Table of Contents
falseQ10001369568--12-31exclusive of amortization of intangible assetsRecorded in prepaid expenses and other current assets in the accompanying consolidated balance sheet as of the acquisition date and reimbursement was fully applied as of June 30, 2023.As of March 31, 2024, the full $5.9 million has been paid in cash.The fair value of the investment in Santhera was determined based on the closing market price (CHF 8.25) of Santhera shares and the exchange rate (1.1537) of CHF to USD on the date the shares were transferred, July 19, 2023.During 2023, the Company sold FYCOMPA® through a Transition Service Agreement with Eisai. 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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
 
FORM
10-Q
 
 
[Mark One]
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Quarterly Period Ended March 31, 2024
OR
 
TRANSITION REPORT UNDER SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission File
No. 001-33057
 
 
CATALYST PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
 
Delaware
 
76-0837053
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(IRS Employer
Identification No.)
355 Alhambra Circle
Suite 801
Coral Gables, Florida
 
33134
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (305)
420-3200
 
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of Each Class
 
Ticker
Symbol
 
Name of Exchange
on Which Registered
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share
 
CPRX
 
NASDAQ Capital Market
Indicate by checkmark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such report(s), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation
S-T
during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a
non-accelerated
filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “accelerated filer”, “large accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule
12b-2
of the Exchange Act:
 
Large accelerated filer      Accelerated Filer  
Non-accelerated
filer
     Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule
12b-2
of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No 
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date 118,115,079
shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share, were outstanding as of May 6, 2024.
 
 
 
 


Table of Contents

CATALYST PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

INDEX

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

Item 1.

  

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

  
  

Consolidated balance sheets at March 31, 2024 (unaudited) and December 31, 2023

     3  
  

Consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 (unaudited)

     4  
  

Consolidated statements of changes in stockholders’ equity for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 (unaudited)

     5  
  

Consolidated statements of cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 (unaudited)

     6  
  

Notes to unaudited consolidated financial statements

     7  

Item 2.

  

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

     31  

Item 3.

  

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURE ABOUT MARKET RISK

     44  

Item 4.

  

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

     44  
     PART II. OTHER INFORMATION       

Item 1.

  

LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

     45  

Item 1A.

  

RISK FACTORS

     45  

Item 2.

  

UNREGISTERED SALES OF EQUITY SECURITIES AND USE OF PROCEEDS

     46  

Item 3.

  

DEFAULTS UPON SENIOR SECURITIES

     46  

Item 4.

  

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE

     46  

Item 5.

  

OTHER INFORMATION

     46  

Item 6.

  

EXHIBITS

     46  

SIGNATURES

     47  

 

2


Table of Contents
http://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#LiabilitiesCurrenthttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#LiabilitiesCurrent6 yearsP5YP5YP3Y
CATALYST PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands, except share data)
 
 
  
March 31,
2024
 
  
December 31,
2023
 
 
  
(unaudited)
 
  
 
 
ASSETS
  
  
Current Assets:
  
  
Cash and cash equivalents
   $ 310,411     $ 137,636  
Accounts receivable, net
     60,493       53,514  
Inventory
     19,953       15,644  
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
     13,745       12,535  
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total current assets
     404,602       219,329  
Operating lease
right-of-use
asset
     2,440       2,508  
Property and equipment, net
     1,308       1,195  
License and acquired intangibles, net
     184,705       194,049  
Deferred tax assets, net
     38,276       36,544  
Investment in equity securities
     15,345       16,489  
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total assets
   $ 646,676     $ 470,114  
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
    
Current Liabilities:
    
Accounts payable
   $ 10,261     $ 14,795  
Accrued expenses and other liabilities
     69,305       61,268  
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total current liabilities
     79,566       76,063  
Operating lease liability, net of current portion
     3,091       3,188  
Other
non-current
liabilities
     2,607       2,982  
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total liabilities
     85,264       82,233  
Commitments and contingencies (Note 12)
    
Stockholders’ equity:
    
Preferred stock, $0.001 par value, 5,000,000 shares authorized: none issued and outstanding at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023
            
Common stock, $0.001 par value, 200,000,000 shares authorized; 118,029,526 shares and 107,121,549 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively
     118       107  
Additional
paid-in
capital
     416,747       266,488  
Retained earnings
     144,547       121,272  
Accumulated other comprehensive income (Note 4)
           14  
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total stockholders’ equity
     561,412       387,881  
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
   $ 646,676     $ 470,114  
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
 
3

CATALYST PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (unaudited)
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
 
 
  
For the Three Months Ended
March 31,
 
 
  
2024
 
 
2023
 
Revenues:
    
Product revenue, net
   $ 98,441     $ 85,304  
License and other revenue
     68       62  
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total revenues
     98,509       85,366  
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Operating costs and expenses:
    
Cost of sales (a)
     12,520       9,946  
Research and development
     2,581       3,562  
Selling, general and administrative (a)
     46,938       29,718  
Amortization of intangible assets
     9,344       6,531  
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total operating costs and expenses
     71,383       49,757  
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Operating income
     27,126       35,609  
Other income, net
     1,963       1,704  
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Net income before income taxes
     29,089       37,313  
Income tax provision
     5,814       7,745  
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Net income
   $ 23,275     $ 29,568  
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Net income per share:
    
Basic
   $ 0.20     $ 0.28  
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Diluted
   $ 0.19     $ 0.26  
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Weighted average shares outstanding:
    
Basic
     116,806,117       105,561,229  
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Diluted
     123,403,626       113,986,129  
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Net income
   $ 23,275     $ 29,568  
Other comprehensive income (Note 4):
    
Unrealized gain (loss) on
available-for-sale
securities, net of tax of $4 and $5, respectively
     (14 )
 
    (13
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Comprehensive income
   $ 23,261     $ 29,555  
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
(a)
exclusive of amortization of intangible assets
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
 
4

CATALYST PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (unaudited)
For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023
(in thousands)
 
    
Preferred

Stock
    
Common Stock
    
Additional

Paid-in

Capital
   
Retained

Earnings
    
Accumulated

Other

Comprehensive

Income
   
Total
 
    
Shares
    
Amount
 
Balance at December 31, 2023
   $ —         107,122      $ 107      $ 266,488     $ 121,272      $ 14     $ 387,881  
Issuance of common stock, net
     —         10,000        10        140,694       —         —        140,704  
Stock-based compensation
     —         —         —         8,248       —         —        8,248  
Exercise of stock options for common stock
     —         664        1        1,521       —         —        1,522  
Issuance of common stock upon vesting of restricted stock units, net
     —         244        —         (204     —         —        (204
Other comprehensive gain (loss)
     —         —         —         —        —         (14 )
 
    (14 )
Net income
     —         —         —         —        23,275        —        23,275  
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Balance at March 31, 2024
   $ —       118,030      $ 118      $ 416,747     $ 144,547      $     $ 561,412  
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
    
Preferred

Stock
    
Common Stock
    
Additional

Paid-in

Capital
   
Retained

Earnings
    
Accumulated

Other

Comprehensive

Income
   
Total
 
    
Shares
    
Amount
 
Balance at December 31, 2022
   $ —       105,263      $ 105      $ 250,430     $ 49,862      $ 24     $ 300,421  
Stock-based compensation
     —         —         —         2,892       —         —        2,892  
Exercise of stock options for common stock
     —         548        1        1,269       —         —        1,270  
Issuance of common stock upon vesting of restricted stock units, net
     —         127      —         (477     —         —        (477
Other comprehensive gain (loss)
     —         —         —         —        —         (13     (13
Net income
     —         —         —         —        29,568        —        29,568  
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Balance at March 31, 2023
   $ —       105,938      $ 106      $ 254,114     $ 79,430    $ 11   $ 333,661  
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
 
5
CATALYST PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (unaudited)
(in thousands)
 
 
  
For the Three
Months Ended March 31,
 
 
  
2024
 
 
2023
 
Operating Activities:
  
 
Net income
   $ 23,275     $ 29,568  
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities:
    
Depreciation
     86       69  
Stock-based compensation
     8,248       2,892  
Amortization of intangible assets
     9,344       6,531  
Deferred taxes
     (1,746 )     (1,519
Accretion of discount
     153        
Reduction in the carrying amount of
right-of-use
asset
     68       64  
Acquired inventory samples expensed from asset acquisition
           130  
Change in fair value of equity securities
     1,144       —   
(Increase) decrease in:
    
Accounts receivable, net
     (6,979 )     (22,963
Inventory
     (4,309 )     577  
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
     (1,210 )     (191
Increase (decrease) in:
    
Accounts payable
     (4,534 )     (584
Accrued expenses and other liabilities
     8,474       (2,422
Operating lease liability
     (89 )     (82
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities
     31,925       12,070  
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Investing Activities:
    
Purchases of property and equipment
     (199     (74
Payment in connection with asset acquisition
           (162,293
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities
     (199     (162,367
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Financing Activities:
    
Payment of employee withholding tax related to stock-based compensation
     (204     (477
Proceeds from exercise of stock options
     1,522       1,270  
Payment of liabilities arising from asset acquisition
     (973     (644
Proceeds from issuance of common stock
     141,000        
Payment of fees in connection with issuance of common stock
     (296      
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities
     141,049       149  
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents
     172,775       (150,148
Cash and cash equivalents – beginning of period
     137,636       298,395  
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents – end of period
   $ 310,411     $ 148,247  
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information:
    
Cash paid for interest
   $ 65     $ —   
Non-cash
investing and financing activities:
    
Liabilities arising from asset acquisition
   $     $ 1,915  
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
 
6

CATALYST PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
1.
Organization and Description of Business.
Catalyst Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and subsidiary (collectively, the Company) is a commercial-stage, patient-centric biopharmaceutical company focused on
in-licensing,
developing, and commercializing novel high-quality medicines for patients living with rare and difficult to treat diseases. The Company currently markets three drug products, FIRDAPSE
®
(amifampridine), FYCOMPA
®
(perampanel), and AGAMREE
®
(vamorolone). The Company is also currently seeking to further expand its product portfolio, with a focus on acquiring the rights to late-stage products to treat rare (orphan) central nervous system and adjacent rare (orphan) diseases. With an unwavering patient focus embedded in everything the Company does, it is committed to providing innovative,
best-in-class
medications with the hope of making a meaningful impact on those affected by these conditions.
The Company’s New Drug Application (NDA) for FIRDAPSE
®
 (amifampridine) Tablets 10 mg for the treatment of adults with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) was approved in 2018 by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA), and FIRDAPSE
®
is commercially available in the United States (U.S.) as a treatment for adults with LEMS. Further, Canada’s national healthcare regulatory agency, Health Canada, approved the use of FIRDAPSE
®
 for the treatment of adult patients in Canada with LEMS in 2020 and FIRDAPSE
®
is commercially available in Canada for the treatment of patients with LEMS through a license and supply agreement with KYE Pharmaceuticals. In the third quarter of 2022, the FDA approved the Company’s supplemental New Drug Application approving an expansion of the FIRDAPSE
®
label to include pediatric patients (ages six and older).
On December 17, 2022, the Company entered into an asset purchase agreement with Eisai Co., Ltd. (Eisai) for the acquisition of the U.S. rights to FYCOMPA
®
(perampanel) CIII, a prescription medication used alone or in combination with other medicines to treat focal onset seizures with or without secondarily generalized seizures in people with epilepsy aged four and older and with other medicines to treat primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in people with epilepsy aged 12 and older. The Company closed the acquisition of FYCOMPA
®
on January 24, 2023 and the Company began marketing FYCOMPA
®
in the U.S.
In July 2023, the Company completed its acquisition from Santhera Pharmaceuticals Holdings (Santhera) of an exclusive license for North America for AGAMREE
®
 
(vamorolone), a treatment for patients suffering with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The license is for exclusive commercial rights in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico, as well as the right of first negotiation in Europe and Japan should Santhera pursue partnership opportunities in those jurisdictions. Additionally, the Company will hold North American rights for any future approved indications of AGAMREE
®
. AGAMREE
®
 
has previously received FDA Orphan Drug and Fast Track designations. On October 26, 2023, the FDA approved AGAMREE
®
oral suspension 40 mg/ml for the treatment of DMD in patients aged two years and older, and on March 13, 2024, the Company announced the U.S. commercial launch of AGAMREE
®
.
Since inception, the Company has devoted substantially all its efforts to business planning, research and development, recruiting management and technical staff, acquiring operating assets, raising capital, and selling its products. The Company has been able to fund its cash needs to date through offerings of its securities and from revenues from sales of its products. See Note 15 (Stockholders’ Equity).
Capital Resources
Based on forecasts of available cash, the Company believes that it has sufficient resources to support the currently anticipated operations for at least the next 12 months from the date of this report.
The Company may raise funds in the future through public or private equity offerings, debt financings, corporate collaborations, governmental research grants or other means. The Company may also seek to raise new capital to fund additional business development activities, even if it has sufficient funds for its planned operations. Any sale by the Company of additional equity or convertible debt securities could result in dilution to the Company’s current stockholders. There can be no assurance that any required additional funding will be available to the Company at all or available on terms acceptable to the Company. Further, to the extent that the Company raises additional funds through collaborative arrangements, it may be necessary to relinquish some rights to the Company’s drug candidates or grant sublicenses on terms that are not favorable to the Company. If the Company is not able to secure additional funding when needed, the Company may have to delay, reduce the scope of, or eliminate one or more research and development programs, which could have an adverse effect on the Company’s business.
On January 9, 2024, the Company completed a public offering of 10 million shares of its common stock, raising net proceeds of approximately $140.7 million. The proceeds of the offering will be used to potentially acquire new products and for general corporate purposes.
Risks and Uncertainties
The Company is subject to risks and uncertainties that could affect its business in unforeseen ways.
 
