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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission File Number 001-38176
VNTR-20191231_G1.JPG
Venator Materials PLC
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
England and Wales 98-1373159
(State or other jurisdiction (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
of incorporation or organization)  
Titanium House, Hanzard Drive, Wynyard Park,
Stockton-On-Tees, TS22 5FD, United Kingdom
+44 (0) 1740 608 001
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class Trading Symbol(s) Name of each exchange on which registered
Ordinary Shares, $0.001 par value per share VNTR New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.
Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated
filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated
filer
Smaller reporting
company
Emerging growth
company
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Yes  No 
The aggregate market value of the ordinary shares held by non-affiliates as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter (based on the closing price of $5.29 on June 28, 2019 reported by the New York Stock Exchange) was approximately $287,092,796.
As of March 10, 2020, the registrant had outstanding 106,735,634 ordinary shares, $0.001 par value per share.
 DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of Registrant’s Definitive Proxy Statement for the 2020 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders may be incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K. Alternatively, we may include such information in an amendment to this annual report on Form 10-K.


VENATOR MATERIALS PLC AND SUBSIDIARIES
2019 ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS
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GENERAL
Except when the context otherwise requires or where otherwise indicated, (1) all references to "Venator," the "Company," "we," "us" and "our" refer to Venator Materials PLC and its subsidiaries, or, as the context requires, the historical Pigments and Additives business of Huntsman, (2) all references to "Huntsman" refer to Huntsman Corporation, our former parent company, and its subsidiaries, (3) all references to the "Titanium Dioxide" segment or business refer to the titanium dioxide ("TiO2") business of Venator, or, as the context requires, the historical Pigments and Additives segment of Huntsman and the related operations and assets, liabilities and obligations, (4) all references to the "Performance Additives" segment or business refer to the functional additives, color pigments, timber treatment and water treatment businesses of Venator, or, as the context requires, the Pigments and Additives segment of Huntsman and the related operations and assets, liabilities and obligations, (5) all references to "other businesses" refer to certain businesses that Huntsman retained in connection with the separation and that are reported as discontinued operations in our consolidated and combined financial statements, (6) we refer to the internal reorganization prior to our initial public offering on August 3, 2017 (the "IPO"), the separation transactions initiated to separate the Venator business from Huntsman’s other businesses, including the entry into and effectiveness of the separation agreement and ancillary agreements, the entry into the senior secured term loan facility (the "Term Loan Facility"), the asset-based revolving facility (the "ABL Facility" and together with the Term Loan Facility, the "Senior Credit Facilities") and the 5.75% senior notes due 2025 (the "Senior Notes"), including the use of the net proceeds of the Senior Credit Facilities and the Senior Notes, which were used to repay intercompany debt we owed to Huntsman and to pay related fees and expenses, as the "separation," which was completed on August 8, 2017, and (7) the "Rockwood acquisition" refers to Huntsman’s acquisition of the performance and additives and TiO2 businesses of Rockwood Holdings, Inc. ("Rockwood") completed on October 1, 2014.

NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Certain information set forth in this report contains "forward-looking statements" within the meaning the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934. All statements other than historical factual information are forward-looking statements, including without limitation statements regarding: projections of revenue, expenses, profit, margins, tax rates, tax provisions, cash flows, pension and benefit obligations and funding requirements, our liquidity position or other projected financial measures; management’s plans and strategies for future operations, including statements relating to anticipated operating performance, cost reductions, construction cost estimates, restructuring activities, new product and service developments, competitive strengths or market position, acquisitions, divestitures, spin-offs, or other distributions, strategic opportunities, securities offerings, share repurchases, dividends and executive compensation; growth, declines and other trends in markets we sell into; new or modified laws, regulations and accounting pronouncements; legal proceedings, environmental, health and safety ("EHS") matters, tax audits and assessments and other contingent liabilities; foreign currency exchange rates and fluctuations in those rates; general economic and capital markets conditions; the timing of any of the foregoing; assumptions underlying any of the foregoing; and any other statements that address events or developments that we intend or believe will or may occur in the future. In some cases, forward-looking statements can be identified by terminology such as "believes," "expects," "may," "will," "should," "anticipates," "estimates" or "intends" or the negative of such terms or other comparable terminology, or by discussions of strategy. We may also make additional forward-looking statements from time to time. All such subsequent forward-looking statements, whether written or oral, by us or on our behalf, are also expressly qualified by these cautionary statements.
Forward-looking statements are based on certain assumptions and expectations of future events which may not be accurate or realized. Forward-looking statements also involve risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control. Important factors that may materially affect such forward-looking statements and projections include:
 
volatile global economic conditions;
cyclical and volatile TiO2 product applications;
highly competitive industries and the need to innovate and develop new products;
industry production capacity and operating rates;
high levels of indebtedness;
our ability to maintain sufficient working capital to fund our operations and capital expenditures, and service our debt;
our ability to obtain future capital on favorable terms;
planned and unplanned production shutdowns, turnarounds, outages and other disruptions at our or our suppliers' manufacturing facilities;
any changes to the prices at which we purchase raw materials and energy, any interruptions in supply of raw materials and energy, or any changes in regulations impacting raw materials and our supply chain;
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increased manufacturing, labeling and waste disposal regulations associated with some of our products, including the classification of TiO2 as a carcinogen in the European Union ("EU") or any increased regulatory scrutiny;
our ability to successfully grow and transform our business including by way of acquisitions, divestments and restructuring activities;
our ability to successfully transfer production of certain specialty and differentiated products formerly produced at our Pori, Finland manufacturing facility to other sites within our manufacturing network;
fluctuations in currency exchange rates and tax rates;
our ability to adequately protect our critical information technology systems;
impacts on the markets for our products and the broader global economy from the imposition of tariffs by the U.S. and other countries;
our ability to realize financial and operational benefits from our business improvement plans and initiatives;
changes to laws, regulations or the interpretation thereof;
differences in views with our joint venture participants;
EHS laws and regulations;
our ability to successfully defend legal claims against us, or to pursue legal claims against third parties;
economic conditions and regulatory changes following the exit of the United Kingdom (the "U.K.") from the EU;
seasonal sales patterns in our product markets;
our ability to comply with expanding data privacy regulations;
failure to maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting and disclosure;
our indemnification of Huntsman and other commitments and contingencies;
financial difficulties and related problems experienced by our customers, vendors, suppliers and other business partners;
failure to enforce our intellectual property rights;
our ability to effectively manage our labor force; and
the effects of public health crises, such as the COVID-19 coronavirus, on the global economy, our business, employees, supply chain and customers
conflicts, military actions, terrorist attacks, public health crises, including the occurrence of a contagious disease or illness, such as the COVID-19 coronavirus, cyber-attacks and general instability.

All forward-looking statements, including, without limitation, management’s examination of historical operating trends, are based upon our current expectations and various assumptions. Our expectations, beliefs and projections are expressed in good faith and we believe there is a reasonable basis for them, but there can be no assurance that management’s expectations, beliefs and projections will result or be achieved. All forward-looking statements apply only as of the date made. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise forward-looking statements whether because of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by securities and other applicable law.
There are a number of risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements contained in or contemplated by this report. Any forward-looking statements should be considered in light of the risks set forth in the "Part I. Item 1A. Risk Factors."
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PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Overview
We are a leading global manufacturer and marketer of chemical products that improve the quality of life for downstream consumers and promote a sustainable future. Our products comprise a broad range of innovative chemicals and formulations that bring color and vibrancy to a variety of applications, protect and extend product life, and reduce energy consumption. We market our products globally to a diversified group of industrial customers through two segments: Titanium Dioxide, which consists of our TiO2 business, and Performance Additives, which consists of our functional additives, color pigments, timber treatment and water treatment businesses. We are a leading global producer in many of our key product lines, including those within TiO2, color pigments and functional additives, a leading North American producer of timber treatment products and a leading European producer of water treatment products. Headquartered in Wynyard, U.K., we employ approximately 4,000 associates worldwide and sell our products in more than 110 countries. We became an independent publicly traded company following our IPO and separation from Huntsman Corporation in August 2017.
We operate in a variety of end markets, including industrial and architectural paints and coatings, plastics, construction materials, paper, printing inks, pharmaceuticals, food, cosmetics, fibers and films and personal care. Within these end markets, our products serve approximately 4,100 customers globally. Our production capabilities allow us to manufacture a broad range of high quality functional TiO2 products as well as specialty and differentiated TiO2 products that provide critical performance for our customers and sell at a premium for certain end-use applications. Our functional additives, color pigments and timber treatment products provide essential properties for our customers’ end-use applications by enhancing the color and appearance of construction materials and delivering performance benefits in other applications such as corrosion and fade resistance, water repellence and flame suppression. We believe that our global footprint and broad product offerings differentiate us from our competitors and allow us to better meet our customers’ needs.
For the year ended December 31, 2019, we had total revenues of $2,130 million. Adjusted EBITDA for the year ended December 31, 2019 was $194 million, which includes $197 million from our Titanium Dioxide segment and $47 million from our Performance Additives segment.
Our Titanium Dioxide and Performance Additives segments have evolved in recent years through certain site closures, reductions in operating costs and new product introductions. We have a well-established position in each of the industries in which we operate. We continue to implement business improvements within our Titanium Dioxide and Performance Additives segments which are expected to provide incremental benefit in our earnings as these programs are achieved.
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The table below summarizes the key products, end markets and applications, representative customers, revenues and sales information by segment as of December 31, 2019.

VNTR-20191231_G2.JPG

For additional information about our business segments, including related financial information, see "Part II. Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Note 26. Operating Segment Information" and "Part II. Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations."
Our Business
Venator manufactures high quality TiO2, functional additives, color pigments, timber treatment and water treatment products. Our broad product range, coupled with our ability to develop and supply specialized products into technically exacting end-use applications, has positioned us as a leader in the markets we serve. We are a leader in the specialty and differentiated TiO2 industry segments, which includes products that sell at a premium and have more stable margins than functional TiO2. We also have complementary functional additives, color pigments, timber treatment and water treatment
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businesses. We have 23 manufacturing facilities operating in nine countries with a total nameplate production capacity of approximately 1.2 million metric tons per year, excluding our plant in Pori, Finland, ongoing closure of which was announced in the third quarter of 2018. Of these facilities, seven are TiO2 manufacturing facilities in Europe, North America and Asia, and 16 are color pigments, functional additives, water treatment and timber treatment manufacturing and processing facilities in Europe, North America, Asia and Australia. For the year ended December 31, 2019, our revenues were $2,130 million.
Titanium Dioxide Segment
TiO2 is derived from titanium-bearing ores and is a white inert pigment that provides whiteness, opacity and brightness to thousands of everyday items, including coatings, plastics, paper, printing inks, fibers, food and personal care products. We own a portfolio of brands, including the TIOXIDE®, HOMBITAN®, HOMBITEC® and ALTIRIS® ranges, the products for which are produced in our seven manufacturing facilities around the globe (excluding our plant in Pori, Finland, ongoing closure of which was announced in the third quarter of 2018). We service over 1,700 customers in most major industries and geographic regions. Our global manufacturing footprint allows us to service the needs of both local and global customers, including AkzoNobel, Ampacet, BASF, Clariant, DSM, Flint, LyondellBasell, PPG, PolyOne, Sherwin-Williams and Sun Chemical. Annual industry demand for TiO2 products tends to correlate with GDP growth rates over time and is seasonal. This seasonality is subject to global, regional, end-use application and other factors.

We are among the largest global TiO2 producers, with nameplate production capacity of approximately 652,000 metric tons per year. We are able to manufacture a broad range of high quality TiO2 products for functional, differentiated and specialty applications. Our specialty and differentiated product grades generally sell at a premium into more specialized applications such as fibers, catalysts, food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.
There are two manufacturing processes for the production of TiO2; the sulfate process and the chloride process. We believe that the chloride process accounts for approximately 45% of global production capacity. Most end-use applications can use pigments produced by either process, although there are markets that prefer pigment from a specific manufacturing route—for example, the inks market prefers sulfate products whereas the automotive coatings market prefers chloride products. Regional customers typically favor products that are available locally. The sulfate process produces TiO2 in both the rutile and anatase forms, the latter being used in certain high-value specialty applications. Our production capabilities are distinguished from some of our competitors because of our ability to manufacture high quality TiO2 using both sulfate and chloride manufacturing processes, which gives us the flexibility to tailor our products to meet our customers’ needs. By operating both sulfate and chloride processes, we also have the ability to use a wide range of titanium feedstocks, which enhances the competitiveness of our manufacturing operations, by providing flexibility in the selection of raw materials. This mitigates, to some extent, fluctuations in availability for any particular feedstock and allows us to manage our raw material costs. 
Once an intermediate TiO2 pigment has been produced using either the chloride or sulfate process, it is "finished" into a product with specific performance characteristics for particular end-use applications. Co-products from both processes require treatment prior to disposal to comply with environmental regulations. In order to reduce our disposal costs and to increase our cost competitiveness, we have developed and marketed the co-products from the manufacture of titanium dioxide at our facilities. We sell approximately 45% of the co-products generated by our TiO2 business.
 
We have a broad customer base and have successfully differentiated our business by establishing ourselves as a market leader in a variety of niche end-use applications where the innovation and specialization of our products is rewarded with higher growth prospects and strong customer relationships.
 
Rutile TiO2
 
Anatase TiO2
 
Nano TiO2
Characteristics  
Most common form of TiO2. Harder and more durable crystal
  Softer, less abrasive pigment, preferred for some specialty applications  
Very small particles of either rutile or anatase TiO2 (typically less than 100nm in diameter)
Typical Applications   Coatings, printing inks, PVC window frames, plastic masterbatches   Cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, food, polyester fibers, polyamide fibers   Catalysts and cosmetics

Performance Additives Segment
Functional Additives. Functional additives are barium and zinc based inorganic chemicals used to make colors more brilliant, coatings shine, plastic more stable and alter the flow properties of paints. We are a leading global manufacturer of zinc
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and barium functional additives. The demand dynamics of functional additives are closely aligned with those of functional TiO2 products given the overlap in applications served, including coatings and plastics.
  Barium and Zinc Additives
Characteristics   Specialty pigments and fillers based on barium and zinc chemistry
Typical Applications   Coatings, films, paper and glass fiber reinforced plastics
 
Color Pigments. We are a leading global producer of colored inorganic pigments for the construction, coatings, plastics and specialty markets. We are one of three global leaders in the manufacture and processing of liquid, powder and granulated forms of iron oxide color pigments. We also sell complex inorganic colored pigments, carbon black and metal carboxylate driers. The cost effectiveness, weather resistance, chemical and thermal stability and coloring strength of iron oxide make it an ideal colorant for construction materials, such as concrete, brick and roof tile, and for coatings and plastics. We produce a wide range of color pigments and are the world’s second largest manufacturer of technical grade ultramarine blue pigments, which have a unique blue shade and are widely used to correct colors, giving them a desirable clean, blue undertone. These attributes have resulted in ultramarine blue being used world-wide for polymeric applications such as construction plastics, food packaging, automotive polymers, consumer plastics, as well as coatings and cosmetics.
Our products are sold under a portfolio of brands that are targeted to the construction sector such as DAVIS COLORS®, GRANUFIN® and FERROXIDE® and the following brands Holliday Pigments, COPPERAS RED® and MAPICO® focused predominantly on the coatings and plastics sectors.
Our products are also used by manufacturers of colorants, rubber, paper, cosmetics, pet food, digital ink, toner and other industrial uses delivering benefits in other applications such as corrosion protection and catalysis.
Our construction customers value our broad product range and benefit from our custom blending, color matching and color dosing systems. Our coatings customers benefit from a consistent and quality product.
  Iron Oxides   Ultramarines   Specialty Inorganic
Chemicals
  Driers
Characteristics   Powdered, granulated or in liquid form synthesized from a range of feedstocks   Range of ultramarine blue and violet and also manganese violet pigments   Complex inorganic pigments and cadmium pigments   A range of metal carboxylates and driers
Typical Applications   Construction, coatings, plastics, cosmetics, inks, catalyst and laminates   Predominantly used in plastics and also coatings and cosmetics   Coatings, plastics and inks   Predominantly coatings
 
Copperas, iron and alkali are raw materials for the manufacture of iron oxide pigments. They are used to produce colored pigment particles which are further processed into a finished pigment in powder, liquid, granule or blended powder form. Iron oxide pigment’s cost effectiveness, weather resistance, chemical and thermal stability and coloring strength make it an ideal colorant for construction materials, such as concrete, brick and roof tile, and for coatings such as paints and plastics. We are one of the three largest synthetic color pigments producers which together represent more than 50% of the global market for iron oxide pigments. The remaining market share consists primarily of competitors based in China.
 
Made from clay, our ultramarine blue pigments are non-toxic, weather resistant and thermally stable. Ultramarine blue pigments are used world-wide for food contact applications and are used extensively in plastics and the paint industry. Our ultramarine pigments are permitted for unrestricted use in certain cosmetics applications. We focus on supplying our customers with technical grade ultramarine blues and violets to high specification markets such as the cosmetics industry.


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VNTR-20191231_G3.JPG
 
Timber Treatment and Water Treatment. We manufacture wood protection chemicals used primarily in residential and commercial applications to prolong the service life of wood through protection from decay and fungal or insect attack. Wood that has been treated with our products is primarily sold to consumers through major branded retail outlets.
We manufacture our timber treatment chemicals in the U.S. and market our products primarily in North America through Viance, LLC ("Viance"), our 50%-owned joint venture with Dupont de Nemours, Inc ("DuPont"). Our residential construction products such as ACQ, ECOLIFE™ and Copper Azole are sold for use in decking, fencing and other residential outdoor wood structures. Our industrial construction products such as Chromated Copper Arsenate are sold for use in telephone poles and salt water piers and pilings.
We manufacture our water treatment chemicals in Germany, and these products are used to improve water purity in industrial, commercial and municipal applications. We are one of Europe’s largest suppliers of polyaluminium chloride-based flocculants with approximately 140,000 metric tons of production capacity. Our main markets are municipal and industrial waste water treatment and the paper industry.
Customers, Sales, Marketing and Distribution
Titanium Dioxide Segment
We serve over 1,200 customers through our Titanium Dioxide segment. These customers produce paints and coatings, plastics, paper, printing inks, fibers and films, pharmaceuticals, food and cosmetics.
Our ten largest customers accounted for 23% of the segment’s sales in 2019 and no single TiO2 customer represented more than 10% of our sales in 2019. Approximately 85% of our TiO2 sales are made directly to customers through our own global sales and technical services network. This network enables us to work directly with our customers and develop a deep understanding of our customers’ needs resulting in valuable relationships. The remaining 15% of sales are made through our distribution network. We maximize the reach of our distribution network by utilizing specialty distributors in selected markets.
Larger customers are typically served via our own sales network and these customers often have annual volume targets with associated pricing mechanisms. Smaller customers are served through a combination of our global sales teams and a distribution network, and the route to market decision is often dependent upon customer size and end-use application.
Our focus is on marketing products and services to higher growth and higher value applications. For example, we believe that our Titanium Dioxide segment is well-positioned to benefit from sectors such as fibers and films, catalysts, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and food, where customers’ needs are complex resulting in fewer companies that have the capability to support them. We maximize reach through specialty distributors in selected markets. Our focused sales effort, technical expertise, strong customer service and local manufacturing presence have allowed us to achieve leading market positions in a number of the countries where we manufacture our products.
Performance Additives Segment
We serve over 2,900 customers through our Performance Additives segment. These customers produce materials for the construction industry, as well as coatings, plastics, pharmaceutical, personal care and catalyst applications.
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Our ten largest customers accounted for 19% of the segment’s sales in 2019 and no single Performance Additives customer represented more than 10% of our sales in 2019. Performance Additives segment sales are made directly to customers through our own global sales and technical services network, in addition to utilizing distributors. Our focused sales effort, technical expertise, strong customer service and local manufacturing presence have allowed us to achieve leading market positions in a number of the countries where we manufacture our products. We sell iron oxides primarily through our global sales force whereas our ultramarine sales are predominantly through distributors. We sell the majority of our timber treatment products directly to end customers via our joint venture, Viance.
Manufacturing and Operations
Titanium Dioxide Segment
As of December 31, 2019, our Titanium Dioxide segment had seven manufacturing facilities operating in six countries with a total nameplate production capacity of approximately 652,000 metric tons per year.
Production nameplate capacities of our TiO2 manufacturing facilities are listed below.
  Annual Capacity (metric tons)
    North
America
     
Site
EMEA(1),(3)
APAC(2)
Total Process
Greatham, U.K. 150,000        150,000   
Chloride TiO2
Uerdingen, Germany 107,000        107,000   
Sulfate TiO2
Duisburg, Germany 100,000        100,000   
Sulfate TiO2
Huelva, Spain 80,000        80,000   
Sulfate TiO2
Scarlino, Italy 80,000        80,000   
Sulfate TiO2
Lake Charles, Louisiana(4)
  75,000      75,000   
Chloride TiO2
Teluk Kalung, Malaysia     60,000    60,000   
Sulfate TiO2
Total 517,000    75,000    60,000    652,000     

(1)"EMEA" refers to Europe, the Middle East and Africa.
(2)"APAC" refers to the Asia-Pacific region including India.
(3)Excludes our TiO2 plant in Pori, Finland, ongoing closure of which was announced in the third quarter of 2018.
(4)This facility is owned and operated by Louisiana Pigment Company L.P. ("LPC"), a manufacturing joint venture that is owned 50% by us and 50% by Kronos Worldwide, Inc. ("Kronos"). The capacity shown reflects our 50% interest in LPC.

