fund lacks direct recourse, it will look to the agent bank to enforce appropriate credit remedies against the borrower. In these cases, the Fund may be subject to delays, expenses and risks that are greater than those that would have been involved if the Fund had purchased a direct obligation (such as commercial paper) of such borrower. For example, in the event of the bankruptcy or insolvency of the corporate borrower, a loan participation may be subject to certain defenses by the borrower as a result of improper conduct by the agent bank.

For purposes of certain investment limitations pertaining to diversification of the Fund’s portfolio investments, the issuer of a loan participation will be the underlying borrower. However, in cases where the Fund does not have recourse directly against the borrower, both the borrower and each agent bank and co-lender interposed between the Fund and the borrower will be deemed issuers of a loan participation.

Senior Loans . The Fund may invest in Senior Loans. Senior Loans hold the most senior position in the capital structure of the Borrower, are typically secured with specific collateral and have a claim on the assets and/or stock of the Borrower that is senior to that held by subordinated debt holders and stockholders of the Borrower. The proceeds of Senior Loans primarily are used to finance leveraged buyouts, recapitalizations, mergers, acquisitions, stock repurchases, refinancings and to finance internal growth and for other corporate purposes. Senior Loans typically have rates of interest which are redetermined daily, monthly, quarterly or semi-annually by reference to a base lending rate, plus a premium or credit spread. These base lending rates are primarily the LIBOR and secondarily the prime rate offered by one or more major U.S. banks and the certificate of deposit rate or other base lending rates used by commercial lenders.

Senior Loans typically have a stated term of between five and nine years, and have rates of interest which typically are redetermined daily, monthly, quarterly or semi-annually. Longer interest rate reset periods would generally increase fluctuations in the Fund’s net asset value as a result of changes in market interest rates. The Fund is not subject to any restrictions with respect to the maturity of Senior Loans held in its portfolio. As a result, as short-term interest rates increase, interest payable to the Fund from its investments in Senior Loans should increase, and as short-term interest rates decrease, interest payable to the Fund from its investments in Senior Loans should decrease. Because of prepayments, the Investment Adviser expects the average life of the Senior Loans in which the Fund invests to be shorter than the stated maturity.

Senior Loans are subject to the risk of non-payment of scheduled interest or principal. Such non-payment would result in a reduction of income to the Fund, a reduction in the value of the investment and a potential decrease in the Fund’s net asset value. There can be no assurance that the liquidation of any collateral securing a Senior Loan would satisfy the Borrower’s obligation in the event of non-payment of scheduled interest or principal payments, or that such collateral could be readily liquidated. In the event of bankruptcy of a Borrower, the Fund could experience delays or limitations with respect to its ability to realize the benefits of the collateral securing a Senior Loan. The collateral securing a Senior Loan may lose all or substantially all of its value in the event of the bankruptcy of a Borrower. Some Senior Loans are subject to the risk that a court, pursuant to fraudulent conveyance or other similar laws, could subordinate such Senior Loans to presently existing or future indebtedness of the Borrower or take other action detrimental to the holders of Senior Loans including, in certain circumstances, invalidating such Senior Loans or causing interest previously paid to be refunded to the Borrower. If interest were required to be refunded, it could negatively affect the Fund’s performance.

 

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Many Senior Loans in which the Fund may invest may not be rated by a rating agency, will not be registered with the SEC or any state securities commission, and will not be listed on any national securities exchange. The amount of public information available with respect to Senior Loans will generally be less extensive than that available for registered or exchange-listed securities. In evaluating the creditworthiness of Borrowers, the Investment Adviser will consider, and may rely in part, on analyses performed by others. Borrowers may have outstanding debt obligations that are rated below investment grade by a rating agency. Many of the Senior Loans in which the Fund may invest will have been assigned below investment grade ratings by independent rating agencies. In the event Senior Loans are not rated, they are likely to be the equivalent of below investment grade quality. Because of the protective features of Senior Loans, the Investment Adviser believes that Senior Loans tend to have more favorable loss recovery rates as compared to more junior types of below investment grade debt obligations. The Investment Adviser does not view ratings as the determinative factor in its investment decisions and rely more upon their credit analysis abilities than upon ratings.

No active trading market may exist for some Senior Loans, and some loans may be subject to restrictions on resale. A secondary market may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods, which may impair the ability to realize full value and thus cause a material decline in the net asset value of the Fund. In addition, the Fund may not be able to readily dispose of its Senior Loans at prices that approximate those at which the Fund could sell such loans if they were more widely-traded and, as a result of such illiquidity, the Fund may have to sell other investments or engage in borrowing transactions if necessary to raise cash to meet its obligations. During periods of limited supply and liquidity of Senior Loans, the Fund’s yield may be lower.

When interest rates decline, the value of the Fund invested in fixed rate obligations can be expected to rise. Conversely, when interest rates rise, the value of the Fund invested in fixed rate obligations can be expected to decline. Although changes in prevailing interest rates can be expected to cause some fluctuations in the value of Senior Loans (due to the fact that floating rates on Senior Loans only reset periodically), the value of Senior Loans is substantially less sensitive to changes in market interest rates than fixed rate instruments. As a result, to the extent the Fund invests in floating-rate Senior Loans, the Fund’s portfolio may be less volatile and less sensitive to changes in market interest rates than if the Fund invested in fixed rate obligations. Similarly, a sudden and significant increase in market interest rates may cause a decline in the value of these investments and in the Fund’s net asset value. Other factors (including, but not limited to, rating downgrades, credit deterioration, a large downward movement in stock prices, a disparity in supply and demand of certain securities or market conditions that reduce liquidity) can reduce the value of Senior Loans and other debt obligations, impairing the net asset value of the Fund.

The Fund may purchase and retain in its portfolio a Senior Loan where the Borrower has experienced, or may be perceived to be likely to experience, credit problems, including involvement in or recent emergence from bankruptcy reorganization proceedings or other forms of debt restructuring. Such investments may provide opportunities for enhanced income as well as capital appreciation, although they also will be subject to greater risk of loss. At times, in connection with the restructuring of a Senior Loan either outside of bankruptcy court or in the context of bankruptcy court proceedings, the Fund may determine or be required to accept equity securities or junior credit securities in exchange for all or a portion of a Senior Loan.

The Fund may also purchase Senior Loans on a direct assignment basis. If the Fund purchases a Senior Loan on direct assignment, it typically succeeds to all the rights and obligations under the loan agreement of the assigning lender and becomes a lender under the loan agreement with the same rights and obligations as the assigning lender. Investments in Senior Loans on a direct assignment basis may involve additional risks to the Fund. For example, if such loan is foreclosed, the Fund could become part owner of any collateral, and would bear the costs and liabilities associated with owning and disposing of the collateral.

Loans and other types of direct indebtedness may not be readily marketable and may be subject to restrictions on resale. In some cases, negotiations involved in disposing of indebtedness may require weeks to complete. Consequently, some indebtedness may be difficult or impossible to dispose of readily at what the Investment Adviser believes to be a fair price. In addition, valuation of illiquid indebtedness involves a greater degree of judgment in determining the net asset value of the Fund than if that valuation were based on available market quotations, and could result in significant variations in the Fund’s daily share price. At the same time, some loan interests are traded among certain financial institutions and accordingly may be deemed liquid. As the market for different types of indebtedness develops, the liquidity of these instruments is expected to improve. The Fund currently intends to treat loan indebtedness as liquid when, in the view of the Investment Adviser, there is a readily available market at the time of the investment. To the extent a readily available market ceases to exist for a particular investment, such investment would be treated as illiquid for purposes of the Fund’s limitations on illiquid investments. Investments in loans and loan participations are considered to be debt obligations for purposes of the Fund’s investment restriction relating to the lending of funds or assets by the Fund.

Second Lien Loans . The Fund may invest in Second Lien Loans, which have the same characteristics as Senior Loans except that such loans are second in lien property rather than first. Second Lien Loans typically have adjustable floating rate interest payments. Accordingly, the risks associated with Second Lien Loans are higher than the risk of loans with first priority over the collateral. In the event of default on a Second Lien Loan, the first priority lien holder has first claim to the underlying collateral of the loan. It is possible that no collateral value would remain for the second priority lien holder and therefore result in a loss of investment to the Fund.

 

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This risk is generally higher for subordinated unsecured loans or debt, which are not backed by a security interest in any specific collateral. Second Lien Loans generally have greater price volatility than Senior Loans and may be less liquid. There is also a possibility that originators will not be able to sell participations in Second Lien Loans, which would create greater credit risk exposure for the holders of such loans. Second Lien Loans share the same risks as other below investment grade securities.

Distressed Debt

The Fund may invest in the securities and other obligations of financially troubled companies, including stressed, distressed and bankrupt issuers and debt obligations that are in covenant or payment default. Such investments generally trade significantly below par and are considered speculative. The repayment of defaulted obligations is subject to significant uncertainties. Defaulted obligations might be repaid only after lengthy workout or bankruptcy proceedings, during which the issuer might not make any interest or other payments. Typically such workout or bankruptcy proceedings result in only partial recovery of cash payments or an exchange of the defaulted obligation for other debt or equity securities of the issuer or its affiliates, which may in turn be illiquid or speculative.

In any investment involving stressed and distressed debt obligations, there exists the risk that the transaction involving such debt obligations will be unsuccessful, take considerable time or will result in a distribution of cash or a new security or obligation in exchange for the stressed and distressed debt obligations, the value of which may be less than the Fund’s purchase price of such debt obligations. Furthermore, if an anticipated transaction does not occur, the Fund may be required to sell its investment at a loss. There are a number of significant risks inherent in the bankruptcy process. Many events in a bankruptcy are the product of contested matters and adversary proceedings and are beyond the control of the creditors. A bankruptcy filing by an issuer may adversely and permanently affect the issuer, and if the proceeding is converted to a liquidation, the value of the issuer may not equal the liquidation value that was believed to exist at the time of the investment. The duration of a bankruptcy proceeding is difficult to predict, and a creditor’s return on investment can be adversely affected by delays until the plan of reorganization ultimately becomes effective. The administrative costs in connection with a bankruptcy proceeding are frequently high and would be paid out of the debtor’s estate prior to any return to creditors. Because the standards for classification of claims under bankruptcy law are vague, there exists the risk that the Fund’s influence with respect to the class of securities or other obligations it owns can be lost by increases in the number and amount of claims in the same class or by different classification and treatment. In the early stages of the bankruptcy process it is often difficult to estimate the extent of, or even to identify, any contingent claims that might be made. In addition, certain claims that have priority by law (for example, claims for taxes) may be substantial.

Real Estate Investment Trusts

The Fund may invest in shares of REITs. REITs are pooled investment vehicles which invest primarily in real estate or real estate related loans. REITs are generally classified as equity REITs, mortgage REITs or a combination of equity and mortgage REITs. Equity REITs invest the majority of their assets directly in real property and derive income primarily from the collection of rents. Equity REITs can also realize capital gains by selling properties that have appreciated in value. Mortgage REITs invest the majority of their assets in real estate mortgages and derive income from the collection of interest payments. Like regulated investment companies such as the Fund, REITs are not taxed on income distributed to shareholders provided they comply with certain requirements under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). The Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any expenses paid by REITs in which it invests in addition to the expenses paid by the Fund.

Investing in REITs involves certain unique risks. Equity REITs may be affected by changes in the value of the underlying property owned by such REITs, while mortgage REITs may be affected by the quality of any credit extended. REITs are dependent upon management skills, are not diversified (except to the extent the Code requires), and are subject to the risks of financing projects. REITs are subject to heavy cash flow dependency, default by borrowers, self-liquidation, and the possibilities of failing to qualify for the exemption from tax for distributed income under the Code and failing to maintain their exemptions from the Act. REITs (especially mortgage REITs) are also subject to interest rate risks.

Preferred Stock, Warrants and Stock Purchase Rights

The Fund may invest in preferred stock and in warrants and stock purchase rights (in addition to those acquired in units or attached to other securities) (“rights”). Preferred stocks are securities that represent an ownership interest providing the holder with claims on the issuer’s earnings and assets before common stock owners but after bond owners. Unlike debt securities, the obligations of an issuer of preferred stock, including dividend and other payment obligations, may not typically be accelerated by the holders of such preferred

 

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stock on the occurrence of an event of default (such as a covenant default or filing of a bankruptcy petition) or other non-compliance by the issuer with the terms of the preferred stock. Often, however, on the occurrence of any such event of default or non-compliance by the issuer, preferred stockholders will be entitled to gain representation on the issuer’s board of directors or increase their existing board representation. In addition, preferred stockholders may be granted voting rights with respect to certain issues on the occurrence of any event of default.

Warrants and other rights are options to buy a stated number of shares of common stock at a specified price at any time during the life of the warrant. The holders of warrants and rights have no voting rights, receive no dividends and have no rights with respect to the assets of the issuer.

Corporate Debt Obligations

The Fund may invest in corporate debt obligations, including obligations of industrial, utility and financial issuers. Corporate debt obligations include bonds, notes, debentures and other obligations of corporations to pay interest and repay principal. Corporate debt obligations are subject to the risk of an issuer’s inability to meet principal and interest payments on the obligations and may also be subject to price volatility due to such factors as market interest rates, market perception of the creditworthiness of the issuer and general market liquidity.

Corporate debt obligations rated BBB or Baa are considered medium grade obligations with speculative characteristics, and adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances may weaken their issuers’ capacity to pay interest and repay principal. Medium to lower rated and comparable non-rated securities tend to offer higher yields than higher rated securities with the same maturities because the historical financial condition of the issuers of such securities may not have been as strong as that of other issuers. The price of corporate debt obligations will generally fluctuate in response to fluctuations in supply and demand for similarly rated securities. In addition, the price of corporate debt obligations will generally fluctuate in response to interest rate levels. Fluctuations in the prices of portfolio securities subsequent to their acquisition will not affect cash income from such securities but will be reflected in the Fund’s net asset value.

Because medium to lower rated securities generally involve greater risks of loss of income and principal than higher rated securities, investors should consider carefully the relative risks associated with investment in securities which carry medium to lower ratings and in comparable unrated securities. In addition to the risk of default, there are the related costs of recovery on defaulted issues. The Investment Adviser will attempt to reduce these risks through portfolio diversification and by analysis of each issuer and its ability to make timely payments of income and principal, as well as broad economic trends and corporate developments.

The Investment Adviser employs its own credit research and analysis, which includes a study of an issuer’s existing debt, capital structure, ability to service debt and pay dividends, sensitivity to economic conditions, operating history and current earnings trend. The Investment Adviser continually monitors the investments in the Fund’s portfolio and evaluates whether to dispose of or to retain corporate debt obligations whose credit ratings or credit quality may have changed. If after its purchase, a portfolio security is assigned a lower rating or ceases to be rated, the Fund may continue to hold the security if the Investment Adviser believes it is in the best interest of the Fund and its shareholders.

Trust Preferred Securities

The Fund may invest in trust preferred securities. A trust preferred or capital security is a long dated bond (for example 30 years) with preferred features. The preferred features are that payment of interest can be deferred for a specified period without initiating a default event. From a bondholder’s viewpoint, the securities are senior in claim to standard preferred but are junior to other bondholders. From the issuer’s viewpoint, the securities are attractive because their interest is deductible for tax purposes like other types of debt instruments.

Commercial Paper and Other Short-Term Corporate Obligations

The Fund may invest in commercial paper and other short-term obligations payable in U.S. dollars and issued or guaranteed by U.S. corporations, non-U.S. corporations or other entities. Commercial paper represents short-term unsecured promissory notes issued in bearer form by banks or bank holding companies, corporations and finance companies.

 

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High Yield Securities

The Fund may invest in bonds rated BB+ or below by Standard & Poor’s Ratings Group (“Standard & Poor’s”) or Ba1 or below by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”) (or comparable rated and unrated securities). These bonds are commonly known as “junk bonds,” are non-investment grade, and are considered speculative. The ability of issuers of high yield securities to make principal and interest payments may be questionable because such issuers are often less creditworthy or are highly leveraged. High yield securities are also issued by governmental issuers that may have difficulty in making all scheduled interest and principal payments. In some cases, high yield securities may be highly speculative, have poor prospects for reaching investment grade standing and be in default. As a result, investment in such bonds will entail greater risks than those associated with investment in investment grade bonds ( i.e ., bonds rated AAA, AA, A or BBB by Standard & Poor’s or Aaa, Aa, A or Baa by Moody’s). Analysis of the creditworthiness of issuers of high yield securities may be more complex than for issuers of higher quality debt securities, and the ability of the Fund to achieve its investment objective may, to the extent of its investments in high yield securities, be more dependent upon such creditworthiness analysis than would be the case if the Fund were investing in higher quality securities. See Appendix A for a description of the corporate bond and preferred stock ratings by Standard & Poor’s, Moody’s, Fitch, Inc. (“Fitch”) and Dominion Bond Rating Service Limited (“DBRS”).

The market values of high yield securities tend to reflect individual corporate or municipal developments to a greater extent than do those of higher rated securities, which react primarily to fluctuations in the general level of interest rates. Issuers of high yield securities that are highly leveraged may not be able to make use of more traditional methods of financing. Their ability to service debt obligations may be more adversely affected by economic downturns or their inability to meet specific projected business forecasts than would be the case for issuers of higher rated securities. Negative publicity about the junk bond market and investor perceptions regarding lower-rated securities, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may depress the prices for high yield securities. In the lower quality segments of the fixed income securities market, changes in perceptions of issuers’ creditworthiness tend to occur more frequently and in a more pronounced manner than do changes in higher quality segments of the fixed income securities market, resulting in greater yield and price volatility. Another factor which causes fluctuations in the prices of high yield securities is the supply and demand for similarly rated securities. In addition, the prices of investments fluctuate in response to the general level of interest rates. Fluctuations in the prices of portfolio securities subsequent to their acquisition will not affect cash income from such securities but will be reflected in the Fund’s NAV.

The risk of loss from default for the holders of high yield securities is significantly greater than is the case for holders of other debt securities because high yield securities are generally unsecured and are often subordinated to the rights of other creditors of the issuers of such securities. Investment by the Fund in already defaulted securities poses an additional risk of loss should nonpayment of principal and interest continue in respect of such securities. Even if such securities are held to maturity, recovery by the Fund of its initial investment and any anticipated income or appreciation is uncertain. In addition, the Fund may incur additional expenses to the extent that it is required to seek recovery relating to the default in the payment of principal or interest on such securities or otherwise protect its interests. The Fund may be required to liquidate other portfolio securities to satisfy annual distribution obligations of the Fund in respect of accrued interest income on securities which are subsequently written off, even though the Fund has not received any cash payments of such interest.