7

2.
Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies.
 
 
a.
INTERIM FINANCIAL STATEMENTS.
The accompanying unaudited interim consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S. GAAP), and pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) for reporting of interim financial information. Pursuant to such rules and regulations, certain information and note disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP have been omitted. The consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2023 included in this Form
10-Q
was derived from the audited financial statements and does not include all disclosures required by U.S. GAAP.
In the opinion of management, the accompanying unaudited interim consolidated financial statements of the Company contain all adjustments (consisting of only normal recurring adjustments) necessary to present fairly the financial position of the Company as of the dates and for the periods presented. Accordingly, these consolidated statements should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and notes thereto for the year ended December 31, 2023 included in the 2023 Annual Report on
Form 10-K
filed by the Company with the SEC. The results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2024 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for any future period or for the full 2024 fiscal year.
 
 
b.
PRINCIPLES OF CONSOLIDATION.
The consolidated financial statements include the Company’s accounts and those of its wholly-owned subsidiary, Catalyst Pharmaceuticals Ireland, Ltd. (Catalyst Ireland). All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. Catalyst Ireland was organized in 2017.
 
 
c.
USE OF ESTIMATES.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
 
 
d.
CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS.
The Company primarily invests in high credit-quality instruments in order to obtain higher yields on its cash equivalents. The Company considers all highly liquid instruments, purchased with an original maturity of
three months
or less, to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents consist mainly of money market funds and U.S. Treasuries. The Company has substantially all its cash and cash equivalents deposited in money market accounts with one financial institution. These amounts exceed federally insured limits. 
 
 
e.
INVESTMENTS.
At March 31, 2024 investments consisted of an investment in equity securities. At December 31, 2023, investments consisted of U.S. Treasuries and an investment in equity securities. Such investments are not insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.
There were no U.S. Treasuries held at March 31, 2024 and U.S. Treasuries held at December 31, 2023 were classified as
available-for-sale
securities. The Company classifies U.S. Treasuries with stated maturities of greater than three months and less than one year in short-term investments. U.S. Treasuries with stated maturities greater than one year are classified as
non-current
investments in its consolidated balance sheets.

The Company records
available-for-sale
securities at fair value with unrealized gains and losses reported in accumulated other comprehensive income (in stockholders’ equity). Realized gains and losses are included in other income, net in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income and are derived using the specific identification method for determining the cost of securities sold. Interest income is recognized when earned and is included in other income, net in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income. The Company recognizes a charge when the declines in the fair value below the amortized cost basis of its
available-for-sale
securities are judged to be as a result of a credit loss. The Company considers various factors in determining whether to recognize an allowance for credit losses including whether the Company intends to sell the security or whether it is more likely than not that the Company would be required to sell the security before recovery of the amortized cost basis. If the unrealized loss of an
available-for-sale
debt security is determined to be a result of a credit loss the Company would recognize an allowance and the corresponding credit loss would be included in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income. The Company has not recorded an allowance for credit loss on its
available-for-sale
securities. See Note 3 (Investments).
In July 2023, the Company made a strategic equity investment into Santhera by acquiring 1,414,688 of Santhera’s post reverse-split ordinary shares (representing approximately 11.26% of Santhera’s outstanding ordinary shares following the transaction). The investment is denominated in Swiss Francs. The Company has determined that it does not have significant influence over the operations of Santhera and accordingly the investment in Santhera’s ordinary shares is recorded under ASC 321, Equity Securities, with changes in fair value, inclusive of changes resulting from movements in foreign exchange rates, in other income, net in the consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive income.
 
8

2.
Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies (continued).
 
 
f.
ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE, NET.
Accounts receivable are recorded net of customer allowance for distribution fees, trade discounts, prompt payment discounts, chargebacks and expected credit losses. Allowances for distribution fees, trade discounts, prompt payment discounts and chargebacks are based on contractual terms. The Company estimates the allowance for expected credit losses based on existing contractual payment terms, actual payment patterns of its customers, current and future economic and market conditions and individual customer circumstances. The Company has not historically experienced any significant credit losses. All customer accounts are actively managed. At March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the Company determined that an allowance for expected credit losses was not required. No accounts were written off during the periods presented.
 
 
g.
INVENTORY
. Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Inventories consist of raw materials,
work-in-process
and finished goods. Costs to be capitalized as inventories primarily include third-party manufacturing costs and other overhead costs. Cost is determined using a standard cost method, which approximates actual cost, and assumes a
first-in,
first out (FIFO) flow of goods. If information becomes available that suggests that inventories may not be realizable, the Company may be required to expense a portion or all of the previously capitalized inventories.
Products that have been approved by the FDA or other regulatory authorities, such as FIRDAPSE
®
, FYCOMPA
®
and AGAMREE
®
are also used in clinical programs to assess the safety and efficacy of the products for usage in treating diseases that have not been approved by the FDA or other regulatory authorities. The forms of FIRDAPSE
®
, FYCOMPA
®
and AGAMREE
®
utilized for both commercial and clinical programs are identical and, as a result, the inventories have an “alternative future use” as defined in authoritative guidance. Raw materials associated with clinical development programs are included in inventory and charged to research and development expense when the product enters the research and development process and no longer can be used for commercial purposes and, therefore, does not have an “alternative future use”.
The Company evaluates for potential excess inventory by analyzing current and future product demand relative to the remaining product shelf life. The Company builds demand forecasts by considering factors such as, but not limited to, overall market potential, market share, market acceptance, and patient usage.
 
 
h.
PREPAID EXPENSES AND OTHER CURRENT ASSETS.
Prepaid expenses and other current assets consist primarily of prepaid manufacturing, prepaid tax, prepaid insurance, prepaid subscription fees, prepaid research fees, prepaid commercialization expenses, prepaid
co-pay
assistance program, amounts due from collaborative and license arrangements and prepaid conference and travel expenses. Prepaid research fees consist of advances for the Company’s product development activities, including contracts for
pre-clinical
studies, clinical trials and studies, regulatory affairs and consulting. Prepaid manufacturing consists of advances for the Company’s drug manufacturing activities. Such advances are recorded as expense as the related goods are received or the related services are performed.
 
 
i.
PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT,
NET.
Property and equipment are recorded at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated to amortize the depreciable assets over their useful lives using the straight-line method and commences when the asset is placed in service. Leasehold improvements are amortized on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease or the estimated life of the improvement, whichever is shorter. Useful lives generally range from
three
to five years for computer equipment and software, from
five
to seven years for furniture and equipment, and from
five
to ten years for leasehold improvements. Expenditures for repairs and maintenance are charged to expenses as incurred.
 
 
j
.
BUSINESS COMBINATIONS AND ASSET ACQUISITIONS
. The Company evaluates acquisitions of assets and other similar transactions to assess whether or not the transaction should be accounted for as a business combination or asset acquisition by first applying a screen test to determine if substantially all of the fair value of the gross assets acquired is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or group of similar identifiable assets. If the screen test is met, the transaction is accounted for as an asset acquisition. If the screen test is not met, further determination is required as to whether or not the Company has acquired inputs and processes that have the ability to create outputs which would meet the requirements of a business. If determined to be an asset acquisition, the Company accounts for the transaction under ASC
805-50,
which requires the acquiring entity in an asset acquisition to recognize assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on the cost to the acquiring entity on a relative fair value basis, which includes transaction costs in addition to consideration given. Goodwill is not recognized in an asset acquisition and any excess consideration transferred over the fair value of the net assets acquired is allocated to the identifiable assets based on relative fair values. Contingent consideration payments in asset acquisitions are recognized when the contingency is resolved and the consideration is paid or becomes payable.
 
9

2.
Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies (continued).
 
See Notes 12 (Commitments and Contingencies) and 13 (Agreements) for further discussion on the Company’s exclusive license agreement with Jacobus Pharmaceutical Company, Inc. (Jacobus), for the rights to develop and commercialize RUZURGI
®
in the U.S. and Mexico, which the Company accounted for as an asset acquisition under
ASC 805-50.
See Note 13 (Agreements) for further discussion on the Company’s acquisitions of the U.S. rights to FYCOMPA
®
from Eisai Co., Ltd, and on the exclusive license for North America acquired from Santhera for AGAMREE
®
, both of which the Company accounted for as asset acquisitions under ASC
805-50.
 
 
k.
INTANGIBLE ASSETS, NET.
Identifiable intangible assets with a finite life are comprised of licensed rights and other acquired intangible assets and are amortized on a straight-line basis over the respective estimated useful life.
The Company reviews intangible assets with finite lives for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. If indicators of impairment exist, an impairment test is performed to assess the recoverability of the affected assets by determining whether the carrying amount of such assets exceeds the undiscounted expected future cash flows. If the affected assets are deemed not recoverable, the Company would estimate the fair value of the assets and record an impairment loss.
 
 
l.
FAIR VALUE OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS.
The Company’s
financial
instruments consist of cash and cash equivalents, investments, accounts receivable, accounts payable, and accrued expenses and other liabilities. At March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the fair value of these instruments approximated their carrying value.
 
 
m.
FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS.
Current Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) fair value guidance emphasizes that fair value is a market-based measurement, not an entity-specific measurement. Therefore, a fair value measurement should be determined based on the assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability. As a basis for considering market participant assumptions in fair value measurements, current FASB guidance establishes a fair value hierarchy that distinguishes between market participant assumptions based on market data obtained from sources independent of the reporting entity (observable inputs that are classified within Levels 1 and 2 of the hierarchy) and the reporting entity’s own assumptions that it believes market participants would use in pricing assets or liabilities (unobservable inputs classified within Level 3 of the hierarchy).
Level 1 inputs utilize quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to access at the measurement date. Level 2 inputs are inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly. Level 2 inputs may include quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, as well as inputs that are observable for the asset or liability (other than quoted prices), such as interest rates, foreign exchange rates, and yield curves that are observable at commonly quoted intervals. Level 3 inputs are unobservable inputs for the asset or liability, which are typically based on an entity’s own assumptions, as there is little, if any, related market activity.
In instances where the determination of the fair value measurement is based on inputs from different levels of the fair value hierarchy, the level in the fair value hierarchy within which the entire fair value measurement falls is based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement in its entirety. The Company’s assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement in its entirety requires judgment and considers factors specific to the asset or liability.
 
 
  
Fair Value Measurements at Reporting Date Using (in thousands)
 
 
  
Balances as of
March 31,
2024
 
  
Quoted Prices in
Active Markets for
Identical
Assets/Liabilities
(Level 1)
 
  
Significant Other
Observable Inputs
(Level 2)
 
  
Significant
Unobservable Inputs
(Level 3)
 
Cash and cash equivalents:
           
Money market funds
   $ 280,802      $ 280,802      $ —       $ —   
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Investment in equity securities:
           
Equity securities
   $ 15,345      $ 15,345      $ —       $ —   
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
 
10

2.
Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies (continued).
 