Performance Additives Segment
As of December 31, 2019, our Performance Additives segment had 16 manufacturing facilities operating in seven countries with a total nameplate production capacity of approximately 525,000 metric tons per year.
  Annual Capacity (metric tons)
   
North
America
   
Product Area EMEA APAC Total
Functional additives 100,000        100,000   
Color pigments 85,000    40,000    20,000    145,000   
Timber treatment   140,000      140,000   
Water treatment 140,000        140,000   
Total 325,000    180,000    20,000    525,000   

Joint Ventures
LPC is our 50%-owned joint venture with Kronos. We share production offtake and operating costs of the plant with Kronos, though we market our share of the production independently. The operations of the joint venture are under the direction
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of a supervisory committee on which each partner has equal representation. Our investment in LPC is accounted for using the equity method.
Viance is our 50%-owned joint venture with DuPont. In the fourth quarter of 2019, it was announced that DuPont and International Flavors and Fragrances, Inc. ("IFF") entered into a definitive agreement for the merger of IFF and DuPont’s Nutrition & Biosciences business. We do not anticipate that this merger will have a material impact on our business. The merger is expected to close by the end of the first quarter of 2021. Upon closure, it is expected that DuPont’s interest in Viance will transfer to IFF. Viance markets our timber treatment products. Our joint venture interest in Viance was acquired as part of the Rockwood acquisition. The joint venture sources all of its products through a contract manufacturing arrangement at our Harrisburg, North Carolina facility, and we bear a disproportionate amount of working capital risk of loss due to the supply arrangement whereby we control manufacturing on Viance’s behalf. As a result, we concluded that we are the primary beneficiary and as a result, we consolidate the assets, liabilities and operating results of Viance into our consolidated and combined financial statements.

Pacific Iron Products Sdn Bhd ("PIP") is our 50%-owned joint venture with Coogee Chemicals Pty. Ltd. that manufactures products for Venator. It was determined that the activities that most significantly impact its economic performance are raw material supply, manufacturing and sales. In this joint venture we supply all the raw materials through a fixed cost supply contract, operate the manufacturing facility and market the products of the joint venture to customers. Through a fixed price raw materials supply contract with the joint venture we are exposed to the risk related to the fluctuation of raw material pricing. We concluded that we are the primary beneficiary and as a result we consolidate the assets, liabilities and operating results of PIP into our consolidated and combined financial statements.
Raw Materials
Titanium Dioxide Segment
The primary raw materials that are used to produce TiO2 are various types of titanium feedstock, which include ilmenite, rutile, titanium slag (chloride slag and sulfate slag) and synthetic rutile. The world market for titanium-bearing ores has a diverse range of suppliers with the four largest accounting for approximately 40% of global supply. The majority of our titanium-bearing ores are sourced from Canada, Africa, Australia and India. Ore accounts for approximately 50% of TiO2 variable manufacturing costs, while utilities (electricity, gas and steam), sulfuric acid and chlorine collectively account for approximately 30% of variable manufacturing costs.

The majority of the titanium-bearing ores market is transacted on short-term contracts, or longer-term volume contracts with market-based pricing re-negotiated several times per year. This form of market-based ore contract provides flexibility and responsiveness in terms of pricing and quantity obligations.
Performance Additives Segment
Our primary raw materials for our Performance Additives segment are as follows:
    Functional
Additives
  Color Pigments   Timber
Treatment
  Water
Chemicals
Primary raw materials   Barium and zinc based inorganics   Iron oxide particles, scrap iron, copperas, alkali   DCOIT, copper, monoethanolamine   Aluminum hydroxide
 
The primary raw materials for functional additives production are barite and zinc. We currently source barite from China, where we have long standing supplier relationships and pricing is negotiated largely on a purchase by purchase basis. The quality of zinc required for our business is mainly mined in Australia but can also be sourced from Canada and South America. The majority of our zinc is sourced from two key suppliers with whom we have long standing relationships.
We source our raw material for the majority of our color pigments business from China, the U.S., France and Italy. Key raw materials are iron powder and metal scrap that are sourced from various mid-size and smaller producers primarily on a spot contract basis.
The primary raw materials for our timber treatment business are dichloro-octylisothiazolinone ("DCOIT") and copper. We source the raw materials for the majority of our timber treatment business from China and the U.S. DCOIT is sourced on a long-term contract whereas copper is procured from various mid-size and larger producers primarily on a spot basis.
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The primary raw materials for our water treatment business are aluminum hydroxide, hydrochloric acid and nitric acid, which are widely available from a number of sources and typically sourced through long-term contracts. We also use sulfuric acid which we source internally.
Competition
The global markets in which our business operates are highly competitive and vary according to segment.
Titanium Dioxide Segment
Competition for Titanium Dioxide products is based on price, product quality and service. Our key competitors are The Chemours Company, Tronox Holdings plc ("Tronox"), Kronos Worldwide Inc. and Lomon Billions each of which has the ability to service global markets. Unlike our chloride technology, the sulfate based TiO2 technology used by our Titanium Dioxide segment is widely available. Accordingly, barriers to entry, apart from capital availability, may be low. The entrance of new competitors into the industry, the ability of existing or future competitors to increase production in low cost markets, and the development of proprietary technology that enables current or future competitors to produce functional grade products at a significantly lower cost, could render our technology uneconomic and reduce our ability to capture improving margins in circumstances where capacity utilization in the industry is increasing.
Competition within the specialty and differentiated TiO2 markets is based on technical expertise in the customers’ applications, customer service, product attributes (such as product form and quality), and price. Product quality is particularly critical in the technically demanding applications in which we focus as inconsistent product quality adversely impacts consistency in the end-product. Our primary competitors within specialty and differentiated TiO2 applications include Fuji Titanium Industry, Kronos Worldwide Inc., ISK, Sakai Chemical Industry Co., Tayca Corporation and Precheza a.s.
Performance Additives Segment
Competition within the functional additives market is primarily based on application know-how, brand recognition, product quality and price. Key competitors for barium-based additives include Solvay S.A., Sakai Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., 20 Microns Ltd., and various Chinese barium producers. Key competitors for zinc-based additives include various Chinese lithopone producers.
Competition within the color pigments market is based on price, product quality, technical capability, brand recognition and innovation. Our primary competitors within color pigments include Lanxess AG, Cathay Pigments Group, Ferro Corporation and Shanghai Yipin Pigments Co., Ltd.
Competition within the timber treatment market is based on price, customer support services, innovative technology, including sustainable solutions and product range. Our primary competitors are Lonza Group and Koppers Inc.
Competition within the water treatment market is based on proximity to customers and price. Our primary competitors are Kemira Oyj and Feralco Group.
Intellectual Property
Proprietary protection of our processes, apparatuses, and other technology and inventions is important to our businesses. When appropriate, we file patent and trademark applications, often on a global basis, for new product development technologies. For example, we have obtained patents and trademark registrations covering relevant jurisdictions for key product platforms related to Functional Pigments and Additives and Active Materials technologies. These platforms are used for solar reflection (ALTIRIS® pigments), to keep colored surfaces cooler when they are exposed to the sun, enhance air purification, improve catalytic processes (HOMBIKAT®) or lead to products that help manage heat in plastic applications or lead to metal deactivation in cables (SACHTOLITH®).

We own a total of approximately 642 issued patents and pending patent applications. Our patent portfolio includes approximately 41 issued U.S. patents, 396 patents issued in countries outside the U.S., and 205 pending patent applications, worldwide. While a presumption of validity exists with respect to issued U.S. patents, we cannot assure that any of our patents will not be challenged, invalidated, circumvented or rendered unenforceable. Furthermore, we cannot assure the issuance of any pending patent application, or that if patents do issue, that these patents will provide meaningful protection against competitors or against competitive technologies. Additionally, our competitors or other third parties may obtain patents that restrict or preclude our ability to lawfully produce or sell our products in a competitive manner. During 2019, we reviewed our patent
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portfolio to ensure it was aligned with our commercial interests and determined to abandon a number of patents to reduce the costs of maintaining our patent portfolio. This resulted in a reduction in our patent portfolio of over 300 issued patents.

We also rely upon unpatented proprietary know-how and continuing technological innovation and other trade secrets to develop and maintain our competitive position. There can be no assurance, however, that confidentiality and other agreements into which we enter and have entered will not be breached, that they will provide meaningful protection for our trade secrets or proprietary know-how, or that adequate remedies will be available in the event of an unauthorized use or disclosure of such trade secrets and know-how. In addition, there can be no assurance that others will not obtain knowledge of these trade secrets through independent development or other access by legal means.
In addition to our own patents, patent applications, proprietary trade secrets and know-how, we are a party to certain licensing arrangements and other agreements authorizing us to use trade secrets, know-how and related technology and/or operate within the scope of certain patents owned by other entities. We also have licensed or sub-licensed intellectual property rights to third parties.
Certain of our products are well-known brand names and we have approximately 950 global trademark registrations and applications. Some of these registrations and applications include filings under the Madrid system for the international registration of marks and may confer rights in multiple countries. However, there can be no assurance that the trademark registrations will provide meaningful protection against the use of similar trademarks by competitors, or that the value of our trademarks will not be diluted. In our Titanium Dioxide segment, we consider our TIOXIDE®, HOMBITAN®, HOMBITEC®, UVTITAN®, HOMBIKAT, DELTIO® and ALTIRIS® trademarks to be valuable assets. In our Performance Additives segment, we consider BLANC FIXE, GRANUFIN®, SACHTOLITH®, FERROXIDE®, ECOLIFE and NICASAL® trademarks to be valuable assets.
Environmental, Health and Safety Matters
General
We are subject to extensive federal, state, local and international laws, regulations, rules and ordinances relating to occupational health and safety, process safety, pollution, protection of the environment and natural resources, product management and distribution, and the generation, storage, handling, transportation, treatment, disposal and remediation of hazardous substances and waste materials. In the ordinary course of business, we are subject to frequent environmental inspections and monitoring and occasional investigations by governmental enforcement authorities. In the U.S., these laws include the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ("RCRA"), the Occupational Safety and Health Act, the Clean Air Act ("CAA"), the Clean Water Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act ("CERCLA"), as well as the state counterparts of these statutes.
In the EU, we are subject to numerous environmental, health and safety related provisions. EU regulations are automatically applicable to EU member states from the date they enter into force, while directives become binding upon incorporation into member states' national legislation. Incorporation of directives into national law must take place by the deadline set by the relevant directive, usually within two years. Applicable laws include Directive 2004/35/CE on environmental liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage, Directive 2008/98/EC on waste ("Waste Framework Directive"), Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste, the Seveso-III Directive on prevention of major accident hazards involving dangerous substances, Directive 2000/60/EC known as the EU Water Framework Directive, Directive 2010/75/EU on industrial emissions and Regulation (EC) 1907/2006 on the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals ("REACH"). Additionally, member states operate their own domestic legislation where not prescribed by EU law, including in the core areas of health and safety in the workplace, statutory nuisance and land contamination legislation, which are subject to national jurisdiction.

Following a referendum in June 2016, in which a majority of voters in the U.K. approved an exit from the EU, the U.K. government initiated the process to leave the EU, which resulted in the U.K. leaving the EU on January 31, 2020 (often referred to as "Brexit"). The U.K. is now in a "transition period" until December 31, 2020, during which time EU rules and regulations applicable to U.K. businesses will continue to remain in force. The future effects of Brexit remain unknown and will depend on any agreements the U.K. makes to retain access to the EU or other markets beyond the transitional period. Although a no-deal Brexit was avoided in January 2020, there is no certainty that a similar result will be avoided at the end of 2020. Given the lack of comparable precedent, it is unclear what environmental regulatory implications the withdrawal of the U.K. from the EU will have and how such withdrawal will affect our Company.

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In addition, our production facilities require operating permits that are subject to renewal, modification and, in certain circumstances, revocation. Actual or alleged violations of safety laws, environmental laws or permit requirements could result in restrictions or prohibitions on plant operations or product distribution, substantial civil or criminal sanctions, or injunctions limiting or prohibiting our operations altogether. In addition, some environmental laws may impose liability on a strict, joint and several basis. Moreover, changes in environmental regulations could inhibit or interrupt our operations, or require us to modify our facilities or operations and make significant environmental compliance expenditures. Accordingly, environmental or regulatory matters may cause us to incur significant unanticipated losses, costs or liabilities. Information related to EHS matters may also be found in other areas of this report including "Item 1A. Risk Factors," and "Part II, Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Note 23. Commitments and Contingencies —Other Proceedings and Note 24. Environmental, Health and Safety Matters."

We are subject to a wide array of laws governing chemicals, including the regulation of chemical substances and inventories under the Toxic Substances Control Act ("TSCA") in the U.S., and REACH, and the Classification, Labelling and Packaging Regulation ("CLP") regulation in Europe. Analogous regimes exist in other parts of the world, including China, South Korea, and Taiwan. Several other countries, including Turkey and Russia, have announced that they will be introducing similar systems in the future. In addition, a number of countries where we operate, including the U.K., have adopted rules to conform chemical labeling in accordance with the globally harmonized system. Many of these foreign regulatory regimes are in the process of a multi-year implementation period for these rules. For example, the Globally Harmonised System ("GHS") established a uniform system for the classification, labeling and packaging of certain chemical substances and the European Chemicals Agency ("ECHA") is currently in the process of determining if certain chemicals should be proposed to the European Commission to receive a carcinogenic classification.

Certain of our products are being evaluated under CLP regulation and their classification could negatively impact sales. On May 31, 2016, the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety ("ANSES") submitted a proposal to ECHA that would classify TiO2 as a Category 1B Carcinogen presumed to have carcinogenic potential for humans by inhalation. On June 8, 2017, the ECHA's Committee for Risk Assessment ("RAC") announced its preliminary conclusion that certain evidence meets the criteria under CLP to classify TiO2 as a Category 2 Carcinogen (described by the EU regulation as appropriate for "suspected human carcinogens") for humans by inhalation. The RAC published their final opinion on September 14, 2017, which proposed that TiO2 be classified as a Category 2 carcinogen by inhalation. In addition, the RAC proposed a note in their opinion to the effect that coated particles must be evaluated to assess whether a higher category (Category 1B or 1A) should be applied and additional routes of exposure (oral or dermal) should be included. After discussion with Member States and stakeholders, the European Commission concluded without a vote of the Member States that the classification of TiO2 as a Category 2 Carcinogen under the CLP Regulation is an appropriate measure. The European Commission first presented the proposed wording for the Entry of TiO2 in Annex VI to the CLP Regulation on June 12, 2018, and this wording has since been further amended. The latest version was published in the Commission Delegated Regulation on October 4, 2019 and applies to TiO2 in powder form meeting the size criteria in the proposed note. The regulation was sent for scrutiny by the European Parliament and the Council of the EU, and the scrutiny period came to an end on February 4, 2020. The regulation will enter into effect 20 days after its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union and will apply as of October 1, 2021. Member States, however, may choose to apply the regulation at any time after publication.

Adoption of the Category 2 Carcinogen classification will require that many end-use products manufactured with TiO2 be classified and labeled as containing a potentially carcinogenic component, which could negatively impact public perception of products containing TiO2. Such classification will also affect our manufacturing operations by subjecting us to new workplace safety requirements that could significantly increase costs. In addition, any classification, use restriction, or authorization requirement for use imposed by ECHA could trigger heightened regulatory scrutiny in countries outside the EU based on health or safety grounds, which could have a wider adverse impact geographically on market demand for and prices of TiO2 or other products containing TiO2 and increase our compliance obligations outside the EU. Any increased regulatory scrutiny could affect consumer sentiment or limit the marketability of and demand for TiO2 or products containing TiO2, which could have spill-over, restrictive effects under other EU laws, e.g., those affecting medical and pharmaceutical applications, cosmetics, food packaging and food additives. The classification could also require that all waste meeting the powder specifications in the proposed note be handled as hazardous waste, as separately determined by each Member State, which could result in significant impacts on our customers’ products, wastes from our operations and the implementation of Circular Economy efforts within the EU. It is also possible that heightened regulatory scrutiny could lead to claims by our employees or consumers of such products alleging adverse health impacts. Finally, the classification of TiO2 as a Category 2 Carcinogen could lead the ECHA to evaluate other products with similar particle characteristics (such as iron oxides or functional additives) for human carcinogenic potential by inhalation, which may ultimately have similar negative impacts on other products within our portfolio.
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Environmental, Health and Safety Systems
We are committed to achieving and maintaining compliance with all applicable EHS legal requirements, and we have developed policies and management systems that are intended to identify the multitude of EHS legal requirements applicable to our operations, enhance compliance with applicable legal requirements, improve the safety of our employees, contractors, community neighbors and customers and minimize the production and emission of wastes and other pollutants. We cannot guarantee, however, that these policies and systems will always be effective or that we will be able to manage EHS legal requirements without incurring substantial costs. Although EHS legal requirements are constantly changing and are frequently difficult to comply with, these EHS management systems are designed to assist us in our compliance goals while also fostering efficiency and improvement and reducing overall risk to us.
Environmental Remediation
We have incurred, and we may in the future incur, liability to investigate and clean up waste or contamination at our current or former facilities or facilities operated by third parties at which we may have disposed of waste or other materials. Similarly, we may incur costs for the cleanup of waste that was disposed of prior to the purchase of our businesses. Under some circumstances, the scope of our liability may extend to damages to natural resources. Based on available information, we believe that the costs to investigate and remediate known contamination will not have a material effect on our financial statements. At the current time, we are unable to estimate the total cost to remediate contaminated sites.
We are engaged in closure processes at two facilities in the EU and we are undertaking detailed assessments of the environmental status of these facilities as part of the closure processes. The assessment of the environmental status may lead to a requirement for environmental remediation as a part of any closure process. Although the detailed assessment of the environmental status at these facilities is not complete, based on available information, we believe that the costs to investigate and remediate known contamination will not have a material effect on our financial statements.