The secondary market for high yield securities is concentrated in relatively few markets and is dominated by institutional investors, including mutual funds, insurance companies and other financial institutions. Accordingly, the secondary market for such securities may not be as liquid as and may be more volatile than the secondary market for higher-rated securities. In addition, the trading volume for high yield securities is generally lower than that of higher rated securities and the secondary market for high yield securities could contract under adverse market or economic conditions independent of any specific adverse changes in the condition of a particular issuer. These factors may have an adverse effect on the ability of the Fund to dispose of particular portfolio investments when needed to meet redemption requests or other liquidity needs. The Investment Adviser could find it difficult to sell these investments or may be able to sell the investments only at prices lower than if such investments were widely traded. Prices realized upon the sale of such lower rated or unrated securities, under these circumstances, may be less than the prices used in calculating the NAV of the Fund. A less liquid secondary market also may make it more difficult for the Fund to obtain precise valuations of the high yield securities in its portfolio.

The adoption of new legislation could adversely affect the secondary market for high yield securities and the financial condition of issuers of these securities. The form of any future legislation, and the probability of such legislation being enacted, is uncertain.

Non-investment grade or high yield securities also present risks based on payment expectations. High yield securities frequently contain “call” or buy-back features which permit the issuer to call or repurchase the security from its holder. If an issuer exercises such a “call option” and redeems the security, the Fund may have to replace such security with a lower-yielding security, resulting in a decreased return for investors. In addition, if the Fund experiences net redemptions of its shares, it may be forced to sell its higher-rated securities, resulting in a decline in the overall credit quality of its portfolio and increasing its exposure to the risks of high yield securities.

 

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Credit ratings issued by credit rating agencies are designed to evaluate the safety of principal and interest payments of rated securities. They do not, however, evaluate the market value risk of high yield securities and, therefore, may not fully reflect the true risks of an investment. In addition, credit rating agencies may or may not make timely changes in a rating to reflect changes in the economy or in the conditions of the issuer that affect the market value of the security. Consequently, credit ratings are used only as a preliminary indicator of investment quality. Investments in non-investment grade and comparable unrated obligations will be more dependent on the Investment Adviser’s credit analysis than would be the case with investments in investment-grade debt obligations. The Investment Adviser employs its own credit research and analysis, which includes a study of an issuer’s existing debt, capital structure, ability to service debt and to pay dividends, sensitivity to economic conditions, operating history and current earnings trend. The Investment Adviser continually monitors the investments in the Fund’s portfolio and evaluates whether to dispose of or to retain non-investment grade and comparable unrated securities whose credit ratings or credit quality may have changed. If after its purchase, a portfolio security is assigned a lower rating or ceases to be rated, the Fund may continue to hold the security if the Investment Adviser believes it is in the best interest of the Fund and its shareholders.

An economic downturn could severely affect the ability of highly leveraged issuers of junk bond investments to service their debt obligations or to repay their obligations upon maturity. Factors having an adverse impact on the market value of junk bonds will have an adverse effect on the Fund’s NAV to the extent it invests in such investments. In addition, the Fund may incur additional expenses to the extent it is required to seek recovery upon a default in payment of principal or interest on its portfolio holdings.

Bank Obligations

The Fund may invest in obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. and foreign banks. Bank obligations, including without limitation time deposits, bankers’ acceptances and certificates of deposit, may be general obligations of the parent bank or may be obligations only of the issuing branch pursuant to the terms of the specific obligations or government regulation.

Banks are subject to extensive but different governmental regulations which may limit both the amount and types of loans which may be made and interest rates which may be charged. Foreign banks are subject to different regulations and are generally permitted to engage in a wider variety of activities than U.S. banks. In addition, the profitability of the banking industry is largely dependent upon the availability and cost of funds for the purpose of financing lending operations under prevailing money market conditions. General economic conditions as well as exposure to credit losses arising from possible financial difficulties of borrowers play an important part in the operations of this industry.

Certificates of deposit are certificates evidencing the obligation of a bank to repay funds deposited with it for a specified period of time at a specified rate. Certificates of deposit are negotiable instruments and are similar to saving deposits but have a definite maturity and are evidenced by a certificate instead of a passbook entry. Banks are required to keep reserves against all certificates of deposit. Fixed time deposits are bank obligations payable at a stated maturity date and bearing interest at a fixed rate. Fixed time deposits may be withdrawn on the demand by the investor, but may be subject to early withdrawal penalties which vary depending upon market conditions and the remaining maturity of the obligation. The Fund may invest in deposits in U.S. and European banks which satisfy the standards set forth above.

Municipal Securities

The Fund may invest in Municipal Securities, the interest on which is exempt from regular federal income tax ( i.e ., excluded from gross income for federal income tax purposes but not necessarily exempt from the federal alternative minimum tax or from the income taxes of any state or local government). In addition, Municipal Securities include participation interests in such securities the interest on which is, in the opinion of bond counsel or counsel selected by the Investment Adviser, excluded from gross income for federal income tax purposes. The Fund may revise its definition of Municipal Securities in the future to include other types of securities that currently exist, the interest on which is or will be, in the opinion of such counsel, excluded from gross income for federal income tax purposes, provided that investing in such securities is consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and policies. The Fund may also invest in taxable Municipal Securities.

The yields and market values of municipal securities are determined primarily by the general level of interest rates, the creditworthiness of the issuers of municipal securities and economic and political conditions affecting such issuers. The yields and market prices of municipal securities may be adversely affected by changes in tax rates and policies, which may have less effect on the market for taxable fixed income securities. Moreover, certain types of municipal securities, such as housing revenue bonds, involve prepayment risks which could affect the yield on such securities. The credit rating assigned to municipal securities may reflect the existence of guarantees, letters of credit or other credit enhancement features available to the issuers or holders of such municipal securities.

Dividends paid by the Fund that are derived from interest paid on both tax exempt and taxable Municipal Securities will be taxable to the Fund’s shareholders.

 

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Municipal Securities are often issued to obtain funds for various public purposes including refunding outstanding obligations, obtaining funds for general operating expenses, and obtaining funds to lend to other public institutions and facilities. Municipal Securities also include certain “private activity bonds” or industrial development bonds, which are issued by or on behalf of public authorities to provide financing aid to acquire sites or construct or equip facilities within a municipality for privately or publicly owned corporations.

Investments in municipal securities are subject to the risk that the issuer could default on its obligations. Such a default could result from the inadequacy of the sources or revenues from which interest and principal payments are to be made, including property tax collections, sales tax revenue, income tax revenue and local, state and federal government funding, or the assets collateralizing such obligations. Municipal securities and issuers of municipal securities may be more susceptible to downgrade, default, and bankruptcy as a result of recent periods of economic stress. During the recent economic downturn, several municipalities have filed for bankruptcy protection or have indicated that they may seek bankruptcy protection in the future. Revenue bonds, including private activity bonds, are backed only by specific assets or revenue sources and not by the full faith and credit of the governmental issuer.

The two principal classifications of Municipal Securities are “general obligations” and “revenue obligations.” General obligations are secured by the issuer’s pledge of its full faith and credit for the payment of principal and interest, although the characteristics and enforcement of general obligations may vary according to the law applicable to the particular issuer. Revenue obligations, which include, but are not limited to, private activity bonds, resource recovery bonds, certificates of participation and certain municipal notes, are not backed by the credit and taxing authority of the issuer, and are payable solely from the revenues derived from a particular facility or class of facilities or, in some cases, from the proceeds of a special excise or other specific revenue source. Nevertheless, the obligations of the issuer of a revenue obligation may be backed by a letter of credit, guarantee or insurance. General obligations and revenue obligations may be issued in a variety of forms, including commercial paper, fixed, variable and floating rate securities, tender option bonds, auction rate bonds, zero coupon bonds, deferred interest bonds and capital appreciation bonds.

In addition to general obligations and revenue obligations, there is a variety of hybrid and special types of Municipal Securities. There are also numerous differences in the security of Municipal Securities both within and between these two principal classifications.

The Fund may own a large percentage of any one general assessment bond issuance. Therefore, the Fund may be adversely impacted if the issuing municipality fails to pay principal and/or interest on those bonds.

For the purpose of applying the Fund’s investment restrictions, the identification of the issuer of a Municipal Security which is not a general obligation is made by the Investment Adviser based on the characteristics of the Municipal Security, the most important of which is the source of funds for the payment of principal and interest on such securities.

An entire issue of Municipal Securities may be purchased by one or a small number of institutional investors, including the Fund. Thus, the issue may not be said to be publicly offered. Unlike some securities that are not publicly offered, a secondary market exists for many Municipal Securities that were not publicly offered initially and such securities may be readily marketable.

The credit rating assigned to Municipal Securities may reflect the existence of guarantees, letters of credit or other credit enhancement features available to the issuers or holders of such Municipal Securities.

The obligations of the issuer to pay the principal of and interest on a Municipal Security are subject to the provisions of bankruptcy, insolvency and other laws affecting the rights and remedies of creditors, such as the Federal Bankruptcy Code, and laws, if any, that may be enacted by Congress or state legislatures extending the time for payment of principal or interest or imposing other constraints upon the enforcement of such obligations. There is also the possibility that, as a result of litigation or other conditions, the power or ability of the issuer to pay when due principal of or interest on a Municipal Security may be materially affected.

Municipal Leases, Certificates of Participation and Other Participation Interests . The Fund may invest in municipal leases, certificates of participation and other participation interests. A municipal lease is an obligation in the form of a lease or installment purchase which is issued by a state or local government to acquire equipment and facilities. Income from such obligations is generally exempt from state and local taxes in the state of issuance. Municipal leases frequently involve special risks not normally associated with general obligations or revenue bonds. Leases and installment purchase or conditional sale contracts (which normally provide for title to the leased asset to pass eventually to the governmental issuer) have evolved as a means for governmental issuers to acquire property and equipment without meeting the constitutional and statutory requirements for the issuance of debt. The debt issuance limitations are deemed to be inapplicable because of the inclusion in many leases or contracts of “non-appropriation” clauses that relieve the governmental issuer of any obligation to make future payments under the lease or contract unless money is appropriated for such purpose by the appropriate legislative body on a yearly or other periodic basis. In addition, such leases or contracts may be

 

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subject to the temporary abatement of payments in the event the issuer is prevented from maintaining occupancy of the leased premises or utilizing the leased equipment. Although the obligations may be secured by the leased equipment or facilities, the disposition of the property in the event of non-appropriation or foreclosure might prove difficult, time consuming and costly, and result in a delay in recovering or the failure to fully recover the Fund’s original investment. To the extent that the Fund invests in unrated municipal leases or participates in such leases, the credit quality rating and risk of cancellation of such unrated leases will be monitored on an ongoing basis.

Certificates of participation represent undivided interests in municipal leases, installment purchase agreements or other instruments. The certificates are typically issued by a trust or other entity which has received an assignment of the payments to be made by the state or political subdivision under such leases or installment purchase agreements.

Certain municipal lease obligations and certificates of participation may be deemed to be illiquid for the purpose of the Fund’s limitation on investments in illiquid securities. Other municipal lease obligations and certificates of participation acquired by the fund may be determined by the Investment Adviser, pursuant to guidelines adopted by the Trustees of the Trust, to be liquid securities for the purpose of such limitation. In determining the liquidity of municipal lease obligations and certificates of participation, the Investment Adviser will consider a variety of factors, including: (i) the willingness of dealers to bid for the security; (ii) the number of dealers willing to purchase or sell the obligation and the number of other potential buyers; (iii) the frequency of trades or quotes for the obligation; and (iv) the nature of the marketplace trades. In addition, the Investment Adviser will consider factors unique to particular lease obligations and certificates of participation affecting the marketability thereof. These include the general creditworthiness of the issuer, the importance to the issuer of the property covered by the lease and the likelihood that the marketability of the obligation will be maintained throughout the time the obligation is held by the Fund.

The Fund may purchase participations in Municipal Securities held by a commercial bank or other financial institution. Such participations provide the Fund with the right to a pro rata undivided interest in the underlying Municipal Securities. In addition, such participations generally provide the Fund with the right to demand payment, on not more than seven days’ notice, of all or any part of the Fund’s participation interest in the underlying Municipal Securities, plus accrued interest.

Municipal Notes . Municipal Securities in the form of notes generally are used to provide for short-term capital needs, in anticipation of an issuer’s receipt of other revenues or financing, and typically have maturities of up to three years. Such instruments may include tax anticipation notes, revenue anticipation notes, bond anticipation notes, tax and revenue anticipation notes and construction loan notes. Tax anticipation notes are issued to finance the working capital needs of governments. Generally, they are issued in anticipation of various tax revenues, such as income, sales, property, use and business taxes, and are payable from these specific future taxes. Revenue anticipation notes are issued in expectation of receipt of other kinds of revenue, such as federal revenues available under federal revenue sharing programs. Bond anticipation notes are issued to provide interim financing until long-term bond financing can be arranged. In most cases, the long-term bonds then provide the funds needed for repayment of the notes. Tax and revenue anticipation notes combine the funding sources of both tax anticipation notes and revenue anticipation notes. Construction loan notes are sold to provide construction financing. These notes are secured by mortgage notes insured by the FHA; however, the proceeds from the insurance may be less than the economic equivalent of the payment of principal and interest on the mortgage note if there has been a default. The obligations of an issuer of municipal notes are generally secured by the anticipated revenues from taxes, grants or bond financing. An investment in such instruments, however, presents a risk that the anticipated revenues will not be received or that such revenues will be insufficient to satisfy the issuer’s payment obligations under the notes or that refinancing will be otherwise unavailable.

Tax Exempt Commercial Paper . Issues of commercial paper typically represent short-term, unsecured, negotiable promissory notes. These obligations are issued by state and local governments and their agencies to finance working capital needs of municipalities or to provide interim construction financing and are paid from general revenues of municipalities or are refinanced with long-term debt. In most cases, tax exempt commercial paper is backed by letters of credit, lending agreements, note repurchase agreements or other credit facility agreements offered by banks or other institutions.

Pre-Refunded Municipal Securities . The principal of and interest on pre-refunded Municipal Securities are no longer paid from the original revenue source for the securities. Instead, the source of such payments is typically an escrow fund consisting of U.S. Government Securities. The assets in the escrow fund are derived from the proceeds of refunding bonds issued by the same issuer as the pre-refunded Municipal Securities. Issuers of Municipal Securities use this advance refunding technique to obtain more favorable terms with respect to securities that are not yet subject to call or redemption by the issuer. For example, advance refunding enables an issuer to refinance debt at lower market interest rates, restructure debt to improve cash flow or eliminate restrictive covenants in the indenture or other governing instrument for the pre-refunded Municipal Securities. However, except for a change in the revenue source from which principal and interest payments are made, the pre-refunded Municipal Securities remain outstanding on their original terms until they mature or are redeemed by the issuer. Pre-refunded Municipal Securities are often purchased at a price which represents a premium over their face value.

 

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Private Activity Bonds . The Fund may invest in certain types of Municipal Securities, generally referred to as industrial development bonds (and referred to under current tax law as private activity bonds), which are issued by or on behalf of public authorities to obtain funds to provide privately operated housing facilities, airport, mass transit or port facilities, sewage disposal, solid waste disposal or hazardous waste treatment or disposal facilities and certain local facilities for water supply, gas or electricity. Other types of industrial development bonds, the proceeds of which are used for the construction, equipment, repair or improvement of privately operated industrial or commercial facilities, may constitute Municipal Securities, although the current federal tax laws place substantial limitations on the size of such issues. The Fund’s distributions of any tax exempt interest it receives from any source will be taxable for regular federal income tax purposes.

Tender Option Bonds . A tender option bond is a Municipal Security (generally held pursuant to a custodial arrangement) having a relatively long maturity and bearing interest at a fixed rate substantially higher than prevailing short-term, tax exempt rates. The bond is typically issued with the agreement of a third party, such as a bank, broker-dealer or other financial institution, which grants the security holders the option, at periodic intervals, to tender their securities to the institution and receive the face value thereof. As consideration for providing the option, the financial institution receives periodic fees equal to the difference between the bond’s fixed coupon rate and the rate, as determined by a remarketing or similar agent at or near the commencement of such period, that would cause the securities, coupled with the tender option, to trade at par on the date of such determination. Thus, after payment of this fee, the security holder effectively holds a demand obligation that bears interest at the prevailing short-term, tax exempt rate. However, an institution will not be obligated to accept tendered bonds in the event of certain defaults or a significant downgrade in the credit rating assigned to the issuer of the bond. The liquidity of a tender option bond is a function of the credit quality of both the bond issuer and the financial institution providing liquidity. Tender option bonds are deemed to be liquid unless, in the opinion of the Investment Adviser, the credit quality of the bond issuer and the financial institution is deemed, in light of the Fund’s credit quality requirements, to be inadequate and the bond would not otherwise be readily marketable.

Auction Rate Securities . The Fund may invest in auction rate securities. Auction rate securities include auction rate Municipal Securities and auction rate preferred securities issued by closed-end investment companies that invest primarily in Municipal Securities (collectively, “auction rate securities”). Provided that the auction mechanism is successful, auction rate securities usually permit the holder to sell the securities in an auction at par value at specified intervals. The dividend is reset by “Dutch” auction in which bids are made by broker-dealers and other institutions for a certain amount of securities at a specified minimum yield. The dividend rate set by the auction is the lowest interest or dividend rate that covers all securities offered for sale. While this process is designed to permit auction rate securities to be traded at par value, there is some risk that an auction will fail due to insufficient demand for the securities. In certain market environments, auction failures may be more prevalent, which may adversely affect the liquidity and price of auction rate securities. Moreover, between auctions, there may be no secondary market for these securities, and sales conducted on a secondary market may not be on terms favorable to the seller. Thus, with respect to liquidity and price stability, auction rate securities may differ substantially from cash equivalents, notwithstanding the frequency of auctions and the credit quality of the security. The Fund will take the time remaining until the next scheduled auction date into account for the purpose of determining the auction rate securities’ duration.

Dividends on auction rate preferred securities issued by a closed-end fund may be designated as exempt from federal income tax to the extent they are attributable to exempt income earned by the fund on the securities in its portfolio and distributed to holders of the preferred securities, provided that the preferred securities are treated as equity securities for federal income tax purposes and the closed-end fund complies with certain tests under the Code.

The Fund’s investments in auction rate securities of closed-end funds are subject to the limitations prescribed by the Act and certain state securities regulations. The Fund will indirectly bear their proportionate share of any management and other fees paid by such closed-end funds in addition to the advisory fees payable directly by the Fund.