 
  
Fair Value Measurements at Reporting Date Using (in thousands)
 
 
  
Balances as of
December 31,
2023
 
  
Quoted Prices in
Active Markets for
Identical
Assets/Liabilities
(Level 1)
 
  
Significant Other
Observable Inputs
(Level 2)
 
  
Significant
Unobservable Inputs
(Level 3)
 
Cash and cash equivalents:
           
Money market funds
   $ 18,256      $ 18,256      $ —       $ —   
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
U.S. Treasuries
   $ 94,523      $ 94,523      $ —       $ —   
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Investment in equity securities:
           
Equity securities
   $ 16,489      $ 16,489      $ —       $ —   
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
 
 
n.
OPERATING LEASES.
The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception. Operating leases are included in operating lease
right-of-use
(ROU) assets, other current liabilities, and operating lease liabilities on its consolidated balance sheets. Operating lease ROU assets and operating lease liabilities are recognized based on the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the lease term at commencement date. As the Company’s lease does not provide an implicit rate, the Company uses its incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at commencement date in determining the present value of future payments. The operating lease ROU asset also includes any lease payments made and excludes lease incentives and initial direct costs incurred. The Company’s lease term includes options to extend or terminate the lease, however, these options are not considered in the lease term as the Company is not reasonably certain that it will exercise these options. Lease expense for minimum lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The Company has a lease agreement with lease and
non-lease
components, which are accounted for separately.
 
 
o.
SHARE REPURCHASES.
In March 2021, the Company’s Board of Directors approved a share repurchase program that authorizes the repurchase of up to $40 million of the Company’s common stock.
The Company accounts for share repurchases by charging the excess of the repurchase price over the repurchased common stock’s par value entirely to retained earnings. All repurchased shares are retired and become authorized but unissued shares. The Company accrues for the shares purchased under the share repurchase plan based on the trade date. The Company may terminate or modify its share repurchase program at any time.
 
 
p.
REVENUE RECOGNITION.
Product Revenues:
To determine revenue recognition for arrangements that are within the scope of Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Topic 606 – Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), the Company performs the following five steps: (i) identify the contract(s) with a customer, (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract, (iii) determine the transaction price, (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract, and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation. The Company assesses the goods or services promised within each contract and determines those that are performance obligations by assessing whether each promised good or service is distinct. The Company then recognizes as revenue the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation when (or as) the performance obligation is satisfied. For a complete discussion of accounting for product revenue, see Product Revenue, Net below.
The Company also may generate revenues from payments received under collaborative and license agreements. Collaborative and license agreement payments may include nonrefundable fees at the inception of the agreements, contingent payments for specific achievements designated in the agreements, and/or net profit-sharing payments on sales of products resulting from the collaborative and license arrangements. For a complete discussion of accounting for collaborative and licensing arrangements, see Revenues from Collaboration and Licensing Arrangements below.
 
11

2.
Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies (continued).
 
The Company recognizes revenue when its customers obtain title of the promised goods, in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for these goods. For FIRDAPSE
®
and AGAMREE
®
, subsequent to receiving FDA approvals, the Company entered into an arrangement with one distributor (the Customer), which is the exclusive distributor of FIRDAPSE
®
and AGAMREE
®
in the U.S. The Customer subsequently resells FIRDAPSE
®
and AGAMREE
®
to a small group of exclusive specialty pharmacies (SPs) whose dispensing activities for patients with specific payors may result in government-mandated or privately negotiated rebate obligations for the Company with respect to the purchase of FIRDAPSE
®
and AGAMREE
®
.
During 2023, the Company sold FYCOMPA
®
, through a Transition Service Agreement with Eisai to major wholesalers, specialty pharmaceutical distributors, managed care organizations, and government agencies. The transition services under the Transition Services Agreement ended on December 31, 2023, and beginning on January 1, 2024, the Company commenced sales of FYCOMPA
®
in the U.S. commercial market to major wholesalers, specialty pharmaceutical distributors, managed care organizations, and government agencies.
Product Revenue, Net:
The Company recognizes revenue on product sales when its’ customers obtain control of the Company’s products, which occur at a point in time (upon delivery or upon dispense to patient). Product revenue is recorded net of applicable reserves for variable consideration, including discounts and allowances. The Company’s payment terms range between 15 and 60 days.
Shipping and handling costs for product shipments occur prior to the customer obtaining control of the goods and are recorded in cost of sales.
If taxes should be collected from the Customer relating to product sales and remitted to governmental authorities, they will be excluded from revenue. The Company expenses incremental costs of obtaining a contract when incurred if the expected amortization period of the asset that the Company would have recognized is one year or less. However, no such costs were incurred during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.
During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, substantially all of the Company’s product revenues were from sales to customers in the U.S.
The following table summarizes the Company’s net product revenue disaggregated by product (in thousands):
 
    
For the Three Months Ended
March 31,
 
    
2024
    
2023
 
FIRDAPSE
®
   $ 66,842      $ 57,526  
FYCOMPA
®
     30,425        27,778  
AGAMREE
®
     1,174        —   
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total product revenue, net
   $ 98,441      $ 85,304  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
Reserves for Variable Consideration:
Revenue from product sales is recorded at the net sales price (transaction price), which includes estimates of variable consideration for which reserves are established. Components of variable consideration include trade discounts and allowances, prompt payment discounts, product returns, provider chargebacks and discounts, government rebates, and other incentives, such as voluntary patient assistance, and other allowances that are offered within contracts between the Company and its customers relating to the Company’s sale of its products. These reserves, as detailed below, are based on the amounts earned, or to be claimed on the related sales, and are classified as reductions of accounts receivable (if the amount is payable to its customers) or a current liability (if the amount is payable to a party other than its customers).
These estimates take into consideration a range of possible outcomes which are probability-weighted in accordance with the expected value method in Topic 606 for relevant factors such as current contractual and statutory requirements, specific known market events and trends, industry data, and forecasted customer buying and payment patterns. Overall, these reserves reflect the Company’s best estimates of the amount of consideration to which it is entitled based on the terms of the respective underlying contracts.
 
12

2.
Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies (continued).
 
The amount of variable consideration which is included in the transaction price may be constrained and is included in the net sales price only to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of the cumulative revenue recognized under the contract will not occur in a future period. The Company’s analyses also contemplates application of the constraint in accordance with the guidance, under which it determined a material reversal of revenue would not occur in a future period for the estimates detailed below as of March 31, 2024 and, therefore, the transaction price was not reduced further during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023. Actual amounts of consideration ultimately received may differ from the Company’s estimates. If actual results in the future vary from the Company’s estimates, the Company will adjust these estimates, which would affect net product revenue and earnings in the period such variances become known.
Trade Discounts, Allowances and Wholesaler Fees:
The Company provides its customers with a discount that is explicitly stated in its contract and is recorded as a reduction of revenue in the period the related product revenue is recognized. To the extent the services received are distinct from the sale of products to its customers, these payments are classified in selling, general and administrative expenses in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income. However, if the Company has determined such services received are not distinct from the Company’s sale of products to its customers, these payments have been recorded as a reduction of revenue within the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income through March 31, 2024 and 2023, as well as a reduction to accounts receivable, net on the consolidated balance sheets.
Prompt Payment Discounts:
The Company provides its customers with prompt payment discounts which may result in adjustments to the price that is invoiced for the product transferred, in the case that payments are made within a defined period. The prompt payment discount reserve is based on actual invoice sales and contractual discount rates. Reserves for prompt payment discounts are included in accounts receivable, net on the consolidated balance sheets.
Funded
Co-pay
Assistance Program:
The Company contracts with a third-party to manage the
co-pay
assistance program intended to provide financial assistance to qualified commercially-insured patients. The calculation of the accrual for
co-pay
assistance is based on an estimate of claims and the cost per claim that the Company expects to receive associated with its products, that have been recognized as revenue, but remains in the distribution channel at the end of each reporting period. These payments are considered payable to the third-party vendor and the related reserve is recorded in the same period the related revenue is recognized, resulting in a reduction of product revenue and the establishment of a current liability which is included in accrued expenses and other liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets.
Product Returns:
Consistent with industry practice, the Company offers its customers limited product return rights for damaged and expiring product, provided it is within a specified period around the product expiration date as set forth in the applicable individual distribution or master agreement. The Company estimates the amount of its product sales that may be returned by its customers and records this estimate as a reduction of revenue in the period in which the related product revenue is recognized. The Company currently estimates product return liabilities using available industry data and its own sales information, including its visibility into the inventory remaining in the distribution channel. Return payments related to the sale of products are considered payable to the third-party vendor and the related reserve is recorded in the same period the related revenue is recognized, resulting in a reduction of product revenue and the establishment of a current liability which is included in accrued expenses and other liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets.
Provider Chargebacks and Discounts:
Chargebacks for fees and discounts to providers represent the estimated obligations resulting from contractual commitments to sell products to qualified healthcare providers at prices lower than the list prices charged to the customer, who directly purchases the product from the Company. The customer charges the Company for the difference between what they paid for the product and the ultimate selling price to the qualified healthcare providers. The Company also participates in programs with government entities and other parties, including covered entities under the 340B Drug Pricing Program, whereby pricing on FYCOMPA
®
is extended below wholesaler list price to participating entities (the FYCOMPA
®
Participants). These entities purchase FYCOMPA
®
through wholesalers at the lower program price and the wholesalers then charge the Company the difference between their acquisition cost and the lower program price.
 
13

2.
Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies (continued).
 
These reserves are established in the same period that the related revenue is recognized, resulting in a reduction of product revenue, net and accounts receivable, net. Chargeback amounts are generally determined at the time of resale to the qualified healthcare provider by the customer or at the time of a resale to a FYCOMPA
®
Participant by a wholesaler, and the Company generally issues credits for such amounts within a few weeks of the customer or wholesalers’ notification to the Company of the resale. Reserves for chargebacks consist primarily of chargebacks that the customer or wholesalers have claimed, but for which the Company has not yet issued a credit.
Government Rebates:
The Company is subject to discount obligations under state Medicaid, Medicare and other government programs. These reserves are recorded in the same period the related revenue is recognized, resulting in a reduction of product revenue. For reserves related to the sale of its products, there is an establishment of a current liability, which is included in accrued expenses and other liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets. For Medicare, the Company also estimates the number of patients in the prescription drug coverage gap for whom the Company will owe an additional liability under the Medicare Part D program.
The Company’s liability for these rebates consists of invoices received for claims from prior quarters that have not been paid or for which an invoice has not yet been received, estimates of claims for the current quarter, and estimated future claims that will be made for product that has been recognized as revenue, but which remains in the distribution channel inventories at the end of each reporting period.
Payor Rebates:
The Company contracts with certain private payor organizations, primarily insurance companies and pharmacy benefit managers, for the payment of rebates with respect to utilization of its products. The Company estimates these rebates and records such estimates in the same period the related revenue is recognized, resulting in a reduction of product revenue, net and the establishment of a current liability, which is included in accrued expenses and other liabilities on the consolidated balances sheets.
Bridge and Patient Assistance Programs:
The Company provides FIRDAPSE
®
and AGAMREE
®
free of charge to uninsured patients who satisfy
pre-established
criteria for either the Bridge Program or the Patient Assistance Program. Patients who meet the Bridge Program eligibility criteria and are transitioning from investigational product while they are waiting for a coverage determination, or later, for patients whose access is threatened by the complications arising from a change of insurer may receive a temporary supply of free FIRDAPSE
®
or AGAMREE
®
while the Company is determining the patient’s third-party insurance, prescription drug benefit or other third-party coverage for FIRDAPSE
®
or AGAMREE
®
. The Patient Assistance Program provides FIRDAPSE
®
or AGAMREE
®
free of charge for longer periods of time for those who are uninsured or functionally uninsured with respect to FIRDAPSE
®
or AGAMREE
®
because they are unable to obtain coverage from their payor despite having health insurance, to the extent allowed by applicable law.
The Company provides FYCOMPA
®
free of charge to uninsured patients who satisfy
pre-established
criteria through a Patient Assistance Program. In addition, Catalyst provides programs to assist patients through the process for obtaining reimbursement approval for their FYCOMPA
®
prescriptions from their insurers. Catalyst also provides support for patients using FYCOMPA
®
 through an Instant Savings Card Program.
The Company does not recognize any revenue related to these free products and the associated costs are classified in selling, general and administrative expenses in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income.
Revenues from Collaboration and Licensing Arrangements:
The Company analyzes license and collaboration arrangements pursuant to FASB ASC Topic 808, Collaborative Arrangement Guidance and Consideration (Topic 808), to assess whether such arrangements, or transactions between arrangement participants, involve joint operating activities performed by parties that are both active participants in the activities and exposed to significant risks and rewards dependent on the commercial success of such activities or are more akin to a vendor-customer relationship. In making this evaluation, the Company considers whether the activities of the collaboration are considered to be distinct and deemed to be within the scope of the collaborative arrangement guidance or if they are more reflective of a vendor-customer relationship and, therefore, within the scope of Topic 606. This assessment is performed throughout the life of the arrangement based on changes in the responsibilities of all parties in the arrangement.
For elements of collaboration arrangements that are not accounted for pursuant to guidance in Topic 606, an appropriate recognition method is determined and applied consistently, generally by analogy to the revenue from contracts with customers guidance.
 