Under CERCLA and similar laws in other jurisdictions, a current or former owner or operator of real property may be liable for remediation costs regardless of whether the release or disposal of hazardous substances was in compliance with law at the time it occurred, and a current owner or operator may be liable regardless of whether it owned or operated the facility at the time of the release. Outside the U.S., analogous contaminated property laws, such as those in effect in the EU, can hold past owners and/or operators liable for remediation at former facilities. We have not been notified by third parties of claims against us for cleanup liabilities at former facilities or third-party sites, including, but not limited to, sites listed under CERCLA.
Under the RCRA in the U.S. and similar laws in other jurisdictions, we may be required to remediate contamination originating from our properties as a condition to our hazardous waste permit. Some of our manufacturing sites have an extended history of industrial chemical manufacturing and use, including on-site waste disposal. We are aware of soil, groundwater or surface contamination from past operations at some of our sites, and we may find contamination at other sites in the future. Similar laws exist in a number of locations in which we currently operate, or previously operated, manufacturing facilities.
During 2018 and 2019, China implemented new laws and regulations covering environmental contamination and created the Ministry for Environment Protection. Based on available information we do not believe that these regulatory changes will have a material effect on our financial statements.

Climate Change
Globally, our operations are increasingly subject to regulations that seek to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases ("GHGs"), such as carbon dioxide and methane, which may be contributing to changes in the earth’s climate. Increasing presence of climate change at the top of the global political and media agenda may lead to further domestic regulations and international agreements and commitments to restrict GHG emissions, all of which can lead to the necessity for increased investment in innovative energy sources and increased capital expenditure. The scope and speed at which climate change may impact business is difficult to predict, but it is likely to become a growing issue.

At the Durban negotiations of the Conference of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol in 2012, a group of nations, including the EU, agreed to a second commitment period for the Kyoto Protocol, an international treaty that provides for reductions in GHG emissions. More significantly, the EU GHG Emissions Trading System ("ETS"), established pursuant to the Kyoto Protocol. The European Parliament has used a process to formalize "backloading"—the withholding of GHG allowances during the trading period from 2014 to 2016 with additional allowances auctioned during 2019 to 2020—to prop up carbon prices. A sustainable solution to the imbalance between supply and demand requires structural changes to the ETS. The
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European Commission has established a market stability reserve as a long term solution to address the current surplus of allowances and improve the system’s resilience. The reserve started operating in 2019.

Stage 4 of the ETS will begin in 2021 and carry on to 2030, and will focus on increasing the pace of emissions cuts by reducing the overall emission allowances at an annual rate of 2.2% from 2021 onwards (compared to the current rate of 1.74%), in order to align with the EU's binding target to reduce domestic GHG emissions by at least 40% below the 1990 level by 2030. It is difficult to estimate at this stage what the cost impact of stage 4 of the ETS will be on our EU based business. The EU has also set a binding target of increasing the share of renewable energy to at least 27% of the EU’s energy consumption by 2030, and additional proposals have been made to increase the target to 35%. At the EU, steps are being taken to stabilize the ETS. The next UN talks on climate change will take place in the U.K. in November 2020.

In addition, at the 2015 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Paris, the U.S. and nearly 200 other nations entered into an international climate agreement, which entered into effect in November 2016 (the "Paris Agreement"). Although the agreement does not create any binding obligations for nations to limit their GHG emissions, it does include pledges to voluntarily limit or reduce future emissions. In August 2017, the U.S. informed the United Nations that it is withdrawing from the Paris Agreement and submitted its formal withdrawal application in November 2019, which would become effective in August 2020. The Paris Agreement's commitments were non-binding and many states responded to the notification of withdrawal by putting in place their own GHG commitments, notwithstanding the withdrawal.

Efforts to curb GHG emissions in the U.S. are led by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (the "EPA") GHG regulations and similar programs of certain states. To the extent that our operations are subject to the EPA’s GHG regulations and/or state GHG regulations, we may face increased capital and operating costs associated with new or expanded facilities. Significant expansions of our existing facilities or construction of new facilities may be subject to the CAA’s requirements for pollutants regulated under the Prevention of Significant Deterioration and Title V programs. Some of our facilities are also subject to the EPA’s Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases rule. Any further regulation, at state or federal level, may increase our operational costs, such as costs to purchase energy, additional capital costs for installation or modification of GHG emitting equipment, and additional costs associated directly with GHG emissions (such as cap and trade systems or carbon taxes).

We are already managing and reporting GHG emissions, to varying degrees, as required by law for our sites in locations subject to U.S. federal and state requirements, Kyoto Protocol obligations and/or ETS requirements. Although these sites are subject to existing GHG legislation, few have experienced or anticipate immediate significant cost increases as a result of these programs. Potential consequences of such restrictions include capital requirements to modify assets to meet GHG emission restrictions and/or increases in energy costs above the level of general inflation, as well as direct compliance costs. Currently, however, it is not possible to estimate the likely financial impact of potential future regulation on any of our sites.

Some scientists have concluded that increasing concentrations of GHGs in the earth’s atmosphere may produce climate changes that have significant physical effects, such as increased frequency and severity of storms, droughts, floods and other extreme climatic events. If any of those effects were to occur, they could have an adverse effect on our assets, operations and insurance costs. For example, our operations in low lying areas may be at increased risk due to flooding, rising sea levels or disruption of operations from more frequent and severe weather events and operations near forested areas may be at risk of wild fires.

Employees
As of December 31, 2019, we employed approximately 4,000 associates in our operations around the world. We believe our relations with our employees are good.
We place considerable value on the involvement of our associates and ensure that we keep them informed on matters affecting them, the overall organization as well as on the performance of the Company.

We conduct formal and informal meetings with associates, and maintain a Company intranet website with key information and other matters of interest.
 
We are committed to a policy of recruitment and promotion on the basis of competence and ability without discrimination of any kind. Management actively pursues both the employment of disabled persons whenever a suitable vacancy arises and the continued employment and retraining of associates who become disabled while employed by the Company.

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Information about our Executive Officers
The following table sets forth information, as of March 12, 2020, regarding the individuals who are our executive officers.
Name Age Position(s) at Venator
Simon Turner 56    President and Chief Executive Officer
Kurt Ogden 51    Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Russ Stolle 57    Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Chief Compliance Officer
Mahomed Maiter 58    Executive Vice President, Business Operations
Rob Portsmouth 54    Senior Vice President, EHS, Innovation and Technology
 
Simon Turner has served as President and Chief Executive Officer and as a director of Venator since the second quarter of 2017. Mr. Turner served as Division President, Pigments & Additives, at Huntsman from November 2008 to August 2017, Senior Vice President, Pigments & Additives, from April 2008 to November 2008, Vice President of Global Sales from September 2004 to April 2008 and General Manager Co-Products and Director Supply Chain and Shared Services from July 1999 to September 2004. Prior to joining Huntsman, Mr. Turner held various positions with Imperial Chemical Industries PLC ("ICI").
Kurt Ogden was named Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Venator in February 2019. Prior to then, he served as Venator's Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer from the second quarter of 2017. Mr. Ogden served as Vice President, Investor Relations and Finance of Huntsman from February 2009 until August 2017 and as Director, Corporate Finance from October 2004 to February 2009. Between 2000 and 2004, he was Executive Director Financial Planning and Analysis with Hillenbrand Industries and Vice President Treasurer with Pliant Corporation. Mr. Ogden began his career with Huntsman Chemical Corporation in 1993 and held various positions with related companies up to 2000. Mr. Ogden is a Certified Public Accountant.
Russ Stolle was named Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Chief Compliance Officer of Venator in February 2019. Prior to then, he served as Venator's Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Chief Compliance Officer from the second quarter of 2017. Mr. Stolle served as Senior Vice President and Deputy General Counsel of Huntsman from January 2010 until August 2017. From October 2006 to January 2010, Mr. Stolle served as Huntsman’s Senior Vice President, Global Public Affairs and Communications, from November 2002 to October 2006, he served as Huntsman’s Vice President and Deputy General Counsel, from October 2000 to November 2002, he served as Huntsman’s Vice President and Chief Technology Counsel and from April 1994 to October 2000 he served as Huntsman’s Chief Patent and Licensing Counsel. Prior to joining Huntsman in 1994, Mr. Stolle had been an attorney with Texaco Inc. and an associate with the law firm of Baker Botts L.L.P.
Mahomed Maiter was named Executive Vice President, Business Operations of Venator in February 2019. Prior to then he served as Venator's Senior Vice President, White Pigments from the second quarter of 2017. He has over 34 years of experience in the chemical and pigment industry covering a range of senior commercial, global sales and marketing, business development, manufacturing and business roles. From January 2007 to April 2017, Mr. Maiter served as Vice President Global Sales and Marketing, Vice President Revenue and Vice President Business Development of Huntsman’s Pigments and Additives business. From August 2005 to December 2006, he was Vice President of Huntsman’s European Polymers business. Mr. Maiter started his career in the chemical industry in 1985 when he joined the Tioxide business of ICI in South Africa where he held various operations and manufacturing roles. He relocated to the U.K. in June 1995 to take up a General Manager position in ICI in the Tioxide business and was subsequently appointed to Global Marketing Director and Vice President Commercial.
Rob Portsmouth has served as Senior Vice President, EHS, Innovation and Technology of Venator since January 2019. Dr. Portsmouth previously served as Vice President, Innovation of Venator since April 2017. He has over 27 years of experience in the chemical industry having started his career with Royal Dutch Shell in South Africa before joining the Tioxide business of ICI in South Africa in 1996 where he held roles in manufacturing, operations and technical management. Dr. Portsmouth relocated to the U.K. in 2003 where he served as Director of Global Marketing and Director of Business Development for Huntsman’s Pigments and Additives business between 2003 and 2017. Dr. Portsmouth received his Doctorate in Chemical Engineering from the University of Cambridge (U.K.). 
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Availability of Information for Shareholders
Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"), are made available free of charge on our Internet website at www.venatorcorp.com as soon as reasonably practicable after these reports have been electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"). The SEC also maintains an Internet website that contains reports, proxy statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at http://www.sec.gov. Information contained on or connected to our website is not incorporated by reference into this annual report on Form 10-K and should not be considered part of this annual report or any other filing we make with the SEC.

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
 
We are subject to certain risks and hazards due to the nature of the business activities we conduct. The risks discussed below, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows, results of operations and share price, are not the only risks we face. We may experience additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or, as a result of developments occurring in the future, conditions that we currently deem to be immaterial may ultimately materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows, results of operations and share price.
Risks Related to Our Business
Our industry is affected by global economic factors, including risks associated with volatile economic conditions.
Our financial results are substantially dependent on overall economic conditions globally, and particularly those in the U.S., Europe and Asia. Declining economic conditions globally or in any of these locations—or negative perceptions about economic conditions—could result in a substantial decrease in demand for our products and could adversely affect our business. The timing and extent of any changes to currently prevailing market conditions is uncertain, and supply and demand may be unbalanced at any time. Uncertain economic conditions and market instability make it particularly difficult for us to forecast demand trends. As a consequence, we may not be able to accurately predict future economic conditions or the effect of such conditions on our financial condition or results of operations. In addition, a deterioration in current economic conditions due to many factors or fears including public health crises, such as the impact of the COVID-19 coronavirus, could negatively impact us, our suppliers and customers. We can give no assurances as to the timing, extent or duration of the current or future economic cycles impacting the industries in which we operate.

In addition, a large portion of our revenue and profitability is dependent on the TiO2 industry. TiO2 is used in many "quality of life" products for which demand historically has been linked to global, regional and local gross domestic product and discretionary spending, which can be negatively impacted by regional and world events or economic conditions. Such events are likely to cause a decrease in demand for our products and, as a result, may have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. The future profitability of our operations, and cash flows generated by those operations, will also be affected by the available supply of our products in the market.
The market for many of our TiO2 products is cyclical and volatile, and we may experience depressed market conditions for such products.
Historically, the market for large volume TiO2 applications, including coatings, paper and plastics, has experienced alternating periods of tight supply, causing prices and margins to increase, followed by periods of lower capacity utilization resulting in declining prices and margins. The volatility this market experiences occurs as a result of significant changes in the demand for products as a consequence of global and regional economic activity and changes in customers’ requirements. The supply-demand balance is also impacted by capacity additions or reductions, including unplanned outages, that result in changes of utilization rates. In addition, TiO2 margins are impacted by significant changes in major input costs such as energy, titanium bearing ores and other feedstocks. Demand for TiO2 depends in part on the housing and construction industries. These industries are cyclical in nature and have historically been impacted by economic downturns. Relative changes in the selling prices for our products are one of the main factors that affect the level of our profitability. In addition, pricing may affect customer inventory levels as customers may from time to time accelerate purchases of TiO2 in advance of anticipated price increases or defer purchases of TiO2 in advance of anticipated price decreases.
The cyclicality and volatility of the TiO2 industry results in significant fluctuations in profits and cash flow from period to period and over the business cycle. For example, after a period of increasing average selling prices for functional and differentiated TiO2, which lasted until the first half of 2018, we experienced a decline in average selling prices from the second
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half of 2018 and throughout 2019. Our ability to successfully implement price increases depends on the current economic factors regionally and globally, including industry operating rates. A continued decline in selling prices, or the inability to successfully implement price increases in future periods could negatively impact our business, results of operations and/or financial condition.
The industries in which we compete are highly competitive, and we may not be able to compete effectively with our competitors that have greater financial resources or those that are vertically integrated, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The industries in which we operate are highly competitive. Among our competitors are companies that are vertically-integrated (those that have their own raw material resources). Changes in the competitive landscape could make it difficult for us to retain our competitive position in various products and markets throughout the world. Our competitors with their own raw material resources may have a competitive advantage during periods of higher or rising raw material prices. In addition, some of the companies with whom we compete may be able to produce products more economically than we can. Furthermore, some of our competitors have greater financial resources, which may enable them to invest significant capital into their businesses, including expenditures for research and development, or debottlenecking or other capacity expansions.
The global TiO2 market is highly competitive, with the top producers accounting for a significant portion of the world’s production capacity. Competition is based on a number of factors, such as price, product quality and service. Some of our competitors may be able to drive down prices for our products if their costs are lower than our costs. In addition, our TiO2 business competes with numerous regional producers, including producers in China, who have significantly expanded their sulfate production capacity during the past several years and more recently commenced the commercial production of TiO2 via chloride technology. The risk of our customers substituting our products with those made by Chinese producers could increase as the Chinese producers improve their quality levels and increase production capacity. Further, consolidation of our competitors or customers may result in reduced demand for our products or make it more difficult for us to compete with our competitors. The occurrence of any of these events could result in reduced earnings or operating losses.
While we are engaged in a range of research and development programs to develop new products and processes, to improve and refine existing products and processes, and to develop new applications for existing products, the failure to develop new products, processes or applications could make us less competitive. Moreover, if any of our current or future competitors develops proprietary technology that enables them to produce products at a significantly lower cost, our technology could be rendered uneconomical or obsolete.
In addition, certain of our competitors in various countries in which we do business, including China, may be owned by or affiliated with members of local governments and political entities. These competitors may get special treatment with respect to regulatory compliance and product registration, while certain of our products, including those based on new technologies, may be delayed or even prevented from entering into the local market.
Certain of our businesses use technology that is widely available. Accordingly, barriers to entry, apart from capital availability, may be low in certain product segments of our business. The entrance of new competitors into the industry may reduce our ability to maintain margins or capture improving margins in circumstances where capacity utilization in the industry is increasing. Increased competition in any of our businesses could compel us to reduce the prices of our products, which could result in reduced margins and loss of market share and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
Our indebtedness is substantial and a significant portion of our indebtedness is subject to variable interest rates. Our indebtedness may make us more vulnerable to economic downturns and may limit our ability to respond to market conditions, to obtain additional financing or to refinance our debt. We may also incur more debt in the future.

As of December 31, 2019, we had $375 million aggregate principal amount of Senior Notes outstanding, borrowings of $367 million under our Term Loan Facility and no borrowings under our ABL Facility, with $252 million of available borrowing. Our debt level and the fact that a significant percentage of our cash flow is required to make payments on our debt, could have important consequences for our business, including but not limited to the following:

we may be more vulnerable to business, industry or economic downturns, making it more difficult to respond to market conditions;
cash flow available for other purposes, including the growth of our business, may be reduced;
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our ability to refinance or obtain additional financing may be constrained, particularly during periods when the capital markets are unsettled;
our competitors with lower debt levels may have a competitive advantage relative to us; and 
part of our debt is subject to variable interest rates, which makes us more vulnerable to increases in interest rates (for example, assuming all commitments were available and all loans under the ABL Facility were fully drawn, a 1% increase in interest rates, without giving effect to interest rate hedges or other offsetting items, would increase our annual interest expense by approximately $4 million).

Our ability to make scheduled payments on or refinance our debt obligations depends on our financial condition and operating performance, which are subject to prevailing economic and competitive conditions and to certain financial, business, legislative, regulatory and other factors beyond our control. We may be unable to maintain a level of cash flows from operating activities sufficient to permit us to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on our indebtedness. Our inability to generate sufficient cash flows to satisfy our debt obligations, or to refinance our indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms or at all, would materially and adversely affect our financial position and results of operations.

In addition, the availability and cost of credit for our businesses may be significantly affected by credit ratings. The credit rating agencies periodically review our ratings, considering factors such as our capital structure, earnings profile, and the condition of our industry and the credit markets generally. Credit ratings are subject to revision or withdrawal at any time by the assigning rating organization. A drop in our credit ratings could adversely impact our business, cash flows, results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and our ability to obtain additional financing or to refinance our debt.

Any negative rating action could adversely affect our ability to access capital at rates and on terms that are attractive. A negative rating action could also adversely impact our business relationships with suppliers and operating partners, who may be less willing to extend credit or offer us similarly favorable terms as secured in the past under such circumstances. The result of such impacts may be material and could adversely affect our cash flows, results of operations and financial condition.

We may need additional capital in the future and may not be able to obtain it on favorable terms.
Our TiO2 business is capital intensive, and our success depends to a significant degree on our ability to develop and market innovative products and to maintain and update our facilities and process technology. We may require additional capital in the future to finance our growth and development, implement further marketing and sales activities, fund ongoing research and development activities, fund the ongoing closure of our Pori, Finland manufacturing facility and meet general working capital needs. Our capital requirements will depend on many factors, including acceptance of, and demand for, our products, the extent to which we invest in new technology and research and development projects, and the status and timing of these developments, as well as general availability of capital from debt and/or equity markets. Additional financing may not be available when needed on terms favorable to us, or at all. Further, the terms of the separation agreement, our debt or other agreements limit our ability to incur additional indebtedness or issue additional equity. If we are unable to obtain adequate funds on acceptable terms, we may be unable to develop or enhance our products, take advantage of future opportunities or respond to competitive pressures, which could harm our business.
If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flow from our operations, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
We are responsible for obtaining and maintaining sufficient working capital, funding our capital expenditure requirements and servicing our own debt. We may not generate sufficient funds to service our debt and meet our business needs, such as funding working capital, pension obligations, capital expenditures, restructuring activities or the transfer of our existing manufacturing operations to other parts of our business. Our ability to generate cash is subject in part to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash or repay or refinance our debt as it becomes due, we may be forced to take disadvantageous actions, including reducing spending on marketing and new product innovation, reducing financing in the future for working capital, capital expenditures and general corporate purposes, selling assets or dedicating an unsustainable level of our cash flow from operations to the payment of principal and interest on our indebtedness. In addition, our ability to withstand competitive pressures and to react to changes in our industry could be impaired.
Our customers, prospective customers, suppliers or other companies with whom we conduct business may need assurances that our financial stability is sufficient to satisfy their requirements for doing or continuing to do business with them.
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Some of our customers, prospective customers, suppliers or other companies with whom we conduct business may need assurances that our financial stability is sufficient to satisfy their requirements for doing or continuing to do business with them, and may require us to provide additional credit support, such as letters of credit or other financial guarantees. Any failure of parties to be satisfied with our financial stability could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Disruptions in production at our manufacturing facilities may have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and/or financial condition.
Manufacturing facilities in our industry are subject to planned and unplanned production shutdowns, turnarounds, outages and other disruptions. Any serious disruption at any of our facilities could impair our ability to use our facilities and have a material adverse impact on our revenues and increase our costs and expenses. Alternative facilities with sufficient capacity may not be available, may cost substantially more or may take significant time to increase production or qualify with our customers, any of which could negatively impact our business, results of operations and/or financial condition. Long-term production disruptions may cause our customers to seek alternative supply which could further adversely affect our profitability. Unplanned production disruptions may occur for external reasons including natural disasters, weather, disease, strikes, power outages, telecommunication or utility failures, transportation interruption, government regulation, flood, political unrest, public crises, war or terrorism, or internal reasons, such as fire, unplanned maintenance or other manufacturing problems. Any such production disruption could have a material impact on our cash flows, results of operations and financial condition.
In addition, we rely on a number of vendors, suppliers and, in some cases, sole-source suppliers, service providers, toll manufacturers and collaborations with other industry participants to provide us with chemicals, feedstocks and other raw materials, along with energy sources and, in certain cases, facilities that we need to operate our business. If the business of these third parties is disrupted, some of these companies could be forced to reduce their output, shut down their operations or file for bankruptcy protection. If this were to occur, it could adversely affect their ability to provide us with the raw materials, energy sources or facilities that we need, which could materially disrupt our operations, including the production of certain of our products. Moreover, it could be difficult to find replacements for certain of our business partners without incurring significant delays or cost increases. All of these risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.