Insurance . The Fund may invest in “insured” tax exempt Municipal Securities. Insured Municipal Securities are securities for which scheduled payments of interest and principal are guaranteed by a private (non-governmental) insurance company. The insurance only entitles the Fund to receive the face or par value of the securities held by the Fund. The insurance does not guarantee the market value of the Municipal Securities or the value of the Shares of the Fund.

The Fund may utilize new issue or secondary market insurance. A new issue insurance policy is purchased by a bond issuer who wishes to increase the credit rating of a security. By paying a premium and meeting the insurer’s underwriting standards, the bond issuer is able to obtain a high credit rating (usually, Aaa from Moody’s or AAA from Standard & Poor’s) for the issued security. Such insurance is likely to increase the purchase price and resale value of the security. New issue insurance policies generally are non-cancelable and continue in force as long as the bonds are outstanding.

 

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A secondary market insurance policy is purchased by an investor (such as the Fund) subsequent to a bond’s original issuance and generally insures a particular bond for the remainder of its term. The Fund may purchase bonds which have already been insured under a secondary market insurance policy by a prior investor, or the Fund may directly purchase such a policy from insurers for bonds which are currently uninsured.

An insured Municipal Security acquired by the Fund will typically be covered by only one of the above types of policies.

Standby Commitments . In order to enhance the liquidity of Municipal Securities, the Fund may acquire the right to sell a security to another party at a guaranteed price and date. Such a right to resell may be referred to as a “standby commitment” or liquidity put, depending on its characteristics. The aggregate price which the Fund pays for securities with standby commitments may be higher than the price which otherwise would be paid for the securities. Standby commitments may not be available or may not be available on satisfactory terms.

Standby commitments may involve letters of credit issued by domestic or foreign banks supporting the other party’s ability to purchase the security from the Fund. The right to sell may be exercisable on demand or at specified intervals, and may form part of a security or be acquired separately by the Fund. In considering whether a security meets the Fund’s quality standards, the Fund will look to the creditworthiness of the party providing the Fund with the right to sell as well as the quality of the security itself.

The Fund values Municipal Securities which are subject to standby commitments at amortized cost. The exercise price of the standby commitments is expected to approximate such amortized cost. No value is assigned to the standby commitments for purposes of determining the Fund’s net asset value. The cost of a standby commitment is carried as unrealized depreciation from the time of purchase until it is exercised or expires. Because the value of a standby commitment is dependent on the ability of the standby commitment writer to meet its obligation to repurchase, the Fund’s policy is to enter into standby commitment transactions only with banks, brokers or dealers which present a minimal risk of default.

The Investment Adviser understands that the IRS has issued a favorable revenue ruling to the effect that, under specified circumstances, a registered investment company will be the owner of tax exempt municipal obligations acquired subject to a put option. The IRS has subsequently announced that it will not ordinarily issue advance ruling letters as to the identity of the true owner of property in cases involving the sale of securities or participation interests therein if the purchaser has the right to cause the security, or the participation interest therein, to be purchased by either the seller or a third party. The Fund intends to take the position that they are the owner of any Municipal Securities acquired subject to a standby commitment or acquired or held with certain other types of put rights and that tax exempt interest earned with respect to such Municipal Securities will be tax exempt in their hands. There is no assurance that standby commitments will be available to the Fund nor have the Fund assumed that such commitments would continue to be available under all market conditions.

Call Risk and Reinvestment Risk . Municipal Securities may include “call” provisions which permit the issuers of such securities, at any time or after a specified period, to redeem the securities prior to their stated maturity. In the event that Municipal Securities held in the Fund’s portfolio are called prior to the maturity, the Fund will be required to reinvest the proceeds on such securities at an earlier date and may be able to do so only at lower yields, thereby reducing the Fund’s return on its portfolio securities.

Tobacco Settlement Revenue Bonds . The Fund may invest in tobacco settlement revenue bonds. Tobacco settlement revenue bonds are municipal obligations that are backed entirely by expected revenues to be derived from lawsuits involving tobacco related deaths and illnesses which were settled between certain states and American tobacco companies. Tobacco settlement revenue bonds are secured by an issuing state’s proportionate share in the Master Settlement Agreement (“MSA”). The MSA is an agreement, reached out of court in November 1998 between 46 states and nearly all of the U.S. tobacco manufacturers. The MSA provides for annual payments in perpetuity by the manufacturers to the states in exchange for releasing all claims against the manufacturers and a pledge of no further litigation. Tobacco manufacturers pay into a master escrow trust based on their market share, and each state receives a fixed percentage of the payment as set forth in the MSA. A number of states have securitized the future flow of those payments by selling bonds pursuant to indentures or through distinct governmental entities created for such purpose. The principal and interest payments on the bonds are backed by the future revenue flow related to the MSA. Annual payments on the bonds, and thus risk to the Fund, are highly dependent on the receipt of future settlement payments to the state or its governmental entity.

The actual amount of future settlement payments is further dependent on many factors, including, but not limited to, annual domestic cigarette shipments, reduced cigarette consumption, increased taxes on cigarettes, inflation, financial capability of tobacco companies, continuing litigation and the possibility of tobacco manufacturer bankruptcy. The initial and annual payments made by the tobacco companies will be adjusted based on a number of factors, the most important of which is domestic cigarette consumption. If the volume of cigarettes shipped in the U.S. by manufacturers participating in the settlement decreases significantly, payments due from them will also decrease. Demand for cigarettes in the U.S. could continue to decline due to price increases needed to recoup the cost of payments by tobacco companies. Demand could also be affected by: anti-smoking campaigns, tax increases, reduced advertising, enforcement of laws prohibiting sales to minors; elimination of certain sales venues such as vending machines; and the

 

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spread of local ordinances restricting smoking in public places. As a result, payments made by tobacco manufacturers could be negatively impacted if the decrease in tobacco consumption is significantly greater than the forecasted decline. A market share loss by the MSA companies to non-MSA participating tobacco manufacturers would cause a downward adjustment in the payment amounts. A participating manufacturer filing for bankruptcy also could cause delays or reductions in bond payments. The MSA itself has been subject to legal challenges and has, to date, withstood those challenges.

Foreign Securities

The Fund may invest in securities of foreign issuers, including securities quoted or denominated in a currency other than U.S. dollars. Investments in foreign securities may offer potential benefits not available from investments solely in U.S. dollar-denominated or quoted securities of domestic issuers. Such benefits may include the opportunity to invest in foreign issuers that appear, in the opinion of the Investment Adviser, to offer the potential for better long term growth of capital and income than investments in U.S. securities, the opportunity to invest in foreign countries with economic policies or business cycles different from those of the United States and the opportunity to reduce fluctuations in portfolio value by taking advantage of foreign securities markets that do not necessarily move in a manner parallel to U.S. markets. Investing in the securities of foreign issuers also involves, however, certain special risks, including those discussed in the Fund’s Prospectus and those set forth below, which are not typically associated with investing in U.S. dollar-denominated securities or quoted securities of U.S. issuers. Many of these risks are more pronounced for investments in emerging economies.

With respect to investments in certain foreign countries, there exist certain economic, political and social risks, including the risk of adverse political developments, nationalization, military unrest, social instability, war and terrorism, confiscation without fair compensation, expropriation or confiscatory taxation, limitations on the movement of funds and other assets between different countries, or diplomatic developments, any of which could adversely affect the Fund’s investments in those countries. Governments in certain foreign countries continue to participate to a significant degree, through ownership interest or regulation, in their respective economies. Action by these governments could have a significant effect on market prices of securities and dividend payments.

Many countries throughout the world are dependent on a healthy U.S. economy and are adversely affected when the U.S. economy weakens or its markets decline. Additionally, many foreign country economies are heavily dependent on international trade and are adversely affected by protective trade barriers and economic conditions of their trading partners. Protectionist trade legislation enacted by those trading partners could have a significant adverse affect on the securities markets of those countries. Individual foreign economies may differ favorably or unfavorably from the U.S. economy in such respects as growth of gross national product, rate of inflation, capital reinvestment, resource self-sufficiency and balance of payments position.

Investments in foreign securities often involve currencies of foreign countries. Accordingly, the Fund may be affected favorably or unfavorably by changes in currency rates and in exchange control regulations and may incur costs in connection with conversions between various currencies. The Fund may be subject to currency exposure independent of its securities positions. To the extent that the Fund is fully invested in foreign securities while also maintaining net currency positions, it may be exposed to greater combined risk. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time. They generally are determined by the forces of supply and demand in the foreign exchange markets and the relative merits of investments in different countries, actual or anticipated changes in interest rates and other complex factors, as seen from an international perspective. Currency exchange rates also can be affected unpredictably by intervention (or the failure to intervene) by U.S. or foreign governments or central banks or by currency controls or political developments in the United States or abroad. To the extent that a portion of the Fund’s total assets, adjusted to reflect the Fund’s net position after giving effect to currency transactions, is denominated or quoted in the currencies of foreign countries, the Fund will be more susceptible to the risk of adverse economic and political developments within those countries. The Fund’s net currency positions may expose it to risks independent of its securities positions.

Because foreign issuers generally are not subject to uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, practices and requirements comparable to those applicable to U.S. companies, there may be less publicly available information about a foreign company than about a U.S. company. Volume and liquidity in most foreign securities markets are less than in the United States and securities of many foreign companies are less liquid and more volatile than securities of comparable U.S. companies. The securities of foreign issuers may be listed on foreign securities exchanges or traded in foreign over-the-counter markets. Fixed commissions on foreign securities exchanges are generally higher than negotiated commissions on U.S. exchanges, although the Fund endeavors to achieve the most favorable net results on its portfolio transactions. There is generally less government supervision and regulation of foreign securities exchanges, brokers, dealers and listed and unlisted companies than in the United States, and the legal remedies for investors may be more limited than the remedies available in the United States. For example, there may be no comparable provisions under certain foreign laws to insider trading and similar investor protections that apply with respect to securities transactions consummated in the United States. Mail service between the United States and foreign countries may be slower or less reliable than within the United States, thus increasing the risk of delayed settlement of portfolio transactions or loss of certificates for portfolio securities.

 

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Foreign markets also have different clearance and settlement procedures, and in certain markets there have been times when settlements have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions, making it difficult to conduct such transactions. Such delays in settlement could result in temporary periods when some of the assets of the Fund are uninvested and no return is earned on such assets. The inability of the Fund to make intended security purchases due to settlement problems could cause the Fund to miss attractive investment opportunities. Inability to dispose of portfolio securities due to settlement problems could result either in losses to the Fund due to subsequent declines in value of the portfolio securities, or, if the Fund has entered into a contract to sell the securities, in possible liability to the purchaser.

Foreign Government Obligations . Foreign government obligations include securities, instruments and obligations issued or guaranteed by a foreign government, its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. Investment in foreign government obligations can involve a high degree of risk. The governmental entity that controls the repayment of foreign government obligations may not be able or willing to repay the principal and/or interest when due in accordance with the terms of such debt. A governmental entity’s willingness or ability to repay principal and interest due in a timely manner may be affected by, among other factors, its cash flow situation, the extent of its foreign reserves, the availability of sufficient foreign exchange on the date a payment is due, the relative size of the debt service burden to the economy as a whole, the governmental entity’s policy towards the International Monetary Fund and the political constraints to which a governmental entity may be subject. Governmental entities may also be dependent on expected disbursements from foreign governments, multilateral agencies and others abroad to reduce principal and interest on their debt. The commitment on the part of these governments, agencies and others to make such disbursements may be conditioned on a governmental entity’s implementation of economic reforms and/or economic performance and the timely service of such debtor’s obligations. Failure to implement such reforms, achieve such levels of economic performance or repay principal or interest when due may result in the cancellation of such third parties’ commitments to lend funds to the governmental entity, which may further impair such debtor’s ability or willingness to service its debts in a timely manner. Consequently, governmental entities may default on their debt. Holders of foreign government obligations (including the Fund) may be requested to participate in the rescheduling of such debt and to extend further loans to governmental agencies.

Brady Bonds . Certain foreign debt obligations commonly referred to as “Brady Bonds” are created through the exchange of existing commercial bank loans to foreign borrowers for new obligations in connection with debt restructurings under a plan introduced by former U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, Nicholas F. Brady (the “Brady Plan”).

Brady Bonds may be collateralized or uncollateralized and issued in various currencies (although most are dollar-denominated) and they are actively traded in the over-the-counter secondary market. Certain Brady Bonds are collateralized in full as to principal due at maturity by zero coupon obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities having the same maturity (“Collateralized Brady Bonds”). Brady Bonds are not, however, considered to be U.S. Government Securities.

Dollar-denominated, Collateralized Brady Bonds may be fixed rate bonds or floating rate bonds. Interest payments on Brady Bonds are often collateralized by cash or securities in an amount that, in the case of fixed rate bonds, is equal to at least one year of rolling interest payments or, in the case of floating rate bonds, initially is equal to at least one year’s rolling interest payments based on the applicable interest rate at that time and is adjusted at regular intervals thereafter. Certain Brady Bonds are entitled to “value recovery payments” in certain circumstances, which in effect constitute supplemental interest payments but generally are not collateralized. Brady Bonds are often viewed as having three or four valuation components: (i) collateralized repayment of principal at final maturity; (ii) collateralized interest payments; (iii) uncollateralized interest payments; and (iv) any uncollateralized repayment of principal at maturity (these uncollateralized amounts constitute the “residual risk”). In the event of a default with respect to Collateralized Brady Bonds as a result of which the payment obligations of the issuer are accelerated, the U.S. Treasury zero coupon obligations held as collateral for the payment of principal will not be distributed to investors, nor will such obligations be sold and the proceeds distributed. The collateral will be held by the collateral agent to the scheduled maturity of the defaulted Brady Bonds, which will continue to be outstanding, at which time the face amount of the collateral will equal the principal payments which would have been due on the Brady Bonds in the normal course. In addition, in light of the residual risk of Brady Bonds and, among other factors, the history of defaults with respect to commercial bank loans by public and private entities of countries issuing Brady Bonds, investments in Brady Bonds should be viewed as speculative.

Forward Foreign Currency Exchange Contracts . The Fund may enter into forward foreign currency exchange contracts for hedging purposes and to seek to increase total return. A forward foreign currency exchange contract involves an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date, which may be any fixed number of days from the date of the contract agreed upon by the parties, at a price set at the time of the contract. These contracts are traded in the interbank market and are conducted directly between currency traders (usually large commercial banks) and their customers. A forward contract generally has no deposit requirement, and no commissions are generally charged at any stage for trades.

 

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At the maturity of a forward contract, the Fund may either accept or make delivery of the currency specified in the contract or, at or prior to maturity, enter into a closing purchase transaction involving the purchase or sale of an offsetting contract. Closing purchase transactions with respect to forward contracts are usually effected with the currency trader who is a party to the original forward contract.

The Fund may enter into forward foreign currency exchange contracts for hedging purposes in several circumstances. First, when the Fund enters into a contract for the purchase or sale of a security quoted or denominated in a foreign currency, or when the Fund anticipates the receipt in a foreign currency of a dividend or interest payment on such a security which it holds, the Fund may desire to “lock in” the U.S. dollar price of the security or the U.S. dollar equivalent of such dividend or interest payment, as the case may be. By entering into a forward contract for the purchase or sale, for a fixed amount of U.S. dollars, of the amount of foreign currency involved in the underlying transactions, the Fund may attempt to protect itself against an adverse change in the relationship between the U.S. dollar and the subject foreign currency during the period between the date on which the security is purchased or sold, or on which the dividend or interest payment is declared, and the date on which such payments are made or received.

Additionally, when the Investment Adviser believes that the currency of a particular foreign country may suffer a substantial decline against the U.S. dollar, it may enter into a forward contract to sell, for a fixed amount of U.S. dollars, the amount of foreign currency approximating the value of some or all of the Fund’s portfolio securities quoted or denominated in such foreign currency. The precise matching of the forward contract amounts and the value of the securities involved will not generally be possible because the future value of such securities in foreign currencies will change as a consequence of market movements in the value of those securities between the date on which the contract is entered into and the date it matures. Using forward contracts to protect the value of the Fund’s portfolio securities against a decline in the value of a currency does not eliminate fluctuations in the underlying prices of the securities. It simply establishes a rate of exchange which the Fund can achieve at some future point in time. The precise projection of short-term currency market movements is not possible, and short-term hedging provides a means of fixing the U.S. dollar value of only a portion of the Fund’s foreign assets.

The Fund may engage in cross-hedging by using forward contracts in one currency to hedge against fluctuations in the value of securities denominated or quoted in a different currency if the Investment Adviser determines that there is a pattern of correlation between the two currencies. In addition, the Fund may enter into foreign currency transactions to seek a closer correlation between the Fund’s overall currency exposures and the currency exposures of the Fund’s performance benchmark.

The Fund is not required to post cash collateral with its non-U.S. counterparties in certain foreign currency transactions. Accordingly, the Fund may remain more fully invested (and more of the Fund’s assets may be subject to investment and market risk) than if it were required to post collateral with its counterparties (which is the case with U.S. counterparties). Because the Fund’s non-U.S. counterparties are not required to post cash collateral with the Fund, the Fund will be subject to additional counterparty risk.

As an investment company registered with the SEC, the Fund must identify on its books liquid assets, or engage in other appropriate measures, to “cover” open positions with respect to its transactions in forward contracts. In the case of forward contracts that do not cash settle, for example, the Fund must identify on its books liquid assets equal to the full notional amount of the forward contracts while the positions are open. With respect to forward contracts that are required to cash settle, however, the Fund may identify liquid assets in an amount equal to the Fund’s daily marked-to-market net obligations (i.e., the Fund’s daily net liability) under the forward contracts, if any, rather than their full notional amount. The Fund reserves the right to modify its asset segregation policies in the future in its discretion. By identifying assets equal to only its net obligations under cash-settled forward contracts, the Fund will have the ability to employ leverage to a greater extent than if the Fund were required to identify assets equal to the full notional amount of the forward contracts.

While the Fund may enter into forward contracts to seek to reduce currency exchange rate risks, transactions in such contracts involve certain other risks. Thus, while the Fund may benefit from such transactions, unanticipated changes in currency prices may result in a poorer overall performance for the Fund than if it had not engaged in any such transactions. Moreover, there may be imperfect correlation between the Fund’s portfolio holdings of securities quoted or denominated in a particular currency and forward contracts entered into by the Fund. Such imperfect correlation may cause the Fund to sustain losses which will prevent the Fund from achieving a complete hedge or expose the Fund to risk of foreign exchange loss.