14

2.
Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies (continued).
 
The Company evaluates the performance obligations promised in the contract that are based on goods and services that will be transferred to the customer and determines whether those obligations are both (i) capable of being distinct and (ii) distinct in the context of the contract. Goods or services that meet these criteria are considered distinct performance obligations. The Company estimates the transaction price based on the amount expected to be received for transferring the promised goods or services in the contract. The consideration may include fixed consideration or variable consideration.
The agreements provide for milestone payments upon achievement of development and regulatory events. The Company accounts for milestone payments as variable consideration in accordance with Topic 606. At the inception of each arrangement that includes variable consideration, the Company evaluates the amount of potential transaction price and the likelihood that the transaction price will be received. The Company utilizes either the most likely amount method or expected value method to estimate the amount expected to be received based on which method best predicts the amount expected to be received. The amount of variable consideration that is included in the transaction price may be constrained and is included in the transaction price only to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of the cumulative revenue recognized will not occur in a future period. Arrangements that include rights to additional goods or services that are exercisable at a customer’s discretion are generally considered options. The Company assesses if these options provide a material right to the customer and, if so, these options are considered performance obligations.
After contract inception, the transaction price is reassessed at every period end and updated for changes such as resolution of uncertain events. Any change in the overall transaction price is allocated to the performance obligations based on the same methodology used at contract inception.
The Company recognizes sales-based royalties or net profit-sharing when the latter of (a) the subsequent sale occurs, or (b) the performance obligation to which the sales-based royalty or net profit-sharing has been allocated has been satisfied.
Payments to and from the collaborator are presented in the statement of operations based on the nature of the Company’s business operations, the nature of the arrangement, including the contractual terms, and the nature of the payments.
Refer to Note 11 (Collaborative and Licensing Arrangements), for further discussion on the Company’s collaborative and licensing arrangements.
 
 
q.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT.
Costs incurred in connection with research and development activities are expensed as incurred. These costs consist of direct and indirect costs associated with specific projects, as well as fees paid to various entities that perform research-related services for the Company.
The Company records upfront and milestone payments made to third parties under licensing and collaboration arrangements that occur before a compound receives regulatory approval as acquired in-process research and development (IPR&D). IPR&D acquired as part of an asset acquisition with no alternative future use is expensed immediately to research and development. Milestone payments made after regulatory approval are capitalized as a developed asset and unless the asset is determined to have an indefinite life, the Company amortizes its definite-lived intangible assets using the straight-line method, which is considered the best estimate of economic benefit, over its estimated useful life.
 
 
r.
ADVERTISING EXPENSE.
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred. The Company incurred $3.9 million and $1.7 million in advertising costs during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively, which are included in selling, general and administrative expenses in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income.
 
 
s.
STOCK-BASED COMPENSATION.
The Company recognizes expense in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income for the grant date fair value of all stock-based payments to employees, directors and consultants, including grants of stock options and other share-based awards. For stock options, the Company uses the Black-Scholes option valuation model, the single-option award approach, and the straight-line attribution method. Using this approach, compensation cost is amortized on a straight-line basis over the vesting period of each respective stock option, generally one to three years. Forfeitures are recognized as a reduction of stock-based compensation expense as they occur.
 
 
t.
CONCENTRATION OF RISK.
The financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentration of credit risk are cash equivalents, investments and accounts receivable, net. The Company places its cash and cash equivalents with high-credit quality financial institutions. These amounts at times may exceed federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any credit losses in these accounts.
The Company sells its products, FIRDAPSE
®
and AGAMREE
®
, in the U.S. through an exclusive distributor (its Customer) to SPs. Therefore, its distributor and SPs account for principally all of its trade receivables and net product revenues related to this product. The Company sells its product, FYCOMPA
®
to major wholesalers, specialty pharmaceutical distributors, managed care organizations, and government agencies. The creditworthiness of its customers is continuously monitored, and the Company has internal policies regarding customer credit limits. The Company estimates an allowance for expected credit loss primarily based on the credit worthiness of its customers, historical payment patterns, aging of receivable balances and general economic conditions.
 
15

2.
Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies (continued).
 
As of March 31, 2024, the Company had three FDA approved products, which makes it difficult to evaluate its current business, predict its future prospects, and forecast financial performance and growth. The Company had invested a significant portion of its efforts and financial resources in the development and commercialization of its lead product, FIRDAPSE
®
. The Company expects FIRDAPSE
®
and the recently acquired products FYCOMPA
®
and AGAMREE
®
to constitute virtually all of the Company’s product revenue for the foreseeable future.
The Company relies exclusively on third parties to formulate and manufacture its products and any future drug candidates. The commercialization of its products and any other drug candidates, if approved, could be stopped, delayed or made less profitable if those third parties fail to provide sufficient quantities of product or fail to do so at acceptable quality levels or prices. The Company does not intend to establish its own manufacturing facilities. The Company is using the same third-party contractors to manufacture, supply, store and distribute drug supplies for clinical trials and for the commercialization of FIRDAPSE
®
. The Company relies on the same third-party manufacturers for FYCOMPA® as utilized by Eisai prior to the Company’s acquisition in January 2023. It also relies on Santhera as its sole source of supply for AGAMREE
®
. If the Company is unable to continue its relationships with one or more of these third-party contractors, it could experience delays in the development or commercialization efforts as it locates and qualifies new manufacturers. The Company intends to rely on one or more third-party contractors to manufacture the commercial supply of its drugs.
The following table illustrates the approximate percentage of the Company’s total net product revenue attributed to the Company’s largest customers for the periods presented:
 

 
  
For the Three Months Ended
March 31,
 
 
  
2024
 
 
2023
 
Customer A
  
 
69.1
 
 
67.4
Customer B*
  
 
 
 
 
32.6
Customer C
  
 
10.5
 
 
 
Customer D
  
 
10.1
 
 
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total
  
 
89.7
 
 
100.0
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
*During 2023, the Company sold FYCOMPA
®
through a Transition Service Agreement with Eisai. Effective January 1, 2024, FYCOMPA
®
is being sold and distributed through a 3PL organization.
 
 
u.
ROYALTIES.
Royalties incurred in connection with the Company’s license agreement for FIRDAPSE
®
and AGAMREE
®
, as
disclosed
in Note 13 (Agreements), are expensed to cost of sales as revenue from product sales is recognized.
Royalties incurred in connection with the Company’s license agreement for RUZURGI
®
, as disclosed in Note 13 (Agreements), are expensed to cost of sales as revenue from product sales is recognized for any royalties in excess of the minimum annual royalty payment from July 11, 2022 (the Effective Date) through 2025. The minimum royalty payment that exists annually for calendar years from the Effective Date through 2025 of $3 million are included in the purchase price of the
agreement
.
 
 
v.
INCOME TAXES.
The Company utilizes the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between the financial reporting and tax basis of assets and liabilities and are measured using enacted tax rates and laws that will be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. A valuation allowance is provided when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of a deferred tax asset will not be realized.
The Company recognizes the financial statement benefit of a tax position only after determining that the relevant tax authority would more likely than not sustain the position following an audit. For tax positions meeting the
more-likely-than-not
threshold, the amount recognized in the financial statements is the largest benefit that has a greater than 50 percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement with the relevant tax authority. The Company is subject to income taxes in the U.S. federal jurisdiction and various state jurisdictions. Tax regulations within each jurisdiction are subject to the interpretation of the related tax laws and regulations and require significant judgment to apply. The Company is not subject to U.S. federal, state and local tax examinations by tax authorities for years before 2020. If the Company were to subsequently record an unrecognized tax benefit, associated penalties and tax related interest expense would be reported as a component of income tax expense.
 
16

2.
Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies (continued).
 
 
w.
COMPREHENSIVE INCOME.
U.S. GAAP requires that all components of comprehensive income be reported in the financial statements in the period in which they are recognized. Comprehensive income is net income, plus certain other items that are recorded directly into stockholders’ equity. The Company’s comprehensive income is shown on the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, and is comprised of net unrealized gains (losses) on the Company’s
available-for-sale
securities.
 
 
x.
NET INCOME PER COMMON SHARE.
Basic net income per share is computed by dividing net income for the period by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. With regard to common stock subject to vesting requirements, the calculation includes only the vested portion of such stock and units.
Diluted net income per common share is computed by dividing net income by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding, increased by the assumed conversion of other potentially dilutive securities during the period.
The following table reconciles basic and diluted weighted average common shares:
 
    
For the Three Months Ended
March 31,
 
    
2024
    
2023
 
Basic weighted average common shares outstanding
     116,806,117        105,561,229  
Effect of dilutive securities
     6,597,509        8,424,900  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
Diluted weighted average common shares outstanding
     123,403,626        113,986,129  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
Outstanding common stock equivalents totaling approximately 5.2 million and 1.3 million, were excluded from the calculation of diluted net income per common share for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively, as their effect would be anti-dilutive.
 
 
y.
SEGMENT INFORMATION.
Management has determined that the Company operates in one reportable segment, which is the development and commercialization of drug products.
 
 
z.
RECLASSIFICATIONS.
Certain prior year amounts in the consolidated financial statements have been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation.
 
 
aa.
RECENTLY ISSUED ACCOUNTING STANDARDS.
The Company did not adopt any accounting standards during the quarter ended March 31, 2024.
In November 2023, the FASB issued ASU
No. 2023-07,
Improvements to Reportable Segment Disclosures
(ASU
2023-07)
which is intended to improve reportable segment disclosures primarily through enhanced disclosure of reportable segment expenses and requires that a public entity that has a single reportable segment provide all the disclosures required by ASU
2023-07
and all existing segment disclosures in Topic 280. The new guidance is required to be applied retrospectively to all prior periods presented in the financial statements and is effective for the Company for fiscal periods beginning after December 15, 2023 and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024. The Company has one reportable segment and is evaluating the impact of the standard on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In December 2023, the FASB issued ASU
No. 2023-09,
Income Taxes (Topic 740): Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures which requires significant disclosures about income taxes, primarily focused on the disclosure of income taxes paid and the rate reconciliation table. The new guidance will be applied prospectively and is effective for the Company for fiscal periods beginning after December 15, 2024. The Company is evaluating the impact of the standard on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
 
17

3.
Investments.
Available-for-sale
investments by security type were as follows (in thousands):
 
    
Estimated
Fair Value
    
Gross
Unrealized
Gains
    
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
    
Amortized
Cost
 
At March 31, 2024:
           
U.S. Treasuries—Cash equivalents
   $    $    $    $
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total
   $    $    $    $
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
At December 31, 2023:
           
U.S. Treasuries—Cash equivalents
   $ 94,523      $ 18      $    $ 94,505  
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total
   $ 94,523      $ 18      $    $ 94,505  
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
There were no realized gains or losses from
available-for-sale
securities for the three months ended March 31, 2024 or 2023.
 
    
For the Three Months Ended
March 31,
 
    
2024
    
2023
 
Equity securities:
     
Net gains (losses) recognized during the period on equity securities
   $ (1,144    $  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
Unrealized net gains (losses) recognized during the period on equity securities still held at the reporting date
   $ (1,144    $  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
There were no sales of equity securities during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023. Unrealized net gains (losses) recognized during the periods on equity securities are included in other income, net in the consolidated statements of operations.
 