While we maintain business recovery plans that are intended to allow us to recover from natural disasters or other events that could disrupt our business, we cannot provide assurances that our plans would fully protect us from the effects of all such disasters or from events that might increase in frequency or intensity due to climate change. In addition, insurance may not adequately compensate us for any losses incurred as a result of natural or other disasters. In areas prone to frequent natural or other disasters, insurance may become increasingly expensive or not available at all. Furthermore, some potential climate-driven losses, particularly flooding due to sea-level rises, may pose long-term risks to our physical facilities such that operations cannot be restored in their current locations.
The classification of TiO2 as a Category 2 Carcinogen in the EU, or any increased regulatory scrutiny, could decrease demand for our products and subject us to manufacturing and waste disposal regulations that could significantly increase our costs.
The EU has adopted the Globally Harmonised System of the United Nations for a uniform system for the classification, labelling and packaging of chemical substances in Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008. Pursuant to the CLP, an EU Member State can propose a classification for a substance to the European Chemicals Agency, which upon review by the RAC, can be submitted to the European Commission for adoption by regulation. On May 31, 2016, the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety submitted a proposal to ECHA that would classify TiO2 as a Category 1B Carcinogen presumed to have carcinogenic potential for humans by inhalation. On June 8, 2017, the RAC announced its preliminary conclusion that certain evidence meets the criteria under CLP to classify TiO2 as a Category 2 Carcinogen (described by the EU regulation as appropriate for "suspected human carcinogens") for humans by inhalation. The RAC published their final opinion on September 14, 2017, which proposed that TiO2 be classified as a Category 2 carcinogen by inhalation. In addition, the RAC proposed a note in their opinion to the effect that coated particles must be evaluated to assess whether a higher category (Category 1B or 1A) should be applied and additional routes of exposure (oral or dermal) should be included. After discussion with Member States and stakeholders, the European Commission concluded without a vote of the Member States that the classification of TiO2 as a Category 2 Carcinogen under the CLP Regulation is an appropriate measure. The European Commission first presented the proposed wording for the Entry of TiO2 in Annex VI to the CLP Regulation on June 12, 2018, and this wording has since been further amended. The latest version was published in the draft Commission Delegated Regulation on October 4, 2019 and applies to TiO2 in powder form meeting the size criteria in the RAC note to their
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opinion. The regulation was sent for scrutiny by the European Parliament and the Council of the EU, and the scrutiny period came to an end on February 4, 2020. The regulation will enter into force 20 days after its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union and will apply as of October 1, 2021. Member States, however, may choose to apply the regulation at any time after publication.

Adoption of the Category 2 Carcinogen classification will require that many end-use products manufactured with TiO2 be classified and labeled as containing a potentially carcinogenic component, which could negatively impact public perception of products containing TiO2. Such classification will also affect our manufacturing operations by subjecting us to new workplace safety requirements that could significantly increase costs. In addition, any classification, use restriction, or authorization requirement for use imposed by ECHA could trigger heightened regulatory scrutiny in countries outside the EU based on health or safety grounds, which could have a wider adverse impact geographically on market demand for and prices of TiO2 or other products containing TiO2 and increase our compliance obligations outside the EU. Any increased regulatory scrutiny could affect consumer sentiment or limit the marketability of and demand for TiO2 or products containing TiO2, which could have spill-over, restrictive effects under other EU laws, e.g., those affecting medical and pharmaceutical applications, cosmetics, food packaging and food additives. The classification could also require that all waste meeting the powder specifications in the proposed note be handled as hazardous waste, as separately determined by each Member State, which could result in significant impacts on our customers’ products, wastes from our operations and the implementation of Circular Economy efforts within the EU. It is also possible that heightened regulatory scrutiny could lead to claims by employees or consumers of such products alleging adverse health impacts. Finally, the classification of TiO2 as a Category 2 Carcinogen could lead the ECHA to evaluate other products with similar particle characteristics (such as iron oxides or functional additives) for human carcinogenic potential by inhalation, which may ultimately have similar negative impacts on other products within our portfolio.

Sales of TiO2 in the EU represented 44% of our revenues for the year ended December 31, 2019.
Restrictions on disposal of waste from our manufacturing processes could result in higher costs and negatively impact our ability to operate our manufacturing facilities.
A variety of materials are generated by our manufacturing processes, some of which are saleable as products or byproducts and others of which are not and must be reused or disposed of as waste. Storage, transportation, reuse and disposal of waste are generally regulated by governmental authorities in the jurisdictions in which we operate. If existing arrangements for reuse or disposal of waste cease to be available to us, as a result of new rules, regulations or interpretations thereof, exhaustion of reclamation activities, landfill closures, or otherwise, we will need to find new arrangements for reuse or disposal, which could result in increased costs to us and negatively impact our consolidated and combined financial statements. For example, gypsum is generated by our TiO2 manufacturing facilities that use the sulfate process, such as those at Scarlino, Italy and Teluk Kalong, Malaysia. The gypsum from our Scarlino facility is currently used in the reclamation of a nearby former quarry and our existing permit allows continued use of the quarry for approximately a further 10 months. We are currently seeking an extension for the continued use of the remaining reclamation capacity. We are also currently pursuing replacement options for sale, reuse and/or disposal of gypsum produced at the Scarlino facility. Such options generally require governmental approval and there can be no assurance that such approvals will be received in a timely manner or at all. Any classification of waste material produced at our facilities as hazardous is likely to have an adverse impact on obtaining such approvals. Failure to find viable new disposal arrangements for these materials, including those originating at our Scarlino, Italy site, could significantly impact our manufacturing operations, up to and including the temporary or permanent closure of related manufacturing facilities.

In addition, in connection with the classification in the European Union of TiO2 as a Category 2 Carcinogen, Member States could require that all wastes in a powder form meeting the specifications in the RAC note be classified as hazardous waste. This could result in significant changes to how wastes from our operations in the EU (including at our Scarlino, Italy site and elsewhere) are handled, including additional or more stringent manufacturing regulations, labelling requirements, transportation logistics, and other requirements regarding the ability to reuse or sell byproducts, or otherwise dispose of such materials. Any such regulations could have a significant impact on our manufacturing operations and results of operations.

Significant price volatility or interruptions in supply of raw materials and energy may result in increased costs that we may be unable to pass on to our customers, which could reduce our profitability.
Our manufacturing processes consume significant amounts of raw materials and energy, the costs of which are subject to worldwide supply and demand as well as other factors beyond our control. Variations in the cost for raw materials and energy, which primarily reflects market prices for oil and natural gas, may significantly affect our operating results from period to period. We purchase a substantial portion of our raw materials from third-party suppliers and the cost of these raw materials
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represents a substantial portion of our operating expenses. The prices of the raw materials that we purchase from third parties are cyclical and volatile. Our supply agreements with our TiO2 feedstock suppliers provide us limited protection against price volatility as they mostly provide for market-based pricing. Contracts tend to be multi-year volume based with negotiated or formula driven short interval pricing. To the extent we do not have fixed price contracts with respect to specific raw materials, we have no control over the costs of raw materials and such costs may fluctuate widely for a variety of reasons, including changes in availability, major capacity additions or reductions, or significant facility operating problems. While we attempt to match cost increases with corresponding product price increases, we are not always able to raise product prices immediately or at all. Moreover, the outcome of these efforts is largely determined by existing competitive and economic conditions. Timing differences between raw material prices, which may change daily, and contract product prices, which in many cases are negotiated only monthly or less often, also have had and may continue to have a negative effect on our cash flow. Any raw materials or energy cost increase that we are not able to pass on to our customers could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
There are several raw materials for which there are only a limited number of suppliers or a single supplier. For example, certain types of titanium-containing feedstocks suitable for use in our TiO2 facilities are available from a limited number of suppliers around the world. To mitigate potential supply constraints, we enter into supply agreements with particular suppliers, evaluate alternative sources of supply and evaluate alternative technologies to avoid reliance on limited or sole-source suppliers. Where supply relationships are concentrated, particular attention is paid by the parties to ensure strategic intentions are aligned to facilitate long term planning. If certain of our suppliers are unable to meet their obligations under present supply agreements, we may be forced to pay higher prices to obtain the necessary raw materials from other sources and we may not be able to increase prices for our finished products to recoup the higher raw materials costs. Any interruption in the supply of raw materials could increase our costs or decrease our revenues, which could reduce our cash flow. The inability of a supplier to meet our raw material needs could have a material adverse effect on our financial statements and results of operations.
The number of sources for and availability of certain raw materials is also specific to the particular geographical region in which a facility is located. Political and economic instability in the countries from which we purchase our raw material supplies could adversely affect their availability. In addition, if raw materials become unavailable within a geographic area from which they are now sourced, then we may not be able to obtain suitable or cost-effective substitutes. We may also experience higher operating costs such as energy costs, which could affect our profitability. We may not always be able to increase our selling prices to offset the impact of any higher productions costs or reduced production levels, which could reduce our earnings and decrease our liquidity.
If we are unable to successfully implement business improvements, we may not realize the benefits we anticipate from such programs or may incur additional and/or unexpected costs in order to realize them.
We continue to be intensely focused on strengthening our business and improving our cash flow. We commenced our 2019 Business Improvement Program in the fourth quarter of 2018 following the completion of our prior program. This cost and operational improvement program is designed to generate additional EBITDA benefits through an improvement in TiO2 manufacturing efficiencies, a reduction in selling, general and administrative and manufacturing expenses and other operational improvements in our Performance Additives segment. We intend to complete all the actions necessary to deliver on our target by the end of 2020.

Cost savings expectations are inherently difficult to predict and are necessarily speculative in nature, and we cannot provide assurance that we will achieve expected or any actual cost savings. A variety of factors could cause us not to realize some or all of the expected cost savings, including, among others, delays in the anticipated timing of activities related to our cost savings programs, lack of sustainability in cost savings over time, unexpected costs associated with operating our business, our ability to reduce headcount and our ability to achieve the efficiencies contemplated by the cost savings initiative. We may be unable to realize all of these cost savings within the expected timeframe, or at all, and we may incur additional or unexpected costs in order to realize them. These cost savings are based upon a number of assumptions and estimates that are in turn based on our analysis of the various factors which currently, and could in the future, impact our business. These assumptions and estimates are inherently uncertain and subject to significant business, operational, economic and competitive uncertainties and contingencies. Certain of the assumptions relate to business decisions that are subject to change, including, among others, our anticipated business strategies, our marketing strategies, our product development strategies and our ability to anticipate and react to business trends. Other assumptions relate to risks and uncertainties beyond our control, including, among others, the economic environment in which we operate, environmental regulation and other developments in our industry as well as capital markets conditions from time to time. The actual results of implementing the various cost savings initiatives may differ materially from the estimates set out in this report if any of these assumptions prove incorrect. Moreover, our continued efforts to implement these cost savings may divert management attention from the rest of our business and may preclude us from seeking attractive new product opportunities, any of which may materially and adversely affect our business.

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We may be unsuccessful in our announced intentions to close the Pori, Finland site and transfer specialty and differentiated production to other sites within our manufacturing network within the anticipated timeframe and costs and we may not experience the full anticipated benefits of our transfer program.
 
On January 30, 2017, our TiO2 manufacturing facility in Pori, Finland, experienced fire damage. The Pori facility had a nameplate capacity of 130,000 metric tons per year, which represented approximately 17% of our total TiO2 nameplate capacity and approximately 2% of total global TiO2 demand. Prior to the fire, 60% of the site capacity produced specialty products which, on average, contributed greater than 75% of the site EBITDA from January 1, 2015 through January 30, 2017.

On September 12, 2018, following our review of the Pori facility and options within our manufacturing network, and as a result of unanticipated cost escalation and extended timeline associated with reconstruction, we announced that we intend to close our Pori, Finland, TiO2 manufacturing facility and transfer the specialty and differentiated product grades to other sites. We expect to continue to wind down the limited operations at the Pori facility through the transition period. We are exploring ways to optimize the remaining transfer of our business from Pori, which may result in a lower total expected capital outlay and a lower associated EBITDA benefit than originally estimated.
 
Restoring at sites elsewhere in our network the production of these products formerly produced at Pori is important to our competitive position and business strategy. A variety of factors could cause us not to realize some or all of the anticipated benefits, economic or otherwise, including, among others, delays in anticipated timing and unexpected costs in the wind-down and closing of the Pori, Finland facility, delays in transferring certain technology and the production of select product grades to other manufacturing facilities or the inability of the transferred products to meet required product specifications. In addition, we may be unable to realize the anticipated benefits within our expected timeframe, or at all. Certain risks and uncertainties may be beyond our control, including, among others, the economic environment in which we operate, changing regulations and other developments in our industry. Even if we are able to transition production on the anticipated schedule, we may lose customers that have in the meantime found alternative suppliers elsewhere. If any of these factors occur, they could have an adverse effect on our market position and operating results.

Costs from current and future restructurings and site closures may exceed our estimates and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows or business reputation.

We have implemented various restructuring initiatives to improve our operating efficiency, which have included in some instances the planned or completed closure of sites within our manufacturing network, including manufacturing sites in Pori, Finland and Calais, France. In addition, we may announce additional restructuring programs and site closures in the future. Restructurings and site closures are complex and involve multiple aspects including environmental, government, regulatory and workforce matters. We can provide no assurance that costs and timeframes associated with restructurings or site closures will be in line with our estimates or that we will achieve targeted costs savings. In certain circumstances, costs and timeframes could materially exceed our estimates. Any material increase in restructuring or plant closure costs or timeframes could have a material impact on our consolidated and combined financial statements.

Our efforts to transform our businesses may require significant investments; if our strategies are unsuccessful, our business, results of operations and/or financial condition may be materially adversely affected.

We intend to continuously evaluate opportunities for growth and change. These initiatives may involve making acquisitions, entering into partnerships and joint ventures, divesting assets, restructuring our existing assets and operations, creating new financial structures and building new facilities—any of which could require a significant investment and subject us to new kinds of risks. We may incur indebtedness to finance these opportunities. We could also issue our ordinary shares or securities of our subsidiaries to finance such initiatives. If our strategies for growth and change are not successful, we could face increased financial pressure, such as increased cash flow demands, reduced liquidity and diminished access to financial markets, and the equity value of our businesses could be diluted.
The implementation of strategies for growth and change may create additional risks, including:
diversion of management time and attention away from existing operations;
requiring capital investment that could otherwise be used for the operation and growth of our existing businesses;
disruptions to important business relationships;
increased operating costs;
limitations imposed by various governmental entities;
use of limited investment and other baskets under our debt covenants;
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difficulties realizing projected synergies;
difficulties due to lack of or limited prior experience in any new markets we may enter; and
difficulty integrating acquired businesses or products with our existing businesses.

Our inability to mitigate these risks or other problems encountered in connection with our strategies for growth and change could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, we may fail to fully achieve the savings or growth projected for current or future initiatives notwithstanding the expenditure of substantial resources in pursuit thereof.
Our pension and postretirement benefit plan obligations are currently underfunded, and under certain circumstances we may have to significantly increase the level of cash funding to some or all of these plans, which would reduce the cash available for our business.
We have unfunded obligations under our pension and postretirement benefit plans including certain unfunded pension obligations we assumed upon the consummation of the Rockwood acquisition. The funded status of our pension plans is dependent upon many factors, including returns on invested assets, the level of certain market interest rates and the discount rate used to determine pension obligations. Unfavorable returns on plan assets or unfavorable changes in applicable laws or regulations, or in the application of laws or regulations to us by pension regulators or trustees, could materially change the timing and amount of required plan funding, which would reduce the cash available for our business. Also, a decrease in the discount rate used to determine pension obligations could result in an increase in the valuation of pension obligations, which could affect the reported funding status of our pension plans and future contributions, as well as the periodic pension cost in subsequent fiscal years. In addition, we have undertaken restructuring initiatives and site closures at locations within our manufacturing network. Restructuring initiatives and site closures could impact our funding obligations as a result of funding rules specific to the jurisdiction in which the restructuring initiative or site closure occurs. As of December 31, 2019, our unfunded deficit under our defined benefit plans was $166 million, the majority of which related to funding obligations for our pension plans in Finland and Germany. If current or future restructuring initiatives or site closures were to cause or require an acceleration of our funding obligations under our pension and post-retirement benefit plans, it could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

With respect to our domestic pension and postretirement benefit plans, the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation ("PBGC") has the authority to terminate an underfunded tax-qualified pension plan under limited circumstances in accordance with the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended. In the event our tax-qualified pension plans are terminated by the PBGC, we could be liable to the PBGC for the entire amount of the underfunding.
With respect to our foreign pension and postretirement benefit plans, the effects of underfunding depend on the country in which the pension and postretirement benefit plan is established. For example, in the U.K. and Germany, semi-public pension protection programs have the authority, in certain circumstances, to assume responsibility for underfunded pension schemes, including the right to recover the amount of the underfunding from us.
Our results of operations may be adversely affected by fluctuations in currency exchange rates and tax rates and changes in tax laws in the jurisdictions in which we operate.
We conduct a majority of our business operations outside the U.S. Sales to customers outside the U.S. contributed 77% of our revenue in 2019. Our operations are subject to international business risks, including the need to convert currencies received for our products into currencies in which we purchase raw materials or pay for services, which could result in a gain or loss depending on fluctuations in exchange rates. We transact business in many foreign currencies, including the euro, the British pound sterling, the Malaysian ringgit and the Chinese renminbi. We translate our local currency financial results into U.S. dollars based on average exchange rates prevailing during the reporting period or the exchange rate at the end of that period. During times of a strengthening U.S. dollar, our reported international sales and earnings may be reduced because the local currency may translate into fewer U.S. dollars. Because we currently have significant operations located outside the U.S., we are exposed to fluctuations in global currency rates which may result in gains or losses on our financial statements.
We are subject to income taxation in the U.S. (federal and state) and numerous foreign jurisdictions. Tax laws, regulations, and administrative practices in various jurisdictions may be subject to significant change, with or without notice, due to economic, political, and other conditions, and significant judgment is required in evaluating and estimating our provision and accruals for these taxes. There are many transactions that occur during the ordinary course of business for which the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. In addition, our effective tax rates could be affected by numerous factors, such as intercompany transactions, the relative amount of our foreign earnings, including earnings being lower than anticipated in jurisdictions where we are subject to lower statutory rates and higher than anticipated in jurisdictions where we are subject to
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higher statutory rates, the applicability of special tax regimes, losses incurred in jurisdictions in which we are not able to realize the related tax benefit, changes in foreign currency exchange rates, entry into new businesses and geographies, changes to our existing businesses and operations, acquisitions (including integrations) and investments and how they are financed, changes in our stock price, changes in our deferred tax assets and liabilities and their valuation, and changes in the relevant tax, accounting, and other laws, regulations, administrative practices, principles, and interpretations.
 