Markets for trading forward foreign currency contracts offer less protection against defaults than is available when trading in currency instruments on an exchange. Forward contracts are subject to the risk that the counterparty to such contract will default on its obligations. Because a forward foreign currency exchange contract is not guaranteed by an exchange or clearinghouse, a default on the contract would deprive the Fund of unrealized profits, transaction costs or the benefits of a currency hedge or force the Fund to cover its purchase or sale commitments, if any, at the current market price. In addition, the institutions that deal in forward currency contracts are not required to continue to make markets in the currencies they trade and these markets can experience periods of illiquidity. To the extent that a substantial portion of the Fund’s total assets, adjusted to reflect the Fund’s net position after giving effect to currency transactions, is denominated or quoted in the currencies of foreign countries, the Fund will be more susceptible to the risk of adverse economic and political developments within those countries.

 

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Investing in Europe

The Fund may operate in euros and/or may hold euros and/or euro-denominated bonds and other obligations. The euro requires participation of multiple sovereign states forming the Euro zone and is therefore sensitive to the credit, general economic and political position of each such state, including each state’s actual and intended ongoing engagement with and/or support for the other sovereign states then forming the European Union (“EU”), in particular those within the Euro zone. Changes in these factors might materially adversely impact the value of securities that the Fund has invested in.

European countries can be significantly affected by the tight fiscal and monetary controls that the European Economic and Monetary Union (“EMU”) imposes for membership. Europe’s economies are diverse, its governments are decentralized, and its cultures vary widely. Several EU countries, including Greece, Ireland, Italy, Spain and Portugal, have faced budget issues, some of which may have negative long-term effects for the economies of those countries and other EU countries. There is continued concern about national-level support for the euro and the accompanying coordination of fiscal and wage policy among EMU member countries. Member countries are required to maintain tight control over inflation, public debt, and budget deficit to qualify for membership in the EMU. These requirements can severely limit the ability of EMU member countries to implement monetary policy to address regional economic conditions.

Equity Swaps

The Fund may enter into equity swap contracts to invest in a market without owning or taking physical custody of securities in various circumstances, including circumstances where direct investment in the securities is restricted for legal reasons or is otherwise impracticable. Equity swaps may also be used for hedging purposes or to seek to increase total return. Equity swap contracts may be structured in different ways. For example, a counterparty may agree to pay the Fund the amount, if any, by which the notional amount of the equity swap contract would have increased in value had it been invested in particular stocks (or a group of stocks), plus the dividends that would have been received on those stocks. In these cases, the Fund may agree to pay to the counterparty a floating rate of interest on the notional amount of the equity swap contract plus the amount, if any, by which that notional amount would have decreased in value had it been invested in such stocks. Therefore, the return to the Fund on the equity swap contract should be the gain or loss on the notional amount plus dividends on the stocks less the interest paid by the Fund on the notional amount. In other cases, the counterparty and the Fund may each agree to pay the other the difference between the relative investment performances that would have been achieved if the notional amount of the equity swap contract had been invested in different stocks (or a group of stocks).

The Fund will generally enter into equity swaps on a net basis, which means that the two payment streams are netted out, with the Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments. Payments may be made at the conclusion of an equity swap contract or periodically during its term. Equity swaps normally do not involve the delivery of securities or other underlying assets. Accordingly, the risk of loss with respect to equity swaps is normally limited to the net amount of payments that the Fund is contractually obligated to make. If the other party to an equity swap defaults, the Fund’s risk of loss consists of the net amount of payments that the Fund is contractually entitled to receive, if any. Inasmuch as these transactions are entered into for hedging purposes or are offset by identifying on its books the cash or liquid assets to cover the Fund’s exposure, the Fund and its Investment Adviser believe that these transactions do not constitute senior securities under the Act and, accordingly, will not treat them as being subject to the Fund’s borrowing restrictions.

Interest Rate Swaps, Mortgage Swaps, Credit Swaps, Currency Swaps, Total Return Swaps, Options on Swaps and Interest Rate Caps, Floors and Collars

The Fund may enter into interest rate, mortgage, credit, currency and total return swaps for both hedging purposes and to seek to increase total return. As examples, the Fund may enter into swap transactions for the purpose of attempting to obtain or preserve a particular return or spread at a lower cost than obtaining a return or spread through purchases and/or sales of instruments in other markets, to protect against currency fluctuations, as a duration management technique, to protect against any increase in the price of securities the Fund anticipates purchasing at a later date, or to gain exposure to certain markets in an economical way. The Fund may also enter into interest rate caps, floors and collars. The Fund may also purchase and write (sell) options contracts on swaps, commonly referred to as swaptions.

 

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In a standard “swap” transaction, two parties agree to exchange the returns, differentials in rates of return or some other amount earned or realized on particular predetermined investments or instruments, which may be adjusted for an interest factor. The gross returns to be exchanged or “swapped” between the parties are generally calculated with respect to a “notional amount,” i.e. , the return on or increase in value of a particular dollar amount invested at a particular interest rate, in a particular foreign currency or security, or in a “basket” of securities representing a particular index. Bilateral swap agreements are two party contracts entered into primarily by institutional investors. Cleared swaps are transacted through futures commission merchants (“FCMs”) that are members of central clearinghouses with the clearinghouse serving as a central counterparty similar to transactions in futures contracts. Funds post initial and variation margin by making payments to their clearing member FCMs.

Currency swaps involve the exchange of the parties’ respective rights to make or receive payments in specified currencies. Interest rate swaps involve the exchange by the Fund with another party of commitments to pay or receive interest payments for floating rate payments based on interest rates at specified intervals in the future. Two types of interest rate swaps include “fixed-for-floating rate swaps” and “basis swaps.” Fixed-for-floating rate swaps involve the exchange of payments based on a fixed interest rate for payments based on a floating interest rate index. By contrast, basis swaps involve the exchange of payments based on two different floating interest rate indices.

Mortgage swaps are similar to interest rate swaps in that they represent commitments to pay and receive interest. The notional principal amount, however, is tied to a reference pool or pools of mortgages.

Credit default swaps involve the exchange of a floating or fixed rate payment in return for assuming potential credit losses of an underlying security or pool of securities. Loan credit default swaps are similar to credit default swaps on bonds, except that the underlying protection is sold on secured loans of a reference entity rather than a broader category of bonds or loans. Loan credit default swaps may be on single names or on baskets of loans, both tranched and untranched. Total return swaps are contracts that obligate a party to pay or receive interest in exchange for payment by the other party of the total return generated by a security, a basket of securities, an index, or an index component.

A swaption is an option to enter into a swap agreement. Like other types of options, the buyer of a swaption pays a non-refundable premium for the option and obtains the right, but not the obligation, to enter into or modify an underlying swap or to modify the terms of an existing swap on agreed-upon terms. The seller of a swaption, in exchange for the premium, becomes obligated (if the option is exercised) to enter into or modify an underlying swap on agreed-upon terms, which generally entails a greater risk of loss than incurred in buying a swaption.

The purchase of an interest rate cap entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index exceeds a predetermined interest rate, to receive payment of interest on a notional principal amount from the party selling such interest rate cap. The purchase of an interest rate floor entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index falls below a predetermined interest rate, to receive payments of interest on a notional principal amount from the party selling the interest rate floor. An interest rate collar is the combination of a cap and a floor that preserves a certain return within a predetermined range of interest rates.

A great deal of flexibility may be possible in the way swap transactions are structured. However, generally the Fund will enter into interest rate, total return, credit and mortgage swaps on a net basis, which means that the two payment streams are netted out, with the Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments. Interest rate, total return, credit and mortgage swaps do not normally involve the delivery of securities, other underlying assets or principal. Accordingly, the risk of loss with respect to interest rate, total return, credit and mortgage swaps is normally limited to the net amount of payments that the Fund is contractually obligated to make. If the other party to an interest rate, total return, credit or mortgage swap defaults, the Fund’s risk of loss consists of the net amount of interest payments that the Fund is contractually entitled to receive, if any. In contrast, currency swaps usually involve the delivery of a gross payment stream in one designated currency in exchange for a gross payment stream in another designated currency. Therefore, the entire payment stream under a currency swap is subject to the risk that the other party to the swap will default on its contractual delivery obligations.

In contrast, currency swaps usually involve the delivery of a gross payment stream in one designated currency in exchange for a gross payment stream in another designated currency. Therefore, the entire payment stream under a currency swap is subject to the risk that the other party to the swap will default on its contractual delivery obligations. A credit swap may have as reference obligations one or more securities that may, or may not, be currently held by the Fund. The protection “buyer” in a credit swap is generally obligated to pay the protection “seller” an upfront or a periodic stream of payments over the term of the swap provided that no credit event, such as a default, on a reference obligation has occurred. If a credit event occurs, the seller generally must pay the buyer the “par value” (full notional value) of the swap in exchange for an equal face amount of deliverable obligations of the reference entity described in the swap, or the seller may be required to deliver the related net cash amount, if the swap is cash settled. The Fund may be either the protection buyer or seller in the transaction. If the Fund is a buyer and no credit event occurs, the Fund may recover nothing if the swap is held through its termination date. However, if a credit event occurs, the buyer generally may elect to receive the full notional value of the swap in exchange for an equal face amount of deliverable obligations of the reference entity whose value may have significantly decreased. As a seller, the Fund generally receives an upfront payment or a rate of income throughout the term

 

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of the swap provided that there is no credit event. As the seller, the Fund would effectively add leverage to its portfolio because, in addition to its total net assets, the Fund would be subject to investment exposure on the notional amount of the swap. If a credit event occurs, the value of any deliverable obligation received by the Fund as seller, coupled with the upfront or periodic payments previously received, may be less than the full notional value it pays to the buyer, resulting in a loss of value to the Fund.

As a result of new rules adopted in 2012, certain standardized swaps are currently subject to mandatory central clearing. Central clearing is expected to decrease counterparty risk and increase liquidity compared to bilateral swaps because central clearing interposes the central clearinghouse as the counterparty to each participant’s swap. However, central clearing does not eliminate counterparty risk or illiquidity risk entirely. In addition, depending on the size of the Fund and other factors, the margin required under the rules of a clearinghouse and by a clearing member may be in excess of the collateral required to be posted by the Fund to support its obligations under a similar bilateral swap. However, regulators are expected to adopt rules imposing certain margin requirements, including minimums, on uncleared swaps in the near future, which could change this comparison. The Fund may obtain exposure to Senior Loans through the use of derivative instruments including loan credit default swaps. Investments in loan credit default swaps involve many of the risks associated with investments in derivatives more generally.

To the extent that the Fund’s exposure in a transaction involving a swap, swaption or an interest rate floor, cap or collar is covered by identifying cash or liquid assets on the Fund’s books or is covered by other means in accordance with SEC guidance, the Fund and the Investment Adviser believe that the transactions do not constitute senior securities under the Act and, accordingly, will not treat them as being subject to the Fund’s borrowing restrictions.

The use of interest rate, mortgage, credit, total return and currency swaps, as well as interest rate caps, floors and collars, is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. The use of a swap requires an understanding not only of the referenced asset, reference rate, or index but also of the swap itself, without the benefit of observing the performance of the swap under all possible market conditions. If the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its forecasts of market values, credit quality, interest rates and currency exchange rates, the investment performance of the Fund would be less favorable than it would have been if these investment instruments were not used.

In addition, these transactions can involve greater risks than if the Fund had invested in the reference obligation directly because, in addition to general market risks, swaps are subject to illiquidity risk, counterparty risk, credit risk and pricing risk. Regulators also may impose limits on an entity’s or group of entities’ positions in certain swaps. However, certain risks are reduced (but not eliminated) if the Fund invests in cleared swaps. Because bilateral swap agreements are two party contracts and because they may have terms of greater than seven days, these swaps may be considered to be illiquid. Moreover, the Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap agreement in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap counterparty. Many swaps are complex and often valued subjectively. Swaps and other derivatives may also be subject to pricing or “basis” risk, which exists when the price of a particular derivative diverges from the price of corresponding cash market instruments. Under certain market conditions it may not be economically feasible to imitate a transaction or liquidate a position in time to avoid a loss or take advantage of an opportunity. If a swap transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is illiquid, it may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price, which may result in significant losses.

Regulators are in the process of developing rules that would require trading and execution of most liquid swaps on trading facilities. Moving trading to an exchange-type system may increase market transparency and liquidity but may require the Fund to incur increased expenses to access the same types of swaps.

Rules adopted in 2012 also require centralized reporting of detailed information about many types of cleared and uncleared swaps. This information is available to regulators and, to a more limited extent and on an anonymous basis, to the public. Reporting of swap data may result in greater market transparency, which may be beneficial to funds that use swaps to implement trading strategies. However, these rules place potential additional administrative obligations on these funds, and the safeguards established to protect anonymity may not function as expected.

The swap market has grown substantially in recent years with a large number of banks and investment banking firms acting both as principals and as agents utilizing standardized swap documentation. As a result, the swap market has become relatively liquid in comparison with the markets for other similar instruments which are traded in the interbank market. The Investment Adviser, under the supervision of the Board of Trustees, is responsible for determining and monitoring the liquidity of the Fund’s transactions in swaps, swaptions, caps, floors and collars.

 

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Commodity-Linked Investments

The Fund may invest in commodities through investments in PTPs, ETFs, other investment companies, or other pooled investment vehicles. The Fund may seek to provide exposure to the investment returns of real assets that trade in the commodity markets through investments in commodity-linked derivative securities, such as structured notes, discussed below, which are designed to provide this exposure without direct investment in physical commodities or commodities futures contracts. Real assets are assets such as oil, gas, industrial and precious metals, livestock, and agricultural or meat products, or other items that have tangible properties, as compared to stocks or bonds, which are financial instruments. In choosing investments, the Investment Adviser may seek to provide exposure to various commodities and commodity sectors. The value of commodity-linked derivative instruments held by the Fund may be affected by a variety of factors, including, but not limited to, overall market movements and other factors affecting the value of particular industries or commodities, such as weather, disease, embargoes, acts of war or terrorism, or political and regulatory developments.

The prices of commodity-linked derivative instruments may move in different directions than investments in traditional equity and debt securities when the value of those traditional securities is declining due to adverse economic conditions. As an example, during periods of rising inflation, debt securities have historically tended to decline in value due to the general increase in prevailing interest rates. Conversely, during those same periods of rising inflation, the prices of certain commodities, such as oil and metals, have historically tended to increase. Of course, there cannot be any guarantee that these investments will perform in that manner in the future, and at certain times the price movements of commodity-linked instruments have been parallel to those of debt and equity securities. Commodities have historically tended to increase and decrease in value during different parts of the business cycle than financial assets. Nevertheless, at various times, commodities prices may move in tandem with the prices of financial assets and thus may not provide overall portfolio diversification benefits. Under favorable economic conditions, an investment in commodities may be expected to underperform an investment in traditional securities. Over the long term, the returns on the Fund’s investments in commodities are expected to exhibit low or negative correlation with stocks and bonds.

Because commodity-linked derivative instruments are available from a relatively small number of issuers, the Fund’s investments in commodity-linked derivative instruments are particularly subject to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the issuer of the commodity-linked derivative (which issuer may also serve as counterparty to a substantial number of the Fund’s commodity-linked and other derivative investments) will not fulfill its contractual obligations.

Commercial Paper and Other Short-Term Corporate Obligations

The Fund may invest in commercial paper and other short-term obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. corporations, non-U.S. corporations or other entities. Commercial paper represents short-term unsecured promissory notes issued in bearer form by banks or bank holding companies, corporations and finance companies.

Options on Securities and Securities Indices and Foreign Currencies

Writing Options . The Fund may write (sell) call and put options on any securities in which it may invest or on any securities index consisting of securities in which it may invest. The Fund may write such options on securities that are listed on national domestic securities exchanges or foreign securities exchanges or traded in the over-the-counter market. A call option written by the Fund obligates that Fund to sell specified securities to the holder of the option at a specified price if the option is exercised on or before the expiration date. Depending upon the type of call option, the purchaser of a call option either (i) has the right to any appreciation in the value of the security over a fixed price (the “exercise price”) on a certain date in the future (the “expiration date”) or (ii) has the right to any appreciation in the value of the security over the exercise price at any time prior to the expiration of the option. If the purchaser exercises the option, the Fund pays the purchaser the difference between the price of the security and the exercise price of the option. The premium, the exercise price and the market value of the security determine the gain or loss realized by the Fund as the seller of the call option. The Fund can also repurchase the call option prior to the expiration date, ending its obligation. In this case, the cost of entering into closing purchase transactions will determine the gain or loss realized by the Fund. All call options written by the Fund are covered, which means that the Fund will own the securities subject to the option so long as the option is outstanding or the Fund will use the other methods described below. The Fund’s purpose in writing call options is to realize greater income than would be realized on portfolio securities transactions alone. However, the Fund may forego the opportunity to profit from an increase in the market price of the underlying security.

A put option written by the Fund obligates the Fund to purchase specified securities from the option holder at a specified price if the option is exercised on or before the expiration date. All put options written by the Fund would be covered, which means that the Fund will identify on its books cash or liquid assets with a value at least equal to the exercise price of the put option (less any margin on deposit) or will use the other methods described below. The purpose of writing such options is to generate additional income for the Fund. However, in return for the option premium, the Fund accepts the risk that it may be required to purchase the underlying securities at a price in excess of the securities’ market value at the time of purchase.

 

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In the case of a call option, the option may be “covered” if the Fund owns the instrument underlying the call or has an absolute and immediate right to acquire that instrument without additional cash consideration (or, if additional cash consideration is required, liquid assets in such amount are identified on the Fund’s books) upon conversion or exchange of other instruments held by it. A call option may also be covered if the Fund holds a call on the same instrument as the option written where the exercise price of the option held is (i) equal to or less than the exercise price of the option written, or (ii) greater than the exercise price of the option written provided the Fund identifies liquid assets in the amount of the difference. A put option may be covered if the Fund holds a put on the same security as the option written where the exercise price of the option held is (i) equal to or higher than the exercise price of the option written, or (ii) less than the exercise price of the option written provided the Fund identifies on its books liquid assets in the amount of the difference. Identified cash or liquid assets may be quoted or denominated in any currency.

The Fund may terminate its obligations under an exchange-traded call or put option by purchasing an option identical to the one it has written. Obligations under over-the-counter options may be terminated only by entering into an offsetting transaction with the counterparty to such option. Such purchases are referred to as “closing purchase transactions.”

The Fund may also write (sell) call and put options on any securities index consisting of securities in which it may invest. Options on securities indices are similar to options on securities, except that the exercise of securities index options requires cash settlement payments and does not involve the actual purchase or sale of securities. In addition, securities index options are designed to reflect price fluctuations in a group of securities or segment of the securities market rather than price fluctuations in a single security.