4.
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income.
The following table summarizes the changes in accumulated other comprehensive income, net of tax from unrealized gains (losses) on
available-for-sale
securities (in thousands), the Company’s only component of accumulated other comprehensive income for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.
There were no reclassifications out of accumulated other comprehensive income during the three months ended March 31, 2024 or 2023.
 
    
Total Accumulated
Other Comprehensive
Income
 
Balance at December 31, 2023
   $ 14  
  
 
 
 
Other comprehensive gain (loss) before reclassifications
     (14 )
Amount reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income
      
  
 
 
 
Net current period other comprehensive gain (loss)
     (14 )
 
  
 
 
 
Balance at March 31, 2024
   $  
  
 
 
 
 
    
Total Accumulated
Other Comprehensive
Income
 
Balance at December 31, 2022
   $ 24  
  
 
 
 
Other comprehensive gain (loss) before reclassifications
     (13
Amount reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income
      
  
 
 
 
Net current period other comprehensive gain (loss)
     (13
  
 
 
 
Balance at March 31, 2023
   $ 11  
  
 
 
 
 
18

5.
Inventory.
Inventory consists of the following (in thousands):
 
    
March 31, 2024
    
December 31, 2023
 
Raw materials
   $ 5,926      $ 1,910  
Work-in-process
     3,963        4,573  
Finished goods
     10,064        9,161  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total inventory
   $ 19,953      $ 15,644  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
 
6.
Prepaid Expenses and Other Current Assets.
Prepaid expenses and other current assets consist of the following (in thousands):
 
    
March 31, 2024
    
December 31, 2023
 
Prepaid manufacturing costs
   $ 2,005      $ 2,005  
Prepaid tax
     307        1,238  
Prepaid insurance
     952        1,332  
Prepaid subscriptions fees
     1,937        1,299  
Prepaid research fees
     1,513        1,500  
Prepaid commercialization expenses
     2,951        3,038  
Due from collaborative and licensing arrangements
     143        138  
Prepaid conference and travel expenses
     844        771  
Prepaid
co-pay
assistance program
     1,561        863  
Other
     1,532        351  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total prepaid expenses and other current assets
   $ 13,745      $ 12,535  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
 
7.
Operating Leases.
The Company has an operating lease agreement for its corporate office. The lease includes an option to extend the lease for up to 5 years and options to terminate the lease within
6
and 7.6 years. There are no obligations under finance leases.
The Company entered into an agreement in May 2020 that amended its lease for its office facilities. Under the amended lease, the Company’s leased space increased from approximately 7,800 square feet of space to approximately 10,700 square feet of space. The amended lease commenced in March 2021 when construction of the asset was completed and space became available for use.
The components of lease expense were as follows (in thousands):
 
    
For the Three Months Ended
March 31,
 
    
2024
    
2023
 
Operating lease cost
   $ 108      $ 108  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
Supplemental cash flow information related to lease was as follows (in thousands):
 
    
For the Three Months Ended
March 31,
 
    
2024
    
2023
 
Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of lease liabilities:
     
Operating cash flows
   $ 129      $ 125  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
Right-of-use
assets obtained in exchange for lease obligations:
     
Operating lease
   $ 22      $ 22  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
 
19

7.
Operating Leases (continued).
 
Supplemental balance sheet information related to lease was as follows (in thousands):
 
    
March 31, 2024
    
December 31, 2023
 
Operating lease
right-of-use
assets
   $ 2,440      $ 2,508  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
Other
current liabilities
   $ 377      $ 369  
Operating lease liabilities, net of current portion
     3,091        3,188  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total operating lease liabilities
   $ 3,468      $ 3,557  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the weighted average remaining lease term was 7.1 years and 7.3 years, respectively. The weighted average discount rate used to determine the operating lease liabilities was 4.51% as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023.
Remaining payments of lease liabilities as of March 31, 2024 were as follows (in thousands):
 
2024 (remaining nine months)
   $ 394  
2025
     537  
2026
     553  
2027
     570  
2028
     587  
Thereafter
     1,440  
  
 
 
 
Total lease payments
     4,081  
Less: imputed interest
     (613
  
 
 
 
Total
   $ 3,468  
  
 
 
 
Rent expense was approximately $0.1 million for each of the three-month periods ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.
 
8.
Property and Equipment, Net.
Property and equipment, net consists of the following (in thousands):
 
    
March 31, 2024
    
December 31, 2023
 
Furniture and equipment
   $ 692      $ 494  
Leasehold improvements
     991        991  
Software
     433        433  
Less: Accumulated depreciation
     (808      (723
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total property and equipment, net
   $ 1,308      $ 1,195  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
 
9.
License and Acquired Intangibles, Net.
The following table presents the Company’s intangible assets at March 31, 2024 (in thousands):
 
    
Gross
Carrying Value
    
Accumulated
Amortization
    
Net
Carrying Value
 
Intangible assets:
        
License and acquired intangibles for RUZURGI
®
   $ 33,569      $ 3,998      $ 29,571  
License and acquired intangibles for FYCOMPA
®
     158,143        37,580        120,563  
License and acquired intangibles for AGAMREE
®
     36,000        1,429        34,571  
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total
   $ 227,712      $ 43,007      $ 184,705  
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
 
20

9.
License and Acquired Intangibles, Net (continued).
 
The following table presents the Company’s intangible assets at December 31, 2023 (in thousands):
 
    
Gross
Carrying Value
    
Accumulated
Amortization
    
Net
Carrying Value
 
Intangible assets:
        
License and acquired intangibles for RUZURGI
®
   $ 33,569      $ 3,418      $ 30,151  
License and acquired intangibles for FYCOMPA
®
     158,143        29,673        128,470  
License and acquired intangibles for AGAMREE
®
     36,000        572        35,428  
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total
   $ 227,712      $ 33,663      $ 194,049  
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
The Company amortizes its definite-lived intangible assets using the straight-line method, which is considered the best estimate of economic benefit, over its estimated useful life. The estimated useful life used for this purpose for RUZURGI
®
, FYCOMPA
®
and AGAMREE
®
was approximately 14.5 years, 5 years and 10.5 years, respectively.
The Company recorded approximately $0.6
million in amortization expense related to the licensed and acquired intangibles for RUZURGI
®
during each of the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, within selling, general and administrative expenses in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income. The Company recorded approximately $
7.9 million and $6.0 million in amortization expense related to the licensed and acquired intangibles for FYCOMPA
®
during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively, within cost of sales in the consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive income. The Company recorded approximately $0.9 million and $0 in amortization expense related to the licensed and acquired intangibles for AGAMREE
®
during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively, within cost of sales in the consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive income. Amortization of the FYCOMPA
®
, RUZURGI
®
and AGAMREE
®
 
intangible assets are reported together as amortization of intangible assets in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income.
The following table presents future amortization expense the Company expects for its intangible assets (in thousands):
 
2024 (remaining nine months)
   $ 28,034  
2025
     37,378  
2026
     37,378  
2027
     37,378  
2028
     7,705  
Thereafter
     36,832  
  
 
 
 
Total
   $ 184,705  
  
 
 
 
At March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the weighted average amortization period remaining for intangible assets was 6.2 years and 6.5 years, respectively.
If all or a portion of the intangible assets are deemed not recoverable, the Company would estimate the fair value of the assets and record an impairment loss. There were no impairment charges recognized on definite-lived intangibles for the three months ended March 31, 2024 or 2023.
 
21

10.
Accrued Expenses and Other Liabilities.
Accrued expenses and other liabilities consist of the following (in thousands):
 
    
March 31, 2024
    
December 31, 2023
 
Accrued preclinical and clinical trial expenses
   $ 527      $ 1,015  
Accrued professional fees
     5,856        4,730  
Accrued compensation and benefits
     4,852        8,883  
Accrued license fees
     8,934        24,437  
Accrued purchases
     694        192  
Operating lease liability
     377        369  
Accrued gross-to-net revenue liabilities
*
     24,885        6,877  
Accrued income tax
     7,340        729  
Due to licensor
     12,205        12,540  
Accrued interest payable
     1,204        1,031  
Accrued charitable contributions
     1,800     
Other
     631        465  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
Current accrued expenses and other liabilities
     69,305        61,268  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
Lease liability –
non-current
     3,091        3,188  
Due to licensor –
non-current
     1,859        2,497  
Other –
non-current
     748        485  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
Non-current
accrued expenses and other liabilities
     5,698        6,170  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total accrued expenses and other liabilities
   $ 75,003      $ 67,438  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
 
*During 2023, the Company sold FYCOMPA
®
through a Transition Service Agreement with Eisai. Effective January 1, 2024, FYCOMPA
®
is being sold and distributed through a 3PL organization.
 
11.
Collaborative
and Licensing Arrangements.
Endo, Inc.
In December 2018, the Company entered into a collaboration and license agreement (Collaboration) with Endo, Inc. (formerly, Endo International plc) (Endo), for the further development and commercialization of generic Sabril
®
(vigabatrin) tablets through Endo’s U.S. Generic Pharmaceuticals segment, doing business as Par Pharmaceutical, Inc. (Par). Under the Collaboration, Endo assumes all development, manufacturing, clinical, regulatory, sales and marketing costs under the collaboration, while the Company is responsible for exercising commercially reasonable efforts to develop, or cause the development of, a final finished, stable dosage form of generic Sabril
®
tablets.
In October 2023, Endo informed the Company that it has discontinued work on the Collaboration for development and commercialization of vigabatrin and that it wished to terminate the arrangement. As the Company proceeds with the termination process, the Company does not expect the end of the collaboration to have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
KYE Pharmaceuticals Inc.
In August 2020, the Company entered into a collaboration and license agreement with KYE Pharmaceuticals Inc. (KYE), for the commercialization of FIRDAPSE
®
in Canada.
Under the agreement, Catalyst granted KYE an exclusive license to commercialize and market FIRDAPSE
®
in Canada. KYE assumes all selling and marketing costs under the collaboration, while the Company is responsible for supply of FIRDAPSE
®
based on the collaboration partner’s purchase orders.
Under the terms of the agreement, the Company will receive an
up-front
payment, received payment upon transfer of Marketing Authorization and delivery of commercial product, received payment for supply of FIRDAPSE
®
, and will receive milestone payments and a sharing of defined net profits upon commercialization from KYE consisting of a
mid-double-digit
percent of net sales of FIRDAPSE
®
. The Company has also agreed to the sharing of certain development expenses. Unless terminated earlier in accordance with its terms, the collaboration continues in effect until the date that is ten years following the commercial launch of the product in Canada.
 
22

11.
Collaborative and Licensing Arrangements (continued).
 
This agreement is in form identified as a collaborative agreement and the Company has concluded for accounting purposes that it also represents a contract with a customer. This is because the Company grants to KYE a license and provides supply of FIRDAPSE
®
in exchange for consideration, which are outputs of the Company’s ongoing activities. Accordingly, the Company has concluded that this collaborative arrangement will be accounted for pursuant to Topic 606.
The collaborative agreement included a nonrefundable upfront license fee that was recognized upon transfer of the license based on a determination that the right is provided as the intellectual property exists at the point in time in which the license is granted.
Revenue from sales of FIRDAPSE
®
by KYE is recognized in the quarter in which the sales occurred.
Revenues from the arrangement with KYE for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 were not material.
Revenue is included in license and other revenue in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income. Expenses incurred, net have been included in selling, general and administrative expenses in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income.
DyDo Pharma, Inc.
On June 28, 2021, the Company entered into a license agreement with DyDo Pharma, Inc. (DyDo), for the development and commercialization of FIRDAPSE
®
in Japan.
Under the agreement, DyDo has joint rights to develop FIRDAPSE
®
, and exclusive rights to commercialize the product, in Japan. DyDo is responsible for funding all clinical, regulatory, marketing and commercialization activities in Japan, while the Company is responsible for clinical and commercial supply based on purchase orders, as well as providing support to DyDo in its efforts to obtain regulatory approval for the product from the Japanese regulatory authorities.
Under the terms of the agreement, the Company has earned an
up-front
payment and may earn further development and sales milestones for FIRDAPSE
®
, as well as revenue on product supplied to DyDo.
The Company has concluded that this license agreement will be accounted for pursuant to Topic 606. The agreement included a nonrefundable upfront license fee that was recognized upon the effective date of the agreement as the intellectual property exists at the point in time in which the right to the license is granted. The Company determined the granting of the right to the license is distinct from the supply of FIRDAPSE
®
and represents a separate performance obligation in the agreement.
The agreement includes milestones that are considered a sales-based royalty in which the license is deemed to be the predominant item to which these milestones relate. Revenue will be recognized when the latter of (a) the subsequent sale occurs, or (b) the performance obligation to which the sales-based royalty has been allocated has been satisfied. Additionally, the agreement includes regulatory milestone payments which represent variable consideration, and due to uncertainty are fully constrained and only recognized when the uncertainty is subsequently resolved. For clinical and commercial supply of the product, the Company will recognize revenue when the Customer obtains control of the Company’s product, which will occur at a point in time which is generally at time of shipment.
There was $
0 and $0.2 
million in revenue from the arrangement with DyDo for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively, which is included in product revenue, net in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income.
 