We are also currently subject to audit in various jurisdictions, and these jurisdictions may assess additional income tax liabilities against us. Developments in an audit, litigation, or the relevant laws, regulations, administrative practices, principles, and interpretations could have a material effect on our operating results or cash flows in the period or periods for which that development occurs, as well as for prior and subsequent periods.
In addition, generally accepted accounting principles in the United States ("U.S. GAAP" or "GAAP") has required us to place valuation allowances against our net operating losses and other deferred tax assets in a significant number of tax jurisdictions. These valuation allowances result from analysis of positive and negative evidence supporting the realization of tax benefits. Negative evidence includes a cumulative history of pre-tax operating losses in specific tax jurisdictions. Changes in valuation allowances have resulted in material fluctuations in our effective tax rate. Economic conditions may dictate the continued imposition of current valuation allowances and, potentially, the establishment of new valuation allowances and releases of existing valuation allowances. While significant valuation allowances remain, our effective tax rate will likely continue to experience significant fluctuations. Furthermore, certain foreign jurisdictions may take actions to delay our ability to collect value-added tax refunds.

We are subject to risks relating to our information technology systems, and any failure to adequately protect our critical information technology systems could materially affect our operations.
We rely on information technology systems across our operations, including for management, supply chain and financial information and various other processes and transactions. Our ability to effectively manage our business depends on the security, reliability and capacity of these systems. Information technology system failures, network disruptions or breaches of security could disrupt our operations, cause delays or cancellations of customer orders or impede the manufacture or shipment of products, processing of transactions or reporting of financial results. Cyberattacks are a growing problem. We are the subject of cyberattacks that may be intended to capture business information, access our customers’ information or harm our reputation as a company. We expect that there will continue to be cyberattacks and our defenses might not always be effective. The processes used by attackers are evolving in sophistication and increasing in frequency. Cyberattacks or other problem with our systems may result in the disclosure of proprietary information about our business or confidential information concerning our customers or employees, which could result in significant damage to our business and our reputation.

We have put in place security measures designed to protect against the misappropriation or corruption of our systems, intentional or unintentional disclosure of confidential information, or disruption of our operations. Current employees have, and former employees may have, access to a significant amount of information regarding our operations which could be disclosed to our competitors or otherwise used to harm us. Moreover, our operations in certain locations, such as China, may be particularly vulnerable to security attacks or other problems. Any breach of our security measures could result in unauthorized access to and misappropriation of our information, corruption of data or disruption of operations or transactions, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
In addition, we could be required to expend significant additional amounts to respond to information technology issues or to protect against threatened or actual security breaches. We may not be able to implement measures that will protect against the significant risks to our information technology systems.
The impact of changing laws or regulations or the manner of interpretation or enforcement of existing laws or regulations could adversely impact our financial performance and restrict our ability to operate our business or execute our strategies.
New laws or regulations, or changes in existing laws or regulations or the manner of their interpretation or enforcement, could increase our cost of doing business and restrict our ability to operate our business or execute our strategies. This risk includes, among other things, the possible taxation under U.S. law of certain income from foreign operations, the possible taxation under foreign laws of certain income we report in other jurisdictions, and regulations related to the protection of private information of our employees and customers. In addition, compliance with laws and regulations is complicated by our substantial global footprint, which will require significant and additional resources to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations in the various countries where we conduct business.
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Our global operations expose us to trade and economic sanctions and other restrictions imposed by the U.S., the EU and other governments and organizations. The U.S. Departments of Justice, Commerce, State and Treasury and other federal agencies and authorities have a broad range of civil and criminal penalties they may seek to impose against corporations and individuals for violations of economic sanctions laws, export control laws, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the "FCPA") and other federal statutes and regulations, including those established by the Office of Foreign Assets Control ("OFAC"). Under these laws and regulations, as well as other anti-corruption laws, anti-money-laundering laws, export control laws, customs laws, sanctions laws and other laws governing our operations, various government agencies may require export licenses, may seek to impose modifications to business practices, including cessation of business activities in sanctioned countries or with sanctioned persons or entities and modifications to compliance programs, which may increase compliance costs, and may subject us to fines, penalties and other sanctions. A violation of these laws or regulations could adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Although we have implemented policies and procedures in these areas, we cannot assure you that our policies and procedures are sufficient or that directors, officers, employees, representatives, manufacturers, supplier and agents have not engaged and will not engage in conduct for which we may be held responsible, nor can we assure you that our business partners have not engaged and will not engage in conduct that could materially affect their ability to perform their contractual obligations to us or even result in our being held liable for such conduct. Violations of the FCPA, OFAC restrictions or other export control, anti-corruption, anti-money-laundering and anti-terrorism laws or regulations may result in severe criminal or civil sanctions, and we may be subject to other liabilities, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.
Our substantial global operations subject us to risks of doing business in foreign countries, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We expect sales from international markets to continue to represent a large portion of our sales in the future. Also, a significant portion of our manufacturing capacity is located outside of the U.S. Accordingly, our business is subject to risks related to the differing legal, political, cultural, social and regulatory requirements and economic conditions of many jurisdictions.
Certain legal and political risks are also inherent in the operation of a company with our global scope. For example, it may be more difficult for us to enforce our agreements or collect receivables through foreign legal systems.
There is a risk that foreign governments may nationalize private enterprises in certain countries where we operate. In certain countries or regions, terrorist activities and the response to such activities may threaten our operations more than in the U.S. Social and cultural norms in certain countries may not support compliance with our corporate policies including those that require compliance with substantive laws and regulations. Also, changes in general economic and political conditions in countries where we operate are a risk to our financial performance and future growth.
As we continue to operate our business globally, our success will depend, in part, on our ability to anticipate and effectively manage these and other related risks. There can be no assurance that the consequences of these and other factors relating to our multinational operations will not have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
If we are unable to innovate and successfully introduce new products, or new technologies or processes, our profitability could be adversely affected.
Our industries and the end-use markets into which we sell our products experience periodic technological change and product improvement. Our future growth will depend on our ability to gauge the direction of commercial and technological progress in key end-use markets and on our ability to fund and successfully develop, manufacture and market products in such changing end-use markets. We must continue to identify, develop and market innovative products or enhance existing products on a timely basis to maintain our profit margins and our competitive position. We may be unable to develop new products or technology, either alone or with third parties, or license intellectual property rights from third parties on a commercially competitive basis. If we fail to keep pace with the evolving technological innovations in our end-use markets on a competitive basis, including with respect to innovation or the development of alternative uses for, or application of, our products, our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. We cannot predict whether technological innovations will, in the future, result in a lower demand for our products or affect the competitiveness of our business. We may be required to invest significant resources to adapt to changing technologies, markets, competitive environments and laws and regulations. We cannot anticipate market acceptance of new products or future products. In addition, we may not achieve our expected
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benefits associated with new products developed to meet new laws or regulations if the implementation of such laws or regulations is delayed.
We are subject to many environmental, health and safety laws and regulations that may result in unanticipated costs or liabilities, which could reduce our profitability.
Our properties and operations, including our global manufacturing facilities, are subject to a broad array of EHS requirements, including extensive federal, state, local, foreign and international laws, regulations, rules and ordinances relating to pollution, protection of the environment and human health and safety, and the generation, storage, handling, transportation, treatment, disposal and remediation of hazardous substances and waste materials. There has been a global upward trend in the number and complexity of current and proposed EHS laws and regulations, including those relating to the chemicals used and generated in our operations and included in our products. The costs to comply with these EHS laws and regulations, as well as internal voluntary programs and goals, are significant and will continue to be significant in the foreseeable future.
Our facilities are dependent on environmental permits to operate. These operating permits are subject to modification, renewal and revocation, which could have a material adverse effect on our operations and our financial condition. In addition, third parties may contest our ability to receive or renew certain permits that we need to operate, which can lengthen the application process or even prevent us from obtaining necessary permits. Moreover, actual or alleged violations of permit requirements could result in restrictions or prohibitions on our operations and facilities.
In addition, we expect to incur significant capital expenditures and operating costs in order to comply with existing and future EHS laws and regulations. Capital expenditures and operating costs relating to EHS matters are subject to evolving requirements, and the timing and amount of such expenditures and costs will depend on the timing of the promulgation of the requirements as well as the enforcement of specific standards.
We are also liable for the costs of investigating and cleaning up environmental contamination on or from our currently-owned and operated properties. We also may be liable for environmental contamination on or from our formerly-owned and operated properties, and on or from third-party sites to which we sent hazardous substances or waste materials for disposal. In many circumstances, EHS laws and regulations impose joint, several, and/or strict liability for contamination, and therefore we may be held liable for cleaning up contamination at currently owned properties even if the contamination was caused by former owners, or at third-party sites even if our original disposal activities were in accordance with all then existing regulatory requirements. Moreover, certain of our facilities are in close proximity to other industrial manufacturing sites. In these locations, the source of contamination resulting from discharges into the environment may not be clear. We could potentially be held responsible for such liabilities even if the contamination did not originate from our sites, and we may have to incur significant costs to respond to any remedies imposed, or to defend any actions initiated, by environmental agencies.
Changes in EHS laws and regulations, violations of EHS law or regulations that result in civil or criminal sanctions, the revocation or modification of EHS permits, the bringing of investigations or enforcement proceedings against us by governmental agencies, the bringing of private claims alleging environmental damages against us, the discovery of contamination on our current or former properties or at third-party disposal sites, could reduce our profitability or have a material adverse effect on our operations and financial condition.
Our products, raw materials and operations are subject to chemical control laws in countries in which they are manufactured, transported or sold.
We are subject to a wide array of laws governing chemicals, including the regulation of chemical substances and inventories under TSCA in the U.S. and REACH and the CLP regulations in Europe. Analogous regimes exist in other parts of the world, including China, South Korea, and Taiwan. In addition, a number of countries where we operate, including the U.K., have adopted rules to conform chemical labeling in accordance with the GHS. Many of these foreign regulatory regimes are in the process of a multi-year implementation period for these rules.
Additional new laws and regulations may be enacted or adopted by various regulatory agencies globally. For example, in the U.S., the EPA finalized revisions to its Risk Management Program in January 2017. The revisions include new requirements for certain facilities to perform hazard analyses, third-party auditing, incident investigations and root cause analyses, emergency response exercises, and to publicly share chemical and process information. The EPA proposed to delay the effective date of the rule to February 2019; however, a ruling by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit on September 21, 2018 made the Risk Management Program rule amendment effective immediately. The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration had previously announced that it was considering changes to its Process Safety Management standards that parallel EPA’s Risk Management Program; but additional action appears unlikely at this time. In addition, TSCA
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reform legislation was enacted in June 2016, and the EPA has begun the process of issuing new chemical control regulations. EPA issued several final rules in 2017 under the revised TSCA related to existing chemicals, including the following: (i) a rule to establish EPA’s process and criteria for identifying chemicals for risk evaluation; (ii) a rule to establish EPA’s process for evaluating high priority chemicals and their uses to determine whether or not they present an unreasonable risk to health or the environment; and (iii) a rule to require industry reporting of chemicals manufactured or processed in the U.S. over the past 10 years. The EPA has also released its framework for approving new chemicals and new uses of existing chemicals. Under the framework, a new chemical or use presents an unreasonable risk if it exceeds set standards. Such a finding could result in either the issuance of rules restricting the use of the chemical being evaluated or in the need for additional testing. The costs of compliance with any new laws or regulations cannot be estimated until the manner in which they will be implemented has been more precisely defined. 
Furthermore, governmental, regulatory and societal demands for increasing levels of product safety and environmental protection could result in increased pressure for more stringent regulatory control with respect to the chemical industry. In addition, these concerns could influence public perceptions regarding our products, raw materials and operations, the viability of certain products or raw materials, our reputation, the cost to comply with regulations, and the ability to attract and retain employees. Moreover, changes in product safety and environmental protection regulations could inhibit or interrupt our operations, or require us to modify our facilities or operations. Accordingly, product safety and environmental matters may cause us to incur significant unanticipated losses, costs or liabilities, which could reduce our profitability.
We use a variety of substances from third parties in the manufacture, processing and handling of our products, and it is possible that a substance could be classified as harmful, which could negatively impact our ability to sell or market our products. For example, pursuant to the CLP, chemical substances and mixtures cannot be placed on the EU market unless they comply with the CLP’s requirements regarding classification, labelling and packaging. In 2019, new scientific data became available on Trimethylolpropane ("TMP"), and in December 2019 an EU supplier of this substance informed us that the REACH consortium responsible for TMP had self-classified TMP to be a suspected reproductive toxicant (Category 2). We manufacture and sell numerous types of TiO2 pigments and other products worldwide, some of which are treated with and/or contain TMP. We are currently assessing the impact that this classification will have on our business in Europe and other regions.

We could incur significant expenditures in order to comply with existing or future EHS laws. Capital expenditures and costs relating to EHS matters will be subject to evolving regulatory requirements and will depend on the timing of the promulgation and enforcement of specific standards which impose requirements on our operations. Capital expenditures and costs beyond those currently anticipated may therefore be required under existing or future EHS laws.

Our operations are increasingly subject to climate change regulations that seek to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.
Globally, our operations are increasingly subject to regulations that seek to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, which may be contributing to changes in the earth’s climate. At the Durban negotiations of the Conference of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol in 2012, a limited group of nations, including the EU, agreed to a second commitment period for the Kyoto Protocol, an international treaty that provides for reductions in GHG emissions. More significantly, the EU GHG ETS, established pursuant to the Kyoto Protocol to reduce GHG emissions in the EU, continues in its third phase. The European Parliament has used a process to formalize "backloading"—the withholding of GHG allowances during the trading period from 2014 to 2016 with additional allowances auctioned during 2019 to 2020—to prop up carbon prices. As backloading is only a temporary measure, a sustainable solution to the imbalance between supply and demand requires structural changes to the ETS. The European Commission proposes to establish a market stability reserve to address the current surplus of allowances and improve the system’s resilience. The reserve will start operating in 2019. In addition, the EU has announced the binding target to reduce domestic GHG emissions by at least 40% below the 1990 level by 2030. The EU has set a binding target of increasing the share of renewable energy to at least 27% of the EU’s energy consumption by 2030, and additional proposals have been made to increase the target to 35%.

In addition, at the 2015 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Paris, the U.S. and nearly 200 other nations entered into the Paris Agreement, which entered into effect in November 2016. Although the agreement does not create any binding obligations for nations to limit their GHG emissions, it does include pledges to voluntarily limit or reduce future emissions. However, in August 2017 the U.S. informed the United Nations that it is withdrawing from the Paris Agreement. The Paris Agreement provides for a four year exit process.

Federal climate change legislation in the U.S. appears unlikely in the near-term. As a result, domestic efforts to curb GHG emissions will continue to be led by the EPA's GHG regulations and similar programs of certain states. To the extent that our US operations are subject to the EPA’s GHG regulations and/or state GHG regulations, we may face increased capital and
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operating costs associated with new or expanded facilities. Significant expansions of our existing facilities or construction of new facilities may be subject to the CAA’s requirements for pollutants regulated under the Prevention of Significant Deterioration and Title V programs. Some of our facilities are also subject to the EPA’s Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases rule, and any further regulation may increase our operational costs.

We are already managing and reporting GHG emissions, to varying degrees, as required by law for our sites in locations subject to U.S. federal and state requirements, Kyoto Protocol obligations and/or ETS requirements. These sites are subject to existing GHG legislation, and it is possible that GHG emission restrictions may increase over time and result in significant cost increases. Potential consequences of such restrictions include capital requirements to modify assets to meet GHG emission restrictions and/or increases in energy costs above the level of general inflation, as well as direct compliance costs. Currently, however, it is not possible to estimate the likely financial impact of potential future regulation on any of our sites.

Finally, some scientists have concluded that increasing concentrations of GHGs in the earth’s atmosphere may produce climate changes that have significant physical effects, such as increased frequency and severity of storms, droughts, floods and other extreme climatic events. If any of those effects were to occur, they could have an adverse effect on our assets and operations. For example, we have numerous operations in low lying areas that may be at increased risk due to flooding, rising sea levels or disruption of operations from more frequent and severe weather events.
Our operations, financial condition and liquidity could be adversely affected by legal claims against us.
We face risks arising from various legal actions, including matters relating to antitrust, product liability, third party liability, intellectual property and environmental claims. It is possible that judgments could be rendered against us in these cases or others for which we could be uninsured or not covered by indemnity, or which may be beyond the amounts that we currently have reserved or anticipate incurring for such matters. Over the past few years, antitrust claims have been made against TiO2 companies, including us. In this type of litigation, the plaintiffs generally seek treble damages, which may be significant. An adverse outcome in any claim could be material and significantly impact our operations, financial condition and liquidity. In addition, we are subject to various claims and litigation in the ordinary course of business. For more information, see "Item 3. Legal Proceedings below."
Differences in views with our joint venture participants may cause our joint ventures not to operate according to their business plans, which may adversely affect our results of operations.

We currently participate in a number of joint ventures, including our joint venture in Lake Charles, Louisiana with Kronos and our Harrisburg, North Carolina joint venture with DuPont, and may enter into additional joint ventures in the future. The nature of a joint venture requires us to share control with unaffiliated third parties. Differences in views among joint venture participants may result in delayed decisions or failure to agree on major decisions. If these differences cause the joint ventures to deviate from their business plans or to fail to achieve their desired operating performance, our results of operations could be adversely affected.
Economic conditions and regulatory changes following the U.K.’s exit from the EU could adversely impact our operations, operating results and financial condition.
As a result of Brexit, the U.K. is now in a transition period until December 31, 2020, during which time EU rules and regulations applicable to U.K. businesses will continue to remain in force. As negotiations on a potential trade deal between the U.K. and the EU continue during the transition period, we anticipate that there will continue to be an impact to economic conditions in the U.K., and to trading between the U.K. and the EU. The future effects of Brexit remain unknown and will depend on any agreements the U.K. makes to retain access to the EU or other markets beyond the transitional period. Although a no-deal Brexit was avoided in January 2020, there is no certainty that a similar result will be avoided at the end of 2020. Given the lack of comparable precedent, it is unclear what financial, trade, regulatory and legal implications the withdrawal of the U.K. from the EU will have and how such withdrawal will affect our Company.
We derive a significant portion of our revenues from sales outside the U.S., including 40% from continental Europe and 5% from the U.K. in 2019. The consequences of Brexit, together with the continuing uncertainty regarding the terms on which the U.K. will interact with the EU after the transition period, could introduce significant volatility into global financial markets and adversely impact the markets in which we and our customers operate. Brexit could also create uncertainty with respect to the legal and regulatory requirements to which we and our customers in the U.K. are subject and lead to divergent national laws and regulations as the U.K. determines which EU laws to replace or replicate, including U.K. competition law. In
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the event that the U.K. does not have a trade deal agreed with EU at the end of the transition period, the following issues could impact our operations:
in the event of new customs operations being implemented, there is a strong likelihood of border delays both within and outside of the U.K.;
duties becoming payable on goods traded between the U.K. and the EU, together with customs, excise and indirect tax;
procedures currently applicable to goods traded between the EU and non-EU countries changing;
limited transportation availability for a period, particularly if there are delays at borders between the U.K. and EU;
new product registration requirements being applicable; and
other unforeseen financial, legal, tax and trade implications.

While we are not experiencing any immediate adverse impact on our financial condition as a direct result of Brexit, adverse consequences such as deterioration in economic conditions, volatility in currency exchange rates or adverse changes in regulation could have a negative impact on our future operations, operating results and financial condition.

General business conditions are vulnerable to the effects of public health crises, such as the COVID-19 coronavirus, which could materially disrupt our business.

We are vulnerable to the global economic effects of epidemics and other public health crises, such as the novel strain of COVID-19 coronavirus reported to have first surfaced in Wuhan, China in 2019. Due to the recent outbreak of the COVID-19 coronavirus, there has been, and may continue to be, turmoil in financial markets, restricted travel, quarantines of those who may have been exposed and a curtailment of global business activities, which could negatively impact our business, results of operations and/or financial condition. Disruptions in our operations or supply chain, whether as a result of restricted travel, quarantine requirements or otherwise, could also negatively impact our revenues. If not timely resolved, the impact of the COVID-19 coronavirus could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Some of our historical financial information may not be representative of the results we would have achieved as a stand-alone public company and may not be a reliable indicator of our future results.