The Fund may cover call options on a securities index by owning securities whose price changes are expected to be similar to those of the underlying index or by having an absolute and immediate right to acquire such securities without additional cash consideration (or if additional cash consideration is required, liquid assets in such amount are identified on the Fund’s books) upon conversion or exchange of other securities held by it. The Fund may also cover call and put options by identifying cash or liquid assets, as permitted by applicable law, with a value, when added to any margin on deposit, that is equal to the market value of the underlying securities in the case of a call option or the exercise price in the case of a put option or by owning offsetting options as described above.

The writing of options is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. The use of options to seek to increase total return involves the risk of loss if the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its expectation of fluctuations in securities prices or interest rates. The successful use of options for hedging purposes also depends in part on the ability of the Investment Adviser to predict future price fluctuations and the degree of correlation between the options and securities markets. If the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its expectation of changes in securities prices or determination of the correlation between the securities indices on which options are written and purchased and the securities in the Fund’s investment portfolio, the investment performance of the Fund will be less favorable than it would have been in the absence of such options transactions. The writing of options could increase the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate and, therefore, associated brokerage commissions or spreads.

Purchasing Options . The Fund may purchase put and call options on any securities in which it may invest or any securities index consisting of securities in which it may invest. In addition, the Fund may enter into closing sale transactions in order to realize gains or minimize losses on options it had purchased.

The Fund may purchase call options in anticipation of an increase, or put options in anticipation of a decrease (“protective puts”), in the market value of securities or other instruments of the type in which it may invest. The purchase of a call option would entitle the Fund, in return for the premium paid, to purchase specified securities or other instruments at a specified price during the option period. The Fund would ordinarily realize a gain on the purchase of a call option if, during the option period, the value of such securities exceeded the sum of the exercise price, the premium paid and transaction costs; otherwise the Fund would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the call option. The purchase of a put option would entitle the Fund, in exchange for the premium paid, to sell specified securities or other instruments at a specified price during the option period. The purchase of protective puts is designed to offset or hedge against a decline in the market value of the Fund’s securities or other instruments. Put options may also be purchased by the Fund for the purpose of affirmatively benefiting from a decline in the price of securities or other instruments which it does not own. The Fund would ordinarily realize a gain if, during the option period, the value of the underlying securities or other instruments decreased below the exercise price sufficiently to cover the premium and transaction costs; otherwise the Fund would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the put option. Gains and losses on the purchase of put options may be offset by countervailing changes in the value of the underlying portfolio securities or other instruments.

 

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The Fund may purchase put and call options on securities indices for the same purposes as it may purchase options on securities. Options on securities indices are similar to options on securities, except that the exercise of securities index options requires cash payments and does not involve the actual purchase or sale of securities. In addition, securities index options are designed to reflect price fluctuations in a group of securities or segment of the securities market rather than price fluctuations in a single security.

Writing and Purchasing Currency Call and Put Options . The Fund may, to the extent that it invests in foreign securities, write put and call options and purchase put and call options on foreign currencies in an attempt to protect against declines in the U.S. dollar value of foreign portfolio securities and against increases in the U.S. dollar cost of foreign securities to be acquired. The Fund may also use options on currency to cross-hedge, which involves writing or purchasing options on one currency to seek to hedge against changes in exchange rates for a different currency with a pattern of correlation. As with other kinds of option transactions, however, the writing of an option on foreign currency will constitute only a partial hedge, up to the amount of the premium received. If an option that the Fund has written is exercised, the Fund could be required to purchase or sell foreign currencies at disadvantageous exchange rates, thereby incurring losses. The purchase of an option on foreign currency may constitute an effective hedge against exchange rate fluctuations; however, in the event of exchange rate movements adverse to the Fund’s position, the Fund may forfeit the entire amount of the premium plus related transaction costs. Options on foreign currencies may be traded on U.S. and foreign exchanges or over-the-counter. In addition, the Fund may purchase call options on currency to seek to increase total return.

A currency call option written by the Fund obligates the Fund to sell specified currency to the holder of the option at a specified price if the option is exercised at any time before the expiration date. A currency put option written by the Fund obligates the Fund to purchase specified currency from the option holder at a specified price if the option is exercised at any time before the expiration date. The writing of currency options involves a risk that the Fund will, upon exercise of the option, be required to sell currency subject to a call at a price that is less than the currency’s market value or be required to purchase currency subject to a put at a price that exceeds the currency’s market value. Written put and call options on foreign currencies may be covered in a manner similar to written put and call options on securities and securities indices described under “Options on Securities and Securities Indices—Writing Options” above.

The Fund may terminate its obligations under a written call or put option by purchasing an option identical to the one written. Such purchases are referred to as “closing purchase transactions.” The Fund may enter into closing sale transactions in order to realize gains or minimize losses on purchased options.

The Fund may purchase call options on foreign currency in anticipation of an increase in the U.S. dollar value of currency in which securities to be acquired by the Fund are denominated or quoted. The purchase of a call option would entitle the Fund, in return for the premium paid, to purchase specified currency at a specified price during the option period. The Fund would ordinarily realize a gain if, during the option period, the value of such currency exceeded the sum of the exercise price, the premium paid and transaction costs; otherwise, the Fund would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the call option.

The Fund may purchase put options in anticipation of a decline in the U.S. dollar value of currency in which securities in its portfolio are denominated or quoted (“protective puts”). The purchase of a put option would entitle the Fund, in exchange for the premium paid, to sell specified currency at a specified price during the option period. The purchase of protective puts is usually designed to offset or hedge against a decline in the U.S. dollar value of the Fund’s portfolio securities due to currency exchange rate fluctuations. The Fund would ordinarily realize a gain if, during the option period, the value of the underlying currency decreased below the exercise price sufficiently to more than cover the premium and transaction costs; otherwise, the Fund would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the put option. Gains and losses on the purchase of protective put options would tend to be offset by countervailing changes in the value of the underlying currency.

In addition to using options for the hedging purposes described above, the Fund may use options on currency to seek to increase total return. The Fund may write (sell) covered put and call options on any currency in an attempt to realize greater income than would be realized on portfolio securities transactions alone. However, in writing covered call options for additional income, the Fund may forego the opportunity to profit from an increase in the market value of the underlying currency. Also, when writing put options, the Fund accepts, in return for the option premium, the risk that it may be required to purchase the underlying currency at a price in excess of the currency’s market value at the time of purchase.

The Fund may purchase call options to seek to increase total return in anticipation of an increase in the market value of a currency. The Fund would ordinarily realize a gain if, during the option period, the value of such currency exceeded the sum of the exercise price, the premium paid and transaction costs. Otherwise the Fund would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the call option. Put options may be purchased by the Fund for the purpose of benefiting from a decline in the value of currencies which they do not own. The Fund would ordinarily realize a gain if, during the option period, the value of the underlying currency decreased below the exercise price sufficiently to more than cover the premium and transaction costs. Otherwise, the Fund would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the put option.

 

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Special Risks Associated with Options on Currency . An exchange-traded option position may be closed out only on an options exchange that provides a secondary market for an option of the same series. Although the Fund will generally purchase or write only those options for which there appears to be an active secondary market, there is no assurance that a liquid secondary market on an exchange will exist for any particular option or at any particular time. For some options no secondary market on an exchange may exist. In such event, it might not be possible to effect closing transactions in particular options, with the result that the Fund would have to exercise its options in order to realize any profit and would incur transaction costs upon the sale of underlying securities pursuant to the exercise of its options. If the Fund as a covered call option writer is unable to effect a closing purchase transaction in a secondary market, it will not be able to sell the underlying currency (or security quoted or denominated in that currency), or dispose of the identified assets, until the option expires or it delivers the underlying currency upon exercise.

There is no assurance that higher-than-anticipated trading activity or other unforeseen events might not, at times, render certain of the facilities of the Options Clearing Corporation inadequate, and thereby result in the institution by an exchange of special procedures which may interfere with the timely execution of customers’ orders.

The Fund may purchase and write over-the-counter options to the extent consistent with its limitation on investments in illiquid securities. Trading in over-the-counter options is subject to the risk that the other party will be unable or unwilling to close out options purchased or written by the Fund.

The amount of the premiums that the Fund may pay or receive, may be adversely affected as new or existing institutions, including other investment companies, engage in or increase their option purchasing and writing activities.

Yield Curve Options . The Fund may enter into options on the yield “spread” or differential between two securities. Such transactions are referred to as “yield curve” options. In contrast to other types of options, a yield curve option is based on the difference between the yields of designated securities, rather than the prices of the individual securities, and is settled through cash payments. Accordingly, a yield curve option is profitable to the holder if this differential widens (in the case of a call) or narrows (in the case of a put), regardless of whether the yields of the underlying securities increase or decrease.

The Fund may purchase or write yield curve options for the same purposes as other options on securities. For example, the Fund may purchase a call option on the yield spread between two securities if the Fund owns one of the securities and anticipates purchasing the other security and wants to hedge against an adverse change in the yield spread between the two securities. The Fund may also purchase or write yield curve options in an effort to increase current income if, in the judgment of the Investment Adviser, the Fund will be able to profit from movements in the spread between the yields of the underlying securities. The trading of yield curve options is subject to all of the risks associated with the trading of other types of options. In addition, however, such options present a risk of loss even if the yield of one of the underlying securities remains constant, or if the spread moves in a direction or to an extent which was not anticipated.

Yield curve options written by the Fund will be “covered.” A call (or put) option is covered if the Fund holds another call (or put) option on the spread between the same two securities and identifies on its books cash or liquid assets sufficient to cover the Fund’s net liability under the two options. Therefore, the Fund’s liability for such a covered option is generally limited to the difference between the amount of the Fund’s liability under the option written by the Fund less the value of the option held by the Fund. Yield curve options may also be covered in such other manner as may be in accordance with the requirements of the counterparty with which the option is traded and applicable laws and regulations. Yield curve options are traded over-the-counter, and established trading markets for these options may not exist.

Risks Associated with Options Transactions . There is no assurance that a liquid secondary market on a domestic or foreign options exchange will exist for any particular exchange-traded option or at any particular time. If the Fund is unable to effect a closing purchase transaction with respect to covered options it has written, the Fund will not be able to sell the underlying securities or dispose of the assets identified on its books to cover the position until the options expire or are exercised. Similarly, if the Fund is unable to effect a closing sale transaction with respect to options it has purchased, it will have to exercise the options in order to realize any profit and will incur transaction costs upon the purchase or sale of underlying securities.

Reasons for the absence of a liquid secondary market on an exchange include, but are not limited to, the following: (i) there may be insufficient trading interest in certain options; (ii) restrictions may be imposed by an exchange on opening or closing transactions or both; (iii) trading halts, suspensions or other restrictions may be imposed with respect to particular classes or series of options; (iv) unusual or unforeseen circumstances may interrupt normal operations on an exchange; (v) the facilities of an exchange or the Options Clearing Corporation may not at all times be adequate to handle current trading volume; or (vi) one or more exchanges could, for economic or other reasons, decide or be compelled at some future date to discontinue the trading of options (or a particular class or series of options), in which event the secondary market on that exchange (or in that class or series of options) would cease to exist although outstanding options on that exchange that had been issued by the Options Clearing Corporation as a result of trades on that exchange would continue to be exercisable in accordance with their terms.

 

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There can be no assurance that higher trading activity, order flow or other unforeseen events will not, at times, render certain of the facilities of the Options Clearing Corporation or various exchanges inadequate. Such events have, in the past, resulted in the institution by an exchange of special procedures, such as trading rotations, restrictions on certain types of order or trading halts or suspensions with respect to one or more options. These special procedures may limit liquidity.

The Fund may purchase and sell both options that are traded on U.S. and foreign exchanges and options traded over-the-counter with broker-dealers and other types of institutions that make markets in these options. The ability to terminate over-the-counter options is more limited than with exchange-traded options and may involve the risk that the broker-dealers or financial institutions participating in such transactions will not fulfill their obligations.

Transactions by the Fund in options will be subject to limitations established by each of the exchanges, boards of trade or other trading facilities on which such options are traded governing the maximum number of options in each class which may be written or purchased by a single investor or group of investors acting in concert regardless of whether the options are written or purchased on the same or different exchanges, boards of trade or other trading facilities or are held in one or more accounts or through one or more brokers. Thus, the number of options which the Fund may write or purchase may be affected by options written or purchased by other investment advisory clients of an Investment Adviser. An exchange, board of trade or other trading facility may order the liquidation of positions found to be in excess of these limits, and it may impose certain other sanctions.

The writing and purchase of options is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. The use of options to seek to increase total return involves the risk of loss if the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its expectation of fluctuations in securities prices or interest rates. The successful use of options for hedging purposes also depends in part on the ability of the Investment Adviser to manage future price fluctuations and the degree of correlation between the options and securities (or currency) markets. If the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its expectation of changes in securities prices or determination of the correlation between the securities or securities indices on which options are written and purchased and the securities in the Fund’s investment portfolio, the Fund may incur losses that it would not otherwise incur. The writing of options could increase the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate and, therefore, associated brokerage commissions or spreads.

Futures Contracts and Options on Futures Contracts

The Fund may purchase and sell futures contracts and may also purchase and write call and put options on futures contracts. The Fund may also enter into closing purchase and sale transactions with respect to any of such contracts and options. The futures contracts may be based on various securities (such as U.S. Government Securities), securities indices, foreign currencies and any other financial instruments and indices. Financial futures contracts used by the Fund include interest rate futures contracts including, among others, Eurodollar futures contracts. Eurodollar futures contracts are U.S. dollar-denominated futures contracts that are based on the implied forward LIBOR of a three-month deposit.

The Fund may engage in futures and related options transactions in order to seek to increase total return or to hedge against changes in interest rates, securities prices or, if the Fund invests in foreign securities, currency exchange rates, or to otherwise manage its term structure, sector selection and duration in accordance with its investment objective and policies. The Fund may also enter into closing purchase and sale transactions with respect to such contracts and options.

Futures contracts entered into by funds have historically been traded on U.S. exchanges or boards of trade that are licensed and regulated by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) or on foreign exchanges. More recently, certain futures may also be traded either over-the-counter or on trading facilities such as derivatives transaction execution facilities, exempt boards of trade or electronic trading facilities that are licensed and/or regulated to varying degrees by the CFTC. Also, certain single stock futures and narrow based security index futures may be traded either over-the-counter or on trading facilities such as contract markets, derivatives transaction execution facilities and electronic trading facilities that are licensed and/or regulated to varying degrees by both the CFTC and the SEC or on foreign exchanges.

Neither the CFTC, National Futures Association (“NFA”), SEC nor any domestic exchange regulates activities of any foreign exchange or boards of trade, including the execution, delivery and clearing of transactions, or has the power to compel enforcement of the rules of a foreign exchange or board of trade or any applicable foreign law. This is true even if the exchange is formally linked to a domestic market so that a position taken on the market may be liquidated by a transaction on another market. Moreover, such laws or regulations will vary depending on the foreign country in which the foreign futures or foreign options transaction occurs. For these

 

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reasons, the Fund’s investments in foreign futures or foreign options transactions may not be provided the same protections in respect of transactions on United States exchanges. In particular, persons who trade foreign futures or foreign options contracts may not be afforded certain of the protective measures provided by the CEA, the CFTC’s regulations and the rules of the NFA and any domestic exchange, including the right to use reparations proceedings before the CFTC and arbitration proceedings provided by the NFA or any domestic futures exchange. Similarly, these persons may not have the protection of the U.S. securities laws.

Futures Contracts . A futures contract may generally be described as an agreement between two parties to buy and sell particular financial instruments or currencies for an agreed price during a designated month (or to deliver the final cash settlement price, in the case of a contract relating to an index or otherwise not calling for physical delivery at the end of trading in the contract).

When interest rates are rising or securities prices are falling, the Fund can seek to offset a decline in the value of its current portfolio securities through the sale of futures contracts. When interest rates are falling or securities prices are rising, the Fund, through the purchase of futures contracts, can attempt to secure better rates or prices than might later be available in the market when it effects anticipated purchases. The Fund may purchase and sell futures contracts on a specified currency in order to seek to increase total return or to protect against changes in currency exchange rates. For example, the Fund may seek to offset anticipated changes in the value of a currency in which its portfolio securities, or securities that it intends to purchase, are quoted or denominated by purchasing and selling futures contracts on such currencies. In addition, the Fund may enter into futures transactions to seek a closer correlation between the Fund’s overall currency exposures and the currency exposures of the Fund’s performance benchmark.

Positions taken in the futures markets are not normally held to maturity but are instead liquidated through offsetting transactions which may result in a profit or a loss. While futures contracts on securities or currency will usually be liquidated in this manner, the Fund may instead make or take delivery of the underlying securities or currency whenever it appears economically advantageous to do so. A clearing corporation associated with the exchange on which futures on securities or currency are traded guarantees that, if still open, the sale or purchase will be performed on the settlement date.

Hedging Strategies Using Futures Contracts . When the Fund uses futures for hedging purposes, the Fund often seeks to establish with more certainty than would otherwise be possible the effective price or rate of return on portfolio securities (or securities that the Fund proposes to acquire) or the exchange rate of currencies in which portfolio securities are quoted or denominated. The Fund may, for example, take a “short” position in the futures market by selling futures contracts to seek to hedge against an anticipated rise in interest rates or a decline in market prices or foreign currency rates that would adversely affect the U.S. dollar value of the Fund’s portfolio securities. Such futures contracts may include contracts for the future delivery of securities held by the Fund or securities with characteristics similar to those of the Fund’s portfolio securities. Similarly, the Fund may sell futures contracts on any currencies in which its portfolio securities are quoted or denominated or sell futures contracts on one currency to seek to hedge against fluctuations in the value of securities quoted or denominated in a different currency if there is an established historical pattern of correlation between the two currencies. If, in the opinion of the Investment Adviser, there is a sufficient degree of correlation between price trends for the Fund’s portfolio securities and futures contracts based on other financial instruments, securities indices or other indices, the Fund may also enter into such futures contracts as part of a hedging strategy. Although under some circumstances prices of securities in the Fund’s portfolio may be more or less volatile than prices of such futures contracts, the Investment Adviser will attempt to estimate the extent of this volatility difference based on historical patterns and compensate for any such differential by having the Fund enter into a greater or lesser number of futures contracts or by attempting to achieve only a partial hedge against price changes affecting the Fund’s portfolio securities. When hedging of this character is successful, any depreciation in the value of portfolio securities will be substantially offset by appreciation in the value of the futures position. On the other hand, any unanticipated appreciation in the value of the Fund’s portfolio securities would be substantially offset by a decline in the value of the futures position.

On other occasions, the Fund may take a “long” position by purchasing futures contracts. This may be done, for example, when the Fund anticipates the subsequent purchase of particular securities when it has the necessary cash, but expects the prices or currency exchange rates then available in the applicable market to be less favorable than prices or rates that are currently available.

Options on Futures Contracts . The acquisition of put and call options on futures contracts will give the Fund the right (but not the obligation) for a specified price to sell or to purchase, respectively, the underlying futures contract at any time during the option period. As the purchaser of an option on a futures contract, the Fund obtains the benefit of the futures position if prices move in a favorable direction but limits its risk of loss in the event of an unfavorable price movement to the loss of the premium and transaction costs.

The writing of a call option on a futures contract generates a premium which may partially offset a decline in the value of the Fund’s assets. By writing a call option, the Fund becomes obligated, in exchange for the premium, to sell a futures contract if the option is exercised, which may have a value higher than the exercise price. The writing of a put option on a futures contract generates a premium which may partially offset an increase in the price of securities that the Fund intends to purchase. However, the Fund

 

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becomes obligated (upon exercise of the option) to purchase a futures contract if the option is exercised, which may have a value lower than the exercise price. Thus, the loss incurred by the Fund in writing options on futures is potentially unlimited and may exceed the amount of the premium received. The Fund will incur transaction costs in connection with the writing of options on futures.

The holder or writer of an option on a futures contract may terminate its position by selling or purchasing an offsetting option on the same financial instrument. There is no guarantee that such closing transactions can be effected. The Fund’s ability to establish and close out positions on such options will be subject to the development and maintenance of a liquid market.

Other Considerations . The Fund will engage in transactions in futures contracts and related options transactions only to the extent such transactions are consistent with the requirements of the Code for maintaining their qualifications as regulated investment companies for federal income tax purposes. Transactions in futures contracts and options on futures involve brokerage costs, require margin deposits and, in certain cases, require the Fund to identify on its books cash or liquid assets. The Fund may cover its transactions in futures contracts and related options by identifying on its books cash or liquid assets or by other means, in any manner permitted by applicable law.

While transactions in futures contracts and options on futures may reduce certain risks, such transactions themselves entail certain other risks. Thus, unanticipated changes in interest rates, securities prices or currency exchange rates may result in a poorer overall performance for the Fund than if it had not entered into any futures contracts or options transactions. When futures contracts and options are used for hedging purposes, perfect correlation between the Fund’s futures positions and portfolio positions may be impossible to achieve, particularly where futures contracts based on individual equity or corporate fixed income securities are currently not available. In the event of imperfect correlation between a futures position and a portfolio position which is intended to be protected, the desired protection may not be obtained and the Fund may be exposed to risk of loss.

In addition, it is not possible for the Fund to hedge fully or perfectly against currency fluctuations affecting the value of securities quoted or denominated in foreign currencies because the value of such securities is likely to fluctuate as a result of independent factors unrelated to currency fluctuations. The profitability of the Fund’s trading in futures depends upon the ability of the Investment Adviser to analyze correctly the futures markets.

Combined Transactions

The Fund may enter into multiple transactions, including multiple options transactions, multiple futures transactions, multiple currency transactions (as applicable)(including forward currency contracts) and multiple interest rate and other swap transactions and any combination of futures, options, currency and swap transactions (“component” transactions) as part of a single or combined strategy when, in the opinion of the Investment Adviser, it is in the best interests of the Fund to do so. A combined transaction will usually contain elements of risk that are present in each of its component transactions. Although combined transactions are normally entered into based on the Investment Adviser’s judgment that the combined strategies will reduce risk or otherwise more effectively achieve the desired portfolio management goal, it is possible that the combination will instead increase such risks or hinder achievement of the portfolio management objective.

Short Sales

The Fund may engage in short sales. Short sales are transactions in which the Fund sells a security it does not own in anticipation of a decline in the market value of that security. To complete such a transaction, the Fund must borrow the security to make delivery to the buyer. The Fund then is obligated to replace the security borrowed by purchasing it at the market price at the time of replacement. The price at such time may be more or less than the price at which the security was sold by the Fund. Until the security is replaced, the Fund is required to pay to the lender amounts equal to any dividend which accrues during the period of the loan. To borrow the security, the Fund also may be required to pay a premium, which would increase the cost of the security sold. There will also be other costs associated with short sales.

The Fund will incur a loss as a result of the short sale if the price of the security increases between the date of the short sale and the date on which the Fund replaces the borrowed security. The Fund will realize a gain if the security declines in price between those dates. This result is the opposite of what one would expect from a cash purchase of a long position in a security. The amount of any gain will be decreased, and the amount of any loss increased, by the amount of any premium or amounts in lieu of interest the Fund may be required to pay in connection with a short sale, and will be also decreased by any transaction or other costs.

Until the Fund replaces a borrowed security in connection with a short sale, the Fund will (a) identify on its books cash or liquid assets at such a level that the identified assets plus any amount deposited as collateral will equal the current value of the security sold short or (b) otherwise cover its short position in accordance with applicable law.

 

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There is no guarantee that the Fund will be able to close out a short position at any particular time or at an acceptable price. During the time that the Fund is short a security, it is subject to the risk that the lender of the security will terminate the loan at a time when the Fund is unable to borrow the same security from another lender. If that occurs, the Fund may be “bought in” at the price required to purchase the security needed to close out the short position, which may be a disadvantageous price.

Short Sales Against the Box . The Fund may engage in short sales against the box. As noted above, a short sale is made by selling a security the seller does not own. A short sale is “against the box” to the extent that the seller contemporaneously owns or has the right to obtain, at no added cost, securities identical to those sold short. The Fund may enter into a short sale against the box, for example, to lock in a sales price for a security the Fund does not wish to sell immediately. If the Fund sells securities short against the box, it may protect itself from loss if the price of the securities declines in the future, but will lose the opportunity to profit on such securities if the price rises. If the Fund effects a short sale of securities at a time when it has an unrealized gain on the securities, it may be required to recognize that gain as if it had actually sold the securities (as a “constructive sale”) on the date it effects the short sale. However, such constructive sale treatment may not apply if the Fund closes out the short sale with securities other than the appreciated securities held at the time of the short sale and if certain other conditions are satisfied. Uncertainty regarding the tax consequences of effecting short sales may limit the extent to which the Fund may effect short sales.

Mortgage Dollar Rolls

The Fund may enter into mortgage dollar rolls in which the Fund sells securities for delivery in the current month and simultaneously contracts with the same counterparty to repurchase similar, but not identical, securities on a specified future date. During the roll period, the Fund loses the right to receive principal and interest paid on the securities sold. However, the Fund would benefit to the extent of any difference between the price received for the securities sold and the lower forward price for the future purchase or fee income plus the interest earned on the cash proceeds of the securities sold until the settlement date of the forward purchase. All cash proceeds will be invested in instruments that are permissible investments for the Fund. The Fund will, until the settlement date, identify cash or liquid assets on its books, as permitted by applicable law, in an amount equal to its forward purchase price.

For financial reporting and tax purposes, the Fund treats mortgage dollar rolls as two separate transactions; one involving the purchase of a security and a separate transaction involving a sale. The Fund does not currently intend to enter into mortgage dollar rolls for financing and does not treat them as borrowings.

Mortgage dollar rolls involve certain risks including the following: if the broker-dealer to whom the Fund sells the security becomes insolvent, the Fund’s right to purchase or repurchase the mortgage-related securities subject to the mortgage dollar roll may be restricted. Also, the instrument which the Fund is required to repurchase may be worth less than an instrument which the Fund originally held. Successful use of mortgage dollar rolls will depend upon the Investment Adviser’s ability to manage the Fund’s interest rate and mortgage prepayments exposure. For these reasons, there is no assurance that mortgage dollar rolls can be successfully employed. The use of this technique may diminish the investment performance of the Fund compared with what such performance would have been without the use of mortgage dollar rolls.

Convertible Securities

The Fund may invest in convertible securities. Convertible securities are bonds, debentures, notes, preferred stocks or other securities that may be converted into or exchanged for a specified amount of common stock (or other securities) of the same or different issuer within a particular period of time at a specified price or formula. A convertible security entitles the holder to receive interest that is generally paid or accrued on debt or a dividend that is paid or accrued on preferred stock until the convertible security matures or is redeemed, converted or exchanged. Convertible securities have unique investment characteristics, in that they generally (i) have higher yields than common stocks, but lower yields than comparable non-convertible securities, (ii) are less subject to fluctuation in value than the underlying common stock due to their fixed income characteristics and (iii) provide the potential for capital appreciation if the market price of the underlying common stock increases.

The value of a convertible security is a function of its “investment value” (determined by its yield in comparison with the yields of other securities of comparable maturity and quality that do not have a conversion privilege) and its “conversion value” (the security’s worth, at market value, if converted into the underlying common stock). The investment value of a convertible security is influenced by changes in interest rates, with investment value normally declining as interest rates increase and increasing as interest rates decline. The credit standing of the issuer and other factors may also have an effect on the convertible security’s investment value. The conversion value of a convertible security is determined by the market price of the underlying common stock. If the conversion value is low relative to the investment value, the price of the convertible security is governed principally by its investment value. To the extent the market price of the underlying common stock approaches or exceeds the conversion price, the price of the convertible security will be increasingly influenced by its conversion value. A convertible security generally will sell at a premium over its conversion value by the extent to which investors place value on the right to acquire the underlying common stock while holding a fixed income security.

 

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A convertible security may be subject to redemption at the option of the issuer at a price established in the convertible security’s governing instrument. If a convertible security held by the Fund is called for redemption, the Fund will be required to convert it into the underlying common stock, sell it to a third party or permit the issuer to redeem the security. Any of these actions could have an adverse effect on the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective, which, in turn, could result in losses to the Fund. To the extent that the Fund holds a convertible security, or a security that is otherwise converted or exchanged for common stock ( e.g. , as a result of a restructuring), the Fund may, consistent with its investment objective, hold such common stock in its portfolio.

Lending of Portfolio Securities

The Fund may lend its portfolio securities to brokers, dealers and other institutions, including Goldman Sachs, although it does not presently intend to do so. By lending its securities, the Fund attempts to increase its net investment income.

Securities loans are required to be secured continuously by collateral in cash, cash equivalents, letters of credit or U.S. Government Securities equal to at least 100% of the value of the loaned securities. This collateral must be valued, or “marked to market,” daily. Borrowers are required to furnish additional collateral to the Fund as necessary to fully cover their obligations.

With respect to loans that are collateralized by cash, the Fund may reinvest that cash in short-term investments and pay the borrower a pre-negotiated fee or “rebate” from any return earned on the investment. Investing the collateral subjects it to market depreciation or appreciation, and the Fund is responsible for any loss that may result from its investment of the borrowed collateral. Cash collateral may be invested in, among other things, other registered or unregistered funds, including private investing funds or money market funds that are managed by the Investment Adviser or its affiliates, and which pay the Investment Adviser or its affiliates for their services. If the Fund would receive non-cash collateral, the Fund receives a fee from the borrower equal to a negotiated percentage of the market value of the loaned securities.

For the duration of any securities loan, the Fund will continue to receive the equivalent of the interest, dividends or other distributions paid by the issuer on the loaned securities. The Fund will not have the right to vote its loaned securities during the period of the loan, but the Fund may attempt to recall a loaned security in anticipation of a material vote if it desires to do so. The Fund will have the right to terminate a loan at any time and recall the loaned securities within the normal and customary settlement time for securities transactions.

Securities lending involves certain risks. The Fund may lose money on its investment of cash collateral, resulting in a loss of principal, or may fail to earn sufficient income on its investment to cover the fee or rebate it has agreed to pay the borrower. The Fund may incur losses in connection with its securities lending activities that exceed the value of the interest income and fees received in connection with such transactions. Securities lending subjects the Fund to the risk of loss resulting from problems in the settlement and accounting process, and to additional credit, counterparty and market risk. These risks could be greater with respect to non-U.S. securities. Engaging in securities lending could have a leveraging effect, which may intensify the other risks associated with investments in the Fund. In addition, the Fund bears the risk that the price of the securities on loan will increase while they are on loan, or that the price of the collateral will decline in value during the period of the loan, and that the counterparty will not provide, or will delay in providing, additional collateral. The Fund also bears the risk that a borrower may fail to return securities in a timely manner or at all, either because the borrower fails financially or for other reasons. If a borrower of securities fails financially, the Fund may also lose its rights in the collateral. The Fund could experience delays and costs in recovering loaned securities or in gaining access to and liquidating the collateral, which could result in actual financial loss and which could interfere with portfolio management decisions or the exercise of ownership rights in the loaned securities. If the Fund is not able to recover the securities lent, the Fund may sell the collateral and purchase replacement securities in the market. However, the Fund will incur transaction costs on the purchase of replacement securities. These events could trigger adverse tax consequences for the Fund. In determining whether to lend securities to a particular borrower, and throughout the period of the loan, the creditworthiness of the borrower will be considered and monitored. Loans will only be made to firms deemed to be of good standing, and where the consideration that can be earned currently from securities loans of this type is deemed to justify the attendant risk. It is intended that the value of securities loaned by the Fund will not exceed one-third of the value of the Fund’s total assets (including the loan collateral).

The Fund will consider the loaned securities as assets of the Fund, but will not consider any collateral as the Fund asset except when determining total assets for the purpose of the above one-third limitation. Loan collateral (including any investment of the collateral) is not subject to the percentage limitations stated elsewhere in this SAI or in the Prospectus regarding investing in fixed income securities and cash equivalents.

 

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The Fund’s Board of Trustees may approve the Fund’s participation in a securities lending program and adopt policies and procedures relating thereto. The Fund may retain an affiliate of the Investment Adviser to serve as its securities lending agent.

For its services, the securities lending agent may receive a fee from the Fund, including a fee based on the returns earned on the Fund’s investment of cash received as collateral for the loaned securities. In addition, the Fund may make brokerage and other payments to Goldman Sachs and its affiliates in connection with the Fund’s portfolio investment transactions. The Fund’s Board of Trustees periodically reviews securities loan transactions for which a Goldman Sachs affiliate has acted as lending agent for compliance with the Fund’s securities lending procedures. Goldman Sachs may also be approved as a borrower under the Fund’s securities lending program, subject to certain conditions.

Restricted and Illiquid Securities

The Fund may purchase securities and other financial instruments that are not registered or that are offered in an exempt non-public offering (“Restricted Securities”) under the 1933 Act, including securities eligible for resale to “qualified institutional buyers” pursuant to Rule 144A under the 1933 Act. However, the Fund will not invest more than 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments, which include repurchase agreements with a notice or demand period of more than seven days, certain SMBS, certain municipal leases, certain over-the-counter options, securities and other financial instruments that are not readily marketable, certain Senior Loans and Second Lien Loans, certain CDOs, CLOs, CBOs, bank obligations, non-investment grade securities and other credit instruments and Restricted Securities unless, based upon a review of the trading markets for specific investments, those investments are determined to be liquid. Those investment practices could have the effect of increasing the level of illiquidity in the Fund to the extent that market demand for securities held by the Fund decreases such that previously liquid securities become illiquid. The Trustees have adopted guidelines and delegated to the Investment Adviser the function of determining and monitoring the liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio securities.

The purchase price and subsequent valuation of Restricted Securities may reflect a discount from the price at which such securities trade when they are not restricted, because the restriction makes them less liquid. The amount of the discount from the prevailing market price is expected to vary depending upon the type of security, the character of the issuer, the party who will bear the expenses of registering the Restricted Securities and prevailing supply and demand conditions.

When-Issued Securities and Forward Commitments

The Fund may purchase securities on a when-issued basis, including TBA (“To Be Announced”) securities, or purchase or sell securities on a forward commitment basis beyond the customary settlement time. TBA securities, which are usually mortgage-backed securities, are purchased on a forward commitment basis with an approximate principal amount and no defined maturity date. These transactions involve a commitment by the Fund to purchase or sell securities at a future date. The price of the underlying securities (usually expressed in terms of yield) and the date when the securities will be delivered and paid for (the settlement date) are fixed at the time the transaction is negotiated. When-issued purchases and forward commitment transactions are negotiated directly with the other party, and such commitments are not traded on exchanges. The Fund will generally purchase securities on a when-issued basis or purchase or sell securities on a forward commitment basis only with the intention of completing the transaction and actually purchasing or selling the securities. If deemed advisable as a matter of investment strategy, however, the Fund may dispose of or negotiate a commitment after entering into it. The Fund may also sell securities it has committed to purchase before those securities are delivered to the Fund on the settlement date. The Fund may realize capital gains or losses in connection with these transactions. For purposes of determining the Fund’s duration, the maturity of when-issued or forward commitment securities for fixed-rate obligations will be calculated from the commitment date. The Fund is generally required to identify on its books, until three days prior to settlement date, cash and liquid assets in an amount sufficient to meet the purchase price unless the Fund’s obligations are otherwise covered. Alternatively, the Fund may enter into offsetting contracts for the forward sale of other securities that it owns. Securities purchased or sold on a when-issued or forward commitment basis involve a risk of loss if the value of the security to be purchased declines prior to the settlement date or if the value of the security to be sold increases prior to the settlement date.

MMD Rate Locks

The Fund may purchase and sell Municipal Market Data AAA Cash Curve forward contracts, also known as “MMD rate locks.” The Fund may use these transactions for hedging purposes or, to the extent consistent with its investment policies, to enhance income or gain or to increase the Fund’s yield, for example, during periods of steep interest rate yield curves ( i.e. , wide differences between short term and long term interest rates).

 

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An MMD rate lock permits the Fund to lock in a specified municipal interest rate for a portion of its portfolio to preserve a return on a particular investment, as a duration management technique, or to protect against any increase in the price of securities to be purchased at a later date. By using an MMD rate lock, the Fund can create a synthetic long or short position, allowing the Fund to select the most attractive part of the yield curve. An MMD rate lock is a forward contract between the Fund and an MMD rate lock provider pursuant to which the parties agree to make payments to each other on a notional amount, contingent upon whether the Municipal Market Data AAA General Obligations Scale is above or below a specified level on the expiration date of the contract. In connection with investments in MMD rate locks, there is a risk that municipal yields will move in the opposite direction than that anticipated by the Fund, which would cause the Fund to make payments to its counterparty in the transaction that could adversely affect the Fund’s performance.

Pooled Investment Vehicles

The Fund may invest in securities of pooled investment vehicles, including other investment companies and exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”). The Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any management fees and other expenses paid by pooled investment vehicles in which it invests, in addition to the management fees (and other expenses) paid by the Fund. The Fund’s investments in pooled investment vehicles are subject to statutory limitations prescribed by the Act, including in certain circumstances a prohibition on the Fund acquiring more that 3% of the voting shares of any other investment company, and a prohibition on investing more than 5% of the Fund’s total assets in securities of any one investment company or more than 10% of its total assets in the securities of all investment companies. Many ETFs, however, have obtained exemptive relief from the SEC to permit unaffiliated funds (such as the Fund) to invest in their shares beyond these statutory limits, subject to certain conditions and pursuant to contractual arrangements between the ETFs and the investing funds. The Fund may rely on these exemptive orders in investing in ETFs. Moreover, pursuant to an exemptive order obtained from the SEC or under an exemptive rule adopted by the SEC, the Fund may invest in investment companies and money market funds for which the Investment Adviser, or any of its affiliates, serves as investment adviser, administrator and/or distributor. However, to the extent that the Fund invests in a money market fund for which the Investment Adviser or any of its affiliates acts as investment adviser, the management fees payable by the Fund to the Investment Adviser will, to the extent required by the SEC, be reduced by an amount equal to the Fund’s proportionate share of the management fees paid by such money market fund to its investment adviser. Although the Fund does not expect to do so in the foreseeable future, the Fund is authorized to invest substantially all of its assets in a single open-end investment company or series thereof that has substantially the same investment policies and fundamental restrictions as the Fund. Additionally, if the Fund serves as an “underlying Fund” to another Goldman Sachs Fund, the underlying Fund may invest a percentage of its assets in other investment companies only if those instruments are consistent with applicable law and/or exemptive relief obtained from the SEC.

The Fund may purchase shares of investment companies investing primarily in foreign securities, including “country funds.” Country funds have portfolios consisting primarily of securities of issuers located in specified foreign countries or regions.

ETFs are shares of pooled investment vehicles issuing shares which are traded like traditional equity securities on a stock exchange. An ETF represents a portfolio of securities or other assets, which is often designed to track a particular market segment or index. An investment in an ETF, like one in any pooled investment vehicle, carries the risks of its underlying securities. An ETF may fail to accurately track the returns of the market segment or index that it is designed to track, and the price of an ETF’s shares may fluctuate or lose money. In addition, because they, unlike other pooled investment vehicles, are traded on an exchange, ETFs are subject to the following risks: (i) the market price of the ETF’s shares may trade at a premium or discount to the ETF’s NAV; (ii) an active trading market for an ETF may not develop or be maintained; and (iii) there is no assurance that the requirements of the exchange necessary to maintain the listing of the ETF will continue to be met or remain unchanged. In the event substantial market or other disruptions affecting ETFs should occur in the future, the liquidity and value of the Fund’s shares could also be substantially and adversely affected.

Repurchase Agreements

The Fund may enter into repurchase agreements with eligible counterparties which furnish collateral at least equal in value or market price to the amount of their repurchase obligation. Repurchase agreements involving obligations other than U.S. Government Securities (such as foreign government securities, commercial paper, corporate bonds, mortgage loans and equities) may be subject to special risks and may not have the benefit for certain protections in the event of the counterparty’s insolvency. These repurchase agreements may involve foreign government securities. A repurchase agreement is an arrangement under which the Fund purchases securities and the seller agrees to repurchase the securities within a particular time and at a specified price. Custody of the securities is maintained by the Fund’s custodian (or sub-custodian). The repurchase price may be higher than the purchase price, the difference being income to the Fund, or the purchase and repurchase prices may be the same, with interest at a stated rate due to the Fund together with the repurchase price on repurchase. In either case, the income to the Fund is unrelated to the interest rate on the security subject to the repurchase agreement.

 

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For purposes of the Act, and generally for tax purposes, a repurchase agreement is deemed to be a loan from the Fund to the seller of the security. For other purposes, it is not always clear whether a court would consider the security purchased by the Fund subject to a repurchase agreement as being owned by the Fund or as being collateral for a loan by the Fund to the seller. In the event of commencement of bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings with respect to the seller of the security before repurchase of the security under a repurchase agreement, the Fund may encounter delay and incur costs before being able to sell the security. Such a delay may involve loss of interest or a decline in value of the security. If the court characterizes the transaction as a loan and the Fund has not perfected a security interest in the security, the Fund may be required to return the security to the seller’s estate and be treated as an unsecured creditor of the seller. As an unsecured creditor, the Fund would be at risk of losing some or all of the principal and interest involved in the transaction.

Apart from the risk of bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings, there is also the risk that the seller may fail to repurchase the security. However, if the market value of the security subject to the repurchase agreement becomes less than the repurchase price (including accrued interest), the Fund will direct the seller of the security to deliver additional securities so that the market value of all securities subject to the repurchase agreement equals or exceeds the repurchase price. Certain repurchase agreements which provide for settlement in more than seven days can be liquidated before the nominal fixed term on seven days or less notice. Such repurchase agreements will be regarded as liquid instruments.

The Fund, together with other registered investment companies having management agreements with the Investment Adviser or their affiliates, may transfer uninvested cash balances into a single joint account, the daily aggregate balance of which will be invested in one or more repurchase agreements.

Reverse Repurchase Agreements

The Fund may borrow money by entering into transactions called reverse repurchase agreements. Under these arrangements, the Fund will sell portfolio securities to dealers in U.S. Government Securities or members of the Federal Reserve System, with an agreement to repurchase the security on an agreed date, price and interest payment. These reverse repurchase agreements may involve foreign government securities. Reverse repurchase agreements involve the possible risk that the value of portfolio securities the Fund relinquishes may decline below the price the Fund must pay when the transaction closes. Borrowings may magnify the potential for gain or loss on amounts invested resulting in an increase in the speculative character of the Fund’s outstanding shares.

When the Fund enters into a reverse repurchase agreement, it identifies on its books cash or liquid assets that have a value equal to or greater than the repurchase price. The amount of cash or liquid assets so identified is then monitored continuously by the Investment Adviser to make sure that an appropriate value is maintained. Reverse repurchase agreements are considered to be borrowings under the Act.

Portfolio Maturity

Dollar-weighted average maturity is derived by multiplying the value of each investment by the time remaining to its maturity, adding these calculations, and then dividing the total by the value of the Fund’s portfolio. An obligation’s maturity is typically determined on a stated final maturity basis, although there are some exceptions. For example, if an issuer of an instrument takes advantage of a maturity-shortening device, such as a call, refunding, or redemption provision, the date on which the instrument is expected to be called, refunded, or redeemed may be considered to be its maturity date. There is no guarantee that the expected call, refund or redemption will occur and the Fund’s average maturity may lengthen beyond the Investment Adviser’s expectations should the expected call refund or redemption not occur. Similarly, in calculating its dollar-weighted average maturity, the Fund may determine the maturity of a variable or floating rate obligation according to the interest rate reset date, or the date principal can be recovered on demand, rather than the date of ultimate maturity.

Temporary Investments

The Fund may, for temporary defensive purposes, invest up to 100% of its total assets in: U.S. Government Securities; commercial paper rated at least A-2 by Standard & Poor’s, P-2 by Moody’s or having a comparable rating by another NRSRO (or if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable credit quality); certificates of deposit; bankers’ acceptances; repurchase agreements; non-convertible preferred stocks and non-convertible corporate bonds with a remaining maturity of less than one year; ETFs and other investment companies; and cash items. When the Fund’s assets are invested in such instruments, the Fund may not be achieving its investment objective.

 

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Portfolio Turnover

The Fund may engage in active short-term trading to benefit from yield disparities among different issues of securities or among the markets for fixed income securities, or for other reasons. As a result of active management, it is anticipated that the portfolio turnover rate of the Fund will vary from year to year, and may be affected by changes in the holdings of specific issuers, changes in country and currency weightings, cash requirements for redemption of shares and by requirements which enable the Fund to receive favorable tax treatment. The Fund is not restricted by policy with regard to portfolio turnover and will make changes in their investment portfolio from time to time as business and economic conditions as well as market prices may dictate. When the Fund purchases a TBA mortgage, it can either receive the underlying pools of the TBA mortgage or roll it forward a month. The portfolio turnover rate increases when the Fund rolls the TBA forward.

Special Note Regarding Market Events

Events in the financial sector over the past several years have resulted in reduced liquidity in credit and fixed income markets and in an unusually high degree of volatility in the financial markets, both domestically and internationally. While entire markets have been impacted, issuers that have exposure to the real estate, mortgage and credit markets have been particularly affected. These events and the potential for continuing market turbulence may have an adverse effect on the Fund’s investments. It is uncertain how long these conditions will continue.

The instability in the financial markets led the U.S. government to take a number of unprecedented actions designed to support certain financial institutions and certain segments of the financial markets. Federal, state, and foreign governments, regulatory agencies, and self -regulatory organizations may take actions that affect the regulation of the instruments in which the Fund invests, or the issuers of such instruments, in ways that are unforeseeable. Such legislation or regulation could limit or preclude the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective.

Governments or their agencies may also acquire distressed assets from financial institutions and acquire ownership interests in those institutions. The implications of government ownership and disposition of these assets are unclear, and such ownership or disposition may have positive or negative effects on the liquidity, valuation and performance of the Fund’s portfolio holdings.

Non-Diversified Status

Because the Fund is non-diversified under the Act, it is subject only to certain federal tax diversification requirements. Under federal tax laws, the Fund may, with respect to 50% of its total assets, invest up to 25% of its total assets in the securities of any issuer. With respect to the remaining 50% of the Fund’s total assets, (i) the Fund may not invest more than 5% of its total assets in the securities of any one issuer, and (ii) the Fund may not acquire more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of any one issuer. These tests apply at the end of each quarter of the taxable year and are subject to certain conditions and limitations under the Code. These tests do not apply to investments in United States Government Securities and regulated investment companies.

INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS

The investment restrictions set forth below have been adopted by the Trust as fundamental policies that cannot be changed without the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding voting securities (as defined in the Act) of the Fund. The investment objective of the Fund and all other investment policies or practices of the Fund are considered by the Trust not to be fundamental and accordingly may be changed without shareholder approval. As defined in the Act, “a majority of the outstanding voting securities” of the Fund means the vote of (i) 67% or more of the shares of the Fund present at a meeting, if the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Fund are present or represented by proxy, or (ii) more than 50% of the shares of the Fund.

For the purposes of the limitations (except for the asset coverage requirement with respect to borrowings, which is subject to different requirements under the Act), any limitation which involves a maximum percentage shall not be considered violated unless an excess over the percentage occurs immediately after, and is caused by, an acquisition or encumbrance of securities or assets of, or borrowings by, the Fund.

Fundamental Investment Restrictions

As a matter of fundamental policy, the Fund may not:

 

  (1) Invest more than 25% of its total assets in the securities of one or more issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same industry (excluding the U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities).

 

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  (2) Borrow money, except (a) the Fund, to the extent permitted by applicable law, may borrow from banks (as defined in the Act), other affiliated investment companies and other persons or through reverse repurchase agreements in amounts up to 33-1/3% of its total assets (including the amount borrowed) (investments in reverse repurchase agreements would not be subject to this percentage limitation if they are “covered” in accordance with the Act); (b) the Fund may, to the extent permitted by applicable law, borrow up to an additional 5% of its total assets for temporary purposes; (c) the Fund may obtain such short-term credits as may be necessary for the clearance of purchases and sales of portfolio securities; (d) the Fund may purchase securities on margin to the extent permitted by applicable law; and (e) the Fund may engage in transactions in mortgage dollar rolls which are accounted for as financings;

 

    The following interpretation applies to, but is not part of, this fundamental policy: In determining whether a particular investment in portfolio instruments or participation in portfolio transactions is subject to this borrowing policy, the accounting treatment of such instrument or participation shall be considered, but shall not by itself be determinative. Whether a particular instrument or transaction constitutes a borrowing shall be determined by the Board, after consideration of all of the relevant circumstances.

 

  (3) Make loans, except through (a) the purchase of debt obligations, loan interests and other interests or obligations in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and policies; (b) repurchase agreements with banks, brokers, dealers and other financial institutions; or (c) loans as permitted by applicable law or pursuant to an exemptive order granted under the Act;

 

  (4) Underwrite securities issued by others, except to the extent that the sale of portfolio securities by the Fund may be deemed to be an underwriting;

 

  (5) Purchase, hold or deal in real estate, although the Fund may purchase and sell securities that are secured by real estate or interests therein, securities of issuers which invest or deal in real estate, securities of real estate investment trusts and mortgage-related securities and may hold and sell real estate it has acquired as a result of the ownership of securities;

 

  (6) Invest in physical commodities, except that the Fund may invest in currency and financial instruments and contracts in accordance with its investment objective and policies, including without limitation, structured notes, futures contracts, swaps, options on commodities, currencies, swaps and futures, ETFs, investment pools and other instruments, regardless of whether such instrument is considered to be a commodity; and

 

  (7) Issue senior securities to the extent such issuance would violate applicable law.

The Fund may, notwithstanding any other fundamental investment restriction or policy, invest some or all of its assets in a single open-end investment company or series thereof with substantially the same fundamental investment restrictions and policies as the Fund.

For purposes of the Fund’s industry concentration policy, the Investment Adviser may analyze the characteristics of a particular issuer and instrument and may assign an industry classification consistent with those characteristics. The Investment Adviser may, but need not, consider industry classifications provided by third parties, and the classifications applied to Fund investments will be informed by applicable law.

Non-Fundamental Investment Restrictions

In addition to the fundamental policies mentioned above, the Trustees have adopted the following non-fundamental policies which can be changed or amended by action of the Trustees without approval of shareholders. Again, for purposes of the following limitations, any limitation which involves a maximum percentage shall not be considered violated unless an excess over the percentage occurs immediately after, and is caused by, an acquisition of securities by the Fund.

The Fund may not:

 

  (1) Invest in companies for the purpose of exercising control or management;

 

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(2) Invest more than 15% of the Fund’s net assets in illiquid investments, including illiquid repurchase agreements with a notice or demand period of more than seven days, securities which are not readily marketable and restricted securities not eligible for resale pursuant to Rule 144A under the 1933 Act; and

 

(3) Purchase additional securities if the Fund’s borrowings (excluding covered mortgage dollar rolls and such short-term credits as may be necessary for the clearance of purchases and sales of portfolio securities) exceed 5% of its net assets.

TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS

The Trust’s Leadership Structure

The business and affairs of the Fund are managed under the direction of the Board of Trustees (the “Board”), subject to the laws of the State of Delaware and the Trust’s Declaration of Trust. The Trustees are responsible for deciding matters of overall policy and reviewing the actions of the Trust’s service providers. The officers of the Trust conduct and supervise the Fund’s daily business operations. Trustees who are not deemed to be “interested persons” of the Trust as defined in the Act are referred to as “Independent Trustees.” Trustees who are deemed to be “interested persons” of the Trust are referred to as “Interested Trustees.” The Board is currently composed of nine Independent Trustees and two Interested Trustees. The Board has selected an Independent Trustee to act as Chairman, whose duties include presiding at meetings of the Board and acting as a focal point to address significant issues that may arise between regularly scheduled Board and Committee meetings. In the performance of the Chairman’s duties, the Chairman will consult with the other Independent Trustees and the Fund’s officers and legal counsel, as appropriate. The Chairman may perform other functions as requested by the Board from time to time.

The Board meets as often as necessary to discharge its responsibilities. Currently, the Board conducts regular, in-person meetings at least six times a year, and holds special in-person or telephonic meetings as necessary to address specific issues that require attention prior to the next regularly scheduled meeting. In addition, the Independent Trustees meet at least annually to review, among other things, investment management agreements, distribution (Rule 12b-1) and/or service plans and related agreements, transfer agency agreements and certain other agreements providing for the compensation of Goldman Sachs and/or its affiliates by the Fund, and to consider such other matters as they deem appropriate.

The Board has established six standing committees – Audit, Governance and Nominating, Compliance, Valuation, Dividend and Contract Review Committees. The Board may establish other committees, or nominate one or more Trustees to examine particular issues related to the Board’s oversight responsibilities, from time to time. Each Committee meets periodically to perform its delegated oversight functions and reports its findings and recommendations to the Board. For more information on the Committees, see the section “STANDING BOARD COMMITTEES,” below.

The Trustees have determined that the Trust’s leadership structure is appropriate because it allows the Trustees to effectively perform their oversight responsibilities.

Trustees of the Trust

Information pertaining to the Trustees of the Trust as of March 24, 2014 is set forth below.

Independent Trustees

 

Name, Address and
Age 1

  

Position(s)
Held with the
Trust

  

Term of
Office and
Length of
Time Served 2

  

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5
Years

  

Number of
Portfolios in Fund
Complex Overseen
by Trustee 3

  

Other Directorships
Held by Trustee 4

Ashok N. Bakhru

Age: 72

   Chairman of the Board of Trustees    Since 1996 (Trustee since 1991)   

Mr. Bakhru is retired. He was formerly Director, Apollo Investment Corporation (a business development company) (2008-2013); President, ABN Associates (a management and financial consulting firm) (1994–1996 and 1998–2012); Trustee, Scholarship America (1998–2005); Trustee, Institute for Higher Education Policy (2003–2008); Director, Private Equity Investors–III and IV (1998–2007), and Equity-Linked Investors II (April 2002–2007).

 

Chairman of the Board of Trustees—Goldman Sachs Fund Complex.

   111    None

 

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Name, Address and
Age 1

  

Position(s)
Held with the
Trust

 

Term of
Office and
Length of
Time Served 2

  

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

 

Number of
Portfolios in Fund
Complex Overseen
by Trustee 3

 

Other Directorships
Held by Trustee 4

Donald C. Burke

Age: 53

   Trustee   Since 2010   

Mr. Burke is retired. He is Director, Avista Corp. (2011–Present); and was formerly a Director, BlackRock Luxembourg and Cayman Funds (2006–2010); President and Chief Executive Officer, BlackRock U.S. Funds (2007–2009); Managing Director, BlackRock, Inc. (2006–2009).

 

Trustee—Goldman Sachs Fund Complex.

  108   Avista Corp. (an energy company)

John P. Coblentz, Jr.

Age: 72

   Trustee   Since 2003   

Mr. Coblentz is retired. Formerly, he was Partner, Deloitte & Touche LLP (1975–2003); Director, Emerging Markets Group, Ltd. (2004–2006); and Director, Elderhostel, Inc. (2006–2012).

 

Trustee—Goldman Sachs Fund Complex.

  111   None

Diana M. Daniels

Age: 64

   Trustee   Since 2007   

Ms. Daniels is retired. Formerly, she was Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary, The Washington Post Company (1991–2006). Ms. Daniels serves as a Presidential Councillor of Cornell University (2013–Present); Member, Advisory Board, Psychology Without Borders (international humanitarian aid organization) (2007-Present), and former Member of the Legal Advisory Board, New York Stock Exchange (2003–2006) and of the Corporate Advisory Board, Standish Mellon Management Advisors (2006–2007).

 

Trustee—Goldman Sachs Fund Complex.

  108   None

Joseph P. LoRusso

Age: 56

   Trustee   Since 2010   

Mr. LoRusso is retired. Formerly, he was President, Fidelity Investments Institutional Services Co. (“FIIS”) (2002–2008); Director, FIIS (2002–2008); Director, Fidelity Investments Institutional Operations Company (2003–2007); Executive Officer, Fidelity Distributors Corporation (2007–2008).

 

Trustee—Goldman Sachs Fund Complex.

  108   None

 

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Name, Address and
Age 1

  

Position(s)
Held with the
Trust

 

Term of
Office and
Length of
Time Served 2

  

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

 

Number of
Portfolios in Fund
Complex Overseen
by Trustee 3

 

Other Directorships
Held by Trustee 4

Herbert J. Markley

Age: 63

   Trustee   Since 2013   

Mr. Markley is retired. Formerly, he was Executive Vice President, Deere & Company (an agricultural and construction equipment manufacturer) (2007–2009), and President, Agricultural Division, Deere & Company (2001–2007).

 

Trustee—Goldman Sachs Fund Complex.

  108   None

Jessica Palmer

Age: 65

   Trustee   Since 2007   

Ms. Palmer is retired. She is Director, Emerson Center for the Arts and Culture (2011-Present); and was formerly a Consultant, Citigroup Human Resources Department (2007-2008); Managing Director, Citigroup Corporate and Investment Banking (previously, Salomon Smith Barney/Salomon Brothers) (1984–2006). Ms. Palmer was a Member of the Board of Trustees of Indian Mountain School (private elementary and secondary school) (2004–2009).

 

Trustee—Goldman Sachs Fund Complex.

  108   None

Richard P. Strubel

Age: 74

   Trustee   Since 1987   

Mr. Strubel is retired. Formerly, he was Director, Cardean Learning Group (provider of educational services via the internet) (2003–2008); Trustee Emeritus, The University of Chicago (1987–Present).

 

Trustee—Goldman Sachs Fund Complex.

  111   The Northern Trust Mutual Fund Complex (64 Portfolios) (Chairman of the Board of Trustees); Gildan Activewear Inc. (a clothing marketing and manufacturing company)

Roy W. Templin

Age: 53

   Trustee   Since 2013   

Mr. Templin is retired. He is Director, Con-Way Incorporated (2012– Present); and was formerly Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, Whirlpool Corporation (an appliance manufacturer and marketer) (2004–2012).

 

Trustee—Goldman Sachs Fund Complex.

  108   Con-Way Incorporated (a transportation, supply-chain management and logistics services company)

 

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Interested Trustees

 

Name, Address and Age 1

  

Position(s)
Held with the
Trust

  

Term of
Office and
Length of
Time Served 2

  

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5
Years

  Number of
Portfolios in Fund
Complex
Overseen by
Trustee 3
 

Other Directorships
Held by Trustee 4

James A. McNamara*

Age: 51

   President and Trustee    Since 2007   

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (December 1998–Present); Director of Institutional Fund Sales, GSAM (April 1998–December 2000); and Senior Vice President and Manager, Dreyfus Institutional Service Corporation (January 1993–April 1998).

 

President—Goldman Sachs Mutual Fund Complex (November 2007–Present); Senior Vice President—Goldman Sachs Mutual Fund Complex (May 2007–November 2007); and Vice President—Goldman Sachs Mutual Fund Complex (2001–2007).

 

Trustee—Goldman Sachs Fund Complex (since November 2007 and December 2002–May 2004).

  110   None

Alan A. Shuch*

Age: 64

   Trustee    Since 1990   

Advisory Director—GSAM (May 1999–Present); Consultant to GSAM (December 1994–May 1999); and Limited Partner, Goldman Sachs (December 1994–May 1999).

 

Trustee—Goldman Sachs Fund Complex.

  108   None

 

*   These persons are considered to be “Interested Trustees” because they hold positions with Goldman Sachs and own securities issued by The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. Each Interested Trustee holds comparable positions with certain other companies of which Goldman Sachs, GSAM or an affiliate thereof is the investment adviser, administrator and/or distributor.
1   Each Trustee may be contacted by writing to the Trustee, c/o Goldman Sachs, 200 West Street, New York, New York, 10282, Attn: Caroline Kraus.
2   Each Trustee holds office for an indefinite term until the earliest of: (a) the election of his or her successor; (b) the date the Trustee resigns or is removed by the Board of Trustees or shareholders, in accordance with the Trust’s Declaration of Trust; (c) the conclusion of the first Board meeting held subsequent to the day the Trustee attains the age of 74 years, subject to waiver by a majority of the Trustees (in accordance with the current resolutions of the Board of Trustees, which may be changed by the Trustees without shareholder vote); or (d) the termination of the Trust. By resolution of the Board of Trustees determining that an extension of service would be beneficial to the Trust, the retirement age has been extended for one year with respect to Richard P. Strubel.
3   The Goldman Sachs Fund Complex includes the Trust, Goldman Sachs Credit Strategies Fund (“GSCSF”) and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust (“GSVIT”). As of March 24, 2014, the Trust consisted of 93 portfolios (87 of which offered shares to the public), GSVIT consisted of 14 portfolios (12 of which offered shares to the public) and GSCSF consisted of one portfolio. The Goldman Sachs Fund Complex also includes, with respect to Messrs. Bakhru, Coblentz and Strubel, Goldman Sachs Trust II (“GSTII”), Goldman Sachs BDC, Inc. (“GSBDC”) and Goldman Sachs MLP Income Opportunities Fund (“GSMLP”), and with respect to Mr. McNamara, GSTII and GSMLP. GSTII, GSBDC and GSMLP each consisted of one portfolio. GSBDC did not offer shares to the public.
4   This column includes only directorships of companies required to report to the SEC under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (i.e., “public companies”) or other investment companies registered under the Act.

 

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The significance or relevance of an Advisory Board Member’s or Trustee’s particular experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills is considered by the Board on an individual basis. Experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills common to all Advisory Board Members and Trustees include the ability to critically review, evaluate and discuss information provided to them and to interact effectively with the other Trustees and with representatives of the Investment Adviser and its affiliates, other service providers, legal counsel and the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm, the capacity to address financial and legal issues and exercise reasonable business judgment, and a commitment to the representation of the interests of the Fund and its shareholders. The Governance and Nominating Committee’s charter contains certain other factors that are considered by the Governance and Nominating Committee in identifying and evaluating potential nominees to serve as Independent Trustees. Based on each Advisory Board Member’s or Trustee’s experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills, considered individually and with respect to the experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills of other Advisory Board Members and Trustees, the Board has concluded that each Advisory Board Member and Trustee should serve as an Advisory Board Member or Trustee. Below is a brief discussion of the experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills of each individual Advisory Board Member or Trustee as of March 24, 2014 that led the Board to conclude that such individual should serve as an Advisory Board Member or Trustee.

Ashok N. Bakhru . Mr. Bakhru has served as a Trustee since 1991 and Chairman of the Board since 1996. Previously, Mr. Bakhru served as Director, Apollo Investment Corporation (a business development company) (2008-2013), and President of ABN Associates, a management and financial consulting firm, and was the Chief Financial Officer, Chief Administrative Officer and Director of Coty Inc., a multinational cosmetics, fragrance and personal care company. Previously, Mr. Bakhru held several senior management positions at Scott Paper Company, a major manufacturer of paper products, including Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer. Mr. Bakhru also serves on the Governing Council of the Independent Directors Council and the Board of Governors of the Investment Company Institute. He also serves on the Advisory Board of BoardIQ, an investment publication. In addition, Mr. Bakhru has served as Director of Equity-Linked Investments II and Private Equity Investors III and IV, which are private equity partnerships based in New York City. Mr. Bakhru was also a Director of Arkwright Mutual Insurance Company. Based on the foregoing, Mr. Bakhru is experienced with financial and investment matters.

Donald C. Burke . Mr. Burke has served as Trustee since 2010. Mr. Burke serves as a Director of Avista Corp., an energy company. Mr. Burke was a Managing Director of BlackRock, Inc., where he was President and Chief Executive Officer of BlackRock’s U.S. funds and a director and chairman of several offshore funds advised by BlackRock. As President and Chief Executive Officer of BlackRock’s U.S. funds, he was responsible for all accounting, tax and regulatory reporting requirements for over 300 open-end and closed-end BlackRock funds. Previously, he was a Managing Director, First Vice President and Vice President of Merrill Lynch Investment Managers, L.P. (“MLIM”), where he worked for 16 years prior to MLIM’s merger with BlackRock, and was instrumental in the integration of BlackRock’s and MLIM’s operating infrastructure following the merger. While at MLIM, he was Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer of MLIM’s U.S. funds and Head of Global Operations and Client Services, where he was responsible for the development and maintenance of MLIM’s operating infrastructure across the Americas, Europe and the Pacific Rim. He also developed controls for the MLIM U.S. funds’ financial statement certification process to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, worked with fund auditors in connection with the funds’ annual audits and established the department responsible for all tax issues impacting the MLIM U.S. funds. Previously, Mr. Burke was Tax Manager at Deloitte & Touche, where he was designated as one of the firm’s lead specialists in the investment company industry, and advised multinational corporations, partnerships, universities and high net worth individuals in tax matters. Mr. Burke is a certified public accountant. Based on the foregoing, Mr. Burke is experienced with accounting, financial and investment matters.

John P. Coblentz, Jr . Mr. Coblentz has served as Trustee since 2003. Mr. Coblentz has been designated as the Board’s “audit committee financial expert” given his extensive accounting and finance experience. Mr. Coblentz was a partner with Deloitte & Touche LLP for 28 years. While at Deloitte & Touche LLP, Mr. Coblentz was lead partner responsible for all auditing and accounting services to a variety of large, global companies, a significant portion of which operated in the financial services industry. Mr. Coblentz was also the national managing partner for the firm’s risk management function, a member of the firm’s Management Committee and the first managing partner of the firm’s Financial Advisory Services practice, which brought together the firm’s mergers and acquisition services, forensic and dispute services, corporate finance, asset valuation and reorganization businesses under one management structure. He served as a member of the firm’s Board of Directors. Mr. Coblentz is a certified public accountant. Based on the foregoing, Mr. Coblentz is experienced with accounting, financial and investment matters.

Diana M. Daniels. Ms. Daniels has served as Trustee since 2007. Ms. Daniels also serves as a Trustee Emeritus and Presidential Councillor of Cornell University. Ms. Daniels held several senior management positions at The Washington Post Company and its subsidiaries, where she worked for 29 years. While at The Washington Post Company, Ms. Daniels served as Vice President, General Counsel, Secretary to the Board of Directors and Secretary to the Audit Committee. Previously, Ms. Daniels served as Vice President and General Counsel of Newsweek, Inc. Ms. Daniels also serves on the Executive Committee of the Governing Council of the Independent Directors Council of the Investment Company Institute. Ms. Daniels has also served as Vice Chair and Chairman of the

 

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Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees of Cornell University and as a member of the Corporate Advisory Board of Standish Mellon Management Advisors and of the Legal Advisory Board of New York Stock Exchange. Ms. Daniels is also a member of the American Law Institute and of the Advisory Council of the Inter-American Press Association. Based on the foregoing, Ms. Daniels is experienced with legal, financial and investment matters.

Joseph P. LoRusso . Mr. LoRusso has served as Trustee since 2010. Mr. LoRusso held a number of senior management positions at Fidelity Investments for over 15 years, where he was most recently President of Fidelity Investments Institutional Services Co. (“FIIS”). As President of FIIS, Mr. LoRusso oversaw the development, distribution and servicing of Fidelity’s investment and retirement products through various financial intermediaries. Previously, he served as President, Executive Vice President and Senior Vice President of Fidelity Institutional Retirement Services Co., where he helped establish Fidelity’s 401(k) business and built it into the largest in the U.S. In these positions, he oversaw sales, marketing, implementation, client services, operations and technology. Mr. LoRusso also served on Fidelity’s Executive Management Committee. Prior to his experience with Fidelity, he was Second Vice President in the Investment and Pension Group of John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance, where he had responsibility for developing and running the company’s 401(k) business. Previously, he worked at The Equitable (now a subsidiary of AXA Financial), where he was Product Manager of the company’s then-nascent 401(k) business, and at Arthur Andersen & Co. (now Accenture), as a Senior Consultant within the firm’s consulting practice. Based on the foregoing, Mr. LoRusso is experienced with financial and investment matters.

Herbert J. (H.J.) Markley. Mr. Markley has served as a Trustee since 2013. Previously, Mr. Markley held several senior management positions at Deere & Company, where he worked for 35 years, including Executive Vice President of Worldwide Parts Service, Global Supply Management and Logistics, Enterprise Information Technology and Corporate Communications. Mr. Markley’s experience at Deere included managing manufacturing and engineering facilities, including the two largest manufacturing facilities and a joint venture with Hitachi. He later served as Senior Vice President of Worldwide Human Resources where he helped to lay the foundation for a new human resources system, and as a President of the Agricultural Division, Deere’s largest business unit. In addition to his work with Deere, Mr. Markley has served on the Boards of Directors of the Dubuque Chamber of Commerce, the First National Bank of Dubuque, the University of Dubuque and the Iowa Public Television Foundation as well as the Board of Overseers of the Amos Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College. Based on the foregoing, Mr. Markley is experienced with financial and investment matters.

Jessica Palmer . Ms. Palmer has served as Trustee since 2007. Ms. Palmer serves as a Director of Emerson Center for the Arts and Culture, a not-for-profit organization. Ms. Palmer worked at Citigroup Corporate and Investment Banking (previously, Salomon Smith Barney/Salomon Brothers) for over 20 years, where she was a Managing Director. While at Citigroup Corporate and Investment Banking, Ms. Palmer was Head of Global Risk Management, Chair of the Global Commitment Committee, Co-Chair of International Investment Banking (New York) and Head of Fixed Income Capital Markets. Ms. Palmer was also a member of the Management Committee and Risk Management Operating Committee of Citigroup, Inc. Prior to that, Ms. Palmer was a Vice President at Goldman Sachs in its international corporate finance department. Ms. Palmer was also Assistant Vice President of the International Division at Wells Fargo Bank, N.A. Ms. Palmer was also a member of the Board of Trustees of a private elementary and secondary school. Based on the foregoing, Ms. Palmer is experienced with financial and investment matters.

Richard P. Strubel . Mr. Strubel has served as Trustee since 1987. Mr. Strubel also serves as Chairman of the Northern Funds, a family of retail and institutional mutual funds managed by The Northern Trust Company. He also serves on the board of Gildan Activewear Inc., which is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”). Mr. Strubel was Vice-Chairman of the Board of Cardean Learning Group (formerly known as Unext), and previously served as Unext’s President and Chief Operating Officer. Mr. Strubel was Managing Director of Tandem Partners, Inc., a privately-held management services firm, and served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Microdot, Inc. Previously, Mr. Strubel served as President of Northwest Industries, then a NYSE-listed company, a conglomerate with various operating entities located around the country. Before joining Northwest, Mr. Strubel was an associate and later managing principal of Fry Consultants, a management consulting firm based in Chicago. Mr. Strubel is also a Trustee Emeritus of the University of Chicago and is an adjunct professor at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business. Based on the foregoing, Mr. Strubel is experienced with financial and investment matters.

Roy W. Templin. Mr. Templin has served as a Trustee since 2013. Mr. Templin is a Director of Con-Way Incorporated, a transportation, supply-chain management and logistics services company, and serves on its Finance and Audit Committees (he is the Chair of the Finance Committee). Mr. Templin held a number of senior management positions at Whirlpool Corporation, an appliance manufacturer and marketer, including Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, Vice President and Corporate Controller there. At Whirlpool, Mr. Templin served on the Executive Committee and was responsible for all aspects of finance globally, including treasury, accounting, risk management, investor relations, internal auditing, tax and facilities. Prior to joining Whirlpool,

 

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Mr. Templin served in several roles at Kimball International, a furniture and electronic assemblies manufacturer, including Vice President of Finance and Chief Accounting Officer. Mr. Templin was also a Director of Corporate Finance for Cummins, Inc., a diesel engine manufacturer, a Director of Financial Development at NCR Corporation, a computer hardware and electronics company, and a member of the audit staff of Price Waterhouse (now PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP). Mr. Templin is a certified public accountant. Based on the foregoing, Mr. Templin is experienced with accounting, financial and investment matters.

James A. McNamara . Mr. McNamara has served as Trustee and President of the Trust since 2007 and has served as an officer of the Trust since 2001. Mr. McNamara is a Managing Director at Goldman Sachs. Mr. McNamara is currently head of Global Third Party Distribution at GSAM, where he was previously head of U.S. Third Party Distribution. Prior to that role, Mr. McNamara served as Director of Institutional Fund Sales. Prior to joining Goldman Sachs, Mr. McNamara was Vice President and Manager at Dreyfus Institutional Service Corporation. Based on the foregoing, Mr. McNamara is experienced with financial and investment matters.

Alan A. Shuch . Mr. Shuch has served as a Trustee since 1990. Mr. Shuch is an Advisory Director to Goldman Sachs. Mr. Shuch serves on the Board of Trustees of a number of offshore funds managed by GSAM. He serves on GSAM’s Valuation Committee. Prior to retiring as a general partner of Goldman Sachs in 1994, Mr. Shuch was president and chief operating officer of GSAM which he founded in 1988. Mr. Shuch joined the Goldman Sachs Fixed Income Division in 1976. He was instrumental in building Goldman Sachs’ Corporate Bond Department and served as co-head of the Global Fixed Income Sales and the High Yield Bond and Preferred Stock Departments. He headed the Portfolio Restructuring and Fixed Income Quantitative and Credit Research Departments. Mr. Shuch also served on a variety of firm-wide committees including the International Executive, New Product and Strategic Planning Committees and was a member of the Stone Street/Bridge Street Private Equity Board. Mr. Shuch serves on Wharton’s Graduate Executive Board. Based on the foregoing, Mr. Shuch is experienced with financial and investment matters.

Officers of the Trust

Information pertaining to the officers of the Trust as of March 24, 2014 is set forth below.

 

Name, Age and Address

  

Position(s) Held with
the Trust

  

Term of Office and
Length of Time
Served 1

  

Pr