12.
Commitments and Contingencies.
In May 2019, the FDA approved a NDA for RUZURGI
®
, Jacobus Pharmaceuticals’ version of amifampridine
(3,4-DAP),
for the treatment of pediatric LEMS patients (ages 6 to under 17). In June 2019 the Company filed suit against the FDA and several related parties challenging this approval and related drug labeling. Jacobus later intervened in the case. The Company’s complaint, which was filed in the federal district court for the Southern District of Florida, alleged that the FDA’s approval of RUZURGI
®
violated multiple provisions of FDA regulations regarding labeling, resulting in misbranding in violation of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA); violated the Company’s statutory rights to Orphan Drug Exclusivity and New Chemical Entity Exclusivity under the FDCA; and was in multiple other respects arbitrary, capricious, and contrary to law, in violation of the Administrative Procedure Act. Among other remedies, the suit sought an order vacating the FDA’s approval of RUZURGI
®
.
 
23

12.
Commitments and Contingencies (continued).
 
On July 30, 2020, the Magistrate Judge considering this lawsuit filed a Report and Recommendation in which the Magistrate Judge recommended to the District Judge handling the case that the District Judge grant the FDA’s and Jacobus’ motions for summary judgment and deny the Company’s motion for summary judgment. On September 29, 2020, the District Judge adopted the Report and Recommendation of the Magistrate Judge, granted the FDA’s and Jacobus’ motions for summary judgment, and dismissed the Company’s case. The Company appealed the District Court’s decision to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 11
th
Circuit. The case was fully briefed in early 2021, and oral argument was held in March 2021.
On September 30, 2021, a three-judge panel of 11
th
Circuit judges issued a unanimous decision overturning the District Court’s decision. The appellate court adopted the Company’s argument that the FDA’s approval of RUZURGI
®
violated the Company’s rights to Orphan Drug Exclusivity and remanded the case to the District Court with orders to enter summary judgment in the Company’s favor. In November 2021, Jacobus filed a motion seeking rehearing of the case from the full 11
th
Circuit, which motion was denied in January 2022. Further, in January 2022, Jacobus filed motions with both the 11
th
Circuit and the U.S. Supreme Court seeking a stay of the 11
th
Circuit’s ruling indicating that it would seek a review of the 11
th
Circuit’s decision from the U.S. Supreme Court. Both stay motions were denied, and on January 28, 2022, the 11
th
Circuit issued a mandate directing the District Court to enter summary judgment in the Company’s favor. The District Court entered that order on January 31, 2022. On February 1, 2022, the FDA informed Jacobus that, consistent with the Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit’s September 30, 2021, decision in favor of Catalyst, the final approval of the RUZURGI
®
 
NDA was switched to a tentative approval until the
7-year
orphan-drug exclusivity (ODE) for FIRDAPSE
®
has expired.
On July 11, 2022, the Company settled certain of its disputes with Jacobus. In connection with the settlement, the Company licensed the rights to develop and commercialize RUZURGI
®
in the U.S. and Mexico (the Territory). Simultaneously, the Company purchased, among other intellectual property rights, Jacobus’ U.S. patents related to RUZURGI
®
, its new drug applications in the U.S. for RUZURGI
®
, and certain RUZURGI
®
inventory previously manufactured by Jacobus. At the same time, the Company received a license from Jacobus for use of its
know-how
related to the manufacture of RUZURGI
®
. Further, the Company settled its patent case against Jacobus, which was dismissed without prejudice. Finally, Jacobus agreed that until the later of (i) the expiration of the royalty term or (ii) December 31, 2034, Jacobus and its affiliates, will not, directly or indirectly, research, develop, manufacture, commercialize, distribute, use or otherwise exploit any product competitive to FIRDAPSE
®
or RUZURGI
®
in the Territory, and Laura Jacobus, the sole shareholder of Jacobus, and two of Jacobus’ other officers, also signed individual
non-competition
agreements containing the same terms.
In connection with the settlement with Jacobus, the Company agreed to pay the following consideration to Jacobus:
 
   
$30 million of cash, of which $10 million was paid at the closing of the settlement on July 11, 2022, $10 million was paid on the first anniversary of closing, and the remaining $10 million will be paid on the second anniversary of closing;
 
   
An annual royalty on our net sales (as defined in the License and Asset Purchase Agreement between Catalyst and Jacobus) of amifampridine products in the U.S. equal to: (a) for calendar years 2022 through 2025, 1.5% (with a minimum annual royalty of $3.0 million per year), and (b) for calendar years 2026 through the expiration of the last to expire of the Company’s FIRDAPSE
®
patents in the U.S., 2.5% (with a minimum annual royalty of $5 million per year); provided, however, that the royalty rate may be reduced and the minimum annual royalty may be eliminated under certain circumstances; and
 
   
If the Company were to receive a priority review voucher for FIRDAPSE
®
or RUZURGI
®
in the future, 50% of the consideration paid by a third-party to acquire that voucher will be paid to Jacobus.
The Company’s New Drug Submission filing for FIRDAPSE
®
for the symptomatic treatment of LEMS was approved when Health Canada issued a Notice of Compliance, or NOC, on July 31, 2020. In August 2020, the Company entered into a license agreement with KYE Pharmaceuticals, or KYE, pursuant to which the Company licensed to KYE the Canadian rights for FIRDAPSE
®
for the treatment of LEMS. On August 10, 2020, Health Canada issued a NOC to Medunik (Jacobus’ licensee in Canada for RUZURGI
®
) for the treatment of LEMS. Shortly thereafter, the Company initiated a legal proceeding in Canada seeking judicial review of Health Canada’s decision to issue the NOC for RUZURGI
®
as incorrect and unreasonable under Canadian law due to Medunik’s use of Catalyst’s protected data in its application. After two decisions by the trial judge to quash the RUZURGI
®
approval and remand the matter back to Health Canada, the Canadian Federal Appellate Court overturned the trial judge’s decision. The Minister subsequently reapproved RUZURGI
®
’s NOC for Canada in 2023. The Company does not expect the approval of RUZURGI
®
in Canada to have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
 
24

12.
Commitments and Contingencies (continued).
 
In January 2023, the Company received Paragraph IV Certification Notice Letters from three generic drug manufacturers advising that they had each submitted an Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) to the FDA seeking authorization from the FDA to manufacture, use or sell a generic version of FIRDAPSE
®
 in the U.S. The notice letters each alleged that the six patents listed in the FDA Orange Book covering FIRDAPSE
®
 are not valid, not enforceable, and/or will not be infringed by the commercial manufacture, use or sale of the proposed product described in these ANDA submissions. Under the FDCA, as amended by the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, as amended, the Company had 45 days from receipt of the notice letters to commence patent infringement lawsuits against these generic drug manufacturers in a federal district court to trigger a stay precluding the FDA from approving any ANDA until May 2026 or entry of judgment holding the patents invalid, unenforceable, or not infringed, whichever occurs first. In that regard, after conducting the necessary due diligence, the Company filed lawsuits on March 1, 2023 in the U.S. District Court for the District of New Jersey against each of the three generic drug manufacturers who notified the Company of their ANDA submissions, thus triggering the stay. Further, in October 2023, the Company received a Paragraph IV Certification Notice Letter from a fourth generic drug manufacturer, and the Company filed a similar lawsuit against the manufacturer in November 2023. The Company intends to vigorously protect and defend its intellectual property for FIRDAPSE
®
 
and, although there can be no assurance, the Company believes that its patent estate will protect FIRDAPSE
®
from generic competition for the life of the patents.
On February 20, 2023, the Company received a Paragraph IV Certification Notice Letter from a company that appears to have filed the first ANDA for the oral suspension formulation for FYCOMPA
®
. The same company sent a similar letter to the Company later in February with a similar certification for the tablet formulation for FYCOMPA
®
, the fourth such certification for this formulation. Both of these letters were paragraph IV certifications of
non-infringement,
non-validity,
and unenforceability to the ‘497 patent for FYCOMPA
®
but each application, like the previous Paragraph IV notices from ANDA filers, for FYCOMPA
®
tablets does not challenge the ‘571 patent. Similar to the actions with the FIRDAPSE
®
Paragraph IV Certifications described above, after due diligence the Company filed lawsuits on April 5, 2023, in the U.S. District Court for the District of New Jersey against the drug manufacturer who notified the Company of their ANDA submissions for both FYCOMPA
®
formulations, thus triggering the
30-month
stay for each application.
Additionally, from time to time the Company may become involved in legal proceedings arising in the ordinary course of business. Except as set forth above, the Company believes that there is no other litigation pending at this time that could have, individually or in the aggregate, a material adverse effect on its results of operations, financial condition, or cash flows.
 
13.
Agreements.
 
 
a.
LICENSE AGREEMENT FOR FIRDAPSE
®
. On October 26, 2012, the Company entered into a license agreement with BioMarin Pharmaceutical, Inc. (BioMarin) for the North American rights to FIRDAPSE
®
. Under the license agreement, the Company pays: (i) royalties to the licensor for seven years from the first commercial sale of FIRDAPSE
®
equal to 7% of net sales (as defined in the license agreement) in North America for any calendar year for sales up to $100 million, and 10% of net sales in North America in any calendar year in excess of $100 million; and (ii) royalties to the third-party licensor of the rights sublicensed to the Company for seven years from the first commercial sale of FIRDAPSE
®
equal to 7% of net sales (as defined in the license agreement between BioMarin and the third-party licensor) in any calendar year for the duration of any regulatory exclusivity within a territory and 3.5% for territories in any calendar year in territories without regulatory exclusivity.
On May 29, 2019, the Company and BioMarin entered into an amendment to the Company’s license agreement for FIRDAPSE
®
. Under the amendment, the Company has expanded its commercial territory for FIRDAPSE
®
, which originally was comprised of North America, to include Japan. Additionally, the Company’s commercial territory will be expanded under the license agreement to include most of Asia, as well as Latin America, upon the acceptance by the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) of a Japan MAA for FIRDAPSE
®
for LEMS. Under the amendment, the Company will pay royalties to our licensor on net sales in Japan of a similar percentage to the royalties that the Company is currently paying under its original license agreement for North America.
On December 18, 2023, DyDo filed a Japan NDA with the PMDA, which was accepted for filing upon its submission. As a result, the Company’s territory automatically expanded on that date to include most of Asia, as well as Latin America.
In January 2020, the Company was advised that BioMarin has transferred substantially all of its rights under the license agreement to SERB S.A., and SERB S.A. is now the Company’s licensor under the license agreement.
 