Our historical financial information prior to the separation included in this report were derived from Huntsman’s accounting records. Our historical financial information for the year ended December 31, 2017 includes periods during which we were a wholly-owned subsidiary of Huntsman. These periods also included output from our Pori facility, which is in the process of being closed after being damaged in a fire. Prior to the separation, Huntsman did not account for us, and we were not operated, as a separate, stand-alone company and such information presented may not reflect what our financial position, results of operations or cash flows would have been had we been a separate, stand-alone entity during such periods or those that we will achieve in the future. The costs to operate our business as a separate public entity differ from the historical cost allocations from Huntsman reflected in our financial statements.
For additional information about our past financial performance and the basis of presentation of our financial statements, see our consolidated and combined financial statements and related notes.
The markets for many of our products have seasonally affected sales patterns.
The demand for TiO2 and certain of our other products during a given year is subject to seasonal fluctuations. Because TiO2 is widely used in paint and other coatings, demand is higher in the painting seasons of spring and summer in the Northern Hemisphere. We may be adversely affected by anticipated or unanticipated changes in regional weather conditions. For example, poor weather conditions in a region can lead to an abbreviated painting season, which can depress consumer sales of paint products that use TiO2, which could have a negative effect on our cash position.
Our operations involve risks that may increase our operating costs, which could reduce our profitability.
Although we take precautions to enhance the safety of our operations and minimize the risk of disruptions, our operations are subject to hazards inherent in the manufacturing and marketing of chemical and other products. These hazards include: chemical spills, pipeline leaks and ruptures, storage tank leaks, discharges or releases of toxic or hazardous substances or gases and other hazards incident to the manufacturing, processing, handling, transportation and storage of dangerous chemicals. We are also potentially subject to other hazards, including natural disasters and severe weather; explosions and fires; transportation problems, including interruptions, spills and leaks; mechanical failures; unscheduled downtimes; labor difficulties; remediation complications; and other risks. In addition, some equipment and operations at our facilities are owned or controlled by third parties who may not be fully integrated into our safety programs and over whom we are able to exercise
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limited control. Many potential hazards can cause bodily injury and loss of life, severe damage to or destruction of property and equipment and environmental damage, and may result in suspension of operations and the imposition of civil or criminal penalties and liabilities. Furthermore, we are subject to present and future claims with respect to workplace exposure, exposure of contractors on our premises as well as other persons located nearby, workers’ compensation and other matters.
We maintain property, business interruption, products liability and casualty insurance policies which we believe are in accordance with customary industry practices, as well as insurance policies covering other types of risks, including pollution legal liability insurance, but we are not fully insured against all potential hazards and risks incident to our business. Each of these insurance policies is subject to customary exclusions, deductibles and coverage limits, in accordance with industry standards and practices. As a result of market conditions, our loss history and other factors, premiums and deductibles for certain insurance policies can increase substantially and, in some instances, certain insurance may become unavailable or available only for reduced amounts of coverage. If an incident were to occur or we were to incur a significant liability for which we were not fully insured, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity. Please see "—Disruptions in production at our manufacturing facilities may have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and/or financial condition."
Significant developments from the recent and potential changes in U.S. and international trade policies could have a material adverse effect on our business.

The U.S. government has announced and, in some cases, implemented a new approach to trade policy, including renegotiating, or potentially terminating, certain existing bilateral or multi-lateral trade agreements, as well as implementing the imposition of additional tariffs on certain foreign goods, including finished products and raw materials such as steel and aluminum. These tariffs and potential tariffs have resulted or may result in increased prices for goods and materials imported into the U.S. and, in some cases may result or have resulted in price increases for U.S. sourced goods and materials. Changes in U.S. trade policy have resulted and could result in additional reactions from U.S. trading partners, including adopting responsive trade policy making it more difficult or costly for us to export U.S. products to other countries. These measures could also result in increased costs for products imported into the U.S. or may cause us to adjust our worldwide supply chain. Either of these could require us to increase prices to our customers which may reduce demand, or, if we are unable to increase prices, result in lowering our margin on products sold.

Various countries, and regions, including, without limitation, China and Europe, have announced plans or intentions to impose or have imposed tariffs on a wide range of U.S. products in retaliation for new U.S. tariffs. These actions could, in turn, result in additional tariffs being adopted by the U.S. These conditions and future actions could have a significant adverse effect on world trade and the world economy. To the extent that trade tariffs and other restrictions imposed by the United States increase the price of, or limit the amount of, raw materials and products imported into the United States, the costs of our raw materials may be adversely affected and the demand from our products may be diminished, which could adversely affect our revenues and profitability.

In addition, there have been recent changes to trade agreements, such as the replacement of the North American Free Trade Agreement with the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement. We cannot predict future trade policy or the terms of any renegotiated trade agreements and their impacts on our business. The adoption and expansion of trade restrictions, the occurrence of a trade war, or other governmental action related to tariffs or trade agreements or policies has the potential to adversely impact demand for our products, our costs, our customers, our suppliers, and the U.S. economy, which in turn could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Failure to maintain effective internal controls could adversely affect our ability to meet our reporting requirements.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the "Sarbanes-Oxley Act") requires, among other things, that we maintain effective internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures. One key aspect of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act is that we must perform system and process evaluation and testing of our internal control over financial reporting to allow management and our independent registered public accounting firm to report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, with auditor attestation of the effectiveness of our internal controls, beginning with our annual report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2018. If we or our independent registered public accounting firm identify deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses, the market price of our ordinary shares could decline and we could be subject to regulatory penalties or investigations by the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE"), the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which would require additional financial and management resources.
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Effective internal controls are necessary for us to provide reasonable assurance with respect to our financial reports and to effectively prevent fraud. Internal controls over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements because of inherent limitations, including the possibility of human error, the circumvention or overriding of controls, or fraud. Therefore, even effective internal controls can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to the preparation and fair presentation of financial statements. If we cannot provide reasonable assurance with respect to our financial reports and effectively prevent fraud, our operating results could be misreported. In addition, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting to future periods are subject to the risk that the control may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate. If we fail to maintain the effectiveness of our internal controls, including any failure to implement required new or improved controls, or if we experience difficulties in their implementation, our business and operating results could be harmed, we could fail to meet our reporting obligations, and there could be a material adverse effect on our share price.
The process of implementing internal controls in connection with our operation as a stand-alone company requires significant attention from management and we cannot be certain that these measures will ensure that we implement and maintain adequate controls over our financial processes and reporting in the future. Difficulties encountered in their implementation could harm our results of operations or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. If we fail to obtain the quality of administrative services necessary to operate effectively or incur greater costs in obtaining these services, our profitability, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
Our results of operations could be adversely affected by our indemnification of Huntsman and other commitments and contingencies.
In the ordinary course of business, we may make certain commitments, including representations, warranties and indemnities relating to current and past operations, including those related to divested businesses, and issue guarantees of third-party obligations. Additionally, we are required to indemnify Huntsman for uncapped amounts with regard to liabilities allocated to, or assumed by us under each of the separation agreement, the employee matters agreement and the tax matters agreement. These indemnification obligations to date have included defense costs associated with certain litigation matters as well as certain damages awards, settlements, and penalties. As we are required to make payments, such payments could be significant and could exceed the amounts we have accrued with respect thereto, adversely affecting our results of operations. In addition, in the event that Huntsman seeks indemnification for adverse trial rulings or outcomes, these indemnification claims could materially adversely affect our financial condition. Disputes between Huntsman and us may also arise with respect to indemnification matters including disputes based on matters of law or contract interpretation. If and to the extent these disputes arise, they could materially adversely affect us.
Financial difficulties and related problems experienced by our customers, vendors, suppliers and other business partners could have a material adverse effect on our business.
During periods of economic disruption, more of our customers than normal may experience financial difficulties, including bankruptcies, restructurings and liquidations, which could affect our business by reducing sales, increasing our risk in extending trade credit to customers and reducing our profitability. A significant adverse change in a customer relationship or in a customer’s financial position could cause us to limit or discontinue business with that customer, require us to assume more credit risk relating to that customer’s receivables or limit our ability to collect accounts receivable from that customer.
Construction projects are subject to numerous regulatory, environmental, legal and economic risks. We cannot assure you that any such project will be completed in a timely fashion or at all or that we will realize the anticipated benefits of any such project.
Additions to or modifications of our existing facilities and the construction of new facilities involve numerous regulatory, environmental, legal and economic uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control. Expansion and construction projects may require preconstruction permitting or environmental reviews, as well as the expenditure of significant amounts of capital. These projects may not be completed on schedule, at the budgeted cost or at all. If our projects are delayed materially or our capital expenditures for such projects increase significantly, our results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected. Even if these projects are completed, there can be no assurance that we will realize the anticipated benefits of such projects.
Our flexibility in managing our labor force may be adversely affected by existing or new labor and employment laws and policies in the jurisdictions in which we operate, many of which are more onerous than those of the U.S.; and some of our labor force has substantial workers’ council or trade union participation, which creates a risk of disruption from labor disputes.
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The global nature of our business presents difficulties in hiring and maintaining a workforce in certain countries. The majority of our employees are located outside the U.S. In many of these countries, including the U.K., Italy, Germany, France, Spain, Finland and Malaysia, labor and employment laws may be more onerous than in the U.S. and, in many cases, grant significant job protection to employees, including rights on termination of employment.
We are required to consult with, and seek the consent or advice of, various employee groups or works councils that represent our employees for any changes to our activities or employee benefits. This requirement could have a significant impact on our flexibility in managing costs and responding to market changes.
Conflicts, military actions, terrorist attacks, public health crises, including the occurrence of a contagious disease or illness, such as the COVID-19 coronavirus, cyber-attacks and general instability, particularly in certain energy-producing nations, along with increased security regulations related to our industry, could adversely affect our business.

Conflicts, military actions, terrorist attacks and public health crises have precipitated economic instability and turmoil in financial markets. Instability and turmoil, particularly in energy-producing nations, may result in raw material cost increases. The uncertainty and economic disruption resulting from hostilities, military action, acts of terrorism, public health crises, or cyber-attacks may impact any or all of our facilities and operations or those of our suppliers or customers. Accordingly, any conflict, military action, terrorist attack, public health crises, or cyber-attack that impacts us or any of our suppliers or customers, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
In addition, a number of governments have instituted regulations attempting to increase the security of chemical plants and the transportation of hazardous chemicals, which could result in higher operating costs and could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and liquidity.
Increasing regulatory focus on privacy issues and expanding laws could impact our business and expose us to increased liability.

As a global company, we are subject to global privacy and data security laws, regulations, and codes of conduct that apply to our various business units. These laws and regulations may be inconsistent across jurisdictions and are subject to evolving and differing (sometimes conflicting) interpretations. Government regulators, privacy advocates and class action attorneys are increasingly scrutinizing how companies collect, process, use, store, share and transmit personal data. This increased scrutiny may result in new interpretations of existing laws, thereby further impacting our business. Globally, new and emerging laws, such as the General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") in Europe, state laws in the U.S. on privacy, data and related technologies as well as industry self-regulatory codes create new compliance obligations and expand the scope of potential liability, either jointly or severally with our customers and suppliers. While we have invested in readiness to comply with applicable requirements, these new and emerging laws, regulations and codes may affect our ability to reach current and prospective customers, to respond to customer requests under the laws, and to implement our business effectively. Any perception of our practices, products or services as a violation of privacy rights may subject us to public criticism, reputational harm, or investigations or claims by regulators, industry groups or other third parties, all of which could disrupt our business and expose us to increased liability.

Transferring personal information across international borders is becoming increasingly complex. For example, European data transfers outside the European Economic Area are highly regulated. The mechanisms that we and many other companies rely upon for European data transfers (e.g. Privacy Shield and Model Clauses) are being contested in the European court system. We are closely monitoring developments related to requirements for transferring personal data outside the EU and other countries that have similar trans-border data flow requirements. These requirements may result in an increase in the obligations required to provide our services in the EU or in sanctions and fines for non-compliance. If the mechanisms for transferring personal information from certain countries or areas, including Europe to the United States should be found invalid or if other countries implement more restrictive regulations for cross-border data transfers (or not permit data to leave the country of origin), such developments could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business is dependent on our intellectual property. If we are unable to enforce our intellectual property rights and prevent use of our intellectual property by third parties, our ability to compete may be adversely affected. Further, third parties may claim that we infringe on their intellectual property rights, and resulting litigation may be costly.
Protection of our proprietary processes, apparatuses and other technology is important to our business. We rely on patent protection, as well as a combination of copyright and trade secret laws to protect and prevent others from duplicating our proprietary processes, apparatuses and technology. While a presumption of validity exists with respect to patents issued to us in the U.S., there can be no assurance that any of our patents will not be challenged, invalidated, circumvented or rendered
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unenforceable. Such means may afford only limited protection of our intellectual property and may not; (i) prevent our competitors from duplicating our processes or technology; (ii) prevent our competitors from gaining access to our proprietary information and technology; or (iii) permit us to gain or maintain a competitive advantage. In addition, our competitors or other third parties may obtain patents that restrict or preclude our ability to lawfully produce or sell our products in a competitive manner, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
We rely upon trade secrets and other confidential and proprietary know-how and continuing technological innovation to develop and maintain our competitive position. While it is our policy to enter into agreements imposing nondisclosure and confidentiality obligations upon our employees and third parties to protect our intellectual property, these confidentiality obligations may be breached, may not provide meaningful protection for our trade secrets or proprietary know-how, or adequate remedies may not be available in the event of an unauthorized access, use or disclosure of our trade secrets and know-how. In addition, others could obtain knowledge of our trade secrets through independent development or other access by legal means.
We may not be able to effectively protect our intellectual property rights from misappropriation or infringement in countries where effective patent, trademark, trade secret and other intellectual property laws and judicial systems may be unavailable, or may not protect our proprietary rights to the same extent as U.S. law. The lack of adequate legal protections of intellectual property or failure of legal remedies for related actions could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
As such, our commercial success will depend in part on not infringing, misappropriating or violating the intellectual property rights of others. From time to time, we may be subject to legal proceedings and claims, including claims of alleged infringement of trademarks, copyrights, patents and other intellectual property rights held by third parties. In the future, third parties may sue us for alleged infringement of their proprietary or intellectual property rights. We may not be aware of whether our products do or will infringe existing or future patents or the intellectual property rights of others. Any litigation in this regard, regardless of outcome or merit, could result in substantial costs and diversion of management and technical resources as well as harm to our brand, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If the party claiming infringement were to prevail, we could be forced to discontinue the use of the related trademark, technology or design and/or pay significant damages unless we enter into royalty or licensing arrangements with the prevailing party or are able to redesign our products to avoid infringement. Any such license may not be available on reasonable terms, if at all, and there can be no assurance that we would be able to redesign our products in a way that would not infringe the intellectual property rights of others. We have already obtained licenses that give us rights to third-party intellectual property that is necessary or useful to our business. These license agreements covering our products impose various royalty and other obligations on us. One or more of our licensors may allege that we have breached our license agreement with them, and accordingly seek to terminate our license. In addition, any payments we are required to make and any injunction we are required to comply with as a result of such infringement could harm our reputation and financial results.
Risks Related to Our Relationship with Huntsman
Huntsman owns 49% of our ordinary shares, and its interests may conflict with yours.
Huntsman, through Huntsman (Holdings) Netherlands B.V., owns approximately 49% of our outstanding ordinary shares. Accordingly, Huntsman can exert significant influence over our business objectives and policies, including the composition of our board of directors and any action requiring the approval of our shareholders, such as the adoption of amendments to our articles of association, and the approval of mergers or a sale of substantially all of our assets. This concentration of ownership may also make some transactions, including mergers or other changes in control, more difficult or impossible without the support of Huntsman and could discourage others from making tender offers, which could prevent shareholders from receiving a premium for their shares. Huntsman’s interests may conflict with your interests as a shareholder. For additional information about our relationships with Huntsman, see "Part III. Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions, and Director Independence."
 
We have agreed to indemnify Huntsman for certain liabilities, including those related to the operation of our business while it was still owned by Huntsman, and while Huntsman will indemnify us for certain liabilities, such indemnities may not be adequate.
Pursuant to the separation agreement and other agreements with Huntsman, we agreed to indemnify Huntsman for certain liabilities, including those related to the operation of our business while it was still owned by Huntsman, in each case for uncapped amounts. Indemnity payments that we may be required to provide Huntsman may be significant and could negatively impact our business. Third parties could also seek to hold us responsible for liabilities that Huntsman has agreed to retain. Further, there can be no assurance that the indemnity from Huntsman for its retained liabilities will be sufficient to protect us
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against the full amount of such liabilities, or that Huntsman will be able to fully satisfy its indemnification obligations to us. Moreover, even if we ultimately succeed in recovering from Huntsman any amounts for which we are held liable, we may be temporarily required to bear these losses ourselves.
We could have significant tax liabilities for periods during which Huntsman operated our business.
For any tax periods (or portions thereof) prior to the separation and our IPO, we or one or more of our subsidiaries will be included in consolidated, combined, unitary or similar tax reporting groups with Huntsman (including Huntsman’s consolidated group for U.S. federal income tax purposes). Applicable laws (including U.S. federal income tax laws) often provide that each member of such a tax reporting group is liable for the group’s entire tax obligation. Thus, to the extent Huntsman or other members of a tax reporting group of which we or one of our subsidiaries was a member fails to make any tax payments required by law, we could be liable for the shortfall. Huntsman will indemnify us for any taxes attributable to Huntsman and the internal reorganization and separation transactions that we or one of our subsidiaries are required to pay as a result of our (or one of our subsidiaries’) membership in such a tax reporting group with Huntsman. We will also be responsible for any increase in Huntsman’s tax liability for any period in which we or any of our subsidiaries are combined or consolidated with Huntsman to the extent attributable to our business (including any increase resulting from audit adjustments). Furthermore, with respect to periods prior to the separation in which one or more of Huntsman’s subsidiaries are included in a consolidated, combined, unitary or similar tax reporting group with us, and if one or more of Huntsman’s subsidiaries receives an adjustment that increases taxable income, such adjustment may result in the utilization of Venator tax attributes. The use of such Venator attributes would be free of charge to Huntsman and would result in the reduction of our deferred tax assets along with an increase in deferred tax expense in cases where no valuation allowance has been recognized against such deferred tax assets.
In addition, we will also be responsible for any taxes due with respect to tax returns that include only us and/or our subsidiaries for tax periods (or portions thereof) prior to the separation and our IPO.
Further, by virtue of Huntsman’s ownership and the tax matters agreement, Huntsman effectively controls all of our tax decisions in connection with any tax reporting group tax returns in which we (or any of our subsidiaries) are included. The tax matters agreement provides that Huntsman has sole authority to respond to and conduct all tax proceedings (including tax audits) and to prepare and file all such reporting group tax returns in which we or one of our subsidiaries are included on our behalf (including the making of any tax elections). This arrangement may result in conflicts of interest between Huntsman and us. See "Part III. Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions, and Director Independence."
In addition, for U.S. federal income tax purposes Huntsman recognized a gain as a result of the internal restructuring and IPO to the extent the fair market value of the assets associated with our U.S. businesses exceeded the basis of such assets for U.S. federal income tax purposes at the time of the separation. As a result of such gain recognized, the basis of the assets associated with our U.S. businesses increased. This basis step-up gave rise to a deferred tax asset of $77 million that we recognized for the quarter ended September 30, 2017. Due to the 2017 Tax Act’s reduction of the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21%, the basis step-up gives rise to a deferred tax asset of $36 million that we recognized for the year ended December 31, 2017. Pursuant to the tax matters agreement entered into at the time of the separation, we are required to make a future payment to Huntsman for any actual U.S. federal income tax savings we recognize as a result of any such basis increase for tax years through December 31, 2028. For the quarter ended September 30, 2017 we estimated (based on a value of our U.S. businesses derived from the IPO price of our ordinary shares and current tax rates) that the aggregate future payments required by this provision were expected to be approximately $73 million. Due to the 2017 Tax Act’s reduction of the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate, we recognized that the aggregate future payments required by this provision are expected to be approximately $34 million. We have recognized a noncurrent liability for this amount as of December 31, 2017 and 2018. During 2019, we reduced the liability to $30 million due to a decrease in the expectation of future payments. Any subsequent adjustment asserted by U.S. taxing authorities could increase the amount of gain recognized and the corresponding basis increase, and could result in a higher liability for us under the tax matters agreement.
See "Part II. Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Note 20. Income Taxes" of this report for the amount of our known contingent tax liabilities. We currently have no reason to believe that we have any unrecorded outstanding tax liabilities from prior years; however, due to the inherent complexity of tax law, the many countries in which we operate, and the unpredictable nature of tax authorities, we believe there is inherent uncertainty.
The amount of tax for which we are liable for taxable periods preceding the separation may be impacted by elections Huntsman makes on our behalf.
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Under the tax matters agreement, Huntsman has the right to make all elections for taxable periods preceding the separation and our IPO. As a result, the amount of tax for which we are liable for taxable periods preceding the separation and our IPO may be impacted by elections Huntsman makes on our behalf.
We may be classified as a passive foreign investment company for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. Holders of our ordinary shares.
A foreign corporation will be treated as a "passive foreign investment company," or "PFIC," for U.S. federal income tax purposes if either (1) at least 75% of its gross income for any taxable year consists of certain types of "passive income" or (2) at least 50% of the average value of the corporation’s assets for any taxable year produce or are held for the production of those types of "passive income." For purposes of these tests, "passive income" includes dividends, interest and gains from the sale or exchange of investment property and rents and royalties other than certain rents and royalties which are received from unrelated parties in connection with the active conduct of a trade or business, but does not include income derived from the performance of services. U.S. shareholders of a PFIC are subject to a disadvantageous U.S. federal income tax regime with respect to the income derived by the PFIC, the distributions they receive from the PFIC, and the gain, if any, they derive from the sale or other disposition of their interests in the PFIC.
Based on the composition of our assets, income and a review of our activities we do not believe that we currently are a PFIC, and we do not expect to become a PFIC in future taxable years. However, our status as a PFIC in any taxable year will depend on our assets, income and activities in each year, and because this is a factual determination made annually after the end of each taxable year, there can be no assurance that we will not be considered a PFIC for the current taxable year or any future taxable years, and it is possible that the IRS would not agree with our conclusion, or the U.S. tax laws could change significantly.
The IRS may not agree that we are a foreign corporation for U.S. federal tax purposes.
For U.S. federal tax purposes, a corporation is generally considered to be a tax resident of the jurisdiction of its organization or incorporation. Because we are incorporated under the laws of the U.K., we would be classified as a foreign corporation under these rules. Section 7874 of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the "Code") provides an exception to this general rule under which a foreign incorporated entity may, in certain circumstances, be classified as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
As part of the internal reorganization, we acquired assets, including stock of U.S. subsidiaries and assets previously held by U.S. corporations, from affiliates of Huntsman. Under Section 7874, we could be treated as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes if Huntsman International is treated as receiving at least 80% (by either vote or value) of our shares by reason of holding shares in any U.S. subsidiary acquired by us or with respect to our acquisition of substantially all of the assets of any U.S. subsidiary, in each case, in the internal reorganization.
It is currently not expected that Section 7874 will cause us or any of our affiliates to be treated as a U.S. corporation for U.S. tax purposes. However, the law and Treasury Regulations promulgated under Section 7874 are relatively new, complex and somewhat unclear, and there is limited guidance regarding the application of Section 7874. Moreover, the rules for applying Section 7874 are dependent upon the subjective valuation of certain of our U.S. assets and non-U.S. assets.
Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not challenge our status or the status of any of our foreign affiliates as a foreign corporation under Section 7874 or that such challenge would not be sustained by a court. If the IRS were to successfully challenge such status under Section 7874, we and our affiliates could be subject to substantial additional U.S. federal income tax liability. In addition, we and certain of our foreign affiliates are expected, regardless of any application of Section 7874, to be treated as tax residents of countries other than the U.S. Consequently, if we or any such affiliate is treated as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes under Section 7874, we or such affiliate could be liable for both U.S. and non-U.S. taxes.
Certain members of our board of directors and management may have actual or potential conflicts of interest because of their ownership of shares of common stock of Huntsman and the overlap of three members of our board with the board of directors of Huntsman.
Certain members of our board of directors and management own common stock of Huntsman or options to purchase common stock of Huntsman because of their current or prior relationships with Huntsman, which could create, or appear to create, potential conflicts of interest when our directors and executive officers are faced with decisions that could have different implications for Huntsman and us.
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In addition, the board of directors of each of us and Huntsman have three members in common, including Peter R. Huntsman, Sir Robert J. Margetts and Daniele Ferrari, which could create actual or potential conflicts of interest.
So long as Huntsman beneficially owns ordinary shares representing a significant percentage of the votes entitled to be cast by the holders of our outstanding ordinary shares, Huntsman can exert significant influence over our board of directors. Accordingly, we may not be able to resolve potential conflicts, and even if we do, the resolution may be less favorable than if we were dealing with an unaffiliated party.
As a result of these actual or potential conflicts of interest, we may be precluded from pursuing certain growth initiatives.
Risks Related to Our Ordinary Shares
The market price of our ordinary shares could become more volatile and investments could lose value.

The market price of our ordinary shares and the number of shares traded each day has experienced significant fluctuations and may continue to fluctuate significantly. The market price for our ordinary shares may be affected by a number of factors, including those described above in "—Risks Related to Our Business" and the following:

the failure of securities analysts to cover our ordinary shares or changes in financial estimates by analysts;
our inability to meet the financial estimates of analysts who follow our ordinary shares;
our strategic actions;
our announcements of significant contracts, acquisitions, joint ventures or capital commitments;
general economic and stock market conditions;
changes in conditions or trends in our industry, markets or customers;
future sales of our ordinary shares or other securities; and
investor perceptions of the investment opportunity associated with our ordinary shares relative to other investment alternatives.

As a result of these factors, holders of our ordinary shares may not be able to resell their shares at or above the price at which they purchased them or may not be able to resell them at all. These broad market and industry factors may materially reduce the market price of our ordinary shares, regardless of our operating performance.
A number of our shares are or will be eligible for future sale, which may cause the market price of our ordinary shares to decline.
Any sales of substantial amounts of our ordinary shares in the public market or the perception that such sales might occur may cause the market price of our ordinary shares to decline and impede our ability to raise capital through the issuance of equity securities. Subject to our agreements with Huntsman described in "Part III. Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions, and Director Independence," we are not restricted from issuing additional ordinary shares, including any securities that are convertible into or exchangeable for, or that represent the right to receive, ordinary shares or any substantially similar securities.
In connection with the IPO and the separation, we and Huntsman entered into a Registration Rights Agreement, pursuant to which we agreed, upon the request of Huntsman, to use our best efforts to effect the registration under applicable securities laws of the disposition of our ordinary shares retained by Huntsman. Huntsman has advised us that it intends to continue to monetize its retained ownership stake in Venator. Subject to prevailing market and other conditions, this future monetization may be effected in additional follow-on capital markets transactions or block transactions that permit an orderly distribution of Huntsman's retained shares.
The rights of our shareholders may differ from the rights typically offered to shareholders of a U.S. corporation organized in Delaware and these differences may make our ordinary shares less attractive to investors.
We are incorporated under the laws of England and Wales. The rights of holders of our ordinary shares are governed by English law, including the provisions of the Companies Act 2006, and by our articles of association. These rights differ in certain respects from the rights of shareholders in typical U.S. corporations organized in Delaware, including with respect to preemptive rights, distribution of dividends, limitation on derivative suits, and certain heightened shareholder approval requirements.
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U.S. investors may have difficulty enforcing civil liabilities against us, our directors or members of senior management.
We are incorporated under the laws of England and Wales. The U.S. and the U.K. do not currently have a treaty providing for the recognition and enforcement of judgments, other than arbitration awards, in civil and commercial matters. The enforceability of any judgment of a U.S. federal or state court in the U.K. will depend on the laws and any treaties in effect at the time, including conflicts of laws principles (such as those bearing on the question of whether a U.K. court would recognize the basis on which a U.S. court had purported to exercise jurisdiction over a defendant). In this context, there is doubt as to the enforceability in the U.K. of civil liabilities based solely on the federal securities laws of the U.S. In addition, awards for punitive damages in actions brought in the U.S. or elsewhere may be unenforceable in the U.K. An award for monetary damages under the U.S. securities laws would likely be considered punitive if it did not seek to compensate the claimant for loss or damage suffered and was intended to punish the defendant.
Provisions in our articles of association are intended to have anti-takeover effects that could discourage an acquisition of us by others, and may prevent attempts by shareholders to replace or remove our current management.
Certain provisions in our articles of association are intended to have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control or changes in our management. For example, our articles of association include provisions that establish an advance notice procedure for shareholder resolutions to be brought before an annual meeting of our shareholders, including proposed nominations of persons for election to our board of directors. U.K. law also prohibits the passing of written shareholder resolutions by public companies. In addition, our articles of association provide that, in general, from and after the first date on which Huntsman ceases to beneficially own at least 15% of our outstanding voting shares, we may not engage in a business combination with an interested shareholder for a period of three years after the time of the transaction in which the person became an interested shareholder. These provisions, alone or together, could delay or prevent hostile takeovers and changes in control or changes in our management, even if these events would be beneficial for our shareholders.
The U.K. City Code on Takeovers and Mergers, or the Takeover Code, may apply to us.
The Takeover Code applies to, among other things, an offer for a public company whose registered office is in the U.K. (or the Channel Islands or the Isle of Man) and whose securities are not admitted to trading on a regulated market in the U.K. (or the Channel Islands or the Isle of Man) if the company is considered by the Panel on Takeovers and Mergers, or the Takeover Panel, to have its place of central management and control in the U.K. (or the Channel Islands or the Isle of Man). This is known as the "residency test." Under the Takeover Code, the Takeover Panel will determine whether we have our place of central management and control in the U.K. by looking at various factors, including the structure of our board of directors, the functions of the directors and where they are resident.
If at the time of a takeover offer, the Takeover Panel determines that we have our place of central management and control in the U.K., we would be subject to a number of rules and restrictions, including but not limited to the following: (i) our ability to enter into deal protection arrangements with a bidder would be extremely limited; (ii) we might not, without the approval of our shareholders, be able to perform certain actions that could have the effect of frustrating an offer, such as issuing shares or carrying out acquisitions or disposals; and (iii) we would be obliged to provide equality of information to all bona fide competing bidders.
Huntsman owns approximately 49% of our voting share capital, and therefore may trigger the "mandatory offer" regime under Rule 9 of the Takeover Code. The application of the mandatory offer regime would mean that to the extent that the Takeover Code applies to Venator, except with the consent of the Takeover Panel, Huntsman would not be able to increase its interest in Venator’s voting share capital without being obliged to make a mandatory offer for all of the outstanding shares in Venator not already owned by Huntsman. In addition: (i) any shareholder holding less than 30% of our voting share capital would not be able to increase their interest to 30% or above without being obliged to make a Rule 9 mandatory offer for the remaining shares in Venator not already held by such shareholder; and (ii) any shareholder already holding between 30% and 50% of our voting share capital would not be able to increase their interest without being obliged to make a mandatory offer, in each case without the consent of the U.K. Takeover Panel.
A majority of our current board of directors resides outside of the U.K., the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. The Takeover Panel has confirmed that, based upon the non-U.K. residency of a majority of our current board of directors, our current management structure and our intended plans for our current directors and management, for the purposes of the Takeover Code, we are currently considered to have our place of central management and control outside the U.K., the Channel Islands or the Isle of Man. Therefore, the Takeover Code does not currently apply to us. It is possible that in the future circumstances could change that may cause the Takeover Code to apply to us.

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Pre-emption rights for U.S. and other non-U.K. holders of shares may be unavailable.
In the case of certain increases in our issued share capital, under English law, existing holders of shares are entitled to pre-emption rights to subscribe for such shares, unless shareholders dis-apply such rights by a special resolution at a shareholders’ meeting. These pre-emption rights have been dis-applied for a period of five years by our shareholders in connection with our IPO and we intend to propose equivalent resolutions in the future once the initial period of dis-application has expired. We cannot assure prospective U.S. investors that any exemption from the registration requirements of the Securities Act or applicable non-U.S. securities laws would be available to enable U.S. or other non-U.K. holders to exercise such pre-emption rights or, if available, that we will utilize any such exemption.
We do not intend to pay dividends on our ordinary shares, and our debt agreements place certain restrictions on our ability to do so. Consequently, our shareholders' only opportunity to achieve a return on investment is if the price of our ordinary shares appreciates.
We do not plan to declare dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future. Additionally, our debt agreements place certain restrictions on our ability to pay cash dividends. Consequently, unless we revise our dividend policy, our shareholders' only opportunity to achieve a return on investment in us will be if they sell their ordinary shares at a price greater than they paid for it.
Transfers of our shares may be subject to stamp duty or stamp duty reserve tax in the U.K., which would increase the cost of dealing in our shares.
Stamp duty or stamp duty reserve tax ("SDRT"), are imposed in the U.K. on certain transfers of chargeable securities (which include shares in companies incorporated in the U.K.) at a rate of 0.5% of the consideration paid for the transfer. Certain issues or transfers of shares to depositories or into clearance systems may be charged at a higher rate of 1.5%.
Our shareholders are strongly encouraged to hold shares in book entry form through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company ("DTC"). Transfers of shares held in book entry form through DTC currently do not attract a charge to stamp duty or SDRT in the U.K. A transfer of title in the shares from within the DTC system out of DTC and any subsequent transfers that occur entirely outside the DTC system, will attract a charge to stamp duty at a rate of 0.5% of any consideration, which is payable by the transferee of the shares. Any such duty must be paid (and the relevant transfer document, if any, stamped by HM Revenue & Customs ("HMRC")) before the transfer can be registered in the books of Venator. However, if those shares are redeposited into DTC, the redeposit will attract stamp duty or SDRT at the rate of 1.5% to be paid by the transferor.
In connection with our IPO, we put in place arrangements to require that shares held in certificated form cannot be transferred into the DTC system until the transferor of the shares has first delivered the shares to a depositary specified by us so that SDRT may be collected in connection with the initial delivery to the depositary. Any such shares will be evidenced by a receipt issued by the depositary. Before the transfer can be registered in our books, the transferor will also be required to put the depositary in funds to settle the resultant liability to SDRT, which will be charged at a rate of 1.5% of the value of the shares.
If our shares are not eligible for deposit and clearing within the facilities of DTC, then transactions in our securities may be disrupted.
The facilities of DTC are a widely-used mechanism that allow for rapid electronic transfers of securities between the participants in the DTC system, which include many large banks and brokerage firms. Our ordinary shares are currently eligible for deposit and clearing within the DTC system. We have entered into arrangements with DTC whereby we agreed to indemnify DTC for any SDRT that may be assessed upon it as a result of its service as a depository and clearing agency for our shares. However, DTC generally has discretion to cease to act as a depository and clearing agency for the shares. While we would pursue alternative arrangements to preserve our listing and maintain trading, any such disruption could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our ordinary shares.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
 
We own or lease chemical manufacturing and research facilities in the locations indicated in the list below which we believe are adequate for our short-term and anticipated long-term needs. We own or lease office space and storage facilities
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throughout the world. Our headquarters and principal executive offices are located at the Wynyard location, with the address of Titanium House, Hanzard Drive, Wynyard Park, Stockton-On-Tees, TS22 5FD, United Kingdom.

The following is a list of our principal owned or leased properties where manufacturing, research and main office facilities are located.
 
Location(2)
 
Business
Segment(4)
  Description of Facility
Duisburg, Germany   Various  
TiO2, Functional Additives, Water Treatment Manufacturing and Research Facility and Administrative Offices
Greatham, U.K.  
TiO2
 
TiO2 Manufacturing Facility
Huelva, Spain  
TiO2
 
TiO2 Manufacturing Facility
Lake Charles, Louisiana(3)
 
TiO2
 
TiO2 Manufacturing Facility
Pori, Finland(5)
 
TiO2
 
TiO2 Manufacturing Facility
Scarlino, Italy  
TiO2
 
TiO2 Manufacturing Facility
Teluk Kalung, Malaysia(1)
 
TiO2
 
TiO2 Manufacturing Facility
Uerdingen, Germany(1)
 
TiO2
 
TiO2 Manufacturing Facility
Augusta, Georgia   Additives   Color Pigments Manufacturing Facility
Birtley, U.K.   Additives   Color Pigments Manufacturing Facility
Comines, France   Additives   Color Pigments Manufacturing Facility
Dandenong, Australia(1)
  Additives   Color Pigments Manufacturing Facility
Freeport, Texas   Additives   Timber Treatments Manufacturing Facility
Harrisburg, North Carolina   Additives   Timber Treatments Manufacturing Facility
Ibbenbueren, Germany(1)
  Additives   Water Treatment Manufacturing Facility
Kidsgrove, U.K.   Additives   Color Pigments Manufacturing Facility
Los Angeles, California   Additives   Color Pigments Manufacturing Facility
Schwarzheide, Germany(1)
  Additives   Water Treatment Manufacturing Facility
Sudbury, U.K.   Additives   Color Pigments Manufacturing Facility
Taicang, China   Additives   Color Pigments Manufacturing Facility
Turin, Italy   Additives   Color Pigments Manufacturing Facility
Walluf, Germany(1)
  Additives   Color Pigments Manufacturing Facility
Everberg, Belgium   Various   Shared Services Center and Administrative Offices
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia(1)
  Various   Shared Services Center and Administrative Offices
The Woodlands, Texas(1)
  Various   Administrative Offices
Wynyard, U.K.(1)
  Various   Headquarters & Administrative Offices, Research Facility and Shared Services Center

(1)Leased land and/or building.
(2)Excludes plant in Umbogintwini, South Africa, which was closed in the fourth quarter of 2016, plants in St. Louis, Missouri and Calais, France which were closed in 2017, and plants in Easton, Pennsylvania and Beltsville, Maryland, which were closed in 2018.
(3)Owned by LPC, our unconsolidated manufacturing joint venture which is owned 50% by us and 50% by Kronos.
(4)Solely for the purposes of this column, "TiO2" and "Additives" represent the Titanium Dioxide and Performance Additives segments, respectively.
(5)The Pori, Finland plant closure was announced in the third quarter of 2018 and is ongoing.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
Shareholder Litigation

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On February 8, 2019 we, certain of our executive officers, Huntsman and certain banks who acted as underwriters in connection with our IPO and secondary offering were named as defendants in a proposed class action civil suit filed in the District Court for the State of Texas, Dallas County (the "Dallas District Court"), by an alleged purchaser of our ordinary shares in connection with our IPO on August 3, 2017 and our secondary offering on November 30, 2017. The plaintiff, Macomb County Employees’ Retirement System, alleges that inaccurate and misleading statements were made regarding the impact to our operations, and prospects for restoration thereof, resulting from the fire that occurred at our Pori, Finland manufacturing facility, among other allegations. Additional complaints making substantially the same allegations were filed in the Dallas District Court by the Firemen's Retirement System of St. Louis on March 4, 2019 and by Oscar Gonzalez on March 13, 2019, with the third case naming two of our directors as additional defendants. A fourth case was filed in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York by the City of Miami General Employees' & Sanitation Employees' Retirement Trust on July 31, 2019, making substantially the same allegations, adding claims under sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the U.S. Exchange Act, and naming all of our directors as additional defendants. A fifth case, filed by Bonnie Yoon Bishop in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York, was voluntarily dismissed without prejudice on October 7, 2019. A sixth case was filed in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas by the Cambria County Employees Retirement System on September 13, 2019, making substantially the same allegations as those made by the plaintiff in the case pending in the Southern District of New York.

The plaintiffs in these cases seek to determine that the proceedings should be certified as class actions and to obtain alleged compensatory damages, costs, rescission and equitable relief.

The cases filed in the Dallas District Court have been consolidated into a single action, In re Venator Materials PLC Securities Litigation. On October 29, 2019, the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York entered an order transferring the case brought by the city of Miami General Employees' & Sanitation Employees' Retirement Trust to the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas, where it was consolidated into a single action with the case brought by the Cambria County Employees' Retirement Trust and is now known as In re: Venator Materials PLC Securities Litigation. On January 17, 2020, plaintiffs in the consolidated action filed a consolidated class action complaint.

On May 8, 2019, we filed a "special appearance" in the Dallas District Court action contesting the court’s jurisdiction over the Company and a motion to transfer venue to Montgomery County, Texas and on June 7, 2019 we and certain defendants filed motions to dismiss. On July 9, 2019, a hearing was held on certain of these motions, which were subsequently denied. On October 3, 2019, a hearing was held on our motion to dismiss under the Texas Citizens Participation Act, which was subsequently denied. On October 22, 2019, we and other defendants filed a Petition for Writ of Mandamus in the Court of Appeals for the Fifth District of Texas seeking relief from the Dallas District Court’s denial of defendants’ Rule 91a motions to dismiss. On November 22, 2019, we also filed a notice of appeal regarding the denial of our motion to dismiss under the Texas Citizens Participation Act. On January 21, 2020, the Court of Appeals for the Fifth District of Texas reversed the Dallas District Court’s order that denied the special appearances of Venator and certain other defendants, and rendered judgment dismissing the claims against Venator and those other defendants for lack of jurisdiction. The Court of Appeals also remanded the case for the Dallas District Court to enter an order transferring the claims against Huntsman to the Montgomery County District Court.

We may be required to indemnify our executive officers and directors, Huntsman, and the banks who acted as underwriters in our IPO and secondary offerings, for losses incurred by them in connection with these matters pursuant to our agreements with such parties. Because of the early stage of this litigation, we are unable to reasonably estimate any possible loss or range of loss and we have not accrued for a loss contingency with regard to these matters.

Tronox Litigation

On April 26, 2019, we acquired intangible assets related to the European paper laminates business from Tronox. A separate agreement with Tronox entered into on July 14, 2018 requires that Tronox promptly pay us a "break fee" of $75 million upon the consummation of Tronox’s merger with The National Titanium Dioxide Company Limited ("Cristal") once the sale of the European paper laminates business to us was consummated, if the sale of Cristal’s Ashtabula manufacturing complex to us was not completed. The deadline for such payment was May 13, 2019. On April 26, 2019, Tronox publicly stated that it believes it is not obligated to pay the break fee.

On May 14, 2019, we commenced a lawsuit in the Delaware Superior Court against Tronox arising from Tronox's breach of its obligation to pay the break fee. We are seeking a judgment for $75 million, plus pre- and post-judgment interest, and reasonable attorneys' fees and costs. On June 17, 2019, Tronox filed an answer denying that it is obligated to pay the break fee and asserting affirmative defenses and counterclaims of approximately $400 million, alleging that we failed to negotiate the
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purchase of the Ashtabula complex in good faith. Because of the early stage of this litigation, we are unable to reasonably estimate any possible gain, loss or range of gain or loss and we have not made any accrual with regard to this matter.

Huelva, Spain EHS Matters

On April 28, 2019, a release of acidic effluent occurred at our Huelva facility in Spain impacting an adjacent watercourse and soils. Remediation work has been undertaken following the incident. We are fully cooperating with the regulatory authorities investigating this matter. Because of the early stage of this investigation we are unable to reasonably estimate any sanction that may be imposed by the local regulator, Junta de Andalucia, however we believe that such sanctions could exceed $100,000.

On June 20, 2019, a release of nitrous oxide gas occurred at our Huelva facility in Spain. The gas cloud quickly dissipated but temporarily created an off-site visual impact. We are fully cooperating with the regulatory authorities investigating this matter. Because of the early stage of this investigation we are unable to reasonably estimate any sanction that may be imposed by Junta de Andalucia, however we believe that such sanctions could exceed $100,000.

Other Proceedings

See "Part II. Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Note 23. Commitments and Contingencies" of this report.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.
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PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information and Holders
Our ordinary shares, $0.001 par value per share, are listed on the NYSE under the symbol "VNTR." As of March 10, 2020, there were three shareholders of record and the closing price of our ordinary shares on the New York Stock Exchange was $2.38 per share.
Dividend Policy
For the foreseeable future, we do not expect to pay dividends. However, we anticipate that our board of directors will consider the payment of dividends from time to time to return a portion of our profits to our shareholders when we experience adequate levels of profitability and associated reduced debt leverage. If our board of directors determines to pay any dividend in the future, there can be no assurance that we will continue to pay such dividends or the amount of such dividends.
Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans
See "Part III. Item 11. Executive Compensation" of this report for information relating to our equity compensation plans.

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ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
 
The Selected Financial Data should be read in conjunction with "Part II. Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and "Part II. Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" of this report.
 
(in millions, except per share amounts) 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015
Statements of Operations Data:          
Revenues $ 2,130    $ 2,265    $ 2,209    $ 2,139    $ 2,162   
(Loss) income from continuing operations (170)   (157)   136    (85)   (362)  
(Loss) income per share from continuing operations attributable to Venator ordinary shareholders $ (1.64)   $ (1.53)   $ 1.19    $ (0.89)   $ (3.47)  
Balance Sheet Data (at year end):
Total assets $ 2,265    $ 2,485    $ 2,847    $ 2,661    $ 3,413   
Total long-term liabilities 1,104    1,087    1,083    1,309    1,477   
Total assets from continuing operations(1)
2,265    2,485    2,847    2,535    3,205   
Total long-term liabilities from continuing operations(2)
1,104    1,087    1,083    1,231    1,359   

(1)Defined as total assets less current assets of discontinued operations and noncurrent assets of discontinued operations.
(2)Defined as total long-term liabilities less noncurrent liabilities of discontinued operations.

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations (MD&A) should be read in conjunction with the information under the headings "Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements," "Part I. Item 1A. Risk Factors," "Part II. Item 6. Selected Financial Data" and "Part I. Item 1. Business," as well as the audited consolidated and combined financial statements and the related notes thereto. The following MD&A gives effect to the recast as described in "Part II. Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Note 17. Discontinued Operations" of this report.

Recent Trends and Outlook

In 2020, we expect results in our Titanium Dioxide segment to reflect: (i) modest industry demand growth; (ii) TiO2 pricing to reflect regional supply and demand balances and increased competition for certain products; (iii) a soft economic environment, primarily in China and Europe, including the direct and indirect effects of China-U.S. trade negotiations, COVID-19 coronavirus and Brexit; (iv) manageable raw material (primarily ore), energy and other cost increases; (v) volume trends to reflect historical seasonal patterns (vi) increased sales of new and recently introduced TiO2 products; and (vii) additional benefit through cost and operational improvement actions as part of our 2019 Business Improvement Program and other cost and operational improvement actions. We are exploring ways to optimize the remaining transfer of our business from Pori, which may result in a lower total expected capital outlay and a lower associated EBITDA benefit than originally estimated.

In our Performance Additives segment, we expect business trends to be driven by: (i) a seasonal improvement in sales volumes compared to the fourth quarter of 2019; (ii) a soft economic environment, primarily in China and Europe, including the effects of China-U.S. trade negotiations, COVID-19 coronavirus and Brexit; (iii) challenging demand environment for certain products primarily in the automotive, plastic and construction end-use applications; (iv) raw material and cost increases; (v) benefits from portfolio optimization actions; (vi) additional benefit through cost and operational improvement actions including our 2019 Business Improvement Program.

In the fourth quarter of 2018, we commenced our 2019 Business Improvement Program and are underway with the implementation, having realized $20 million of savings in 2019. We continue to expect that when fully implemented, this cost and operational improvement program will provide approximately $40 million of annual adjusted EBITDA benefit compared to year-end 2018. We expect the program will be fully implemented in 2020, ending the year at the full run-rate level.

In 2020, we expect total capital expenditures to be $80 million to $90 million. This includes capital expenditures relating to the transfer of our specialty and differentiated technology from our Pori, Finland manufacturing site to other sites in our manufacturing network.

We expect our corporate and other costs will be approximately $55 million in 2020.

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Results of Operations
 
The following table sets forth our consolidated and combined results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017. For a discussion of the 2017 results of operations, see "Part II. Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Results of Operations" in the 2018 Form 10-K.
  Year Ended December 31,  Percent Change
Year Ended
(Dollars in millions) 2019    2018    2017   
2019 vs. 2018
2018 vs. 2017
Revenues $ 2,130    $ 2,265    $ 2,209    (6) % %
Cost of goods sold 1,892    1,550    1,744    22  % (11) %
Operating expenses(4)
192    218    226    (12) % (4) %
Restructuring, impairment and plant closing and transition costs 33    628    52    (95) % 1,108  %
Operating income (loss) 13    (131)   187    NM    NM   
Interest expense, net (41)   (40)   (40)   % —  %
Other income     39    33  % (85) %
(Loss) income from continuing operations before income taxes (20)   (165)   186    (88) % NM   
Income tax (expense) benefit from continuing operations (150)     (50)   NM    NM   
(Loss) income from continuing operations (170)   (157)   136    % NM   
Income from discontinued operations, net of tax —    —      NM    (100) %
Net (loss) income (170)   (157)   144    % NM   
Reconciliation of net loss to adjusted EBITDA:      
Interest expense, net 41    40    40    % —  %
Income tax expense (benefit) from continuing operations 150    (8)   50    NM    NM   
Depreciation and amortization 110    132    127    (17) % %
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests (5)   (6)   (10)   (17) % (40) %
Other adjustments:          
Business acquisition and integration (credits) expense (1)   20         
Separation (gain) expense, net (3)          
U.S. income tax reform —    —    (34)      
Net income of discontinued operations, net of tax —    —    (8)      
Loss on disposition of businesses/assets     —       
Certain legal settlements and related expenses   —         
Amortization of pension and postretirement actuarial losses 14    15    17       
Net plant incident costs (credits) 20    (232)        
Restructuring, impairment and plant closing and transition costs 33    628    52       
Adjusted EBITDA(1)
$ 194    $ 436    $ 395    (56) % 10  %
Net cash provided by operating activities from continuing operations 33    282    337    (88) % (16) %
Net cash used in investing activities from continuing operations (150)   (321)   (11)   (53) % 2,818  %
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities from continuing operations   (18)   (123)   NM    (85) %
Capital expenditures (152)   (326)   (197)   (53) % 65  %

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(Dollars in millions) Year Ended
December 31, 2019
Year Ended
December 31, 2018
Year Ended
December 31, 2017
Reconciliation of net (loss) income to adjusted net income (loss) attributable to Venator Materials PLC ordinary shareholders:      
Net (loss) income $ (170)   $ (157)   $ 144   
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests (5)   (6)   (10)  
Other adjustments:
Business acquisition and integration (credits) expenses (1)   20     
Separation (gain) expense, net (3)      
U.S. income tax reform —    —    (34)  
Net income of discontinued operations —    —    (11)  
Loss on disposition of businesses/assets     —   
Certain legal settlements and related expenses   —     
Amortization of pension and postretirement actuarial losses 14    15    17   
Net plant incident costs (credits) 20    (232)    
Restructuring, impairment and plant closing and transition costs 33    628    52   
Income tax adjustments(3)
133    (37)   11   
Adjusted net income attributable to Venator Materials PLC ordinary shareholders(2)
$ 26    $ 235    $ 186   
Weighted-average shares-basic 106.5    106.4    106.3   
Weighted-average shares-diluted 106.5    106.7    106.7   
Net loss attributable to Venator Materials PLC ordinary shareholders per share:
Basic $ (1.64)   $ (1.53)   $ 1.26   
Diluted $ (1.64)   $ (1.53)   $ 1.26   
Other non-GAAP measures:
Adjusted net income attributable to Venator Materials PLC ordinary shareholders per share:(2)
Basic $ 0.24    $ 2.21    $ 1.75   
Diluted $ 0.24    $ 2.20    $ 1.74   

NM—Not meaningful
(1)Our management uses adjusted EBITDA to assess financial performance. Adjusted EBITDA is defined as net income/loss before interest income/expense, net, income tax expense/benefit, depreciation and amortization, and net income attributable to noncontrolling interests, as well as eliminating the following adjustments: (a) business acquisition and integration expenses/adjustments; (b) separation expense/gain, net; (c) U.S. income tax reform; (d) net income/loss of discontinued operations, net of tax; (e) loss/gain on disposition of business/assets; (f) certain legal settlements and related expenses/gains; (g) amortization of pension and postretirement actuarial losses/gains; (h) net plant incident costs/credits; and (i) restructuring, impairment, and plant closing and transition costs/credits. We believe that net income is the performance measure calculated and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP that is most directly comparable to adjusted EBITDA.

We believe adjusted EBITDA is useful to investors in assessing our ongoing financial performance and provides improved comparability between periods through the exclusion of certain items that management believes are not indicative of our operational profitability and that may obscure underlying business results and trends. However, this measure should not be considered in isolation or viewed as a substitute for net income or other measures of performance determined in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Moreover, adjusted EBITDA as used herein is not necessarily comparable to other similarly titled measures of other companies due to potential inconsistencies in the methods of calculation. Our management believes this measure is useful to compare general operating performance from period to period and to make certain related management decisions. Adjusted EBITDA is also used by securities analysts, lenders and others in their evaluation of different companies because it excludes certain items that can vary widely across different industries or among companies within the same industry. For example, interest expense can be highly dependent on a company’s capital structure, debt levels and
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credit ratings. Therefore, the impact of interest expense on earnings can vary significantly among companies. In addition, the tax positions of companies can vary because of their differing abilities to take advantage of tax benefits and because of the tax policies of the various jurisdictions in which they operate. As a result, effective tax rates and tax expense can vary considerably among companies. Finally, companies employ productive assets of different ages and utilize different methods of acquiring and depreciating such assets. This can result in considerable variability in the relative costs of productive assets and the depreciation and amortization expense among companies.
Nevertheless, our management recognizes that there are limitations associated with the use of adjusted EBITDA in the evaluation of us as compared to net income. Our management compensates for the limitations of using adjusted EBITDA by using this measure to supplement U.S. GAAP results to provide a more complete understanding of the factors and trends affecting the business rather than U.S. GAAP results alone.
In addition to the limitations noted above, adjusted EBITDA excludes items that may be recurring in nature and should not be disregarded in the evaluation of performance. However, we believe it is useful to exclude such items to provide a supplemental analysis of current results and trends compared to other periods because certain excluded items can vary significantly depending on specific underlying transactions or events, and the variability of such items may not relate specifically to ongoing operating results or trends and certain excluded items, while potentially recurring in future periods, may not be indicative of future results. For example, while amortization of pension and postretirement actuarial losses is a recurring item, it is not indicative of ongoing operating results and trends or future results.
 
(2)Adjusted net income attributable to Venator Materials PLC ordinary shareholders is computed by eliminating the after-tax amounts related to the following from net income/loss attributable to Venator Materials PLC ordinary shareholders: (a) business acquisition and integration expenses/adjustments; (b) separation expense/gain, net; (c) U.S. income tax reform; (d) net income/loss of discontinued operations, net of tax; (e) loss/gain on disposition of business/assets; (f) certain legal settlements and related expenses/gains; (g) amortization of pension and postretirement actuarial losses/gains; (h) net plant incident costs/credits; and (i) restructuring, impairment, and plant closing and transition costs/credits. Basic adjusted net income per share excludes dilution and is computed by dividing adjusted net income by the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period. Adjusted diluted net income per share reflects all potential dilutive ordinary shares outstanding during the period increased by the number of additional shares that would have been outstanding as dilutive securities.

Adjusted net income and adjusted net income per share amounts are presented solely as supplemental information. These measures exclude similar non-cash item as adjusted EBITDA in order to assist our investors in comparing our performance from period to period and as such, bear similar risks as adjusted EBITDA as documented in footnote (1) above. For that reason, adjusted net income and the related per share amounts, should not be considered in isolation and should be considered only to supplement analysis of U.S. GAAP results.

(3)Prior to the second quarter of 2019, the income tax impacts, if any, of each adjusting item represented a ratable allocation of the total difference between the unadjusted tax expense and the total adjusted tax expense, computed without consideration of any adjusting items using a with and without approach.

Beginning in the three and six-month periods ended June 30, 2019, income tax expense is adjusted by the amount of additional tax expense or benefit that we would accrue if we used non-GAAP results instead of GAAP results in the calculation of our tax liability, taking into consideration our tax structure. We use a normalized effective tax rate of 35%, which reflects the weighted average tax rate applicable under the various jurisdictions in which we operate. This non-GAAP tax rate eliminates the effects of non-recurring and period specific items which are often attributable to restructuring and acquisition decisions and can vary in size and frequency. This rate is subject to change over time for various reasons, including changes in the geographic business mix, valuation allowances, and changes in statutory tax rates.

We eliminate the effect of significant changes to income tax valuation allowances from our presentation of adjusted net income to allow investors to better compare our ongoing financial performance from period to period. We do not adjust for insignificant changes in tax valuation allowances because we do not believe it provides more meaningful information than is provided under GAAP. We believe that this approach enables a clearer understanding of the long term impact of our tax structure on post tax earnings.

(4)As presented within Item 7, operating expenses include selling, general and administrative expenses and other operating expense/income.

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Year Ended December 31, 2019 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2018
For the year ended December 31, 2019, net loss was $170 million on revenues of $2,130 million, compared with a net loss of $157 million on revenues of $2,265 million for the same period in 2018. The increase of $13 million in net loss was the result of the following items:
Revenues for the year ended December 31, 2019 decreased by $135 million, or 6%, as compared with the same period in 2018. The decrease was due to a $52 million, or 3%, decrease in revenue in our Titanium Dioxide segment and an $83 million, or 14%, decrease in revenue in our Performance Additives segment. See "—Segment Analysis" below.
Our operating expenses for the year ended December 31, 2019 decreased by $26 million, or 12%, as compared to the same period in 2018, primarily as a result lower overhead costs, lower depreciation expense, and a decrease in Pori related expenses, partially offset by the impact of $14 million of carbon credit sales in 2018 and the negative impact of foreign exchange.
Restructuring, impairment and plant closing and transition costs for the year ended December 31, 2019 decreased to $33 million from $628 million for the same period in 2018. For more information concerning restructuring activities, see "Part II. Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Note 13. Restructuring, Impairment and Plant Closing and Transition Costs" of this report.
Other income for the year ended December 31, 2019 increased by $2 million primarily as a result of the recognition of $4 million related to the change in the expected future payment to Huntsman pursuant to the tax matters agreement entered into as part of our separation partially offset by a net decrease in pension related expense.
Income tax expense for the year ended December 31, 2019 was $150 million compared to $8 million of income tax benefit for the same period in 2018. Our income tax expense is significantly affected by the mix of income and losses in the tax jurisdictions in which we operate, as impacted by the presence of valuation allowances in certain tax jurisdictions. In 2019, we recorded a full valuation allowance against net deferred tax assets of $162 million. For further information concerning taxes, see "Part II. Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Note 20. Income Taxes" of this report.

Segment Analysis
  Year Ended
December 31,
Percent
Change
Favorable
(Unfavorable)
(in millions) 2019 2018
Revenues      
Titanium Dioxide $ 1,614    $ 1,666    (3) %
Performance Additives 516    599    (14) %
Total $ 2,130    $ 2,265    (6) %
Adjusted EBITDA
Titanium Dioxide $ 197    $ 417    (53) %
Performance Additives 47    62    (24) %
244    479    (49) %
Corporate and other (50)   (43)   (16) %
Total $ 194    $ 436    (56) %
 
  Year Ended December 31, 2019 vs. 2018
 
Average Selling
Price(1)
   
  Local
Currency
Foreign
Currency
Translation
Impact
Mix &
Other
Sales
Volumes(2)
Period-Over-Period Increase (Decrease)        
Titanium Dioxide (7) % (3) % —  % %