25

13.
Agreements (continued).
 
 
b.
LICENSE AGREEMENT FOR RUZURGI
®
. On July 11, 2022 (the Effective Date), the Company entered into an exclusive license agreement with Jacobus Pharmaceutical Company, Inc. (Jacobus), for the rights to develop and commercialize RUZURGI
®
in the U.S. and Mexico.
Pursuant to the terms of the license agreement, the Company paid Jacobus a $10 million
up-front
payment on the Effective Date and also paid an additional $10 million on the first annual anniversary of the Effective Date (July 11, 2023). The Company is obligated to pay an additional $10 million on the second annual anniversary of the Effective Date (July 11, 2024). The Company is also obligated to pay tiered royalty payments on net sales (as defined in the license agreement) of all of the Company’s products in the U.S. that range from 1.25% to 2.5% based on whether there is a competing product or generic version of FIRDAPSE
®
being marketed or sold in the U.S.
A minimum royalty payment exists annually for calendar years from the Effective Date through 2025 of $3 million, provided that such minimum annual royalty payment shall be prorated in the first calendar year of the agreement. As these minimum payments are both probable and estimable, they are included in the purchase price of the agreement and any royalties in excess of this amount will be charged to cost of sales as revenue from product sales is recognized. A minimum royalty payment exists annually for calendar years from 2026 through the expiration of the royalty term (which ends when there is no valid claim under the Company’s FIRDAPSE
®
patents in the U.S.) of $5 million unless a competing product or generic version of FIRDAPSE
®
is being marketed or sold in the U.S. If these minimum payments become probable in the future, the Company would recognize a contingent liability at that time with an offset to the value of the intangible asset acquired. Any royalties in excess of this amount will be charged to cost of sales as revenue from product sales is recognized. Royalties over the minimum, if any, will be paid based on the agreement terms on a quarterly basis.
Assets acquired as part of the license agreement include among other intellectual property rights, Jacobus’ U.S. patents related to RUZURGI
®
, its new drug applications in the U.S. for RUZURGI
®
, its Trademark for RUZURGI
®
, the Orphan Drug Designation for RUZURGI
®
and a license from Jacobus for use of its
know-how
related to the manufacture of RUZURGI
®
.
Additionally, the Company also purchased from Jacobus approximately $4.1 million of RUZURGI
®
inventory previously manufactured by Jacobus, which were recorded as an expense in research and development expenses in the consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive income for 2022.
Under business combination guidance, the screen test states that if substantially all of the fair value of the gross assets acquired is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or group of similar identifiable assets, the set is not considered a business and is accounted for as an asset acquisition. The Company has determined that the screen test was not met. However, the Company determined that the acquisition did not meet the definition of a business under ASC 805, Business Combination. The Company believes that the licensing agreement and other assets acquired from Jacobus are similar and considered them all to be intangible assets with the exception of the inventory acquired. As the screen test was not met, further determination was required to determine that the Company had not acquired inputs and processes that have the ability to create outputs, which would meet the requirements of a business, and therefore, determined that this was an asset acquisition. The Company accounted for the Jacobus license agreement as an asset acquisition under ASC
805-50,
which requires the acquiring entity in an asset acquisition to recognize assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on the cost to the acquiring entity on a relative fair value basis, which includes consideration given.
The total purchase price was allocated to the acquired assets based on their relative fair values, as follows (in thousands):
 
License and acquired intangibles
   $ 33,569  
Acquired research and development inventory expensed from asset acquisition
     4,130  
  
 
 
 
Total purchase price
   $ 37,699  
  
 
 
 
The straight-line method is used to amortize the license and acquired intangibles, as disclosed in Note 9 (License and Acquired Intangibles, Net).
 
26
13.
Agreements (continued).
 
 
c.
ACQUISITION OF U.S. RIGHTS FOR FYCOMPA
®
.
On January 24, 2023, the Company acquired the U.S. Rights for FYCOMPA
®
(perampanel) CIII a commercial stage epilepsy asset, from Eisai Co., Ltd. (Eisai). The aggregate consideration for the acquisition was $164.2 million in cash, including the reimbursement of certain liabilities and the payment of transaction costs.
Eisai was eligible to receive a contingent payment of $25 million if a certain regulatory milestone was met. As meeting the regulatory milestone was not probable, the Company did not recognize any amount related to the milestone payments in the purchase price. Additionally, after the loss of patent exclusivity for FYCOMPA
®
, the Company may be obligated to pay certain royalties to Eisai on net sales of FYCOMPA
®
. As the transaction is accounted for as an asset acquisition under U.S. GAAP, the Company will recognize the royalty payments in cost of sales as revenue from product sales is recognized.
Royalties commencing on loss of exclusivity for each calendar year during the royalty term equal to 12% on net sales greater than $10 million and less than $100 million, 17% on net sales of greater than $100 million and less than $125 million and 22% on net sales greater than $125 million prior to the date of generic entry. Royalties equal to 6% on net sales greater than $10 million and less than $100 million, 8.5% on net sales of greater than $100 million and less than $125 million and 11% on net sales greater than $125 million after the date of generic entry.
The following table summarizes the aggregate amount paid for the assets acquired by the Company in connection with the acquisition of FYCOMPA
®
(in thousands):
 
Base cash payment
   $ 160,000  
Cash paid for
pro-rated
prepaid expenses
     1,576  
Reimbursement on base purchase price
(i)
     (3,238
Transaction costs
(ii)
     5,870  
  
 
 
 
Total purchase consideration
   $ 164,208  
  
 
 
 
 
  (i)
Recorded in prepaid expenses and other current assets in the accompanying consolidated balance sheet as of the acquisition date and reimbursement was fully applied as of June 30, 2023.
  (ii)
As of March 31, 2024, the full $5.9 million has been paid in cash.
The acquisition of FYCOMPA
®
has been accounted for as an asset acquisition in accordance with FASB ASC
805-50.
The Company accounted for the acquisition of FYCOMPA
®
as an asset acquisition because substantially all of the fair value of the assets acquired is concentrated in a single asset, the FYCOMPA
®
product rights. The FYCOMPA
®
products rights consist of certain patents and trademarks,
at-market
contracts and regulatory approvals, marketing assets, and other records, and are considered a single asset as they are inextricably linked. ASC
805-10-55-5A
includes a screen test, which provides that if substantially all of the fair value of the assets acquired is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or group of similar identifiable assets, the assets acquired are not considered to be a business. ASC 805 requires the acquiring entity in an asset acquisition to recognize assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on the cost to the acquiring entity on a relative fair value basis, which includes consideration given.
The total purchase price was allocated to the acquired assets based on their relative fair values, as follows (in thousands):
 
Inventory
   $ 4,100  
Prepaid expenses and other current assets (samples)
     130  
Prepaid commercialization expenses
     1,576  
Property and equipment, net
     433  
License and acquired intangibles for FYCOMPA
®
     158,143  
Accrued preclinical and clinical trial expenses
     (174
  
 
 
 
Total purchase consideration
   $ 164,208  
  
 
 
 
The straight-line method is used to amortize the license and acquired intangibles, as disclosed in Note 9 (License and Acquired Intangibles, Net).
 
27

13.
Agreements (continued).
 
 
d.
LICENSE AGREEMENT FOR AGAMREE
®
(VAMOROLONE).
In July 2023, the Company completed its acquisition from Santhera of an exclusive license for North America for AGAMREE
®
 
(vamorolone), a treatment for patients suffering with DMD which was approved by the FDA on October 26, 2023. On March 13, 2024, the Company announced the U.S. commercial launch of AGAMREE
®
for the treatment of DMD in patients aged two years or older. The license is for exclusive commercial rights in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico, as well as the right of first negotiation in Europe and Japan should Santhera pursue partnership opportunities in those jurisdictions. Additionally, the Company will hold North American rights for any future approved indications of AGAMREE
®
. The Company made an
all-cash
initial payment of $75 million at the closing of the acquisition to acquire the license.
Under the license agreement, the Company pays: (i) royalties to the licensor until the later of expiration of product exclusivity or ten years from the first commercial sale of AGAMREE
®
equal to 5% of net sales (as defined in the license agreement) in North America for any calendar year for sales equal to or less than $100 million (prior to December 31, 2025 only), 7% of net sales for sales in excess of $100 million and up to $200 million, 9% of net sales for sales in excess of $200 million and up to $300 million, 11% of net sales for sales in excess of $300 million; and (ii) royalties to the third-party licensor of the rights sublicensed to the Company until the later of expiration of product exclusivity or ten years from the first commercial sale of AGAMREE
®
equal to 7% of net sales (as defined in the license agreement) in North America for any single calendar year for sales equal to or less than $250 million, 8.5% of net sales for sales in excess of $250 million and up to $500 million, 10% of net sales for sales in excess of $500 million and up to $750 million, 12% of net sales for sales in excess of $750 million and up to $1 billion, 13% of net sales for sales in excess of $1 billion and up to $2 billion and 15% of net sales for sales in excess of $2 
billion. Furthermore, the Company may pay Santhera sales-based milestones of up to $105 million as well as up to 11% percent royalties for all additional indications and milestones of up to $50 million for the first three additional indications.
Simultaneously, the Company made a strategic equity investment into Santhera by acquiring 1,414,688 of Santhera’s post reverse-split ordinary shares (representing approximately 11.26% of Santhera’s outstanding ordinary shares following the transaction), which are traded on the SIX Swiss Exchange, at an investment price of CHF 9.477 per share (corresponding to a mutually agreed volume-weighted average price prior to signing), with the funds invested into Santhera to be used by Santhera for Phase IV studies in DMD and further development of additional indications for AGAMREE
®
. The Company may also be obligated under certain circumstances to make milestone payments and to pay royalties to Santhera.
The following table summarizes the aggregate amount paid for the assets acquired by the Company in connection with the acquisition of AGAMREE
®
 
and the strategic equity investment (in thousands):
 
Initial cash payment
   $ 75,000  
Investment in Santhera
     13,465  
Transaction costs
     6,513  
  
 
 
 
Total purchase consideration
   $ 94,978  
  
 
 
 
The transaction has been accounted for as an asset acquisition in accordance with ASC
805-50.
The Company accounted for the transaction as an asset acquisition because substantially all of the fair value of the assets acquired is concentrated in a single asset, the rights to develop, commercialize and manufacture AGAMREE
®
. The AGAMREE
®
rights consist of certain licenses and regulatory approvals and are considered a single asset as they are inextricably linked. ASC
805-10-55-5A
includes a screen test, which provides that if substantially all of the fair value of the assets acquired is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or group of similar identifiable assets, the assets acquired are not considered to be a business. Additionally, the Company did not acquire a substantive process. ASC 805 requires the acquiring entity in an asset acquisition to recognize assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on the cost to the acquiring entity on a relative fair value basis, which includes consideration given. Goodwill is not recognized in an asset acquisition and any excess consideration transferred over the fair value of the net assets acquired is allocated to the
non-financial
assets based on relative fair values.
 
28

13.
Agreements (continued).
 
The total purchase price was allocated to the acquired assets based on their relative fair values, as follows (in thousands):
 
License and acquired intangibles for AGAMREE
®
 
(vamorolone) (IPR&D)
   $ 81,513  
Investment in Santhera
(i)
     13,465  
  
 
 
 
Total purchase consideration
   $ 94,978  
  
 
 
 
 
  (i)
The fair value of the investment in Santhera was determined based on the closing market price (CHF 8.25) of Santhera shares and the exchange rate (1.1537) of CHF to USD on the date the shares were transferred, July 19, 2023.
In accordance with FASB ASC
730-10-25,
as AGAMREE
®
(vamorolone) had not achieved regulatory approval when acquired, the portion of the purchase price allocated to the IPR&D asset acquired (which includes all transaction costs related to the transactions with Santhera) was immediately expensed to research and development. Milestone payments made are either expensed as research and development or capitalized as a developed asset based on when regulatory approval is obtained. As the transaction is accounted for as an asset acquisition under U.S. GAAP, the Company will recognize all sales-based milestone and royalty payments in cost of sales as revenue from product sales is recognized.
Following the approval of the NDA for AGAMREE
®
on October 26, 2023, the Company became obligated to make a milestone payment of $36 million to Santhera. The $36 million payment was made during the fourth quarter of 2023. The Company capitalized the $36 million payment which is amortized using the straight-line method over the product’s estimated useful life of 10.5 years.
The strategic equity investment in Santhera is accounted for as an investment in equity securities, and is recognized as a
non-current
asset, as the Company does not intend on selling the shares within 12 months. Since Santhera shares have a readily determinable fair value, the investment will be measured quarterly at fair value with changes reported in earnings in other income, net in the accompanying consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive income.
 
 
e.
AGREEMENTS FOR DRUG MANUFACTURING, DEVELOPMENT, PRECLINICAL AND CLINICAL STUDIES.
The Company has entered into agreements with contract manufacturers for the manufacture of commercial drug and drug and study placebo for the Company’s trials and studies, with contract research organizations (CRO) to conduct and monitor the Company’s trials and studies and with various entities for laboratories and other testing related to the Company’s trials and studies. The contractual terms of the agreements vary, but most require certain advances as well as payments based on the achievement of milestones. Further, these agreements are cancellable at any time, but obligate the Company to reimburse the providers for any time or costs incurred through the date of termination.
 
14.
Income Taxes.
The Company’s effective income tax rate was 20.0% and 20.8% for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. Differences in the effective tax and the statutory federal income tax rate of 21% are driven by state income taxes and anticipated annual permanent differences offset by equity compensation deductions.
The Company had no uncertain tax positions as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023.
 
15.
Stockholders’ Equity.
Preferred Stock
The Company has 5,000,000 shares of authorized preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share, at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023. No shares of preferred stock were outstanding at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023.
Common Stock
The Company has 200,000,000 shares of authorized common stock, par value $0.001 per share. At March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, 118,029,526 and 107,121,549 shares, respectively, of common stock were issued and outstanding. Each holder of common stock is entitled to one vote of each share of common stock held of record on all matters on which stockholders generally are entitled to vote.
 
29

15.
Stockholders’ Equity (continued).
 
Share Repurchases
In March 2021, the Company’s Board of Directors approved a share repurchase program that authorizes the repurchase of up to $40 million of the Company’s common stock, pursuant to a repurchase plan under Rule
10b-18
of the Securities Act. The share repurchase program commenced on March 22, 2021. No shares were repurchased during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.
2020 Shelf Registration Statement
On July 23, 2020, the Company filed a shelf registration statement with the SEC to sell up to $200 million of common stock, preferred stock, warrants to purchase common stock, debt securities and units consisting of one or more of such securities (the “2020 Shelf Registration Statement”). The 2020 Shelf Registration Statement (file no.
333-240052)
was declared effective by the SEC on July 31, 2020. The Company’s 2020 Shelf Registration Statement expired on July 31, 2023.
2023 Shelf Registration Statement
On September 8, 2023, the Company filed a shelf registration statement with the SEC to sell up to $500 million of common stock, preferred stock, warrants to purchase common stock, debt securities and units consisting of one or more of such securities (the “2023 Shelf Registration Statement”). The 2023 Shelf Registration Statement (file no.
333-274427)
became effective upon filing. On January 9, 2024, the Company completed a public offering of 10 million shares of its common stock, raising net proceeds of approximately $140.7 million under the Company’s 2023 Shelf Registration Statement.
 
16.
Stock Compensation.
For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, the Company recorded stock-based compensation expense as follows (in thousands):
 
    
2024
    
2023
 
Research and development
   $ 509      $ 339  
Selling, general and administrative
     7,739        2,553  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total stock-based compensation
   $ 8,248      $ 2,892  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
Stock Options
As of March 31, 2024, there were outstanding stock options to purchase 14,241,187 shares of common stock, of which stock options to purchase 8,869,384 shares of common stock were exercisable as of March 31, 2024.
During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, the Company granted seven-year term options to purchase an aggregate of 793,495 and 340,500 shares, respectively, of the Company’s common stock to employees. The Company recorded stock-based compensation related to stock options totaling $5.4 million and $2.2 million, respectively, during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.
During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, options to purchase 664,432 shares and 547,957 shares, respectively, of the Company’s common stock were exercised, with proceeds of $1.5 million and $1.3 million respectively, to the Company.
As of March 31, 2024, there was approximately $36.4 million of unrecognized compensation expense related to
non-vested
stock option awards granted under the 2014 and 2018 Stock Incentive Plans. The cost is expected to be recognized over a weighted average period of approximately 3.1 years.
Restricted Stock Units
The Company granted 35,693 restricted stock units and no restricted stock units during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, the Company recorded
non-cash
stock-based compensation expense related to restricted stock units totaling $2.9 million and $0.7 million, respectively.
As of March 31, 2024, there was approximately $7.8 million of unrecognized compensation expense related to
non-vested
restricted stock units granted under the 2018 Stock Incentive Plan. The cost is expected to be recognized over a weighted average period of approximately 3.1 years.
 
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Table of Contents

ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Introduction

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) is intended to provide an understanding of our financial condition, changes in financial condition and results of operations. The discussion and analysis is organized as follows:

 

   

Overview. This section provides a general description of our business and information about our business that we believe is important in understanding our financial condition and results of operations.

 

   

Basis of Presentation. This section provides information about key accounting estimates and policies that we followed in preparing our consolidated financial statements for the first quarter of fiscal 2024.

 

   

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates. This section discusses those accounting policies that are both considered important to our financial condition and results of operations and require significant judgment and estimates on the part of management in their application. All of our significant accounting policies, including the critical accounting policies, are also summarized in the notes to our interim consolidated financial statements that are included in this report.

 

   

Results of Operations. This section provides an analysis of our results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2024 as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2023.

 

   

Liquidity and Capital Resources. This section provides an analysis of our cash flows, capital resources, off-balance sheet arrangements and our outstanding commitments, if any.

 

   

Caution Concerning Forward-Looking Statements. This section discusses how certain forward-looking statements made throughout this MD&A and in other sections of this report are based on management’s present expectations about future events and are inherently susceptible to uncertainty and changes in circumstance.

Overview

We are a commercial-stage, patient-centric biopharmaceutical company focused on in-licensing, developing, and commercializing novel high-quality medicines for patients living with rare and difficult to treat diseases. We currently market three drug products, FIRDAPSE® (amifampridine), FYCOMPA® (perampanel), and AGAMREE® (vamorolone). We are also currently seeking to further expand our product portfolio, with a focus on acquiring the rights to late-stage products to treat rare (orphan) central nervous system and adjacent rare (orphan) diseases. With an unwavering patient focus embedded in everything we do, we are committed to providing innovative, best-in-class medications with the hope of making a meaningful impact on those affected by these conditions.

Our flagship U.S. commercial product is FIRDAPSE® (amifampridine) Tablets 10 mg approved for the treatment of Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, or LEMS, for adults and for children ages six and up. Further, on January 24, 2023, we closed our acquisition of the U.S. rights to FYCOMPA® from Eisai Co., Ltd. (Eisai) and are now also marketing that product in the United States (U.S.). FYCOMPA® (perampanel) CIII is a prescription medication used alone or with other medicines to treat focal onset seizures with or without secondarily generalized seizures in people with epilepsy aged four and older and with other medicines to treat primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in people with epilepsy aged 12 and older. Finally, on July 18, 2023, we closed our acquisition from Santhera Pharmaceuticals Holding, Inc. (Santhera) of an exclusive license for North America for vamorolone, a novel corticosteroid treatment for patients suffering from Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). On October 26, 2023, the FDA approved AGAMREE® (vamorolone) oral suspension 40 mg/ml for the treatment of DMD in patients aged two years and older, and on March 13, 2024, we announced the U.S. commercial launch of AGAMREE®.

FIRDAPSE®

On November 28, 2018, we received approval from the FDA for our new drug application, or NDA, for FIRDAPSE® Tablets 10 mg for the treatment of adult patients (ages 17 and above) with LEMS, and in January 2019, we launched FIRDAPSE® in the U.S. Further, on September 29, 2022, the FDA approved our supplemental NDA (sNDA) to expand the indicated age range for FIRDAPSE® Tablets 10 mg to include pediatric patients, six years of age and older for the treatment of LEMS.

We sell FIRDAPSE® through a field force experienced in neurologic, central nervous system or rare disease products consisting at this time of approximately 34 field personnel, including sales (Regional Account Managers), thought leader liaisons and patient assistance and insurance navigation support (Patient Access Liaisons). We also have a field-based force of 11 medical science liaisons who are helping educate the medical community about scientific literature concerning LEMS and FIRDAPSE®.

Additionally, we use non-personal promotion to reach the 20,000 neurologists who are potential LEMS treaters and the 16,000 oncologists who might be treating a LEMS patient who also has small cell lung cancer. Further, we continue to make available at no-cost a LEMS voltage gated calcium channel antibody diagnostic testing program for use by physicians who suspect that one of their patients may have LEMS and wish to reach a definitive diagnosis.

 

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Finally, we are continuing to expand our digital and social media activities to introduce our products and services to potential patients and their healthcare providers. We also work with several rare disease advocacy organizations (including the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America and the National Organization for Rare Disorders) to help increase awareness and level of support for patients living with LEMS and to provide education for the physicians who treat these rare diseases and the patients they treat.

We are supporting the distribution of FIRDAPSE® through Catalyst Pathways®, our personalized treatment support program for patients who enroll in it. Catalyst Pathways® is a single source for personalized treatment support, education and guidance through the challenging dosing and titration regimen required to reach an effective therapeutic dose. It also includes distributing the drug through a very small group of exclusive specialty pharmacies (primarily AnovoRx), which is consistent with the way that most drug products for ultra-orphan diseases are distributed and dispensed to patients. We believe that by using specialty pharmacies in this way, the difficult task of navigating the health care system is far better for the patient needing treatment for their rare disease and the health care community in general.

In order to help patients with LEMS afford their medication, we, like other pharmaceutical companies which are marketing drugs for ultra-orphan conditions, have developed an array of financial assistance programs to reduce out of pocket costs that makes FIRDAPSE® accessible and affordable. A co-pay assistance program has been designed to reduce commercial patients’ out of pocket costs to $0 whenever possible. Our FIRDAPSE® co-pay assistance program is not available to patients enrolled in state or federal healthcare programs, including Medicare, Medicaid, VA, DoD, or TRICARE. However, we are donating, and committing to continue to donate, money to qualified, independent charitable foundations dedicated to providing assistance to any U.S. LEMS patients in financial need, who meet those independent organizations guidelines. In addition, Catalyst has a safety net program in place for patients who are uninsured and underinsured. Subject to compliance with regulatory requirements, our goal is that no LEMS patient is ever denied access to their medication for financial reasons.

On August 4, 2023, we submitted an sNDA seeking to increase the indicated maximum daily dosage of FIRDAPSE® tablets for the treatment of LEMS from 80 mg to 100 mg. On October 13, 2023, we announced that the FDA had accepted for review our sNDA and assigned a Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA) action date of June 4, 2024. There can be no assurance that the FDA will approve our sNDA.

We are advised by our sub-licensee for FIRDAPSE® in Japan, DyDo Pharma, Inc. (DyDo), that on December 18, 2023, based on a preliminary favorable interim data analysis after six months into the safety phase of its registration study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of FIRDAPSE® for the treatment of LEMS, they filed a Japan NDA with the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) in Japan seeking approval to commercialize the product in Japan. The review period is expected to be approximately nine months from the submission date, and there can be no assurance that the NDA filing made by DyDo will be approved.

Further, upon acceptance of the Japan NDA by the PMDA, which occurred on December 18, 2023, our license for FIRDAPSE® automatically expanded to include other key markets in Asia and Latin America, and we are currently initiating plans to seek opportunities to expand FIRDAPSE®’s global footprint through strategic partnerships (with the current focus on the Asia Pacific and Latin American regions). However, no such arrangements have been entered into to date.

In January 2023, we received Paragraph IV Certification Notice Letters from three generic drug manufacturers advising that they had each submitted an Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) to the FDA seeking authorization from the FDA to manufacture, use or sell a generic version of FIRDAPSE® in the U.S. The notice letters each alleged that the six patents listed in the FDA Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (Orange Book) in connection with FIRDAPSE® are not valid, not enforceable, and/or will not be infringed by the commercial manufacture, use or sale of the proposed product described in these ANDA submissions. Under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDCA), as amended by the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, as amended, we had 45 days from receipt of the notice letters to determine if there were grounds to bring a lawsuit and, if so, to commence patent infringement lawsuits against these generic drug manufacturers in a federal district court, which would trigger a statutory stay precluding the FDA from final approval of the subject ANDA until May 2026 or entry of judgment holding the patents invalid, unenforceable, or not infringed, whichever occurs first. In that regard, after conducting the necessary due diligence, we filed lawsuits on March 1, 2023 in the U.S. District Court for the District of New Jersey against each of the three generic drug manufacturers who notified us of their ANDA submissions, thus triggering the stay. Further, in October 2023, we received a Paragraph IV Certification Notice Letter from a fourth generic drug manufacturer, and we filed a similar lawsuit against this manufacturer in November 2023 in the U.S. District Court for the District of New Jersey. All of these lawsuits are progressing.

 

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We intend to vigorously protect and defend our intellectual property for FIRDAPSE® and, although there can be no assurance, we believe that our patent estate will protect FIRDAPSE® from generic competition.

FYCOMPA®

On December 17, 2022, we entered into an agreement with Eisai for the acquisition of the U.S. rights to FYCOMPA® (perampanel) CIII. FYCOMPA® is a selective non-competitive antagonist of AMPA receptors, the major subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors.