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As filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission on February 27, 2024
Registration No. 333-       
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form S-3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
PLYMOUTH INDUSTRIAL REIT, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Maryland
27-5466153
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
PLYMOUTH INDUSTRIAL OP, LP
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
45-2643280
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
20 Custom House Street, 11th Floor
Boston, Massachusetts 02110
(617) 340-3814
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
Jeffrey E. Witherell
Chief Executive Officer
20 Custom House Street, 11th Floor
Boston, Massachusetts 02110
(617) 340-3814
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copies of all communications, including communications sent to agent for service, should be sent to:
Kenneth L. Betts
Winston & Strawn LLP
2121 N. Pearl Street, Suite 900
Dallas, Texas 75201
(214) 453-6500
Justin R. Salon
John Hensley
Morrison & Foerster LLP
2100 L Street NW, Suite 900
Washington, DC 10037
(202) 887-1500
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this Registration Statement.
If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box. ☒
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.
If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☒
If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Plymouth Industrial REIT, Inc.
 
Large accelerated filer ☒
Accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Non-accelerated filer
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act.
Plymouth Industrial OP, LP
 
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Non-accelerated filer ☒
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act.

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PROSPECTUS
$750,000,000
PLYMOUTH INDUSTRIAL REIT, INC.
Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Depositary Shares
Warrants
Rights
Guarantees of Debt Securities
PLYMOUTH INDUSTRIAL OP, LP
Debt Securities
We may offer, from time to time, one or more series or classes, separately or together, and in amounts, at prices and on terms to be set forth in one or more supplements to this prospectus, the following securities:
Shares of our common stock, $0.01 par value per share, or our common stock;
Shares of our preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share, or our preferred stock;
Depositary shares representing fractional shares of our preferred stock, or depositary shares;
Warrants to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or depositary shares;
Rights to purchase our common stock; and
Guarantees of debt securities issued by Plymouth Industrial OP, LP.
Plymouth Industrial OP, LP may offer, from time to time, debt securities in one or more series.
We refer to our common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, warrants, rights, guarantees and debt securities registered for issuance hereunder collectively as the “securities.” We may offer these securities with an aggregate public offering price of up to $750,000,000, or its equivalent in a foreign currency based on the exchange rate at the time of sale, in amounts, at initial prices and on terms determined at the time of the offering.
We will deliver this prospectus together with a prospectus supplement setting forth the specific terms of the securities we are offering. The applicable prospectus supplement also will contain information, where applicable, about U.S. federal income tax considerations relating to, and any listing on a securities exchange of, the securities covered by the prospectus supplement.
We may offer the securities directly to investors, through agents designated from time to time by them or us, or to or through underwriters or dealers. If any agents, underwriters, or dealers are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names, and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement with, between or among them, will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in an accompanying prospectus supplement. For more detailed information, see “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page 64. No securities may be sold without delivery of a prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of those securities.
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, under the symbol “PLYM.” On February  , 2024, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the NYSE was $    per share. We have not yet determined whether any of the other securities that may be offered by this prospectus will be listed on any exchange, inter-dealer quotation system or over-the-counter system. If we decide to seek a listing for any of those securities, that will be disclosed in a prospectus supplement.
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties provided or incorporated by reference into this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement. See “Risk Factors” on page 3 of this prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
This prospectus may not be used to consummate sales of securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.
The date of this prospectus is February 27, 2024.


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. By using a shelf registration statement, we may sell, at any time and from time to time, in one or more offerings, any combination of the securities described in this prospectus. This prospectus only provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer, which is not meant to be a complete description of each security. Each time we offer securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement and attach it to this prospectus. The prospectus supplement will contain specific information about the terms of the securities being offered at that time. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus.
You should rely only on the information provided or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different or additional information. We are not making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale of these securities is not permitted. You should not assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein is accurate as of any date other than their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.
You should read carefully the entire prospectus, as well as the documents incorporated by reference in the prospectus, which we have referred you to in “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference” below, before making an investment decision. The exhibits to our registration statement and documents incorporated by reference contain the full text of certain contracts and other important documents that we have summarized in this prospectus or that we may summarize in a prospectus supplement. Since these summaries may not contain all the information that you may find important in deciding whether to purchase the securities we offer, you should review the full text of these documents. Any information in such subsequent filings that is inconsistent with this prospectus will supersede the information in this prospectus or any earlier prospectus supplement.
Unless the context requires otherwise, references in this prospectus to “we,” “our,” “us” and “our company” refer to Plymouth Industrial REIT, Inc., a Maryland corporation, together with our consolidated subsidiaries, including Plymouth Industrial OP, LP, a Delaware limited partnership, or our operating partnership, of which we are the sole general partner.
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OUR COMPANY
We are a full service, vertically integrated, self-administered and self-managed real estate investment trust, or REIT, focused on the acquisition, ownership, management, redevelopment and development of single and multi-tenant industrial properties, including distribution centers, warehouses, light industrial and small bay industrial properties, primarily located in primary and secondary markets, as well as select sub-markets, with access to large pools of skilled labor in the main industrial, distribution and logistics corridors of the United States, which we refer to as our target markets.
We intend to continue to focus on the acquisition of industrial properties in our markets, which we believe will provide superior and consistent cash flow returns at generally lower acquisition costs relative to replacement costs and to industrial properties in gateway markets. Further, we believe there is a greater potential for higher rates of appreciation in the value of industrial properties in our target markets relative to industrial properties in gateway markets.
We believe our target markets provide us with opportunities to acquire both stabilized properties generating favorable cash flows, as well as properties where we can enhance returns through leasing, value-add renovations, value-add redevelopment and ground-up development. We focus primarily on the following investments:
single-tenant and multi-tenant industrial properties where tenants are paying below-market rents with near-term lease expirations that we believe have a high likelihood of renewal at market rents; and
multi-tenant industrial properties that we believe would benefit from our value-add management approach to create attractive leasing options for our tenants, and as a result of the presence of smaller tenants, obtain higher per-square-foot rents.
Plymouth Industrial REIT, Inc. was incorporated in Maryland in March 2011, and we are the sole general partner of our operating partnership, which is a Delaware limited partnership that was formed in March 2011. We are structured as an umbrella REIT, commonly called an UPREIT, and substantially all of our assets are held by, and substantially all of our operations are conducted through, our operating partnership and its wholly owned subsidiaries. As of December 31, 2023, we indirectly owned a 98.9% interest in the operating partnership. Plymouth Industrial REIT, Inc. has elected to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2012.
Our executive offices are located at 20 Custom House Street, 11th Floor, Boston, Massachusetts 02110. Our telephone number at our executive offices is (617) 340-3814 and our corporate website is www.plymouthreit.com. The information on, or accessible through, our website is not incorporated into and does not constitute a part of this prospectus or any other report or document we file with or furnish to the SEC.
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RISK FACTORS
Our business is subject to uncertainties and risks and an investment in the securities being offered under this prospectus involves risks. You should carefully consider and evaluate all of the information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, including the “Risk Factors” incorporated by reference from our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, as updated by our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and other SEC filings before investing in these securities. We may include additional risk factors related to a particular securities offering in the prospectus supplement relating to that offering. It is possible that our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks. New risks may emerge at any time and we cannot predict such risks or estimate the extent to which they may affect our business or our financial performance. Please also refer to the section entitled “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” in this prospectus.
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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
We make statements in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated herein by reference that are forward-looking statements, which are usually identified by the use of words such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “plans” “projects,” “seeks,” “should,” “will,” and variations of such words or similar expressions. Our forward-looking statements reflect our current views about our plans, intentions, expectations, strategies and prospects, which are based on the information currently available to us and on assumptions we have made. Although we believe that our plans, intentions, expectations, strategies and prospects as reflected in or suggested by our forward-looking statements are reasonable, we can give no assurance that our plans, intentions, expectations, strategies or prospects will be attained or achieved and you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Additionally, unforeseen factors emerge from time to time, and we cannot predict which factors will arise or their ultimate impact on our business or the extent to which any such factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. Furthermore, actual results may differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements and may be affected by a variety of risks and factors, including, without limitation:
the factors included in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated herein by reference, including those set forth under the headings “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Business;”
the general level of interest rates;
financing risks, including the risks that our cash flows from operations may be insufficient to meet required payments of principal and interest and we may be unable to refinance our existing debt upon maturity or obtain new financing on attractive terms or at all;
the uncertainty and economic impacts of pandemics, epidemics or other public health emergencies or fear of such events, such as the outbreak of COVID-19, including, without limitation, their impact on the Company’s ability to pay common stock dividends and/or the amount and frequency of those dividends;
the competitive environment in which we operate;
real estate risks, including fluctuations in real estate values and the general economic climate in local markets and competition for tenants in such markets;
decreased rental rates or increasing vacancy rates;
potential defaults on or non-renewal of leases by tenants;
potential bankruptcy or insolvency of tenants;
acquisition risks, including failure of such acquisitions to perform in accordance with projections;
the timing of acquisitions and dispositions;
potential natural disasters such as earthquakes, wildfires or floods;
national, international, regional and local economic conditions;
potential changes in the law or governmental regulations that affect us and interpretations of those laws and regulations, including changes in real estate and zoning or REIT tax laws, and potential increases in real property tax rates;
lack of or insufficient amounts of insurance;
our ability to maintain our qualification as a REIT;
litigation, including costs associated with prosecuting or defending claims and any adverse outcomes; and
possible environmental liabilities, including costs, fines or penalties that may be incurred due to necessary remediation of contamination of properties presently owned or previously owned by us.
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Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made. New risks and uncertainties arise over time, and it is not possible for us to predict those events or how they may affect us. Except as required by law, we are not obligated to, and do not intend to, update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
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USE OF PROCEEDS
Unless otherwise described in the applicable prospectus supplement to this prospectus used to offer specific securities, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus to potentially acquire additional properties and for general corporate purposes, which may include, without limitation, the repayment of outstanding indebtedness, capital expenditures and working capital. Pending the application of the net proceeds from any sale of securities under this prospectus, we may invest the net proceeds in interest-bearing accounts, money market accounts and/or interest-bearing securities, in each case, in a manner that is consistent with maintaining our qualification as a REIT. Further details regarding the use of the net proceeds from the sale of our securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus.
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DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK
The following summary of the material terms of our common stock does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to the Maryland General Corporation Law, or the MGCL, and to our charter and bylaws. For a more complete understanding of our common stock, we encourage you to read carefully this entire prospectus, as well as our charter and bylaws, each of which is incorporated herein by reference, and the following summary is qualified in its entirety by reference to our charter and bylaws. See “Where To Find Additional Information” for information on how to obtain documents from us, including our charter and bylaws.
General
Our charter provides that we may issue up to 900,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value per share, or our common stock. Our charter authorizes our board of directors, with the approval of a majority of the entire board of directors and without any action by our common stockholders, to amend our charter to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of stock or the number of authorized shares of any class or series of our stock. As of the date of this prospectus, 45,382,076 shares of our common stock are issued and outstanding.
Under Maryland law, stockholders generally are not personally liable for our debts or obligations solely as a result of their status as stockholders.
Dividends, Liquidation and Other Rights
Subject to the preferential rights of any other class or series of our stock and to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends and other distributions on such shares if, as and when authorized by our board of directors out of assets legally available therefor and declared by us and to share ratably in the assets of our company legally available for distribution to our stockholders in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up after payment or establishment of reserves for all known debts and liabilities of our company.
Holders of shares of our common stock have no preference, conversion, exchange, sinking fund or redemption rights and have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any securities of our company. Our charter provides that our common stockholders generally have no appraisal rights unless our board of directors determines prospectively that appraisal rights will apply to one or more transactions in which holders of our common stock would otherwise be entitled to exercise appraisal rights. Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, holders of our common stock will have equal dividend, liquidation and other rights.
Under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation generally cannot dissolve, amend its charter, merge, convert, consolidate, sell all or substantially all of its assets or engage in a statutory share exchange unless declared advisable by its board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter unless a lesser percentage (but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter) is set forth in the corporation’s charter. Our charter provides for approval of any of these matters by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on such matters, except that the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors is required to remove a director (and such removal must be for cause) and the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on such matter is required to amend the provisions of our charter relating to the removal of directors, relating to the restrictions on the transfer and ownership of shares or the vote required to amend such provisions. Maryland law also permits a Maryland corporation to transfer all or substantially all of its assets without the approval of the stockholders of the corporation to an entity if all of the equity interests of the entity are owned, directly or indirectly, by the corporation. Because our operating assets may be held by our operating partnership or its subsidiaries, these subsidiaries may be able to merge or transfer all or substantially all of their assets without the approval of our stockholders.
Voting Rights of Common Stock
Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock and except as may otherwise be specified in the terms of any class or series of our common stock, each outstanding share of our common stock entitles the holder to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders,
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including the election of directors, and, except as provided with respect to any other class or series of stock, the holders of shares of our common stock will possess the exclusive voting power. There is no cumulative voting in the election of our directors. Directors are elected by a plurality of all of the votes cast in the election of directors.
Power to Reclassify and Issue Stock
Our charter authorizes our board of directors to reclassify any unissued shares of our common stock into other classes or series of stock, to establish the designation and number of shares of each class or series and to set, subject to the provisions of our charter relating to the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our capital stock, the preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption of each such class or series.
Power to Increase or Decrease Authorized Shares of Our Common Stock and Issue Additional Shares of Our Common and Preferred Stock
We believe that the power of our board of directors to amend our charter to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of stock, to authorize us to issue additional authorized but unissued shares of our common stock or preferred stock and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of our common stock or preferred stock and thereafter to authorize us to issue such classified or reclassified shares of stock will provide us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs that might arise. The additional classes or series, as well as the additional authorized shares of our common stock, will be available for issuance without further action by our stockholders, unless such action is required by applicable law, the terms of any class or series of preferred stock that we may issue in the future or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Although our board of directors does not currently intend to do so, it could authorize us to issue a class or series of stock that could, depending upon the terms of the particular class or series, delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for holders of our common stock or that our common stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interests. See “Material Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws—Anti-takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws.”
Restrictions On Ownership and Transfer
In order for us to qualify as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, our stock must be beneficially owned by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made) or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year. Also, not more than 50% of the value of the outstanding shares of stock (after taking into account options to acquire shares of stock) may be owned, directly, indirectly or through application of certain attribution rules by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include certain entities such as qualified pension plans) at any time during the last half of a taxable year (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made).
Our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our stock that are intended to assist us in complying with these requirements and continuing to qualify as a REIT. The relevant sections of our charter provide that, subject to the exceptions described below, no person or entity may actually or beneficially own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 9.8% (in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the outstanding shares of any class or series of our capital stock, excluding any shares of stock that are not treated as outstanding for federal income tax purposes. We refer to this restriction as the “ownership limit.” A person or entity that would have acquired actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of our stock but for the application of the ownership limit or any of the other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock discussed below is referred to as a “prohibited owner.”
The constructive ownership rules under the Code are complex and may cause stock owned actually or constructively by a group of related individuals and/or entities to be owned constructively by one individual or entity. As a result, the acquisition of less than 9.8% of our common stock (or the acquisition of an interest in an entity that owns, actually or constructively, our common stock) by an individual or entity, could, nevertheless cause that individual or entity, or another individual or entity, to own constructively in excess of 9.8% of our outstanding common stock and thereby violate the applicable ownership limit.
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Our board of directors, in its sole and absolute discretion, prospectively or retroactively, may exempt a person from the limit described in the paragraph above and may establish or increase an excepted holder percentage limit for that person. The person seeking an exemption must provide to our board of directors any representations, covenants and undertakings that our board of directors may deem appropriate in order to conclude that granting the exemption will not cause us to lose our status as a REIT. Our board of directors may not grant an exemption to any person if that exemption would result in our failing to qualify as a REIT. Our board of directors must waive the ownership limit with respect to a particular person if it: (i) determines that such ownership will not cause any individual’s beneficial ownership of shares of our stock to violate the ownership limit and that any exemption from the ownership limit will not jeopardize our status as a REIT; and (ii) determines that such stockholder does not and will not own, actually or constructively, an interest in a tenant of ours (or a tenant of any entity whose operations are attributed in whole or in part to us) that would cause us to own, actually or constructively, more than a 9.8% interest (as set forth in Section 856(d)(2)(B) of the Code) in such tenant or that any such ownership would not cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT under the Code. Our board of directors may require a ruling from the IRS or an opinion of counsel, in either case in form and substance satisfactory to our board of directors, in its sole discretion, in order to determine or ensure our status as a REIT.
As a condition of the exception, our board of directors may require an opinion of counsel or IRS ruling, in either case in form and substance satisfactory to our board of directors, in its sole and absolute discretion, in order to determine or ensure our status as a REIT and representations and undertakings from the person seeking the exemption or excepted holder limit in order to make the determinations above. Our board of directors may impose such conditions or restrictions as it deems appropriate in connection with such an exception.
Our board of directors may, in its sole and absolute discretion, increase or decrease the ownership limit for one or more persons, except that a decreased ownership limit will not be effective for any person whose actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of our stock exceeds the decreased ownership limit at the time of the decrease until the person’s actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of our stock equals or falls below the decreased ownership limit, although any further acquisition of shares of our stock or beneficial or constructive ownership of our stock will violate the decreased ownership limit. Our board of directors may from time to time increase or decrease any ownership limit if, among other limitations, the new ownership limit would not prevent five or fewer persons to actually or beneficially own more than 49.9% in value of our outstanding stock.
Our charter further prohibits:
any person from actually, beneficially or constructively owning shares of our stock that could result in us being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT (including, but not limited to, actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of shares of our stock that could result in us owning (actually or constructively) an interest in a tenant that is described in Section 856(d)(2)(B) of the Code if the income we derive from such tenant, taking into account our other income that would not qualify under the gross income requirements of Section 856(c) of the Code, would cause us to fail to satisfy any such gross income requirements imposed on REITs); and
any person from transferring shares of our stock if such transfer would result in shares of our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons (determined without reference to any rules of attribution).
Any person who acquires or attempts or intends to acquire actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of shares of our stock that will or may violate the ownership limit or any of the other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock described above must give written notice immediately to us or, in the case of a proposed or attempted transaction, provide us at least 15 days prior written notice, and provide us with such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect of such transfer on our status as a REIT.
The ownership limit and other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock described above will not apply if our board of directors determines that it is no longer in our best interests to attempt to qualify, or to continue to qualify, as a REIT or that compliance is no longer required in order for us to qualify as a REIT.
Pursuant to our charter, if any purported transfer of our stock or any other event would otherwise result in any person violating the ownership limits or such other limit established by our board of directors, or could
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result in us being “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT, then that number of shares causing the violation (rounded up to the nearest whole share) will be automatically transferred to, and held by, a charitable trust for the exclusive benefit of one or more charitable organizations selected by us. The prohibited owner will have no rights in shares of our stock held by the trustee. The automatic transfer will be effective as of the close of business on the business day prior to the date of the violative transfer or other event that results in the transfer to the trust. Any dividend or other distribution paid to the prohibited owner, prior to our discovery that the shares had been automatically transferred to a trust as described above, must be repaid to the trustee upon demand. If the transfer to the trust as described above is not automatically effective, for any reason, to prevent violation of the applicable restriction on ownership and transfer of our stock, then that transfer of the number of shares that otherwise would cause any person to violate the above restrictions will be void. If any transfer of our stock would result in shares of our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons (determined without reference to any rules of attribution), then any such purported transfer will be void and of no force or effect and the intended transferee will acquire no rights in the shares.
Shares of our stock transferred to the trustee are deemed offered for sale to us, or our designee, at a price per share equal to the lesser of (i) the price per share in the transaction that resulted in the transfer of the shares to the trust (or, in the event of a gift, devise or other such transaction, the last reported sale price at the time of such gift, devise or other transaction) and (ii) the last reported sale price on the date we accept, or our designee accepts, such offer. We may reduce the amount payable to the prohibited owner by the amount of dividends and distributions paid to the prohibited owner and owed by the prohibited owner to the trustee and pay the amount of such reduction to the trustee for the benefit of the charitable beneficiary. We have the right to accept such offer until the trustee has sold the shares of our stock held in the trust. Upon a sale to us, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold terminates and the trustee must distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the prohibited owner and any dividends or other distributions held by the trustee with respect to such stock will be paid to the charitable beneficiary.
If we do not buy the shares, the trustee must, within 20 days of receiving notice from us of the transfer of shares to the trust, sell the shares to a person or persons designated by the trustee who could own the shares without violating the ownership limits or other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock. Upon such sale, the trustee must distribute to the prohibited owner an amount equal to the lesser of (i) the price paid by the prohibited owner for the shares (or, if the prohibited owner did not give value in connection with the transfer or other event that resulted in the transfer to the trust (e.g., a gift, devise or other such transaction), the last reported sale price on the day of the transfer or other event that resulted in the transfer of such shares to the trust) and (ii) the sales proceeds (net of commissions and other expenses of sale) received by the trustee for the shares. The trustee may reduce the amount payable to the prohibited owner by the amount of dividends and other distributions paid to the prohibited owner and owed by the prohibited owner to the trustee. Any net sales proceeds in excess of the amount payable to the prohibited owner will be immediately paid to the charitable beneficiary, together with any dividends or other distributions thereon. In addition, if prior to our discovery that shares of our stock have been transferred to the trustee, such shares of stock are sold by a prohibited owner, then such shares shall be deemed to have been sold on behalf of the trust and, to the extent that the prohibited owner received an amount for or in respect of such shares that exceeds the amount that such prohibited owner was entitled to receive, such excess amount shall be paid to the trustee upon demand.
The trustee will be designated by us and will be unaffiliated with us and with any prohibited owner. Prior to the sale of any shares by the trust, the trustee will receive, in trust for the charitable beneficiary, all dividends and other distributions paid by us with respect to such shares, and may exercise all voting rights with respect to such shares for the exclusive benefit of the charitable beneficiary.
Subject to Maryland law, effective as of the date that the shares have been transferred to the trust, the trustee may, at the trustee’s sole discretion:
rescind as void any vote cast by a prohibited owner prior to our discovery that the shares have been transferred to the trust; and
recast the vote in accordance with the desires of the trustee acting for the benefit of the beneficiary of the trust.
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However, if we have already taken irreversible corporate action, then the trustee may not rescind and recast the vote.
If our board of directors or a committee thereof determines that a proposed transfer or other event has taken place that violates the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock set forth in our charter, our board of directors or such committee may take such action as it deems advisable in its sole and absolute discretion to refuse to give effect to or to prevent such transfer, including, but not limited to, causing us to redeem shares of stock, refusing to give effect to the transfer on our books or instituting proceedings to enjoin the transfer.
Every owner of more than 5% (or such lower percentage as required by the Code or the Treasury regulations promulgated thereunder) in number or value of the outstanding shares of our stock, within 30 days after the end of each taxable year, must give written notice to us stating the name and address of such owner, the number of shares of each class and series of our stock that the owner beneficially owns and a description of the manner in which the shares are held. Each such owner also must provide us with any additional information that we request in order to determine the effect, if any, of the person’s actual or beneficial ownership on our status as a REIT and to ensure compliance with the ownership limits. In addition, any person that is an actual owner, beneficial owner or constructive owner of shares of our stock and any person (including the stockholder of record) who is holding shares of our stock for an actual owner, beneficial owner or constructive owner must, on request, disclose to us such information as we may request in good faith in order to determine our status as a REIT and comply with requirements of any taxing authority or governmental authority or to determine such compliance and to ensure compliance with the ownership limits.
Any certificates representing shares of our stock will bear a legend referring to the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock described above.
These restrictions on ownership and transfer could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for our common stock that our stockholders believe to be in their best interest.
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company.
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CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS
The following summary of certain provisions of Maryland law and of our charter and bylaws does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to Maryland law and our charter and bylaws, copies of which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is part. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”
Our Board of Directors
Our charter and bylaws provide that the number of directors of our company may be established, increased or decreased only by a majority of our entire board of directors but may not be fewer than the minimum number required under the MGCL, which is one, or, unless our bylaws are amended, more than fifteen. We have eight directors.
Our charter also provides that, at such time as we became eligible to elect to be subject to certain elective provisions of the MGCL and except as may be provided by our board of directors in setting the terms of any class or series of stock, any vacancy may be filled only by a majority of the remaining directors, even if the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum. Any director so elected will serve for the remainder of the full term of the directorship in which the vacancy occurred and until a successor is duly elected and qualifies.
Each of our directors is elected by our stockholders to serve until the next annual meeting of stockholders and until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies under the MGCL. Holders of shares of our common stock will have no right to cumulative voting in the election of directors. Directors are elected by a plurality of the votes cast. Consequently, at each annual meetings of stockholders, the holders of the majority of the shares of our common stock will be able to elect all of our directors.
Removal of Directors
Our charter provides that, subject to the rights of holders of one or more classes or series of preferred stock to elect or remove one or more directors, a director may be removed only for cause (as defined in our charter) and only by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors. This provision, when coupled with the exclusive power of our board of directors to fill vacant directorships, may preclude stockholders from removing incumbent directors except for cause and by a substantial affirmative vote and filling the vacancies created by such removal with their own nominees.
Business Combinations
Under the MGCL, certain “business combinations” (including a merger, consolidation, share exchange or, in certain circumstances specified under the statute, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities) between a Maryland corporation and any interested stockholder, or an affiliate of such an interested stockholder, are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Maryland law defines an interested stockholder as:
any person who beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, 10% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock; or
an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner of 10% or more of the voting power of the then outstanding voting stock of the corporation.
A person is not an interested stockholder under the statute if the board of directors approved in advance the transaction by which the person otherwise would have become an interested stockholder.
In approving a transaction, however, a board of directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance, at or after the time of the approval, with any terms and conditions determined by it.
After such five-year period, any such business combination must be recommended by the board of directors of the corporation and approved by the affirmative vote of at least:
80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of voting stock of the corporation; and
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two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of voting stock of the corporation other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom (or with whose affiliate) the business combination is to be effected or held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder.
These supermajority approval requirements do not apply if, among other conditions, the corporation’s common stockholders receive a minimum price (as defined in the MGCL) for their shares and the consideration is received in cash or in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares.
These provisions of the MGCL do not apply, however, to business combinations that are approved or exempted by a corporation’s board of directors prior to the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Our board of directors has adopted a resolution opting out of the business combination provisions of the MGCL. This resolution provides that any alteration or repeal of the resolution by the board of directors shall be valid only if approved, at a meeting duly called, by the affirmative vote of a majority of votes cast by stockholders entitled to vote generally for directors. Our bylaws provide that any such alteration or repeal of the resolution will be valid only if approved, at a meeting duly called, by the affirmative vote of a majority of votes cast by stockholders entitled to vote generally for directors.
We do not have a “poison pill” or stockholder rights plan. We intend to seek prior stockholder approval before adopting a stockholder rights plan unless, due to timing constraints or other reasons, a majority of the directors who qualify as independent directors under NYSE corporate governance standards determines that it would be in the best interests of stockholders to adopt a plan before obtaining stockholder approval. We also intend that any stockholder rights plan we adopt without prior stockholder approval would either be ratified by stockholders or must expire, without being renewed or replaced, within one year.
Control Share Acquisitions
The MGCL provides that holders of “control shares” of a Maryland corporation acquired in a “control share acquisition” have no voting rights with respect to their control shares except to the extent approved by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast in the election of directors, generally, excluding shares of stock in a corporation in respect of which any of the following persons is entitled to exercise or direct the exercise of the voting power of such shares in the election of directors: (1) the person who made or proposes to make a control share acquisition, (2) an officer of the corporation or (3) an employee of the corporation who is also a director of the corporation. “Control shares” are voting shares of stock that, if aggregated with all other such shares of stock previously acquired by the acquirer or in respect of which the acquirer is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquirer to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power:
one-tenth or more but less than one-third;
one-third or more but less than a majority; or
a majority or more of all voting power.
Control shares do not include shares that the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval. A “control share acquisition” means the acquisition, directly or indirectly, of ownership of, or the power to direct the exercise of voting power with respect to, issued and outstanding control shares, subject to certain exceptions.
A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition, upon satisfaction of certain conditions (including an undertaking to pay expenses and making an “acquiring person statement” as described in the MGCL), may compel the corporation to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the control shares. If no request for a special meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders meeting.
If voting rights of control shares are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an “acquiring person statement” as required by the statute, then, subject to certain conditions and limitations, the corporation may redeem any or all of the control shares (except those for which voting rights have previously been approved) for fair value determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquirer or of any meeting of stockholders at which the voting rights of such shares are considered and not approved. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a
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stockholders meeting and the acquirer becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as determined for purposes of such appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquirer in the control share acquisition.
The control share acquisition statute does not apply to: (1) shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or (2) acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation.
Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the control share acquisition statute any and all acquisitions by any person of shares of our stock. Our bylaws provide that any amendment, alteration or repeal of this provision shall be valid only if approved, at a meeting duly called, by the affirmative vote of a majority of votes cast by stockholders entitled to vote generally for directors. There can be no assurance that such provision will not be amended or eliminated at any time in the future.
Subtitle 8
Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and at least three independent directors to elect to be subject, by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to any or all of the following five provisions:
a classified board;
a two-thirds vote requirement for removing a director;
a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by vote of the directors;
a requirement that a vacancy on the board be filled only by the remaining directors and for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred; or
a majority requirement for the calling of a special meeting of stockholders.
Our charter provides that, at such time as we became eligible to make a Subtitle 8 election and except as may be provided by our board of directors in setting the terms of any class or series of stock, we elect to be subject to the provisions of Subtitle 8 relating to the filling of vacancies on our board of directors. Through provisions in our charter and bylaws unrelated to Subtitle 8, we already (1) require a two-thirds vote for the removal of any director from the board, (2) vest in the board the exclusive power to fix the number of directorships, subject to limitations set forth in our charter and bylaws, and (3) require, unless called by the chairman of our board of directors, our president, our chief executive officer or our board of directors, the request of stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all votes entitled to be cast on a matter at such meeting to call a special meeting to consider and vote on any matter that may properly be considered at a meeting of stockholders. Our bylaws provide that we may not make a Subtitle 8 election to create a classified board. Our bylaws provide that any amendment, alteration or repeal of this provision shall be valid only if approved, at a meeting duly called, by the affirmative vote of a majority of votes cast by stockholders entitled to vote generally for directors. There can be no assurance that such provision will not be amended or eliminated at any time in the future.
Amendments to Our Charter and Bylaws
Other than amendments to certain provisions of our charter described below and amendments permitted to be made without stockholder approval under Maryland law or by a specific provision in the charter, our charter may be amended only if such amendment is declared advisable by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. The provisions of our charter relating to the removal of directors, the restrictions on the transfer and ownership of shares or the vote required to amend such provisions may be amended only if such amendment is declared advisable by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast not less than two-thirds of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Except as otherwise noted with respect to amendments requiring the affirmative vote of a majority of votes cast by stockholders entitled to vote generally for directors, our board of directors has the exclusive power to adopt, alter or repeal any provision of our bylaws or to make new bylaws.
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Meetings of Stockholders
Under our bylaws, annual meetings of stockholders must be held each year at a date, time and place determined by our board of directors. Special meetings of stockholders may be called by the chairman of our board of directors, our chief executive officer, our president and our board of directors. Subject to the provisions of our bylaws, a special meeting of stockholders to act on any matter that may properly be considered at a meeting of stockholders must be called by our secretary upon the written request of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter at such meeting who have requested the special meeting in accordance with the procedures specified in our bylaws and provided the information and certifications required by our bylaws. Only matters set forth in the notice of a special meeting of stockholders may be considered and acted upon at such a meeting.
Advance Notice of Director Nominations and New Business
Our bylaws provide that:
with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of individuals for election to the board of directors and the proposal of business to be considered by stockholders at the annual meeting may be made only:
pursuant to our notice of the meeting;
by or at the direction of our board of directors; or
by a stockholder who was a stockholder of record both at the time of giving of the notice required by our bylaws and at the time of the annual meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated or on such other business and who has provided the information and certifications required by the advance notice procedures set forth in our bylaws.
with respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our notice of meeting may be brought before the meeting of stockholders, and nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors may be made only:
by or at the direction of our board of directors; or
provided that the meeting has been called for the purpose of electing directors, by a stockholder who is a stockholder of record both at the time of giving of the notice required by our bylaws and at the time of the meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated and who has provided the information and certifications required by the advance notice procedures set forth in our bylaws.
The purpose of requiring stockholders to give advance notice of nominations and other proposals is to afford our board of directors the opportunity to consider the qualifications of the proposed nominees or the advisability of the other proposals and, to the extent considered necessary by our board of directors, to inform stockholders and make recommendations regarding the nominations or other proposals. The advance notice procedures also permit a more orderly procedure for conducting our stockholder meetings.
Anti-takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws
The restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, the provisions of our charter regarding the removal of directors, the exclusive power of our board of directors to fill vacancies on the board and the advance notice provisions of the bylaws could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for holders of our common stock or otherwise be in their best interests. Likewise, if our board of directors were to opt in to the business combination provisions of the MGCL or the provisions of Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL providing for a classified board of directors, or if the provision in our bylaws opting out of the control share acquisition provisions of the MGCL were amended or rescinded, these provisions of the MGCL could have similar anti-takeover effects.
Indemnification and Limitation of Directors’ and Officers’ Liability
Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision limiting the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting
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from actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or active and deliberate dishonesty that is established by a final judgment and is material to the cause of action. Our charter contains a provision that eliminates such liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.
The MGCL requires a Maryland corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made or are threatened to be made a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:
the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and:
was committed in bad faith; or
was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;
the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or
in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.
However, under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify a director or officer for an adverse judgment in a suit by or on behalf of the corporation or if the director or officer was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, unless in either case a court orders indemnification and then only for expenses. In addition, the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer, without requiring a preliminary determination of the director’s or officer’s ultimate entitlement to indemnification, upon the corporation’s receipt of:
a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation; and
a written undertaking by the director or officer or on the director’s or officer’s behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it is ultimately determined that the director or officer did not meet the standard of conduct.
Our charter authorizes us to obligate our company and our bylaws obligate us, to the fullest extent permitted by Maryland law in effect from time to time, to indemnify and to pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding, without requiring a preliminary determination of the director’s or officer’s ultimate entitlement to indemnification, to:
any present or former director or officer who is made or threatened to be made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity; or
any individual who, while serving as a director or officer and at our request, serves or has served as a director, officer, partner, trustee, member or manager of another corporation, real estate investment trust, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise and who is made or threatened to be made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity.
Our charter and bylaws also permit us, with the approval of our board of directors, to indemnify and advance expenses to any person who served a predecessor of ours in any of the capacities described above and to any employee or agent of our company or a predecessor of our company.
The partnership agreement also provides that we, as general partner, and our directors, officers, employees, agents and designees are indemnified to the extent provided therein. See “Description of the Partnership Agreement of Plymouth Industrial OP, LP.”
Insofar as the foregoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, officers or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC, this indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.
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Indemnification Agreements
We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our executive officers and directors.
Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer
Subject to certain exceptions, our charter provides that no person or entity may actually or beneficially own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 9.8% (in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the outstanding shares of any class or series of our capital stock. For a fuller description of this and other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, see “Description of Stock—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”
REIT Qualification
Our charter provides that our board of directors may revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without approval of our stockholders, if it determines that it is no longer in our best interests to continue to be qualified as a REIT. Our charter also provides that our board of directors may determine that compliance with one or more of the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock is no longer required in order for us to qualify as a REIT.
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DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK
The following description sets forth certain general terms of the shares of our preferred stock to which any prospectus supplement may relate. This description and the description contained in any prospectus supplement are not complete and are in all respects subject to and qualified in their entirety by reference to our charter, the applicable articles supplementary that describes the terms of the related class or series of our preferred stock, and our bylaws, each of which we will make available upon request.
General
Our charter provides that we may issue up to 100,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share. Our charter authorizes our board of directors to increase or decrease the number of authorized shares without stockholder approval. As of December 31, 2023, no shares of preferred stock were issued and outstanding.
Subject to the limitations prescribed by Maryland law and our charter and bylaws, our Board of Directors is authorized to establish the number of shares constituting each series of preferred stock and to fix the designations and powers, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights and qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, including such provisions as may be desired concerning voting, redemption, dividends, dissolution or the distribution of assets, conversion or exchange, and such other subjects or matters as may be fixed by resolution of our board of directors or duly authorized committee thereof.
The prospectus supplement relating to the series of preferred stock offered thereby will describe the specific terms of such securities, including:
the title and stated value of such preferred stock;
the number of shares of such preferred stock offered, the liquidation preference per share and the offering price of such shares;
the dividend rate(s), period(s) and payment date(s) or method(s) of calculation thereof applicable to such preferred stock;
whether dividends shall be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends on such preferred stock shall accumulate;
the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any, for such preferred stock;
the provisions for a sinking fund, if any, for such preferred stock;
the provisions for redemption, if applicable, of such preferred stock;
any listing of such preferred stock on any securities exchange;
the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which shares of such preferred stock will be convertible into shares of our common stock, including the conversion price (or manner of calculation thereof) and conversion period;
a discussion of material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to such preferred stock;
any limitations on issuance of any series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with such series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;
in addition to those limitations described herein, any other limitations on actual and constructive ownership and restrictions on transfer, in each case as may be appropriate to preserve our status as a REIT; and
any other specific terms, preferences, rights, limitations or restrictions of such preferred stock.
Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and Our Charter and Bylaws
See “Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and Our Charter and Bylaws.”
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DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES
General
We may issue receipts for depositary shares, each of which will represent a fractional interest of a share of a particular series of our preferred stock, as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. Preferred stock of each series represented by depositary shares will be deposited under a separate deposit agreement among us, the depositary named therein and the holders from time to time of the depositary receipts. Subject to the terms of the applicable deposit agreement, each owner of a depositary receipt will be entitled, in proportion to the fractional interest of a share of a particular series of our preferred stock represented by the depositary shares evidenced by such depositary receipt, to all the rights and preferences of the preferred stock represented by such depositary shares (including dividend, voting, conversion, redemption and liquidation rights).
The depositary shares will be evidenced by depositary receipts issued pursuant to the applicable deposit agreement. Immediately following the issuance and delivery of the shares of preferred stock by us to a preferred share depositary, we will cause such preferred shares depositary to issue, on our behalf, the depositary receipts. Copies of the applicable form of deposit agreement and depositary receipt may be obtained from us upon request, and the statements made hereunder relating to the deposit agreement and the depositary receipts to be issued thereunder are summaries of certain provisions thereof and do not purport to be complete and are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the applicable deposit agreement and the related depositary receipts, as well as our charter, including articles supplementary relating to the applicable class or series of our preferred stock.
Dividends and Other Distributions
The preferred share depositary will distribute all cash dividends or other cash distributions received in respect of the shares of our preferred stock to the record holders of depositary receipts evidencing the related depositary shares in proportion to the number of such depositary receipts owned by such holders, subject to certain obligations of holders to file proofs, certificates and other information and to pay certain charges and expenses to the preferred shares depositary.
In the event of a distribution other than in cash, the preferred shares depositary will distribute property received by it to the record holders of depositary receipts entitled thereto, subject to certain obligations of holders to file proofs, certificates and other information and to pay certain charges and expenses to the preferred shares depositary, unless the preferred shares depositary determines that it is not feasible to make such distribution, in which case the preferred shares depositary may, with our approval, sell such property and distribute the net proceeds from such sale to such holders.
No distribution will be made in respect of any depositary share to the extent that it represents any shares of preferred stock converted into other securities.
Withdrawal of Shares
Upon surrender of the depositary receipts at the corporate trust office of the applicable preferred shares depositary (unless the related depositary shares have previously been called for redemption or converted into other securities), the holders thereof will be entitled to delivery at such office, to or upon such holder’s order, of the number of whole or fractional shares of preferred stock and any money or other property represented by the depositary shares evidenced by such depositary receipts. Holders of depositary receipts will be entitled to receive whole or fractional shares of preferred stock on the basis of the proportion of preferred shares represented by each depositary share as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, but holders of such preferred shares will not thereafter be entitled to receive depositary shares therefor. If the depositary receipts delivered by the holder evidence a number of depositary shares in excess of the number of depositary shares representing the number of shares of preferred stock to be withdrawn, the preferred shares depositary will deliver to such holder at the same time a new depositary receipt evidencing such excess number of depositary shares.
Redemption of Depositary Shares
Whenever we redeem shares of our preferred stock held by the preferred shares depositary, the preferred shares depositary will redeem as of the same redemption date the number of depositary shares representing shares of preferred stock so redeemed, provided we shall have paid in full to the preferred shares depositary the
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redemption price of the preferred shares to be redeemed plus an amount equal to any accrued and unpaid dividends thereon to the date fixed for redemption. The redemption price per depositary share will be equal to the corresponding proportion of the redemption price and any other amounts per share payable with respect to the preferred shares. If fewer than all the depositary shares are to be redeemed, the depositary shares to be redeemed will be selected pro rata (as nearly as may be practicable without creating fractional depositary shares) or by any other equitable method determined by us that will not result in a violation of the ownership restrictions in our charter.
From and after the date fixed for redemption, all dividends in respect of the preferred shares so called for redemption will cease to accrue, the depositary shares so called for redemption will no longer be deemed to be outstanding and all rights of the holders of the depositary receipts evidencing the depositary shares so called for redemption will cease, except the right to receive any moneys payable upon such redemption and any money or other property to which the holders of such depositary receipts were entitled upon such redemption and surrender thereof to the preferred shares depositary.
Voting of the Shares of Preferred Stock
Upon receipt of notice of any meeting at which the holders of the applicable shares of our preferred stock are entitled to vote, the preferred shares depositary will mail the information contained in such notice of meeting to the record holders of the depositary receipts evidencing the depositary shares which represent such shares of preferred stock. Each record holder of depositary receipts evidencing depositary shares on the record date (which will be the same date as the record date for the preferred shares) will be entitled to instruct the preferred shares depositary as to the exercise of the voting rights pertaining to the amount of preferred shares represented by such holder’s depositary shares. The preferred shares depositary will vote the amount of preferred shares represented by such depositary shares in accordance with such instructions, and we will agree to take all reasonable action which may be deemed necessary by the preferred shares depositary in order to enable the preferred shares depositary to do so. The preferred shares depositary will abstain from voting the amount of preferred shares represented by such depositary shares to the extent it does not receive specific instructions from the holders of depositary receipts evidencing such depositary shares. The preferred shares depositary shall not be responsible for any failure to carry out any instruction to vote, or for the manner or effect of any such vote made, as long as any such action or non-action is in good faith and does not result from negligence or willful misconduct of the preferred shares depositary.
Liquidation Preference
In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, whether voluntary or involuntary, the holders of each depositary receipt will be entitled to the fraction of the liquidation preference accorded each shares of preferred stock represented by the depositary shares evidenced by such depositary receipt, as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Amendment and Termination of Deposit Agreement
The form of depositary receipt evidencing the depositary shares which represent the preferred stock and any provision of the deposit agreement may at any time be amended by agreement between us and the preferred shares depositary. However, any amendment that materially and adversely alters the rights of the holders of depositary receipts or that would be materially and adversely inconsistent with the rights granted to the holders of the related preferred stock will not be effective unless such amendment has been approved by the existing holders of at least two-thirds of the applicable depositary shares evidenced by the applicable depositary receipts then outstanding. No amendment shall impair the right, subject to certain exceptions in the deposit agreement, of any holder of depositary receipts to surrender any depositary receipt with instructions to deliver to the holder the related preferred shares and all money and other property, if any, represented thereby, except in order to comply with law. Every holder of an outstanding depositary receipt at the time any such amendment becomes effective shall be deemed, by continuing to hold such receipt, to consent and agree to such amendment and to be bound by the deposit agreement as amended thereby.
The deposit agreement may be terminated by us upon not less than 30 days’ prior written notice to the preferred shares depositary if (i) such termination is necessary to preserve our status as a REIT or (ii) a majority of each series of preferred stock affected by such termination consents to such termination, whereupon the
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preferred shares depositary shall deliver or make available to each holder of depositary receipts, upon surrender of the depositary receipts held by such holder, such number of whole or fractional shares of our preferred stock as are represented by the depositary shares evidenced by such depositary receipts together with any other property held by the preferred shares depositary with respect to such depositary receipts. We have agreed that if the deposit agreement is terminated to preserve our status as a REIT, then we will use our best efforts to list the preferred stock issued upon surrender of the related depositary shares on a national securities exchange. In addition, the deposit agreement will automatically terminate if (i) all outstanding depositary shares shall have been redeemed, (ii) there shall have been a final distribution in respect of the related preferred shares in connection with our liquidation, dissolution or winding up and such distribution shall have been distributed to the holders of depositary receipts evidencing the depositary shares representing such preferred shares or (iii) each related share of our preferred stock shall have been converted into our securities not so represented by depositary shares.
Charges of Preferred Shares Depositary
We will pay all transfer and other taxes and governmental charges arising solely from the existence of the deposit agreement. In addition, we will pay the fees and expenses of the preferred shares depositary in connection with the performance of its duties under the deposit agreement. However, holders of depositary receipts will pay the fees and expenses of the preferred shares depositary for any duties requested by such holders to be performed which are outside of those expressly provided for in the deposit agreement.
Resignation and Removal of Depositary
The preferred shares depositary may resign at any time by delivering to us notice of its election to do so, and we may at any time remove the preferred shares depositary, any such resignation or removal to take effect upon the appointment of a successor preferred shares depositary. A successor preferred shares depositary must be appointed within 60 days after delivery of the notice of resignation or removal and must be a bank or trust company having its principal office in the United States and that meets certain combined capital and surplus requirements.
Miscellaneous
The preferred shares depositary will forward to holders of depositary receipts any reports and communications from the Company which are received by the preferred shares depositary with respect to the related preferred shares.
Neither the preferred shares depositary nor we will be liable if it is prevented from or delayed in, by law or any circumstances beyond its control, performing its obligations under the deposit agreement. The obligations of us and the preferred shares depositary under the deposit agreement will be limited to performing our respective duties thereunder in good faith and without negligence (in the case of any action or inaction in the voting of preferred shares represented by the depositary shares), gross negligence or willful misconduct, and we and the preferred shares depositary will not be obligated to prosecute or defend any legal proceeding in respect of any depositary receipts, depositary shares or preferred shares represented thereby unless satisfactory indemnity is furnished. We and the preferred shares depositary may rely on written advice of counsel or accountants, or information provided by persons presenting preferred shares represented thereby for deposit, holders of depositary receipts or other persons believed in good faith to be competent to give such information, and on documents believed in good faith to be genuine and signed by a proper party.
In the event that the preferred shares depositary receives conflicting claims, requests or instructions from any holders of depositary receipts, on the one hand, and us, on the other hand, the preferred shares depositary shall be entitled to act on such claims, requests or instructions received from us.
Restrictions on Ownership
Holders of depositary receipts will be subject to the ownership and transfer restrictions of our charter. See “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”
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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
We may offer by means of this prospectus warrants for the purchase of any of the securities offered by this prospectus. We may issue warrants separately or together with any other securities offered by means of this prospectus, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from such securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and a warrant agent specified therein or in the applicable prospectus supplement. The warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants of such series and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders or beneficial owners of warrants.
The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the following terms, where applicable, of the warrants in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered:
the title and issuer of such warrants;
the aggregate number of such warrants;
the price or prices at which such warrants will be issued;
the currencies in which the price or prices of such warrants may be payable;
the designation, amount and terms of the securities purchasable upon exercise of such warrants;
the designation and terms of the other securities with which such warrants are issued and the number of such warrants issued with each such security;
if applicable, the date on and after which such warrants and the securities purchasable upon exercise of such warrants will be separately transferable;
the price or prices at which and currency or currencies in which the securities purchasable upon exercise of such warrants may be purchased;
the date on which the right to exercise such warrants shall commence and the date on which such right shall expire;
the minimum or maximum amount of such warrants which may be exercised at any one time;
information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;
a discussion of material U.S. federal income tax considerations; and
any other material terms of such warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of such warrants.
Restrictions on Ownership
Holders of warrants will be subject to the ownership and transfer restrictions of our charter. See “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”
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DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS
We may issue rights to our stockholders for the purchase of shares of our common stock. Each series of rights will be issued under a separate rights agreement to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as rights agent, all as set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular issue of rights. The rights agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the certificates relating to the rights of such series and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders of rights certificates or beneficial owners of rights. The rights agreement and the rights certificates relating to each series of rights will be filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.
The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the following terms, where applicable, of the rights to be issued:
the date for determining the stockholders entitled to the rights distribution;
the aggregate number of shares of common stock purchasable upon exercise of such rights and the exercise price;
the aggregate number of rights being issued;
the date, if any, on and after which such rights may be transferable separately;
the date on which the right to exercise such rights shall commence and the date on which such right shall expire;
discussion of material U.S. federal income tax considerations; and
any other terms of such rights, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the distribution, exchange, listing, transferability and exercise of such rights.
Restrictions on Ownership
Holders of rights will be subject to the ownership and transfer restrictions of our charter. See “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”
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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES AND RELATED GUARANTEES
The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes certain general terms and provisions of our debt securities and related guarantees, if any. When our operating partnership offers to sell a particular series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of the series in a supplement to this prospectus, including the terms of any related guarantees by the Company. We will also indicate in the prospectus supplement the extent to which the general terms and provisions described in this prospectus apply to a particular series of debt securities. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.
Our operating partnership may issue debt securities either separately, or together with, or upon the conversion or exercise of or in exchange for, other securities described in this prospectus. Debt securities may be our senior, senior subordinated or subordinated obligations and, unless otherwise specified in a supplement to this prospectus, the debt securities will be the direct, unsecured obligations of our operating partnership and may be issued in one or more series.
The debt securities will be issued under an indenture between our operating partnership and a trustee. We have summarized select portions of the indenture below. The summary is not complete. The form of the indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement and you should read the indenture and debt securities carefully for provisions that may be important to you. Capitalized terms used in the summary and not defined in this prospectus have the meanings specified in the indenture.
General
The terms of each series of debt securities will be established by or pursuant to a resolution of our board of directors and set forth or determined in the manner provided in such resolutions, in an officer’s certificate or by a supplemental indenture. The particular terms of each series of debt securities will be described in a prospectus supplement relating to such series, including any pricing supplement or term sheet.
Unless otherwise specified in a supplement to this prospectus, the debt securities will be direct, unsecured obligations of our operating partnership, and will be fully and unconditionally guaranteed by the Company. We, through our operating partnership, can issue an unlimited amount of debt securities under the indenture that may be in one or more series with the same or various maturities, at par, at a premium, or at a discount. We will set forth in a prospectus supplement, including any pricing supplement or term sheet, relating to any series of debt securities being offered, the aggregate principal amount and the following terms of the debt securities, to the extent applicable:
the title and ranking of the debt securities (including the terms of any subordination provisions),
the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount) at which our operating partnership will sell the debt securities,
any limit on the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities,
the date or dates on which the principal on the debt securities is payable,
the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or the method used to determine the rate or rates (including any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the debt securities will bear interest, the date or dates from which interest will accrue, the date or dates on which interest will commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date,
the place or places where principal of, and any premium and interest on, the debt securities will be payable, the method of such payment, where debt securities may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange and where notices and demands to us relating to the debt securities may be delivered,
the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which our operating partnership may redeem the debt securities,
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any obligation our operating partnership has to redeem or purchase the debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a holder of debt securities and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the debt securities shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation,
the dates on which and the price or prices at which our operating partnership will repurchase debt securities at the option of the holders of debt securities and other detailed terms and provisions of these repurchase obligations,
the denominations in which the debt securities will be issued, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof,
whether the debt securities will be issued in bearer or registered form and, if the latter, whether they will be issued in the form of certificated debt securities or global debt securities,
the portion of principal amount of the debt securities payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity date, if other than the principal amount,
the currency of denomination of the debt securities, which may be U.S. dollars or any foreign currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency,
the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of principal of, and any premium and interest on, the debt securities will be made,
if payments of principal of, or any premium or interest on, the debt securities will be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which the debt securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to these payments will be determined,
the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, and any premium and interest on, the debt securities will be determined, if these amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies other than that in which the debt securities are denominated or designated to be payable or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index,
any provisions relating to any security provided for the debt securities or for any guarantees,
any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities and any change in the acceleration provisions described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities,
any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities,
any other terms of the debt securities, which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of the indenture as it applies to that series, including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of the securities,
a discussion of any material United States federal income tax considerations applicable to an investment in the debt securities,
any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to the debt securities,
any provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities, including, if applicable, the conversion or exchange price and period, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, at the option of the holders thereof or at our option, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange if such debt securities are redeemed,
whether the debt securities will be senior debt securities or subordinated debt securities and, if applicable, a description of the subordination terms thereof,
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whether the debt securities are entitled to the benefits of the guarantee of any guarantor, and whether any such guarantee is made on a senior or subordinated basis and, if applicable, a description of the subordination terms of any such guarantee,
whether any underwriter(s) will act as market maker(s) for the debt securities, and
the extent to which a secondary market for the debt securities is expected to develop.
Our operating partnership may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.
If our operating partnership denominates the purchase price of any of the debt securities in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, or if the principal of, and any premium and interest on, any series of debt securities is payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, we will provide you with information on the restrictions, elections, general United States federal income tax considerations, specific terms and other information with respect to that issue of debt securities and such foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit.
Transfer and Exchange
Each debt security will be represented by either one or more global securities registered in the name of The Depository Trust Company, or the Depositary or DTC, or a nominee of the Depositary (we will refer to any debt security represented by a global debt security as a “book-entry debt security”), or a certificate issued in definitive registered form (we will refer to any debt security represented by a certificated security as a “certificated debt security”) as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Except as otherwise set forth in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement, book-entry debt securities will not be issuable in certificated form.
Certificated Debt Securities. You may transfer or exchange certificated debt securities at any office we maintain for this purpose in accordance with the terms of the indenture. No service charge will be made for any transfer or exchange of certificated debt securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with a transfer or exchange.
You may effect the transfer of certificated debt securities and the right to receive the principal of, and any premium and interest on, certificated debt securities only by surrendering the certificate representing those certificated debt securities and either reissuance by us or the trustee of the certificate to the new holder or the issuance by us or the trustee of a new certificate to the new holder.
No Protection in the Event of a Change of Control
Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event our operating partnership undergoes a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control) that could adversely affect holders of debt securities.
Covenants
We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement any restrictive covenants applicable to any issue of debt securities.
Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets
We may not consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of our properties and assets to, any person, which we refer to as a successor person, unless:
we are the surviving entity or the successor person (if other than us) is a corporation organized and validly existing under the laws of any U.S. domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes our obligations on the debt securities and under the indenture,
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immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no default or Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing,
if we are not the successor person, each guarantor (if any), unless it has become the successor person, confirms that its guarantee shall continue to apply to the obligations under the debt securities and the indenture to the same extent as prior to such merger, conveyance, transfer or lease, as applicable, and
certain other conditions are met.
Notwithstanding the above, any of our subsidiaries may consolidate with, merge into or transfer all or part of its properties and assets to us.
Events of Default
“Event of Default” means, with respect to any series of debt securities, any of the following:
default in the payment of any interest upon any debt security of that series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of that default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of the payment is deposited by us with the trustee or with a paying agent prior to the expiration of the 30-day period),
default in the payment of principal of any debt security of that series at its maturity, upon acceleration, redemption or otherwise,
default in the performance or breach of any other covenant or warranty by us in the indenture (other than a covenant or warranty that has been included in the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities other than that series), which default continues uncured for a period of 90 days after our operating partnership receives written notice from the trustee or our operating partnership and the trustee receive written notice from the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series as provided in the indenture,
certain voluntary or involuntary events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of our company, and
any other Event of Default provided with respect to debt securities of that series that is described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
No Event of Default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an Event of Default with respect to any other series of debt securities. The occurrence of certain Events of Default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain of our or our subsidiaries’ indebtedness outstanding from time to time.
If an Event of Default with respect to outstanding debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may, by a notice in writing to us (and to the trustee if given by the holders), declare to be due and payable immediately the principal (or, if the debt securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) of, and any accrued and unpaid interest on, all debt securities of that series. In the case of an Event of Default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, the principal (or such specified amount) of, and any accrued and unpaid interest on, all outstanding debt securities will become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the trustee or any holder of outstanding debt securities. At any time after a declaration of acceleration with respect to debt securities of any series has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may rescind and annul the acceleration if all Events of Default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the indenture. We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an Event of Default.
The indenture provides that the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture unless the trustee receives indemnity satisfactory to it against any cost, liability or expense that might be incurred by it in exercising such right or power. Subject to certain rights of the trustee, the holders
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of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to the debt securities of that series.
No holder of any debt security of any series will have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any remedy under the indenture, unless:
that holder has previously given to the trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to debt securities of that series, and
the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and offered reasonable indemnity or security, to the trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee, and the trustee has not received from the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series a direction inconsistent with that request and has failed to institute the proceeding within 60 days.
Notwithstanding any other provision in the indenture, the holder of any debt security will have an absolute and unconditional right to receive payment of the principal of, and any premium and interest on, that debt security on or after the due dates expressed in that debt security and to institute suit for the enforcement of payment.
The indenture requires our operating partnership, within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year, to furnish to the trustee a statement as to compliance with the indenture. If a default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the debt securities of any series and if it is known to a responsible officer of the trustee, the trustee shall mail to each holder of the debt securities of that series notice of a default or Event of Default within 90 days after knowledge of its occurrence. The indenture provides that the trustee may withhold notice to the holders of debt securities of any series of any default or Event of Default (except in payment on any debt securities of that series) with respect to debt securities of that series if the trustee determines in good faith that withholding notice is in the interest of the holders of those debt securities.
Modification and Waiver
Our operating partnership and the trustee may modify and amend the indenture or the debt securities of any series without the consent of any holder of any debt security:
to cure any ambiguity, omission, defect or inconsistency,
to comply with covenants in the indenture described above under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets,”
to provide for uncertificated securities in addition to or in place of certificated securities,
to surrender any of our rights or powers under the indenture,
to add covenants or events of default for the benefit of the holders of debt securities of any series,
to comply with the applicable procedures of the applicable depositary,
to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder of debt securities,
to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of debt securities of any series as permitted by the indenture,
to effect the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the debt securities of any series and to add to or change any of the provisions of the indenture to provide for or facilitate administration by more than one trustee,
to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act,
to reflect the release of a guarantor of the debt securities in accordance with the terms of the indenture, or
to add guarantors with respect to any or all of the debt securities or to secure any or all of the debt securities or the guarantees.
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Our operating partnership may also modify and amend the indenture with the consent of the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series affected by the modifications or amendments. Our operating partnership may not make any modification or amendment without the consent of the holders of each affected debt security then outstanding if that amendment will:
reduce the amount of debt securities whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver,
reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any debt security,
reduce the principal of or premium on, or change the fixed maturity of, any debt security, or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation with respect to any series of debt securities,
reduce the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity,
waive a default or Event of Default in the payment of the principal of, or any premium or interest on, any debt security (except a rescission of acceleration of the debt securities of any series by the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of that series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration),
make the principal of, or any premium or interest on, any debt security payable in any currency other than that stated in the debt security,
make any change to certain provisions of the indenture relating to, among other things, the right of holders of debt securities to receive payment of the principal of, or any premium and interest on, those debt securities and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment and to waivers or amendments,
waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt security, or
if the debt securities of that series are entitled to the benefit of a guarantee, release any guarantor of such series other than as provided in the indenture or modify the guarantee in any manner adverse to the holders.
Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all of the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or any premium or interest on, any debt security of that series; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration.
Defeasance of Debt Securities and Certain Covenants in Certain Circumstances
Legal Defeasance. The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, our operating partnership may be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of the debt securities of any series (subject to certain exceptions). Our operating partnership will be so discharged upon the deposit with the trustee, in trust, of money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money or U.S. government obligations in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of, any premium and interest on, and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of, the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities.
This discharge may occur only if, among other things, our operating partnership has delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that our operating partnership has received from, or there has been published by,
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the United States Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable United States federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred.
Defeasance of Certain Covenants. The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, upon compliance with certain conditions:
our operating partnership may omit to comply with the covenant described under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets” and certain other covenants set forth in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants that may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, and
any omission to comply with those covenants will not constitute a default or an Event of Default with respect to the debt securities of that series, or covenant defeasance.
The conditions include:
depositing with the trustee money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of, any premium and interest on, and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities, and
delivering to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and related covenant defeasance and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit and related covenant defeasance had not occurred.
Covenant Defeasance and Events of Default. In the event our operating partnership exercises its option to effect covenant defeasance with respect to any series of debt securities and the debt securities of that series are declared due and payable because of the occurrence of any Event of Default, the amount of money and/or U.S. government obligations or foreign government obligations on deposit with the trustee will be sufficient to pay amounts due on the debt securities of that series at the time of their stated maturity but may not be sufficient to pay amounts due on the debt securities of that series at the time of the acceleration resulting from the Event of Default. In such a case, we would remain liable for those payments.
“Foreign Government Obligations” means, with respect to debt securities of any series that are denominated in a currency other than U.S. dollars, direct obligations of, or obligations guaranteed by, the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.
Regarding the Trustee
The indenture provides that, except during the continuance of an Event of Default, the trustee will perform only such duties as are specifically set forth in the indenture. During the existence of an Event of Default, the trustee will exercise such rights and powers vested in it under the indenture and use the same degree of care and skill in its exercise as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of such person’s own affairs.
The indenture and provisions of the Trust Indenture Act that are incorporated by reference therein contain limitations on the rights of the trustee, should it become one of our creditors, to obtain payment of claims in certain cases or to realize on certain property received by it in respect of any such claim as security or otherwise. The trustee is permitted to engage in other transactions with us or any of our affiliates; provided, however, that if it acquires any conflicting interest (as defined in the indenture or in the Trust Indenture Act), it must eliminate such conflict or resign.
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No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees or Stockholders
None of our past, present or future directors, officers, employees, stockholders or controlling persons, as such, will have any liability for any of our obligations under the debt securities or the indenture or for any claim based on, or in respect or by reason of, such obligations or their creation. By accepting a debt security, each holder waives and releases all such liability. This waiver and release is part of the consideration for the issue of the debt securities. However, this waiver and release may not be effective to waive liabilities under United States federal securities laws, and it is the view of the SEC that such a waiver is against public policy.
Governing Law
The indenture and the debt securities, including any claim or controversy arising out of or relating to the indenture or the debt securities, will be governed by the laws of the State of New York (without regard to the conflicts of laws provisions thereof other than Section 5-1401 of the New York Consolidated Laws, General Obligations Law).
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GLOBAL SECURITIES
Book-Entry, Delivery and Form
Unless we indicate differently in a prospectus supplement, the securities initially will be issued in book-entry form and represented by one or more global notes or global securities, or, collectively, global securities. The global securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, DTC and registered in the name of Cede & Co., the nominee of DTC. Unless and until it is exchanged for individual certificates evidencing securities under the limited circumstances described below, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depositary to its nominee or by the nominee to the depositary, or by the depositary or its nominee to a successor depositary or to a nominee of the successor depositary.
DTC has advised that it is:
a limited-purpose trust company organized under the New York Banking Law,
a “banking organization” within the meaning of the New York Banking Law,
a member of the Federal Reserve System,
a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the New York Uniform Commercial Code, and
a “clearing agency” registered pursuant to the provisions of Section 17A of the Exchange Act.
DTC holds securities that its participants deposit with DTC. DTC also facilitates the settlement among its participants of securities transactions, such as transfers and pledges, in deposited securities through electronic computerized book-entry changes in participants ‘ accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. “Direct participants” in DTC include securities brokers and dealers, including underwriters, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other organizations. DTC is a wholly owned subsidiary of The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation, or DTCC. DTCC is the holding company for DTC, National Securities Clearing Corporation and Fixed Income Clearing Corporation, all of which are registered clearing agencies. DTCC is owned by the users of its regulated subsidiaries. Access to the DTC system is also available to others, which we sometimes refer to as indirect participants, that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a direct participant, either directly or indirectly. The rules applicable to DTC and its participants are on file with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Purchases of securities under the DTC system must be made by or through direct participants, which will receive a credit for the securities on DTC’s records. The ownership interest of the actual purchaser of a security, which we sometimes refer to as a beneficial owner, is in turn recorded on the direct and indirect participants’ records. Beneficial owners of securities will not receive written confirmation from DTC of their purchases. However, beneficial owners are expected to receive written confirmations providing details of their transactions, as well as periodic statements of their holdings, from the direct or indirect participants through which they purchased securities. Transfers of ownership interests in global securities are to be accomplished by entries made on the books of participants acting on behalf of beneficial owners. Beneficial owners will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in the global securities, except under the limited circumstances described below.
To facilitate subsequent transfers, all global securities deposited by direct participants with DTC will be registered in the name of DTC’s partnership nominee, Cede & Co., or such other name as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. The deposit of securities with DTC and their registration in the name of Cede & Co. or such other nominee will not change the beneficial ownership of the securities. DTC has no knowledge of the actual beneficial owners of the securities. DTC’s records reflect only the identity of the direct participants to whose accounts the securities are credited, which may or may not be the beneficial owners. The participants are responsible for keeping account of their holdings on behalf of their customers.
So long as the securities are in book-entry form, you will receive payments and may transfer securities only through the facilities of the depositary and its direct and indirect participants. We will maintain an office or agency in the location specified in the prospectus supplement for the applicable securities, where notices and demands in respect of the securities and the indenture may be delivered to us and where certificated securities may be surrendered for payment, registration of transfer or exchange.
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Conveyance of notices and other communications by DTC to direct participants, by direct participants to indirect participants and by direct participants and indirect participants to beneficial owners will be governed by arrangements among them, subject to any legal requirements in effect from time to time.
Redemption notices will be sent to DTC. If less than all of the securities of a particular series are being redeemed, DTC’s practice is to determine by lot the amount of the interest of each direct participant in the securities of such series to be redeemed.
Neither DTC nor Cede & Co. (or such other DTC nominee) will consent or vote with respect to the securities. Under its usual procedures, DTC will mail an omnibus proxy to us as soon as possible after the record date. The omnibus proxy assigns the consenting or voting rights of Cede & Co. to those direct participants to whose accounts the securities of such series are credited on the record date, identified in a listing attached to the omnibus proxy.
So long as securities are in book-entry form, we will make payments on those securities to the depositary or its nominee, as the registered owner of such securities, by wire transfer of immediately available funds. If securities are issued in definitive certificated form under the limited circumstances described below, we will have the option of making payments by check mailed to the addresses of the persons entitled to payment or by wire transfer to bank accounts in the United States designated in writing to the applicable trustee or other designated party at least 15 days before the applicable payment date by the persons entitled to payment, or such shorter time as may be satisfactory to the applicable trustee or other designated party.
Redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments on the securities will be made to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. DTC’s practice is to credit direct participants’ accounts upon DTC’s receipt of funds and corresponding detail information from us on the payment date in accordance with their respective holdings shown on DTC records. Payments by participants to beneficial owners will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is the case with securities held for the account of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name.” Those payments will be the responsibility of participants and not of DTC or us, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements in effect from time to time. Payment of redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC, is our responsibility, disbursement of payments to direct participants is the responsibility of DTC, and disbursement of payments to the beneficial owners is the responsibility of direct and indirect participants.
Except under the limited circumstances described below, purchasers of securities will not be entitled to have securities registered in their names and will not receive physical delivery of securities. Accordingly, each beneficial owner must rely on the procedures of DTC and its participants to exercise any rights under the securities and the indenture.
The laws of some jurisdictions may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of securities in definitive form. Those laws may impair the ability to transfer or pledge beneficial interests in securities.
DTC may discontinue providing its services as securities depositary with respect to the securities at any time by giving reasonable notice to us. Under such circumstances, in the event that a successor depositary is not obtained, securities certificates are required to be printed and delivered.
As noted above, beneficial owners of a particular series of securities generally will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in those securities. However, if DTC notifies us that it is unwilling or unable to continue as a depositary for the global security or securities representing such series of securities or if DTC ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act at a time when it is required to be registered and a successor depositary is not appointed within 90 days of the notification to us or of our becoming aware of DTC’s ceasing to be so registered, as the case may be,
we determine, in our sole discretion, not to have such securities represented by one or more global securities, or
an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing with respect to such series of securities,
we will prepare and deliver certificates for such securities in exchange for beneficial interests in the global securities. Any beneficial interest in a global security that is exchangeable under the
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circumstances described in the preceding sentence will be exchangeable for securities in definitive certificated form registered in the names that the depositary directs. It is expected that these directions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from its participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global securities.
We have obtained the information in this section and elsewhere in this prospectus concerning DTC and DTC’s book-entry system from sources that are believed to be reliable, but we take no responsibility for the accuracy of this information.
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DESCRIPTION OF THE PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT OF PLYMOUTH INDUSTRIAL OP, LP
A summary of the material terms and provisions of the Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership of Plymouth Industrial OP, LP., which we refer to as the “partnership agreement,” is set forth below. This summary is not complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable provisions of Delaware law and the partnership agreement. For more detail, please refer to the partnership agreement itself a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is part. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”
General
Our operating partnership was formed in March 2011 to acquire, own and operate properties on our behalf. It is the operating partnership of an UPREIT, which structure is utilized generally to provide for the acquisition of real property from owners who desire to defer taxable gain that would otherwise be recognized by them upon the disposition of their property. These owners may also desire to achieve diversity in their investment and other benefits afforded to owners of stock in a REIT. For purposes of satisfying the asset and income tests for qualification as a REIT for tax purposes, the REIT’s proportionate share of the assets and income of an UPREIT, such as our operating partnership, will be deemed to be assets and income of the REIT.
A property owner may generally contribute property to an UPREIT in exchange for OP units on a tax-deferred basis. In addition, our operating partnership will be structured to make distributions with respect to OP units that will be equivalent to the distributions made to holders of our common stock. Beginning on the date that is one year after the date of issuance, a limited partner may tender its OP units in our operating partnership for redemption in exchange for cash or, at our option, for shares of our common stock in a taxable transaction.
The partnership agreement for our operating partnership contains provisions that would allow, under certain circumstances, other entities to merge into our operating partnership. In the event of such a merger, our limited partnership would issue additional OP units that would be entitled to the same exchange rights as other holders of OP units. As a result, any such merger ultimately could result in the issuance of a substantial number of shares of our common stock, thereby diluting the percentage ownership interest of other stockholders.
We hold substantially all of our assets through our operating partnership. We may, however, own investments through entities other than our operating partnership if limited partners of our operating partnership that are not affiliated with us and who hold more than 50% of the OP units held by all limited partners not affiliated with us approve the ownership of a property through another entity. We are the sole general partner of our operating partnership, and we have the exclusive power to manage and conduct the business of our operating partnership.
The following is a summary of certain provisions of the partnership agreement of our operating partnership. This summary is not complete and is qualified by the specific language in the partnership agreement.
Capital Contributions
As we accept subscriptions for shares, we transfer (directly or through our wholly-owned subsidiary) substantially all of the net proceeds of the offering to our operating partnership as a capital contribution; however, we are deemed to have made capital contributions in the amount of the gross offering proceeds received from investors. Our operating partnership is deemed to have simultaneously paid the selling commissions and other costs associated with the offering. If our operating partnership requires additional funds at any time in excess of capital contributions made by us, it may borrow funds from us or other lenders. In addition, we are authorized to cause our operating partnership to issue partnership interests for less than fair market value if we conclude in good faith that such issuance is in the best interests of us and our operating partnership.
Operations
The partnership agreement requires that our operating partnership be operated in a manner that will enable us to (1) satisfy the requirements for being classified as a REIT for tax purposes, (2) avoid any federal income or excise tax liability and (3) ensure that our operating partnership will not be classified as a “publicly traded partnership” for purposes of Section 7704 of the Code, which classification could result in our operating partnership being taxed as a corporation, rather than as a partnership. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Tax Aspects of Our Operating Partnership” elsewhere in this prospectus.
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Distributions
The partnership agreement provides that our operating partnership will distribute cash flow as follows:
First, to us until we have received aggregate distributions with respect to the current fiscal year equal to the minimum amount necessary for us to distribute to our stockholders to enable us to maintain our status as a REIT (and avoid the imposition of federal income and excise taxes) under the Code with respect to such fiscal year;
Next, to the limited partners until our limited partners have received aggregate distributions equal to the amount that would have been distributed to them with respect to all prior fiscal years had each limited partner held a number of our common shares equal to the number of OP units that it holds;
Next, after the establishment of reasonable cash reserves for our expenses and obligations of our operating partnership, to us and to the limited partners until each partner has received aggregate distributions with respect to the current fiscal year and all fiscal years had each limited partner held a number of common shares equal to the number of OP units that it holds; and
Finally, to us and the limited partners in accordance with the partners’ percentage interests in our operating partnership.
Similarly, the partnership agreement of our operating partnership provides that taxable income is generally allocated to the partners of our operating partnership in accordance with their relative percentage interests such that a holder of one unit of partnership interest in our operating partnership will be allocated taxable income for each taxable year in an amount generally equal to the amount of taxable income to be recognized by a holder of one of our shares, subject to compliance with the provisions of Sections 704(b) and 704(c) of the Code and corresponding Treasury regulations. Losses, if any, will generally be allocated among the partners in accordance with their respective percentage interests in our operating partnership. We are authorized to amend the partnership agreement to allocate income or loss of our operating partnership in a manner so as to avoid the characterization of operating income allocable to certain tax-exempt partners as “unrelated business taxable income,” as defined in the Code.
Upon the liquidation of our operating partnership, after payment of debts and obligations, any remaining assets of our operating partnership will be distributed to partners with positive capital accounts in accordance with their respective positive capital account balances. If we were to have a negative balance in our capital account following a liquidation, we might be obligated to contribute cash to our operating partnership up to an amount not exceeding such negative balance.
In addition to the administrative and operating costs and expenses incurred by our operating partnership in acquiring and operating real properties, to the extent not paid by us, our operating partnership will pay all of our administrative costs and expenses, and such expenses will be treated as expenses of our operating partnership. Such expenses will include:
all expenses relating to the formation and continuity of our existence;
all expenses relating to the public offering and registration of securities by us;
all expenses associated with the preparation and filing of any periodic reports by us under federal, state or local laws or regulations;
all expenses associated with compliance by us with applicable laws, rules and regulations;
all costs and expenses relating to any issuance or redemption of partnership interests or shares of our common stock; and
all our other operating or administrative costs incurred in the ordinary course of our business on behalf of our operating partnership.
Exchange Rights
The limited partners of our operating partnership, including Plymouth OP Limited, LLC, have the right to cause their OP units to be redeemed by our operating partnership for cash or, in our sole discretion, for shares of our common stock. In either event, the cash amount to be paid will be equal to the cash value of the number of our shares that would be issuable if the OP units were exchanged for our shares on a one-for-one basis.
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Alternatively, we may elect to redeem the OP units by issuing one share of our common stock for each limited partnership unit redeemed. The cash value of a share of our common stock would equal the average of the daily closing price of a share of common stock for the ten consecutive trading days immediately preceding the date on which the cash value is determined. If our shares of common stock are not listed, then the cash value of a share of our common stock will equal the then applicable redemption price per share in our share redemption program.
These redemption rights may not be exercised, however, if and to the extent that the delivery of shares upon exercise would (1) result in any person owning shares in excess of our ownership limits, (2) result in shares being owned by fewer than 100 persons, (3) cause us to be “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Code, (4) cause us to own 10% or more of the ownership interests in a tenant within the meaning of Section 856(d)(2)(B) of the Code, or (5) cause the acquisition of shares by a redeemed limited partner to be “integrated” with any other distribution of our shares for purposes of complying with the Securities Act.
Subject to the foregoing, limited partners of our operating partnership may exercise their redemption rights at any time after one year following the date of issuance of their partnership units. However, a limited partner may not deliver more than two exchange notices each calendar year and may not exercise an exchange right for fewer than 1,000 OP units, unless such limited partner holds fewer than 1,000 OP units, in which case, it must exercise its exchange right for all of its OP units. We do not expect to issue any of the shares of common stock offered hereby to limited partners of our operating partnership in exchange for their OP units. Rather, in the event a limited partner of our operating partnership exercises its redemption rights, and we elect to satisfy such redemption with shares of our common stock, we expect to issue unregistered shares of common stock, or subsequently registered shares of common stock, in connection with such transaction.
Transferability of Interests
We may not (1) voluntarily withdraw as the general partner of our operating partnership, (2) engage in any merger, consolidation or other business combination or (3) transfer the general partnership interest in our operating partnership (except to another of our wholly owned subsidiaries), unless the transaction in which such withdrawal, business combination or transfer occurs results in the limited partners receiving or having the right to receive an amount of cash, securities or other property equal in value to the amount they would have received if they had exercised their exchange rights immediately prior to such transaction or unless, in the case of a merger or other business combination, the successor entity contributes substantially all of its assets to our operating partnership in return for an interest in our operating partnership and agrees to assume all obligations of the general partner of our operating partnership. We may also enter into a business combination or transfer the general partnership interest upon the receipt of the consent of a majority-in-interest of the limited partners of our operating partnership other than Plymouth OP Limited, LLC. With certain exceptions, a limited partner may not transfer its interests in our operating partnership, in whole or in part, without our written consent, acting as general partner.
Voting Rights
The holders of limited partnership interests have limited voting rights. The consent of a majority-in-interest of the limited partners is required only to approve (1) any amendment that would affect the conversion or exchange rights of the limited partnership interests, (2) any amendment to the partnership agreement that would adversely affect the rights of the limited partners to receive distributions, (3) any amendment that would alter the partnership’s allocations of profit and loss and (4) any amendment that would impose any obligation on the limited partners to make additional capital contributions to the partnership.
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MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS
The following is a summary of the current material U.S. federal income tax considerations regarding our company and holders of our securities. For the purposes of this discussion, references to “we,” “our” and “us” mean only Plymouth Industrial REIT, Inc., and do not include any of its subsidiaries, except as otherwise indicated. This summary is for general information only and is not tax advice. The information in this summary is based on:
the Code;
current, temporary and proposed Treasury regulations promulgated under the Code;
the legislative history of the Code;
current administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS; and
court decisions
in each case, as of the date of this prospectus. In addition, the administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS include its practices and policies as expressed in private letter rulings that are not binding on the IRS except with respect to the particular taxpayers who requested and received those rulings. Future legislation, Treasury regulations, administrative interpretations and practices and/or court decisions may adversely affect the tax considerations contained in this discussion. Any such change could apply retroactively to transactions preceding the date of the change. Except as expressly provided below, we have not requested and do not intend to request a ruling from the IRS that we qualify as a REIT, and the statements in this prospectus are not binding on the IRS or any court. Thus, we can provide no assurance that the tax considerations contained in this discussion will not be challenged by the IRS or will be sustained by a court if challenged by the IRS. This summary does not discuss any state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences, or any tax consequences arising under any U.S. federal tax other than the income tax, associated with the purchase, ownership, or disposition of our securities, or our election to be taxed as a REIT.
On December 22, 2017, legislation commonly referred to as the “Tax Cuts and Jobs Act” was enacted. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act made significant changes to the U.S. federal income tax rules related to the taxation of individuals and corporations. Most of the changes applicable to individuals are temporary and apply only to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, and before January 1, 2026. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act made numerous large and small changes to the tax rules which do not affect REITs directly but may affect our shareholders and may indirectly affect us. This summary does not discuss how the scheduled sunsetting of certain provisions of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act may affect us or our stockholders. Consequently, prospective investors are urged to consult with their tax advisors with respect to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act and any other legal, regulatory, or administrative developments and proposals and their potential effect on investment in our securities.
You are urged to consult your tax advisors regarding the tax consequences to you of:
the purchase, ownership or disposition of our securities including the federal, state, local, non-U.S. and other tax consequences;
our election to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes; and
potential changes in applicable tax laws.
Taxation of Our Company
General
We inadvertently filed a U.S. federal income tax return for the taxable year ended December 31, 2011, on IRS Form 1120-REIT. As a result, we inadvertently made a REIT election for the taxable year ended December 31, 2011. After seeking relief from the IRS, the IRS issued a private letter ruling to us on February 5, 2015, in which the IRS concluded that we will be treated as if we had not made the REIT election for the taxable year ended December 31, 2011. We elected to be taxed as a REIT under the Code by filing IRS Form 1120-REIT for the taxable year ended December 31, 2012. Although the private letter ruling that the IRS issued to us does not address our election to be taxed as a REIT for the taxable year ended December 31, 2012, we believe we have effectively elected to be taxed as, and have operated in a manner to allow us to qualify as, a
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REIT under the Code commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2012. We have not requested a ruling from the IRS as to our qualification as a REIT, and no assurance can be given that we will operate in a manner so as to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT.
Alston & Bird LLP has acted as our tax counsel in connection with this offering. Alston & Bird LLP will render an opinion to us to the effect that, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2012, and subject to certain assumptions and qualifications, we have been organized in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code, and that our actual and proposed method of operation has enabled and will continue to enable us to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code for such taxable year and thereafter. In addition, it must be emphasized that the opinion of Alston & Bird LLP will be based on various assumptions and representations as to factual matters, including representations made by us in a factual certificate provided by one of our officers. In addition, the opinion will be based upon our factual representations set forth in this prospectus. The opinion of Alston & Bird LLP is not binding upon the IRS or any court. Moreover, our qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, which are discussed below, including through actual annual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership, the results of which have not been and will not be reviewed by Alston & Bird LLP. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that the actual results of our operations for any particular taxable year will satisfy such requirements. Further, the anticipated U.S. federal income tax treatment described in this prospectus may be changed, perhaps retroactively, by legislative, administrative or judicial action at any time. Alston & Bird LLP has no obligation to update its opinion subsequent to the date of such opinion.
Subject to the foregoing, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2012, we believe that we were organized and operated, and will continue to be organized and operated, in a manner that will allow us to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Code. However, in addition to the issues discussed above, qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet various tests imposed under the Code, including through actual annual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that we have been organized and will operate, or will continue to be organized and operate, in a manner so as to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT. See “—Taxation of Our Company—Failure to Qualify.”
The sections of the Code and the corresponding Treasury regulations that relate to qualification and taxation as a REIT are highly technical and complex. The following sets forth the material aspects of the sections of the Code that govern the federal income tax treatment of a REIT and the holders of its securities. This summary is qualified in its entirety by the applicable Code provisions, relevant rules and regulations promulgated under the Code, and administrative and judicial interpretations of the Code and these rules and regulations.
Provided we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we generally will not be required to pay federal corporate income taxes on our net income that is currently distributed to our stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” that ordinarily results from investment in a C corporation. A C corporation is a corporation that generally is required to pay tax at the corporate level. Double taxation means taxation once at the corporate level when income is earned and once again at the stockholder level when the income is distributed.
We may, however, be required to pay U.S. federal tax as follows:
First, we will be required to pay tax at regular corporate rates on any undistributed net taxable income, including undistributed net capital gains.
Second, if we have (1) net income from the sale or other disposition of “foreclosure property” held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business or (2) other non-qualifying income from foreclosure property, we will be required to pay tax at the highest corporate rate on this income. To the extent that income from foreclosure property is otherwise qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, as described below, this tax is not applicable. Subject to certain other requirements, foreclosure property generally is defined as property we acquired through foreclosure or after a default on a loan secured by the property or a lease of the property.
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Third, we will be required to pay a 100% tax on any net income from prohibited transactions. Prohibited transactions are, in general, sales or other taxable dispositions of property, other than foreclosure property, held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business.
Fourth, if we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, as described below, but have otherwise maintained our qualification as a REIT because certain other requirements are met, we will be required to pay a tax equal to (1) the greater of (A) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test and (B) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 95% gross income test, multiplied by (2) a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.
Fifth, in the event of a failure of the asset tests (other than a de minimis failure of the 5% asset test or the 10% asset test), as long as (1) the failure was due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect, (2) we file a description of each asset that caused such failure with the IRS, and (3) we dispose of the assets causing the failure or otherwise comply with the asset tests within six months after the last day of the quarter in which we identify such failure, we may retain our REIT qualification but will be required to pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the highest corporate tax rate multiplied by the net income from the non-qualifying assets that caused us to fail such test.
Sixth, if we fail to satisfy any provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT (other than a violation of the gross income tests or certain violations of the asset tests, as described below) and the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, we may retain our REIT qualification but we will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.
Seventh, we will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (1) 85% of our ordinary income for the year, (2) 95% of our capital gain net income for the year, and (3) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods.
Eighth, if we acquire any asset from a corporation that is or has been a C corporation in a transaction in which the basis of the asset in our hands is less than the fair market value of the asset, in each case determined at the time we acquired the asset, and we subsequently recognize gain on the disposition of the asset during the five-year period beginning on the date on which we acquired the asset, then we will be required to pay tax at the highest regular corporate tax rate on this gain to the extent of the excess of (1) the fair market value of the asset over (2) our adjusted basis in the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset. This built-in gains tax does not apply to any gain from the sale of property acquired by us in an exchange under Section 1031 (a like kind exchange) or Section 1033 (an involuntary conversion) of the Code.
Ninth, entities we own that are C corporations, including any “taxable REIT subsidiaries,” generally will be required to pay federal corporate income tax (including any applicable alternative minimum tax) on their earnings.
Tenth, we will be required to pay a 100% tax on any “redetermined rents,” “redetermined deductions,” “excess interest,” or “redetermined TRS service income.” See “Taxation of Our Company—Penalty Tax.” In general, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of services furnished to any of our tenants by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours. Redetermined deductions and excess interest generally represent amounts that are deducted by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations. Redetermined TRS service income generally represents income of a taxable REIT subsidiary that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf.
Eleventh, we may elect to retain and pay income tax on our net capital gain. In that case, a U.S. holder would include its proportionate share of our undistributed capital gain (to the extent that we make a timely designation of such gain to the holder) in its income, would be deemed to have paid the tax that we paid on such gain, and would be allowed a credit for its proportionate share of the tax deemed to have been paid, and an adjustment would be made to increase the basis of the holder in our stock.
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Twelfth, notwithstanding our status as a REIT, we may also have to pay certain state and local income taxes, because not all states and localities treat REITs in the same manner that they are treated for federal income tax purposes. Moreover, as further described below, domestic taxable REIT subsidiaries will be subject to federal, state, and local corporate income tax on their taxable income.
Requirements for Qualification as a REIT
The Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:
(1)
that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;
(2)
that issues transferable shares or transferable certificates of beneficial interest to evidence its beneficial ownership;
(3)
that would be taxable as a domestic corporation, but for Sections 856 through 860 of the Code;
(4)
that is not a financial institution or an insurance company within the meaning of certain provisions of the Code;
(5)
that is beneficially owned by 100 or more persons;
(6)
not more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of which is owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals, including certain specified entities, during the last half of each taxable year;
(7)
that elects to be a REIT, or has made such election for a previous taxable year, and satisfies all relevant filing and other administrative requirements established by the IRS that must be met to elect and maintain REIT status;
(8)
that uses a calendar year for U.S. federal income tax purposes; and
(9)
that meets other tests, described below, regarding the nature of its income and assets and the amount of its distributions.
The Code provides that conditions (1) to (4), inclusive, must be met during the entire taxable year and that condition (5) must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months. Conditions (5) and (6) do not apply until after the first taxable year for which an election is made to be taxed as a REIT. For purposes of condition (6), the term “individual” includes a supplemental unemployment compensation benefits plan, a private foundation or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes, but generally does not include a qualified pension plan or profit sharing trust.
We believe we have been organized, have operated and have issued sufficient shares of stock with sufficient diversity of ownership to allow us to satisfy conditions (1) through (9) inclusive, during the relevant time periods. In addition, our charter provides for restrictions regarding ownership and transfer of our shares which are intended to assist us in continuing to satisfy the share ownership requirements described in (5) and (6) above. These share ownership and transfer restrictions are described under “Description of Common Stock—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” in this prospectus. These restrictions, however, do not ensure that we will, in all cases, satisfy the share ownership requirements described in (5) and (6) above. If we fail to satisfy these share ownership requirements, except as provided in the next sentence, our status as a REIT will terminate. If, however, we comply with the rules contained in applicable Treasury regulations that require us to ascertain the actual ownership of our shares and we do not know, or would not have known through the exercise of reasonable diligence, that we failed to meet the requirement described in condition (6) above, we will be treated as having met this requirement. See “—Taxation of Our Company—Failure to Qualify.”
Ownership of Interests in Partnerships, Limited Liability Companies and Qualified REIT Subsidiaries
In the case of a REIT which is a partner in a partnership or a member in a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, Treasury regulations provide that the REIT will be deemed to own its proportionate share of the assets of the partnership or limited liability company, as the case may be, based on its interest in partnership capital, subject to special rules relating to the 10% asset test described below. Also, the REIT will be deemed to be entitled to its proportionate share of the income of that entity. The assets and gross income of the partnership or limited liability company retain the same character in the hands of the
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REIT for purposes of Section 856 of the Code, including satisfying the gross income tests and the asset tests. Thus, during periods in which our operating partnership is treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes, our pro rata share of the assets and items of income of our operating partnership, including our operating partnership’s share of these items of any partnership or limited liability company treated as a partnership or disregarded entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes in which it owns an interest, is treated as our assets and items of income for purposes of applying the requirements described in this discussion, including the gross income and asset tests described below. During periods in which our operating partnership is treated as a disregarded entity for federal income tax purposes, it will not be treated as a separate entity and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the operating partnership will be treated as our assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit. A brief summary of the rules governing the U.S. federal income taxation of partnerships and limited liability companies is set forth below in “—Tax Aspects of Our Operating Partnership, the Subsidiary Partnerships and the Limited Liability Companies.”
We have control of our operating partnership and intend to control any of its subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies, and we intend to operate them in a manner consistent with the requirements for our qualification as a REIT. We may from time to time be a limited partner or non-managing member in a partnership or limited liability company. If a partnership or limited liability company in which we own an interest takes or expects to take actions that could jeopardize our status as a REIT or require us to pay tax, we may be forced to dispose of our interest in such entity. In addition, it is possible that a partnership or limited liability company could take an action which could cause us to fail a gross income or asset test, and that we would not become aware of such action in time to dispose of our interest in the partnership or limited liability company or take other corrective action on a timely basis. In that case, we could fail to qualify as a REIT unless we were entitled to relief, as described below.
We may from time to time own and operate certain properties through wholly owned subsidiaries that we intend to be treated as “qualified REIT subsidiaries” under the Code. A corporation will qualify as our qualified REIT subsidiary if we own 100% of the corporation’s outstanding stock and do not elect with the subsidiary to treat it as a “taxable REIT subsidiary,” as described below. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not treated as a separate corporation, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of a qualified REIT subsidiary are treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the parent REIT for all purposes under the Code, including all REIT qualification tests. Thus, in applying the federal tax requirements described in this discussion, any qualified REIT subsidiaries we own are ignored, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of such corporations are treated as our assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not subject to federal income tax, and our ownership of the stock of a qualified REIT subsidiary does not violate the restrictions on ownership of securities, as described below under “—Taxation of Our Company—Asset Tests.”
Ownership of Interests in Taxable REIT Subsidiaries
We own interests in one taxable REIT subsidiary and may acquire interests in more taxable REIT subsidiaries in the future. A taxable REIT subsidiary is a corporation other than a REIT in which a REIT directly or indirectly holds stock, and that has made a joint election with such REIT to be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. If a taxable REIT subsidiary owns more than 35% of the total voting power or value of the outstanding securities of another corporation, such other corporation will also be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. Other than some activities relating to lodging and health care facilities, a taxable REIT subsidiary may generally engage in any business, including the provision of customary or non-customary services to tenants of its parent REIT. A taxable REIT subsidiary is subject to federal income tax as a regular C corporation, including any applicable alternative minimum tax. In addition, a taxable REIT subsidiary may be prevented from deducting interest on debt funded directly or indirectly by its parent REIT if certain tests regarding the taxable REIT subsidiary’s debt-to-equity ratio and interest expense are not satisfied. A REIT’s ownership of securities of a taxable REIT subsidiary is not subject to the 5% or 10% asset test described below, and their operations will be subject to the provisions described above. See “—Taxation of Our Company—Asset Tests.”
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Income Tests
We must satisfy two gross income requirements annually to maintain our qualification as a REIT. First, in each taxable year, we must derive directly or indirectly at least 75% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions and certain foreign currency gains) from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property, including “rents from real property,” interest on obligations adequately secured by mortgages on real property, and certain types of temporary investments. Qualifying income for purposes of that 75% gross income test generally includes:
rents from real property;
interest on debt secured by mortgages on real property, or on interests in real property, and interest on debt secured by mortgages on both real and personal property if the fair market value of such personal property does not exceed 15% of the total fair market value of all such property;
dividends or other distributions on, and gain from the sale of, shares in other REITs;
income derived from foreclosure property;
gain from the sale of real estate assets that are not inventory or dealer property; and
income derived from the temporary investment of new capital that is attributable to the issuance of our shares of stock or a public offering of our debt with a maturity date of at least five years and that we receive during the one-year period beginning on the date on which we received such new capital.
Second, in each taxable year we must derive at least 95% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions and certain foreign currency gains) from the real property investments described above or dividends, interest and gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, or from any combination of the foregoing.
Rents we receive from a tenant will qualify as “rents from real property” for the purpose of satisfying the gross income requirements for a REIT described above only if all of the following conditions are met:
The amount of rent is not based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount we receive or accrue generally will not be excluded from the term “rents from real property” solely because it is based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales;
Neither we nor an actual or constructive owner of 10% or more of our stock actually or constructively owns 10% or more of the interests in the assets or net profits of a non-corporate tenant, or, if the tenant is a corporation, 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or 10% or more of the total value of all classes of stock of the tenant. Rents we receive from such a tenant that is a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours, however, will not be excluded from the definition of “rents from real property” as a result of this condition if at least 90% of the space at the property to which the rents relate is leased to third parties, and the rents paid by the taxable REIT subsidiary are substantially comparable to rents paid by our other tenants for comparable space. Whether rents paid by a taxable REIT subsidiary are substantially comparable to rents paid by other tenants is determined at the time the lease with the taxable REIT subsidiary is entered into, extended, and modified, if such modification increases the rents due under such lease. Notwithstanding the foregoing, however, if a lease with a “controlled taxable REIT subsidiary” is modified and such modification results in an increase in the rents payable by such taxable REIT subsidiary, any such increase will not qualify as “rents from real property.” For purposes of this rule, a “controlled taxable REIT subsidiary” is a taxable REIT subsidiary in which the parent REIT owns stock possessing more than 50% of the voting power or more than 50% of the total value of the outstanding stock of such taxable REIT subsidiary;
Rent attributable to personal property, leased in connection with a lease of real property, is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease. If this condition is not met, then the portion of the rent attributable to personal property will not qualify as “rents from real property” and will not qualify for either the 75% or 95% gross income tests. The rent attributable to the personal property leased in connection with the lease of real property is the amount that bears the same ratio to total rent for the property in the taxable year as the average of the fair market values of the personal property at the beginning and at the end of the taxable year bears to the average of the aggregate fair market values of both the real and personal property at the beginning and at the end of such taxable year, or “the
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personal property ratio.” We believe that the personal property ratio of our properties will be less than 15% or that any income attributable to excess personal property will not jeopardize our ability to qualify as a REIT, for U.S. federal income tax purposes; and
We generally do not operate or manage the property or furnish or render services to our tenants, subject to a 1% de minimis exception and except as provided below. We are permitted, however, to perform directly certain services that are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and are not otherwise considered “rendered to the occupant” of the property. Examples of these permitted services include the provision of light, heat, or other utilities, trash removal and general maintenance of common areas. In addition, we are permitted to employ an independent contractor from whom we derive no revenue or a taxable REIT subsidiary, which may be wholly or partially owned by us, to provide both customary and non-customary services to our tenants without causing the rent we receive from those tenants to fail to qualify as “rents from real property.” Any amounts we receive from a taxable REIT subsidiary with respect to the taxable REIT subsidiary’s provision of non-customary services will, however, be non-qualifying income under the 75% gross income test and, except to the extent received through the payment of dividends, the 95% gross income test.
We generally do not intend, and as a general partner of our operating partnership, do not intend to permit our operating partnership, to take actions we believe will cause us to fail to satisfy the rental conditions described above. However, we may intentionally fail to satisfy some of these conditions to the extent the failure will not, based on the advice of our tax counsel, jeopardize our tax status as a REIT. In addition, with respect to the limitation on the rental of personal property, we have not obtained appraisals of the real property and personal property leased to tenants. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with our determinations of the value of such property.
Income we receive that is attributable to the use of parking spaces at the properties will generally constitute rents from real property for purposes of the gross income tests if certain services we provide with respect to the parking spaces are performed by independent contractors from whom we derive no revenue, either directly or indirectly, or by a taxable REIT subsidiary, and certain other conditions are met. We believe that the income we receive that is attributable to parking spaces meets these tests and, accordingly, will constitute rents from real property for purposes of the gross income tests.
For purposes of the gross income tests, the term “interest” generally does not include any amount received or accrued, directly or indirectly, if the determination of all or some of the amount depends in any way on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount received or accrued generally will not be excluded from the term “interest” solely by reason of being based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales. Interest income constitutes qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test to the extent that the underlying obligation is secured by a mortgage on real property. If we receive interest income with respect to a mortgage loan that is secured by both real property and personal property and the fair market value of the personal property does not exceed 15% of the total fair market value of all such property, then the interest income will be treated as qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test. If, however, the fair market value of the personal property exceeds 15% of the total fair market value of all of the real and personal property securing the mortgage loan, then the loan will not be treated as fully secured by real property, the interest income must be apportioned between the real property and the other property, and our income from the arrangement will qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test only to the extent that the interest is allocable to the real property security. In this case, we would be required to apportion our annual interest income to the real property security based on a fraction, the numerator of which is the value of the real property securing the loan, determined when we commit to acquire the loan, and the denominator of which is the highest “principal amount” of the loan during the year. Even if a loan is not secured by real property or is undersecured, the income that it generates may nonetheless qualify for purposes of the 95% gross income test.
From time to time, we may enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Our hedging activities may include entering into interest rate swaps, caps, and floors, options to purchase these items, and futures and forward contracts. Income from a hedging transaction, including gain from the sale or disposition of such a transaction, that is clearly identified as a hedging transaction as specified in the Code, will not constitute gross income and thus will be exempt from the 75% and 95% gross income tests. The term “hedging transaction,” as used above, generally means any transaction we enter into in the normal course
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of our business primarily to manage risk of (1) interest rate changes or fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made by us to acquire or carry real estate assets, (2) currency fluctuations with respect to an item of qualifying income under the 75% or 95% gross income test, or (3) new transactions entered into to hedge the income or loss from prior hedging transactions, where the property or indebtedness which was the subject of the prior hedging transaction was disposed of or extinguished. To the extent that we do not properly identify such transactions as hedges or we hedge with other types of financial instruments, the income from those transactions is not likely to be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the gross income tests. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our status as a REIT.
To the extent we receive dividends from a taxable REIT subsidiary, we generally will derive our allocable share of such dividend income through our interest in our operating partnership. Such dividend income will qualify under the 95%, but not the 75%, gross income test.
We will monitor the amount of our non-qualifying income and will take actions intended to keep such income within the limitations of the gross income tests. Although we expect these actions will be sufficient to prevent a violation of the gross income tests, we cannot guarantee that such actions will in all cases prevent such a violation.
If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we may nevertheless qualify as a REIT for the year if we are entitled to relief under certain provisions of the Code. We generally may make use of the relief provisions if:
following our identification of the failure to meet the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we file a schedule with the IRS setting forth each item of our gross income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for such taxable year in accordance with applicable Treasury regulations; and
our failure to meet these tests was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect.
It is not possible, however, to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions. For example, if we fail to satisfy the gross income tests because non-qualifying income that we intentionally accrue or receive exceeds the limits on non-qualifying income, the IRS could conclude that our failure to satisfy the tests was not due to reasonable cause. If these relief provisions do not apply to a particular set of circumstances, we will not qualify as a REIT. As discussed above in “—Taxation of Our Company—General,” even if these relief provisions apply, and we retain our status as a REIT, a tax would be imposed with respect to our non-qualifying income. We may not always be able to comply with the gross income tests for REIT qualification despite periodic monitoring of our income.
Prohibited Transaction Income
Any gain that we realize on the sale of property held as inventory or otherwise held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, including our share of any such gain realized by our operating partnership, either directly or through its subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies, will be treated as income from a prohibited transaction that is subject to a 100% penalty tax, unless certain safe harbor exceptions apply. Under existing law, whether property is held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business is a question of fact that depends on all the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction. Our operating partnership intends to hold its properties for investment with a view to long-term appreciation, to engage in the business of acquiring, developing and owning its properties and to make occasional sales of the properties as are consistent with our operating partnership’s investment objectives. We do not intend to enter into any sales that are prohibited transactions. However, the IRS may successfully contend that some or all of the sales made by our operating partnership or its subsidiary partnerships or limited liability companies are prohibited transactions. We would be required to pay the 100% penalty tax on our allocable share of the gains resulting from any such sales.
Penalty Tax
Any redetermined rents, redetermined deductions, excess interest or redetermined TRS service income we generate will be subject to a 100% penalty tax. In general, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of any services furnished to any of our tenants by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours. Rents we receive will not constitute redetermined rents if they qualify for certain safe harbor provisions
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contained in the Code. Redetermined deductions and excess interest represent any amounts that are deducted by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations. Redetermined TRS service income means gross income of a taxable REIT subsidiary attributable to service provided to or on behalf of a REIT, to the extent that the taxable REIT subsidiary’s income should be increased to reflect arms’ length charges for such services.
If a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours provides services to our tenants, we intend to set the fees paid to any such taxable REIT subsidiary for such services at arm’s length rates, although the fees paid may not satisfy the safe-harbor provisions referenced above. These determinations are inherently factual, and the IRS has broad discretion to assert that amounts paid between related parties should be reallocated to clearly reflect their respective incomes. If the IRS successfully made such an assertion, we would be required to pay a 100% penalty tax on the excess of an arm’s length fee for tenant services over the amount actually paid.
Asset Tests
At the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year, we must also satisfy five tests relating to the nature and diversification of our assets. First, at least 75% of the value of our total assets must be represented by:
cash or cash items, including certain receivables;
government securities;
interests in real property, including leaseholds and options to acquire real property and leaseholds;
interests in mortgage loans on real property or on interests in real property;
interests in mortgage loans secured by both real property and personal property if the fair market value of such personal property does not exceed 15% of the total fair market value of all such property;
stock in other REITs;
investments in stock or debt instruments during the one-year period following our receipt of new capital that we raise through equity offerings or offerings of debt with at least a five-year term;
debt instruments of publicly offered REITs; and
personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property for which the rent attributable to personal property is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease.
Second, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by securities (including securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries), other than those securities includable in the 75% asset test.
Third, of the investments included in the 25% asset class, and except for investments in any other REITs, any qualified REIT subsidiaries and taxable REIT subsidiaries, the value of any one issuer’s securities may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets, and we may not own more than 10% of the total voting power or value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer except, in the case of the 10% value test, securities satisfying the “straight debt” safe-harbor or securities issued by a partnership that itself would satisfy the 75% income test if it were a REIT. Certain types of securities we may own are disregarded as securities solely for purposes of the 10% value test, including, but not limited to, any loan to an individual or an estate, any obligation to pay rents from real property and any security issued by a REIT. In addition, solely for purposes of the 10% value test, the determination of our interest in the assets of a partnership or limited liability company in which we own an interest will be based on our proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership or limited liability company, excluding for this purpose certain securities described in the Code.
Fourth, not more than 20% of the value of our total assets may be represented by the securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries. Our operating partnership may own the stock of certain corporations that elect, together with us, to be treated as our taxable REIT subsidiaries. So long as each of these companies qualifies as a taxable REIT subsidiary, we will not be subject to the 5% asset test, the 10% voting securities limitation or the 10% value limitation with respect to our ownership of their stock. We intend that the aggregate value of our taxable REIT subsidiaries will not exceed 20% of the aggregate value of our gross assets. There can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with our determinations of value of such assets.
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Fifth, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by debt instruments of publicly offered REITs to the extent those debt instruments would not be real estate assets but for the inclusion of debt instruments of publicly offered REITs in the meaning of real estate assets.
In the event that we invest in a mortgage loan that is not fully secured by real property, the mortgage loan will nonetheless be treated as a real estate asset for purposes of the 75% asset test as long as the fair market value of the personal property does not exceed 15% of the total fair market value of the real and personal property securing the mortgage loan. To the extent that the fair market value of the personal property securing the mortgage loan exceeds 15% of the total fair market value of the real and personal property securing the mortgage loan, then only a portion of the mortgage loan may be treated as a real estate asset for purposes of the 75% asset test.
The asset tests must be satisfied at the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year in which we (directly or through our operating partnership) acquire securities in the applicable issuer, and also at the close of each calendar quarter in which we increase our ownership of securities of such issuer (including as a result of increasing our interest in our operating partnership). For example, our indirect ownership of securities of each issuer will increase as a result of our capital contributions to our operating partnership or as limited partners exercise their redemption/exchange rights. After initially meeting the asset tests at the close of any quarter, we will not lose our status as a REIT for failure to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a later quarter solely by reason of changes in asset values. If we fail to satisfy an asset test because we acquire securities or other property during a quarter (including as a result of an increase in our interest in our operating partnership), we may cure this failure by disposing of sufficient non-qualifying assets within 30 days after the close of that quarter. We intend to maintain adequate records of the value of our assets to ensure compliance with the asset tests. If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests within the 30 day cure period, we would cease to qualify as a REIT unless we are eligible for certain relief provisions discussed below.
Certain relief provisions may be available to us if we discover a failure to satisfy the asset tests described above after the 30-day cure period. Under these provisions, we will be deemed to have met the 5% and 10% asset tests if the value of our non-qualifying assets (i) does not exceed the lesser of (a) 1% of the total value of our assets at the end of the applicable quarter or (b) $10,000,000, and (ii) we dispose of the non-qualifying assets or otherwise satisfy such tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury regulations to be issued. For violations of any of the asset tests due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect and that are, in the case of the 5% and 10% asset tests, in excess of the de minimis exception described above, we may avoid disqualification as a REIT after the 30 day cure period by taking steps including (i) the disposition of sufficient non-qualifying assets, or the taking of other actions, which allow us to meet the asset tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury regulations to be issued, (ii) paying a tax equal to the greater of (a) $50,000 or (b) the highest corporate tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the non-qualifying assets, and (iii) disclosing certain information to the IRS.
Although we intend to satisfy the asset tests described above and plan to take steps to ensure that we satisfy such tests for any quarter with respect to which retesting is to occur, there can be no assurance we will always be successful, or will not require a reduction in our operating partnership’s overall interest in an issuer (including in a taxable REIT subsidiary). If we fail to cure any non-compliance with the asset tests in a timely manner, and the relief provisions described above are not available, we would cease to qualify as a REIT.
Annual Distribution Requirements
To maintain our qualification as a REIT, we are required to distribute dividends, other than capital gain dividends, to our stockholders in an amount at least equal to the sum of:
90% of our “REIT taxable income;” and
90% of our after-tax net income, if any, from foreclosure property; minus
the excess of the sum of certain items of non-cash income over 5% of our “REIT taxable income.”
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For these purposes, our “REIT taxable income” is computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain. In addition, for purposes of this test, non-cash income means income attributable to leveled stepped rents, original issue discount on purchase money debt, cancellation of indebtedness, or a like-kind exchange that is later determined to be taxable.
Also, our “REIT taxable income” will be reduced by any taxes we are required to pay on any gain we recognize from the disposition of any asset we acquired from a corporation which is or has been a C corporation in a transaction in which our basis in the asset is less than the fair market value of the asset, in each case determined at the time we acquired the asset, within the five-year period following our acquisition of such asset.
We generally must pay, or be treated as paying, the distributions described above in the taxable year to which they relate. At our election, a distribution will be treated as paid in a taxable year if it is declared before we timely file our tax return for such year and paid on or before the first regular dividend payment after such declaration, provided such payment is made during the 12-month period following the close of such year. These distributions are treated as received by our stockholders in the year in which paid even though these distributions relate to the prior year for purposes of the 90% distribution requirement. In order to be taken into account for purposes of our distribution requirement, unless we qualify as a “publicly offered REIT,” the amount distributed must not be preferential—i.e., every stockholder of the class of stock to which a distribution is made must be treated the same as every other stockholder of that class, and no class of stock may be treated other than according to its dividend rights as a class. We believe that we are, and expect we will continue to be, a “publicly offered REIT.” To the extent that we do not distribute all of our net capital gain, or distribute at least 90%, but less than 100%, of our “REIT taxable income,” as adjusted, we will be required to pay tax on the undistributed amount at regular corporate tax rates. We intend to make timely distributions sufficient to satisfy these annual distribution requirements and to minimize our corporate tax obligations. In this regard, the partnership agreement of our operating partnership authorizes us, as general partner of our operating partnership, to take such steps as may be necessary to cause our operating partnership to distribute to its partners an amount sufficient to permit us to meet these distribution requirements and to minimize our corporate tax obligation.
We expect that our REIT taxable income will be less than our cash flow because of depreciation and other non-cash charges included in computing REIT taxable income. Accordingly, we anticipate that we generally will have sufficient cash or liquid assets to enable us to satisfy the distribution requirements described above. However, from time to time, we may not have sufficient cash or other liquid assets to meet these distribution requirements due to timing differences between the actual receipt of income and actual payment of deductible expenses, and the inclusion of income and deduction of expenses in determining our taxable income. In addition, we may decide to retain our cash, rather than distribute it, in order to repay debt or for other reasons. In these cases, we may borrow funds to pay dividends or pay dividends through the distribution of other property in order to meet the distribution requirements while preserving our cash.
Under certain circumstances, we may be able to rectify an inadvertent failure to meet the 90% distribution requirement for a year by paying “deficiency dividends” to our stockholders in a later year, which may be included in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. Thus, we may be able to avoid being taxed on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends, subject to the 4% excise tax described below. However, we will be required to pay interest to the IRS based upon the amount of any deduction claimed for deficiency dividends. While the payment of a deficiency dividend will apply to a prior year for purposes of our REIT distribution requirements, it will be treated as an additional distribution to our stockholders in the year such dividend is paid.
Furthermore, we will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of 85% of our ordinary income for such year, 95% of our capital gain net income for the year and any undistributed taxable income from prior periods. Any ordinary income and net capital gain on which this excise tax is imposed for any year is treated as an amount distributed during that year for purposes of calculating such tax.
For purposes of the 90% distribution requirement and excise tax described above, dividends declared during the last three months of the taxable year, payable to stockholders of record on a specified date during such period and paid during January of the following year, will be treated as paid by us and received by our stockholders on December 31 of the year in which they are declared.
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In addition, in order to qualify as a REIT, we may not have, at the end of any taxable year, any undistributed earnings and profits accumulated in any non-REIT taxable year. Any earnings and profits we accumulated before the effective date of our REIT election were distributed to stockholders of record before the end of the first taxable year for which we elected REIT status.
Interest Deduction Limitation
Section 163(j) of the Code, as amended by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, limits the deductibility of net interest expense paid or accrued on debt properly allocable to a trade or business to 30% of “adjusted taxable income,” subject to certain exceptions. Any deduction in excess of the limitation is carried forward and may be used in a subsequent year, subject to the 30% limitation. Adjusted taxable income is determined without regard to certain deductions, including those for net business interest expense, net operating losses and, for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2022, depreciation, amortization, and depletion.
Provided that a taxpayer makes a timely election (which is irrevocable), the 30% limitation does not apply to an “electing real property trade or business”, which is a trade or business involving real property development, redevelopment, construction, reconstruction, acquisition, conversion, rental, operation, management, leasing, or brokerage, within the meaning of Section 469(c)(7)(C) of the Code. If such an election is made, depreciable real property (including certain improvements) held by such electing real property trade or business must be depreciated under the alternative depreciation system under the Code, which is generally less favorable than the generally applicable system of depreciation under the Code.
The foregoing interest deduction limitation could result in us having more REIT taxable income and thus increase the amount of distributions we must make to comply with the REIT distribution requirements. Similarly, the limitation could cause our taxable REIT subsidiaries to have greater taxable income and thus potentially greater corporate tax liability than they would otherwise have.
Like-Kind Exchanges
We may dispose of properties in transactions intended to qualify as like-kind exchanges under the Code. Such like-kind exchanges are intended to result in the deferral of gain for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The failure of any such transaction to qualify as a like-kind exchange could subject us to U.S. federal income tax, possibly including the 100% prohibited transaction tax, depending on the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction.
Failure To Qualify
If we discover a violation of a provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT, specified cure provisions may be available to us. Except with respect to violations of the gross income tests and asset tests (for which the cure provisions are described above), and provided the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, these cure provisions generally impose a $50,000 penalty for each violation in lieu of a loss of REIT status. If we fail to satisfy the requirements for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year, and the relief provisions do not apply, we will be required to pay tax, including any applicable alternative minimum tax, on our taxable income at regular corporate rates. Distributions to stockholders in any year in which we fail to qualify as a REIT will not be deductible by us, and we will not be required to distribute any amounts to our stockholders. As a result, we anticipate that our failure to qualify as a REIT would reduce the cash available for distribution by us to our stockholders. In addition, if we fail to qualify as a REIT, all distributions to stockholders will be taxable as regular corporate dividends to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits. In this event, corporate distributees may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction. In addition, non-corporate stockholders, including individuals, may be eligible for the preferential tax rates on qualified dividend income. Unless entitled to relief under specific statutory provisions, we will also be ineligible to elect to be treated as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year for which we lost our qualification. It is not possible to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to this statutory relief.
Tax Aspects of Our Operating Partnership, the Subsidiary Partnerships and the Limited Liability Companies
General
All of our investments will be held indirectly through our operating partnership. In addition, our operating partnership will hold certain of its investments indirectly through subsidiary partnerships and limited liability
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companies which we expect will be treated as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In general, entities that are treated as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes are “pass-through” entities which are not required to pay U.S. federal income tax. Rather, partners or members of such entities are allocated their shares of the items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the partnership or limited liability company, and are potentially required to pay tax on this income, without regard to whether they receive a distribution from the partnership or limited liability company. We will include in our income our share of these partnership and limited liability company items for purposes of the various gross income tests, the computation of our REIT taxable income, and the REIT distribution requirements. Moreover, for purposes of the asset tests, we will include our pro rata share of assets held by our operating partnership, including its share of its subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies, based on our capital interests in each such entity. See “—Taxation of Our Company—General.”
Entity Classification
Our interests in our operating partnership and the subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies involve special tax considerations, including the possibility that the IRS might challenge the status of these entities as partnerships or disregarded entities. For example, an entity that would otherwise be classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes may nonetheless be taxable as a corporation if it is a “publicly traded partnership” and certain other requirements are met. A partnership or limited liability company would be treated as a publicly traded partnership if its interests are traded on an established securities market or are readily tradable on a secondary market or a substantial equivalent thereof, within the meaning of applicable Treasury regulations. Interests in a partnership are not treated as readily tradable on a secondary market, or the substantial equivalent thereof, if all interests in the partnership were issued in one or more transactions that were not required to be registered under the Securities Act, and the partnership does not have more than 100 partners at any time during the taxable year of the partnership, taking into account certain ownership attribution and anti-avoidance rules (the “100 Partner Safe Harbor”). If our operating partnership does not qualify for the 100 Partner Safe Harbor, then the interests in our operating partnership will nonetheless be viewed as not readily tradable on a secondary market or the substantial equivalent thereof if the sum of the percentage interests in capital or profits of our operating partnership transferred during any taxable year of our operating partnership does not exceed 2% of the total interests in our operating partnership’s capital or profits, subject to certain exceptions. For purpose of this 2% trading safe harbor, our interests in our operating partnership are excluded from the determination of the percentage interests in capital or profits of our operating partnership. In addition, this 2% trading safe harbor does not apply to transfers by a limited partner in one or more transactions during any 30-day period representing in the aggregate more than 2% of the total interests in our operating partnership’s capital or profits. We, as general partner of our operating partnership, have the authority to take any steps we determine necessary to prevent any trading of interests in our operating partnership that would cause our operating partnership to become a publicly traded partnership, including any steps necessary to ensure compliance with this 2% trading safe harbor.
We believe our operating partnership and each of our other partnerships and limited liability companies will be classified as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and we do not anticipate that our operating partnership or any subsidiary partnership or limited liability company will be treated as a publicly traded partnership that is taxable as a corporation. However, if our operating partnership is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, it does not qualify for the 100 Partner Safe Harbor, and certain other safe harbor provisions of applicable Treasury regulations are not available, our operating partnership could be classified as a publicly traded partnership.
If our operating partnership or any of our other partnerships or limited liability companies were to be treated as a publicly traded partnership, it would be taxable as a corporation unless it qualified for the statutory “90% qualifying income exception.” Under that exception, a publicly traded partnership is not subject to corporate-level tax if 90% or more of its gross income consists of dividends, interest, “rents from real property” (as that term is defined for purposes of the rules applicable to REITs, with certain modifications), gain from the sale or other disposition of real property, and certain other types of qualifying income. However, if any such entity did not qualify for this exception or was otherwise taxable as a corporation, it would be required to pay an entity-level tax on its income. In this situation, the character of our assets and items of gross income would change and could prevent us from satisfying the REIT asset tests and possibly the REIT income tests. See “—Taxation of Our Company—Asset Tests” and “—Taxation of Our Company—Income Tests.” This, in turn,
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could prevent us from qualifying as a REIT. See “—Taxation of Our Company—Failure to Qualify” for a discussion of the effect of our failure to meet these tests. In addition, a change in the tax status of our operating partnership or a subsidiary partnership or limited liability company might be treated as a taxable event. If so, we might incur a tax liability without any related cash payment.
Allocations of Income, Gain, Loss and Deduction
A partnership agreement will generally determine the allocation of income and loss among partners. These allocations, however, will be disregarded for tax purposes if they do not comply with the provisions of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury regulations thereunder. Generally, Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury regulations thereunder require that partnership allocations respect the economic arrangement of the partners. If an allocation of partnership income or loss does not comply with the requirements of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury regulations thereunder, the item subject to the allocation will be reallocated in accordance with the partners’ interests in the partnership. This reallocation will be determined by taking into account all of the facts and circumstances relating to the economic arrangement of the partners with respect to such item. Our operating partnership’s allocations of taxable income and loss are intended to comply with the requirements of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury regulations thereunder.
Tax Allocations With Respect to the Properties
Under Section 704(c) of the Code, income, gain, loss and deduction attributable to appreciated or depreciated property that is contributed to a partnership in exchange for an interest in the partnership, must be allocated in a manner so that the contributing partner is charged with the unrealized gain or benefits from the unrealized loss associated with the property at the time of the contribution. The amount of the unrealized gain or unrealized loss generally is equal to the difference between the fair market value or book value and the adjusted tax basis of the contributed property at the time of contribution, as adjusted from time to time. These allocations are solely for U.S. federal income tax purposes and do not affect the book capital accounts or other economic or legal arrangements among the partners. Treasury regulations issued under Section 704(c) of the Code provide partnerships with a choice of several methods of accounting for book-tax differences.
Basis in Partnership Interest
Our adjusted tax basis in any partnership interest we own generally will be:
the amount of cash and the basis of any other property we contribute to the partnership;
increased by our distributive share of the partnership’s income (including tax-exempt income) and any increase in our allocable share of indebtedness of the partnership; and
reduced, but not below zero, by our distributive share of the partnership’s loss (including any non-deductible items), the amount of cash and the basis of property distributed to us, and any reduction in our allocable share of indebtedness of the partnership.
Loss allocated to us in excess of our basis in a partnership interest will not be taken into account for U.S. federal income tax purposes until we again have basis sufficient to absorb the loss. A reduction of our allocable share of partnership indebtedness will be treated as a constructive cash distribution to us, and will reduce our adjusted tax basis in the partnership interest. Distributions, including constructive distributions, in excess of the basis of our partnership interest will constitute taxable income to us. Such distributions and constructive distributions normally will be characterized as long-term capital gain.
Sale of a Partnership’s Property
Generally, any gain realized by a partnership on the sale of property held for more than one year will be long-term capital gain, except for any portion of the gain treated as depreciation or cost recovery recapture. Our share of any partnership’s gain from the sale of inventory or other property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of the partnership’s trade or business will be treated as income from a prohibited transaction subject to a 100% tax. See “—Taxation of Our Company—Income Tests.”
Partnership Audit Rules
Under the rules applicable to U.S. federal income tax audits of partnerships, subject to certain exceptions, any audit adjustment to items of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit of a partnership (and any partner’s distributive share thereof) is determined, and taxes, interest, or penalties attributable thereto are assessed and
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collected, at the partnership level. Thus, it is possible that the partnerships (including our operating partnership) in which we directly or indirect invest may be required to pay additional taxes, interest and penalties as a result of an audit adjustment, and we, as a direct or indirect partner of these partnerships, could be required to bear the economic burden of those taxes, interest, and penalties even though we, as a REIT, may not otherwise have been required to pay additional corporate-level taxes as a result of the related audit adjustment. Investors are urged to consult their tax advisors with respect to the partnership audit rules and their potential impact on their investment in our securities.
U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Securities
The following summary describes the material U.S. federal income tax considerations to you of purchasing, owning and disposing of our securities. This summary assumes you hold our securities as a “capital asset” (generally, property held for investment within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code). It does not address all the tax consequences that may be relevant to you in light of your particular circumstances. In addition, this discussion does not address the tax consequences relevant to persons who receive special treatment under the U.S. federal income tax law, except where specifically noted. Holders receiving special treatment include, without limitation:
financial institutions, banks and thrifts;
insurance companies;
tax exempt entities (except to the extent discussed in “—Taxation of Tax-Exempt Holders of Our Securities”);
“S” corporations;
traders in securities that elect to mark to market;
partnerships, pass-through entities and persons holding our securities through a partnership or other pass-through entity;
individual holders subject to the alternative minimum tax;
regulated investment companies and REITs;
non-U.S. corporations or partnerships, and persons who are not residents or citizens of the United States;
broker-dealers or dealers in securities or currencies;
U.S. expatriates;
persons holding our securities as part of a hedge, straddle, conversion, integrated or other risk reduction or constructive sale transaction;
U.S. persons whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar; or
persons who receive our securities through the exercise of employee stock options or otherwise as compensation.
If you are considering purchasing our securities, you should consult your tax advisors concerning the application of U.S. federal income tax laws to your particular situation as well as any consequences of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our securities arising under the laws of any state, local or non-U.S. taxing jurisdiction.
When we use the term “U.S. holder,” we mean a holder of our securities who, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, is:
an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;
a corporation or partnership, including an entity treated as a corporation or partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, created or organized in or under the laws of the United States or of any state thereof or in the District of Columbia unless, in the case of a partnership, Treasury regulations provide otherwise;
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an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source; or
a trust, if (A) a court within the United States is able to exercise primary supervision over its administration, and one or more U.S. persons, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, have the authority to control all of its substantial decisions, or (2) it has a valid election in place to be treated as a U.S. person.
If you hold our securities and are not a U.S. holder, a partnership or an entity classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, you are a “non-U.S. holder.”
If a partnership or other entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our securities, the tax treatment of a partner generally will depend on the status of the partner and on the activities of the partnership. Partners of partnerships holding our securities are encouraged to consult their tax advisors.
Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Securities
Distributions Generally
Distributions out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits will be treated as dividends and, other than with respect to capital gain dividends and certain amounts which have previously been subject to corporate level tax, as discussed below, will be taxable to our taxable U.S. holders as ordinary income when actually or constructively received. See “—Tax Rates” below. As long as we qualify as a REIT, these distributions will not be eligible for the dividends-received deduction in the case of U.S. holders that are corporations, nor, except to the extent provided in “—Tax Rates” below, the preferential rates on qualified dividend income applicable to non-corporate U.S. holders, including individuals. For taxable years beginning before January 1, 2026, non-corporate U.S. holders may be entitled to deduct 20% of ordinary REIT dividends they receive from us. For purposes of determining whether distributions to holders of our stock are out of current or accumulated earnings and profits, our earnings and profits will be allocated first to our outstanding preferred stock and then to our outstanding common stock.
To the extent that we make distributions on our stock in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits allocable to such stock, these distributions will be treated first as a tax-free return of capital to a U.S. holder. This treatment will reduce the U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in such shares of stock by the amount of the distribution, but not below zero. Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits and in excess of a U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in its shares will be taxable as capital gain. Such gain will be taxable as long-term capital gain if the shares have been held for more than one year. Dividends we declare in October, November, or December of any year and which are payable to a holder of record on a specified date in any of these months will be treated as both paid by us and received by the holder on December 31 of that year, provided we actually pay the dividend on or before January 31 of the following year.
Capital Gain Dividends
Dividends that we properly designate as capital gain dividends will be taxable to our taxable U.S. holders as a gain from the sale or disposition of a capital asset held for more than one year, to the extent that such gain does not exceed our actual net capital gain for the taxable year. Dividends designated as capital gain dividends may not exceed our dividends paid for the taxable year, including dividends paid the following year that are treated as paid in the current year. U.S. holders that are corporations may, however, be required to treat up to 20% of certain capital gain dividends as ordinary income. If we properly designate any portion of a dividend as a capital gain dividend then, except as otherwise required by law, we presently intend to allocate a portion of the total capital gain dividends paid or made available to holders of all classes of our capital stock for the year to the holders of each class of our capital stock in proportion to the amount that our total dividends, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to the holders of each such class of our capital stock for the year bears to the total dividends, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to holders of all classes of our capital stock for the year. In addition, except as otherwise required by law, we will make a similar allocation with respect to any undistributed long term capital gains which are to be included in our stockholders’ long term capital gains, based on the allocation of the capital gains amount which would have resulted if those undistributed long term capital gains had been distributed as “capital gain dividends” by us to our stockholders.
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Retention of Net Capital Gains
We may elect to retain, rather than distribute as a capital gain dividend, all or a portion of our net capital gains. If we make this election, we would pay tax on our retained net capital gains. In addition, to the extent we so elect, a U.S. holder generally would:
include its pro rata share of our undistributed net capital gains in computing its long-term capital gains in its return for its taxable year in which the last day of our taxable year falls, subject to certain limitations as to the amount that is includable;
be deemed to have paid its share of the capital gains tax imposed on us on the designated amounts included in the U.S. holder’s income as long-term capital gain;
receive a credit or refund for the amount of tax deemed paid by it;
increase the adjusted basis of its stock by the difference between the amount of includable gains and the tax deemed to have been paid by it; and
in the case of a U.S. holder that is a corporation, appropriately adjust its earnings and profits for the retained capital gains in accordance with Treasury regulations to be promulgated by the IRS.
Net Operating Losses
Holders may not include in their individual income tax returns any of our net operating or capital losses. Instead these losses are generally carried over by us for potential offset against our future income.
Passive Activity Losses and Investment Interest Limitations
Distributions we make and gain arising from the sale or exchange by a U.S. holder of our stock will not be treated as passive activity income. As a result, U.S. holders generally will not be able to apply any “passive losses” against this income or gain. A U.S. holder may elect to treat capital gain dividends, capital gains from the disposition of our stock and income designated as qualified dividend income, as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation, but in such case, the holder will be taxed at ordinary income rates on such amount. Other distributions made by our company, to the extent they do not constitute a return of capital, generally will be treated as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation.
Dispositions of Our Securities
A U.S. holder that sells or disposes of our securities will recognize gain or loss for federal income tax purposes in an amount equal to the difference between the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received on the sale or other disposition and the holder’s adjusted basis in the securities for tax purposes. Except as provided below, this gain or loss will be long-term capital gain or loss if the holder has held such securities for more than one year. However, if a U.S. holder recognizes loss upon the sale or other disposition of securities that it has held for six months or less, after applying certain holding period rules, the loss recognized will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent the U.S. holder received distributions from us which were required to be treated as long-term capital gains.
Redemption or Repurchase by Us
A redemption or repurchase of shares of our stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution (and taxable as a dividend to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits as described above) unless the redemption or repurchase satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code and is therefore treated as a sale or exchange of the redeemed or repurchased shares. The redemption or repurchase generally will be treated as a sale or exchange if it:
(i)
is “substantially disproportionate” with respect to the U.S. stockholder;
(ii)
results in a “complete termination” of the U.S. stockholder’s stock interest in us; or
(iii)
is “not essentially equivalent to a dividend” with respect to the U.S. stockholder,
all within the meaning of Section 302(b) of the Code.
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In determining whether any of these tests has been met, shares of our capital stock, including the common stock and other equity interests in us, considered to be owned by the U.S. stockholder by reason of certain constructive ownership rules set forth in the Code, as well as shares of our capital stock actually owned by the U.S. stockholder, must generally be taken into account. Because the determination as to whether any of the alternative tests of Section 302(b) of the Code will be satisfied with respect to the U.S. stockholder depends upon the facts and circumstances at the time that the determination must be made, U.S. stockholders are advised to consult their tax advisors to determine such tax treatment.
If a redemption or repurchase of shares of our stock is treated as a distribution taxable as a dividend, the amount of the distribution will be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received. A U.S. stockholder’s adjusted basis in the redeemed or repurchased shares of the stock for tax purposes generally will be transferred to its remaining shares of our stock, if any. If a U.S. stockholder owns no other shares of our capital stock, under certain circumstances, such basis may be transferred to a related person or it may be lost entirely. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the federal income tax consequences of a redemption or repurchase of our stock.
If a redemption or repurchase of shares of our stock is not treated as a distribution taxable as a dividend, it will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange in the manner described under “—Dispositions of Our Securities.”
Foreign Accounts
Certain payments made to “foreign financial institutions” in respect of accounts of U.S. holders at such financial institutions may be subject to withholding at a rate of 30%. U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect, if any, of this withholding provision on their ownership and disposition of our securities and the effective date of such provision. See “—Additional Withholding Tax on Payments Made to Foreign Accounts.”
Information Reporting and Backup Withholding
We are required to report to our U.S. holders and the IRS the amount of dividends paid during each calendar year, and the amount of any tax withheld. Under the backup withholding rules, a U.S. holder may be subject to backup withholding with respect to dividends paid unless the U.S. holder is a corporation or comes within certain other exempt categories and, when required, demonstrates this fact, or provides a taxpayer identification number, certifies as to no loss of exemption from backup withholding, and otherwise complies with applicable requirements of the backup withholding rules. A U.S. holder that does not provide us with its correct taxpayer identification number may also be subject to penalties imposed by the IRS. Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amount paid as backup withholding will be creditable against the U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS. In addition, we may be required to withhold a portion of capital gain distributions to any holders who fail to certify their non-foreign status. See “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of our Securities.”
Taxation of Tax-Exempt Holders of Our Securities
Dividend income from us and gain arising upon a sale of our shares of stock generally will not be unrelated business taxable income to a tax-exempt holder, except as described below. This income or gain will be unrelated business taxable income, however, if a tax-exempt holder holds its shares as “debt-financed property” within the meaning of the Code. Generally, “debt-financed property” is property the acquisition or holding of which was financed through a borrowing by the tax-exempt holder.
For tax-exempt holders which are social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations or supplemental unemployment benefit trusts exempt from U.S. federal income taxation under Sections 501(c)(7), (c)(9) or (c)(17) of the Code, respectively, income from an investment in our shares will constitute unrelated business taxable income unless the organization is able to properly claim a deduction for amounts set aside or placed in reserve for specific purposes so as to offset the income generated by its investment in our shares. These prospective investors should consult their tax advisors concerning these “set aside” and reserve requirements.
Notwithstanding the above, however, a portion of the dividends paid by a “pension-held REIT” may be treated as unrelated business taxable income as to certain trusts that hold more than 10%, by value, of the interests in the REIT. A REIT will not be a “pension-held REIT” if it is able to satisfy the “not closely held”
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requirement without relying on the “look-through” exception with respect to certain trusts or if such REIT is not “predominantly held” by “qualified trusts.” As a result of restrictions on the transfer and ownership of our stock contained in our charter, we do not expect to be classified as a “pension-held REIT,” and as a result, the tax treatment described above should be inapplicable to our holders. However, because our common stock is publicly traded, we cannot guarantee that this will always be the case.
Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Securities
The following discussion addresses the rules governing U.S. federal income taxation of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our securities by non-U.S. holders. These rules are complex, and no attempt is made herein to provide more than a brief summary of such rules. Accordingly, the discussion does not address all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation and does not address state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences that may be relevant to a non-U.S. holder in light of its particular circumstances. We urge non-U.S. holders to consult their tax advisors to determine the impact of federal, state, local and non-U.S. income tax laws on the purchase, ownership, and disposition of our securities, including any reporting requirements.
Distributions Generally
Distributions that are neither attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of U.S. real property interests, or “USRPIs,” nor designated by us as capital gain dividends (except as described below) will be treated as dividends of ordinary income to the extent that they are made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. Such distributions ordinarily will be subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty, unless the distributions are treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a U.S. trade or business (through a U.S. permanent establishment, where applicable). Under certain treaties, however, lower withholding rates generally applicable to dividends do not apply to dividends from a REIT. If such a distribution is treated as effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a U.S. trade or business, the non-U.S. holder generally will be subject to federal income tax on the distribution at graduated rates, in the same manner as U.S. holders are taxed on distributions, and also may be subject to the 30% branch profits tax in the case of a corporate non-U.S. holder.
Except as otherwise provided below, we expect to withhold U.S. federal income tax at the rate of 30% on any distributions made to a non-U.S. holder unless:
1)
a lower treaty rate applies and the non-U.S. holder files with us an IRS Form W-8BEN (or Form W-8BEN-E, as applicable) evidencing eligibility for that reduced treaty rate; or
2)
the non-U.S. holder files an IRS Form W-8ECI with us claiming that the distribution is income effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s trade or business.
Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to a non-U.S. holder to the extent that such distributions do not exceed the adjusted basis of the holder’s stock, but rather will reduce the adjusted basis of such stock. To the extent that such distributions exceed the non-U.S. holder’s adjusted basis in such stock, they will give rise to gain from the sale or exchange of such stock, the tax treatment of which is described below. Under FIRPTA (discussed below), we may be required to withhold 15% of the portion of any distribution that exceeds our current and accumulated earnings and profits. That being said, for withholding purposes, we expect to treat all distributions as made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. However, amounts withheld should generally be refundable if it is subsequently determined that the distribution was, in fact, in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, provided that certain conditions are met.
Capital Gain Dividends and Distributions Attributable to a Sale or Exchange of USRPIs
Distributions to a non-U.S. holder that we properly designate as capital gain dividends, other than those arising from the disposition of USRPI, generally should not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation, unless:
1)
the investment in our stock is treated as effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. trade or business (through a U.S. permanent establishment, where applicable), in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. holders with respect to such gain, except that a non-U.S. holder that is a non-U.S. corporation may also be subject to the 30% branch profits tax or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty, as discussed above; or
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2)
the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% on the non-U.S. holder’s capital gains (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of such non-U.S. holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses.
Pursuant to the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980, which is referred to as “FIRPTA,” distributions to a non-U.S. holder that are attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of USRPI, whether or not designated as capital gain dividends, will cause the non-U.S. holder to be treated as recognizing such gain as income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business. Non-U.S. holders would generally be taxed at the same rates applicable to U.S. holders, subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax, and any non-U.S. holder that is a foreign corporation may also be subject to the 30% branch profits tax or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty. We also will be required to withhold and to remit to the IRS 21% of any distribution to non-U.S. holders attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of USRPIs. The amount withheld is creditable against the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability. However, any distribution with respect to any class of stock which is “regularly traded” on an established securities market located in the U.S. is not subject to FIRPTA, and therefore, not subject to the 21% U.S. withholding tax described above, if the non-U.S. holder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution. Instead, such distributions generally will be treated as ordinary dividend distributions and subject to withholding in the manner described above with respect to ordinary dividends. In addition, distributions to certain non-U.S. publicly traded holders of our stock that meet certain record-keeping and other requirements (“qualified stockholders”) are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified holders that are not also qualified holders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of our capital stock. Furthermore, distributions to “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. holders of our stock should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.
Retention of Net Capital Gains
Although the law is not clear on the matter, it appears that amounts designated by us as retained net capital gains in respect of the stock held by U.S. holders generally should be treated with respect to non-U.S. holders in the same manner as actual distributions of capital gain dividends. Under this approach, the non-U.S. holders would be able to offset as a credit against their U.S. federal income tax liability resulting from their proportionate share of the tax paid by us on such retained net capital gains and to receive from the IRS a refund to the extent their proportionate share of such tax paid by us exceeds their actual U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the non-U.S. holder furnishes required information to the IRS on a timely basis. If we designate any portion of our net capital gain as retained net capital gain, a non-U.S. stockholder should consult its tax advisor regarding the taxation of such retained net capital gain.
Sale of Our Stock
Except as described below, gain recognized by a non-U.S. holder upon the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our stock generally will not be subject to U.S. taxation unless such stock constitutes a USRPI. In general, stock of a domestic corporation that constitutes a “U.S. real property holding corporation,” or USRPHC, will constitute a USRPI. We believe that we are a USRPHC. Our stock will not, however, constitute a USRPI so long as we are “domestically controlled.” A REIT is domestically controlled if at all times during a specified testing period less than 50% in value of its stock is held directly or indirectly by non-U.S. holders, subject to certain rules. For purposes of determining whether a REIT is domestically controlled, a person who at all applicable times holds less than 5% of a class of stock that is “regularly traded” is treated as a U.S. person unless the REIT has actual knowledge that such person is not a U.S. person. We believe, but cannot guarantee, that we are a domestically controlled REIT. Because our common stock is (and, we anticipate, will continue to be) publicly traded, no assurance can be given that we will continue to be a domestically controlled REIT.
Proposed Treasury regulations issued on December 29, 2022 (the “Proposed Regulations”), would modify the existing Treasury regulations relating to the determination of whether we are a domestically controlled REIT by providing a look through rule for our stockholders that are non-publicly traded partnerships, REITs, regulated
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investment companies or domestic C corporations owned 25% or more directly or indirectly by foreign persons (“foreign owned domestic corporations”) and by treating “qualified foreign pension funds” as foreign persons for this purpose. Although the Proposed Regulations are intended to be effective after they are finalized, the preamble to the regulations state that the IRS may challenge contrary positions that are taken before the Proposed Regulations are finalized. Moreover, the Proposed Regulations would apply to determine whether a REIT was domestically controlled for the entire five-year testing period prior to any disposition of our common stock, rather than applying only to the portion of the testing period beginning after the Proposed Regulations are finalized. The Proposed Regulations relating to foreign owned domestic corporations are inconsistent with prior tax guidance. We cannot predict if or when or in what form the Proposed Regulations will be finalized or what our composition of investors that are treated as domestic under these final regulations will be at the time of enactment. Please consult your tax advisor.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, gain from the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our stock not otherwise subject to FIRPTA will be taxable to a non-U.S. holder if either (a) the investment in our stock is treated as effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. trade or business (through a U.S. permanent establishment, where applicable), in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. holders with respect to such gain, except that a non-U.S. holder that is a foreign corporation may also be subject to the 30% branch profits tax or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty, or (b) the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the U.S. for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the nonresident alien individual will be subject to a 30% tax on the individual’s capital gains (reduced by certain capital losses). In addition, even if we are a domestically controlled REIT, upon disposition of our stock, a non-U.S. holder may be treated as having gain from the sale or other taxable disposition of a USRPI if the non-U.S. holder (1) disposes of our stock within a 30-day period preceding the ex-dividend date of a distribution, any portion of which, but for the disposition, would have been treated as gain from the sale or exchange of a USRPI and (2) acquires, or enters into a contract or option to acquire, or is deemed to acquire, other shares of that stock during the 61-day period beginning with the first day of the 30-day period described in clause (1). The preceding sentence shall not apply to a non-U.S. holder if the non-U.S. holder did not own more than 5% of the stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution described in clause (1) of the preceding sentence and the class of stock is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury regulations.
Even if we do not qualify as a domestically controlled REIT at the time a non-U.S. holder sells our stock, gain arising from the sale or other taxable disposition by a non-U.S. holder of such stock would not be subject to U.S. taxation under FIRPTA as a sale of a USRPI if:
1)
such class of stock is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury regulations, on an established securities market such as the NYSE; and
2)
such non-U.S. holder owned, actually and constructively, 10% or less of such class of stock throughout the shorter of the five-year period ending on the date of the sale or exchange or the non-U.S. holder’s holding period.
In addition, dispositions of our stock by qualified stockholders are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified stockholders that are not also qualified stockholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of our stock. An actual or deemed disposition of our stock by such stockholders may also be treated as a dividend. Furthermore, dispositions of our stock by “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.
If gain on the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, the non-U.S. holder would be required to file a U.S. federal income tax return and would be subject to regular U.S. federal income tax with respect to such gain in the same manner as a taxable U.S. holder (subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals). In addition, if the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, and if shares of the applicable class of our stock were not “regularly traded” on an established securities market, the purchaser of such stock would be required to withhold and remit to the IRS 15% of the purchase price.
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Redemption or Repurchase by Us
A redemption or repurchase of shares of our stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution (and taxable as a dividend to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits) unless the redemption or repurchase satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code and is therefore treated as a sale or exchange of the redeemed or repurchased shares. See “—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Securities—Redemption or Repurchase by Us.” If the redemption or repurchase of shares is treated as a distribution, the amount of the distribution will be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received. See “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Securities—Distributions Generally.” If the redemption or repurchase of shares is not treated as a distribution, it will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange in the manner described under “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Securities—Sale of Our Stock.”
Information Reporting Requirements and Backup Withholding
We will report to our stockholders and to the IRS the amount of distributions we pay during each calendar year and the amount of tax we withhold, if any. Under the backup withholding rules, a holder of our stock may be subject to backup withholding with respect to distributions unless the holder:
is a corporation or comes within certain other exempt categories and, when required, demonstrates this fact; or
provides a taxpayer identification number, certifies as to no loss of exemption from backup withholding, and otherwise complies with the applicable requirements of the backup withholding rules.
A holder who does not provide us with its correct taxpayer identification number also may be subject to penalties imposed by the IRS. Any amount paid as backup withholding generally may be claimed as a credit against the holder’s income tax liability. In addition, we may be required to withhold a portion of capital gain distributions to any holders who fail to certify their non-foreign status to us.
Backup withholding will generally not apply to payments of dividends made by us or our paying agents, in their capacities as such, to a non-U.S. holder provided that the non-U.S. holder furnishes to us or our paying agent the required certification as to its non-U.S. status, such as providing a valid IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8ECI, or certain other requirements are met. Notwithstanding the foregoing, backup withholding may apply if either we or our paying agent has actual knowledge, or reason to know, that the holder is a U.S. person that is not an exempt recipient. Payments of the proceeds from a disposition or a redemption that occurs outside the U.S. by a non-U.S. holder made by or through a foreign office of a broker generally will not be subject to information reporting or backup withholding. However, information reporting (but not backup withholding) generally will apply to such a payment if the broker has certain connections with the U.S. unless the broker has documentary evidence in its records that the beneficial owner is a non-U.S. holder and specified conditions are met or an exemption is otherwise established. Payment of the proceeds from a disposition by a non-U.S. holder of stock made by or through the U.S. office of a broker is generally subject to information reporting and backup withholding unless the non-U.S. holder certifies under penalties of perjury that it is not a U.S. person and satisfies certain other requirements, or otherwise establishes an exemption from information reporting and backup withholding.
Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be refunded or credited against the holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability if certain required information is furnished to the IRS. Holders of our securities should consult their own tax advisers regarding application of backup withholding to them and the availability of, and procedure for obtaining an exemption from, backup withholding.
Tax Rates
The maximum tax rate for non-corporate taxpayers for long-term capital gains, including certain “capital gain dividends,” is generally 20% (although depending on the characteristics of the assets which produced these gains and on designations which we may make, certain capital gain dividends may be taxed at a 25% rate). Capital gain dividends will only be eligible for the rates described above to the extent they are properly designated by us as “capital gain dividends.” In general, dividends payable by a REIT that are not “capital gains dividends” are subject to tax at the tax rates applicable to ordinary income, the maximum rate of which for individuals is 37%. Dividends that a REIT properly designates as “qualified dividend income,”
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however, are subject to a maximum tax rate of 20% in the case of non-corporate taxpayers. In general, dividends payable by a REIT are only eligible to be taxed as qualified dividend income to the extent that the taxpayer satisfies certain holding requirements with respect to the REIT’s stock and the REIT’s dividends are attributable to dividends received by the REIT from certain taxable corporations (such as its taxable REIT subsidiaries) or to income that was subject to tax at the corporate/REIT level (for example, if the REIT distributed taxable income that it retained and paid tax on in the prior taxable year). In addition, certain U.S. holders that are individuals, estates or trusts are required to pay an additional 3.8% Medicare tax on, among other things, dividends and capital gains from the sale or other disposition of our securities. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the tax rates applicable to them in light of their particular circumstances. For taxable years prior to 2026, individual stockholders are generally allowed to deduct 20% of the aggregate amount of ordinary dividends distributed by us, subject to certain limitations, which would reduce the maximum marginal effective federal income tax rate for individuals on the receipt of such ordinary dividends to 29.6%.
Additional Withholding Tax on Payments Made to Foreign Accounts
Withholding taxes may be imposed under Sections 1471 to 1474 of the Code (such sections commonly referred to as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or FATCA) on certain types of payments made to non-U.S. financial institutions and certain other non-U.S. entities (including payments to U.S. holders who hold shares of our stock through such a foreign financial institution or non-U.S. entity). Specifically, a 30% withholding tax may be imposed on dividends on our stock or interest on our debt securities, in each case paid to a “foreign financial institution” or a “non-financial foreign entity” (each as defined in the Code), unless (1) the foreign financial institution undertakes certain diligence and reporting obligations, (2) the non-financial foreign entity either certifies it does not have any “substantial United States owners” (as defined in the Code) or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial United States owner, or (3) the foreign financial institution or non-financial foreign entity otherwise qualifies for an exemption from these rules. If the payee is a foreign financial institution and is subject to the diligence and reporting requirements in clause (1) above, it must enter into an agreement with the U.S. Department of the Treasury under which it undertakes, among other things, to identify accounts held by certain “specified United States persons” or “United States-owned foreign entities” (each as defined in the Code), annually report certain information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on certain payments to non-compliant foreign financial institutions and certain other account holders. Foreign financial institutions located in jurisdictions that have an intergovernmental agreement with the United States governing FATCA may be subject to different rules.
Under the applicable Treasury regulations and administrative guidance, withholding under FATCA generally applies to payments of dividends on our stock or interest on our debt securities. While withholding under FATCA also would have applied to payments of gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our stock or debt securities after December 31, 2018, proposed Treasury regulations eliminate FATCA withholding on payments of gross proceeds entirely. Taxpayers generally may rely on these proposed Treasury regulations until final Treasury regulations are issued.
Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the potential application of withholding under FATCA to their investment in our capital stock or debt securities.
Taxation of Debt Securities
The following summary describes certain material United States federal income tax consequences of acquiring, owning and disposing of our debt securities. This discussion assumes the debt securities will be issued with no more than a de minimis amount of original issue discount for United States federal income tax purposes.
U.S. Holders
U.S. holders of debt securities that use the accrual method of tax accounting and prepare “applicable financial statements” will have to recognize income from their debt securities no later than the taxable year in which such income is taken into account as revenue in their “applicable financial statements.” The IRS has issued final regulations stating that original issue discount income and market discount income will not be subject to these special timing rules. Such rules may require U.S. holders to report income earlier than it would otherwise be recognized under the tax rules discussed below. Prospective U.S. holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the implications of such rules on their investment.
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Stated Interest and Market Discount. U.S. holders of debt securities will be required to include stated interest on the debt securities in gross income for federal income tax purposes in accordance with their methods of accounting for tax purposes. Purchasers of debt securities should be aware that the holding and disposition of debt securities may be affected by the market discount provisions of the Code. These rules generally provide that if a U.S. holder of a debt security purchases it at a market discount and thereafter recognizes gain on a disposition of the debt security, including a gift or payment on maturity, the lesser of the gain or appreciation, in the case of a gift, and the portion of the market discount that accrued while the debt security was held by the U.S. holder will be treated as ordinary interest income at the time of the disposition. For this purpose, a purchase at a market discount includes a purchase after original issuance at a price below the debt security’s stated principal amount. The market discount rules also provide that a U.S. holder who acquires a debt security at a market discount and who does not elect to include the market discount in income on a current basis may be required to defer a portion of any interest expense that may otherwise be deductible on any indebtedness incurred or maintained to purchase or carry the debt security until the U.S. holder disposes of the debt security in a taxable transaction.
A U.S. holder of a debt security acquired at a market discount may elect to include the market discount in income as the discount on the debt security accrues, either on a straight line basis, or, if elected, on a constant interest rate basis. The current inclusion election, once made, applies to all market discount obligations acquired by the U.S. holder on or after the first day of the first taxable year to which the election applies and may not be revoked without the consent of the IRS. If a U.S. holder of a debt security elects to include market discount in income in accordance with the preceding sentence, the foregoing rules with respect to the recognition of ordinary income on a sale or particular other dispositions of such debt security and the deferral of interest deductions on indebtedness related to such debt security would not apply.
Amortizable Bond Premium. Generally, if the tax basis of a debt security held as a capital asset exceeds the amount payable at maturity of the debt security, the excess may constitute amortizable bond premium that the U.S. holder may elect to amortize under the constant interest rate method and deduct the amortized premium over the period from the U.S. holder’s acquisition date to the debt security’s maturity date. A U.S. holder who elects to amortize bond premium must reduce the tax basis in the related debt security by the amount of the aggregate deductions allowable for amortizable bond premium.
The amortizable bond premium deduction is treated as an offset to interest income on the related security for federal income tax purposes. Each prospective purchaser is urged to consult its tax advisor as to the consequences of the treatment of this premium as an offset to interest income for federal income tax purposes.
Payments in Excess of Stated Interest and Principal. In certain circumstances, we may be obligated to make payments in excess of the stated interest and the principal amount of the debt securities. Unless otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement pursuant to which any such debt securities are issued, we intend to take the position that the debt securities should not be treated as contingent payment debt instruments because of these additional payments. This position is based in part on assumptions regarding the likelihood, as of the date of issuance of the debt securities, that such additional amounts will have to be paid. Assuming such position is respected, any amounts paid to a U.S. holder pursuant to any such redemption or repurchase, as applicable, would be taxable as described below in “ U.S. Holders – Disposition.” This position is binding on a U.S. holder unless such holder discloses its contrary position in the manner required by applicable Treasury regulations. The IRS, however, may take a position contrary to our position, which could affect the timing and character of a U.S. holder’s income and the timing of deductions with respect to the debt securities. U.S. holders are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the potential application to our debt securities of the contingent payment debt instrument rules and the consequences thereof.
Disposition. In general, a holder of a debt security will recognize gain or loss upon the sale, exchange, redemption, payment upon maturity, or other taxable disposition of the debt security. The gain or loss is measured by the difference between (a) the amount of cash and the fair market value of property received and (b) the U.S. holder’s tax basis in the debt security as increased by any market discount previously included in income by the U.S. holder and decreased by any amortizable bond premium deducted over the term of the debt security. However, the amount of cash and the fair market value of other property received excludes cash or other property attributable to the payment of accrued interest not previously included in income, which amount
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will be taxable as ordinary income. Subject to the market discount and amortizable bond premium rules described above, any gain or loss will generally be long-term capital gain or loss, provided the debt security was a capital asset in the hands of the U.S. holder and had been held for more than one year. The deductibility of capital losses is generally subject to limitations.
Non-U.S. Holders
Interest. Subject to the discussion of backup withholding below and the discussion of withholding with respect to certain foreign accounts above, interest paid to a non-U.S. holder on its debt securities that is not effectively connected with such holder’s conduct of a United States trade or business will not be subject to United States federal withholding tax, provided that:
such holder does not actually or constructively own a 10% or greater interest in our capital or profits;
such holder is not a controlled foreign corporation with respect to which we are a “related person” within the meaning of Section 864(d)(4) of the Code;
such holder is not a bank that received such interest on an extension of credit made pursuant to a loan agreement entered into in the ordinary course of its trade or business; and
(a) the non-U.S. holder certifies in a statement provided to us or our paying agent, under penalties of perjury, that it is not a United States person within the meaning of the Code and provides its name and address, (b) a securities clearing organization, bank or other financial institution that holds customers’ securities in the ordinary course of its trade or business and holds the debt securities on behalf of the non-U.S. holder certifies to us or our paying agent under penalties of perjury that it, or the financial institution between it and the non-U.S. holder, has received from the non-U.S. holder a statement, under penalties of perjury, that such holder is not a United States person and provides us or our paying agent with a copy of such statement or (c) the non-U.S. holder holds its debt securities directly through a “qualified intermediary” and certain conditions are satisfied.
The statement may be made on an IRS Form W-8BEN or a substantially similar form, and the non-U.S. holder must inform the withholding agent of any change in the information on the statement within 30 days of such change.
A non-U.S. holder generally will also be exempt from withholding tax on interest if such amount is effectively connected with such holder’s conduct of a United States trade or business and the holder provides us with appropriate certification (as discussed below under “– Non-U.S. Holders – United States Trade or Business”).
If a non-U.S. holder does not satisfy the requirements above, interest paid to such non-U.S. holder generally will be subject to a 30% United States federal withholding tax. Such rate may be reduced or eliminated under a tax treaty between the United States and the non-U.S. holder’s country of residence. To claim a reduction or exemption under a tax treaty, a non-U.S. holder must generally complete an IRS Form W-8BEN (or applicable successor form) and claim the reduction or exemption on the form.
Sale or Other Taxable Disposition of the Debt Securities. Subject to the discussion of backup withholding below and the discussion of withholding with respect to certain foreign accounts above, a non-U.S. holder generally will not be subject to United States federal income tax or withholding tax on gain recognized on the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement, or other taxable disposition of a debt security so long as (i) the gain is not effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a United States trade or business (or, if a tax treaty applies, the gain is not attributable to a United States permanent establishment maintained by such non-U.S. holder) and (ii) in the case of a non-U.S. holder who is an individual, such non-U.S. holder is not present in the United States for 183 days or more in the taxable year of disposition or certain other requirements are not met. A non-U.S. holder who is an individual and does not meet this exemption should consult his or her tax advisor regarding the potential liability for United States federal income tax on such holder’s gain realized on a debt security.
In certain circumstances, we may be required to make certain payments in excess of stated interest and the principal amount of the debt securities. Except as otherwise described in the applicable prospectus supplement, such payments generally should be treated as additional amounts paid for the debt securities, subject to the rules described above.
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United States Trade or Business. If interest paid on a debt security or gain from a disposition of a debt security is effectively connected with a non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a United States trade or business (and, if an income tax treaty applies, the non-U.S. holder maintains a United States permanent establishment to which such amounts are generally attributable), the non-U.S. holder generally will be subject to United States federal income tax on the interest or gain on a net basis in the same manner as if it were a U.S. holder. If a non-U.S. holder is subject to United States federal income tax on the interest on a net basis, the 30% withholding tax described above will not apply (assuming an appropriate certification is provided, generally on IRS Form W-8ECI). A non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may be subject to a branch profits tax equal to 30% of its effectively connected earnings and profits for the taxable year, subject to certain adjustments, unless it qualifies for a lower rate under an applicable income tax treaty. For this purpose, interest on a debt security or gain from a disposition of a debt security will be included in earnings and profits if the interest or gain is effectively connected with the conduct by the corporation of a United States trade or business.
Backup Withholding and Information Reporting With Respect to Debt Securities. Payments of interest to a non-U.S. holder with respect to which the requisite certification, as described above, has been received (or for which an exemption has otherwise been established) generally will not be subject to backup withholding. This exemption does not apply if we or our paying agent has actual knowledge that such holder is a U.S. person (or that the conditions of any such exemption are not in fact satisfied). Information reporting (on Internal Revenue Service Form 1042-S) will generally apply to payments of interest even if certification is provided and the interest is exempt from the 30% U.S. federal withholding tax. Copies of these information returns may also be made available to the tax authorities of the country in which the non-U.S. holder resides under the provisions of a specific treaty or agreement.
Neither information reporting nor backup withholding generally will apply to a payment of the proceeds of a disposition of debt securities that is effected by or through the foreign office of a foreign broker so long as the foreign broker does not have certain types of specified relationships to the U.S. Information reporting and backup withholding generally will apply to a payment of the proceeds of a disposition of debt securities that is effected by or through a U.S. office of any broker, unless the broker can reliably associate the payment with an Internal Revenue Service Form W-8BEN, Internal Revenue Service Form W-8BEN-E or other documentation that establishes that the person is the foreign beneficial owner of the payment. Information reporting generally will also apply to a payment of the proceeds of a disposition of debt securities that is effected through a foreign office of a U.S. broker or a foreign broker with certain types of specified relationships to the U.S., unless the broker can reliably associate the payment with an Internal Revenue Service Form W-8BEN, Internal Revenue Service Form W-8BEN-E or other documentation that establishes that the person is the foreign beneficial owner of the payment. Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amount withheld from a payment to a holder under the backup withholding rules is creditable against the holder’s actual U.S. federal income tax liability, if any, and a refund may be obtained of any amounts withheld in excess of such holder’s actual U.S. federal income tax liability, provided that such holder files the appropriate forms and/or returns with the IRS.
Possible Legislative or Other Actions Affecting Tax Consequences
Prospective holders should recognize that the present U.S. federal income tax treatment of an investment in us may be modified by legislative, judicial or administrative action at any time and that any such action may affect investments and commitments previously made. The rules dealing with U.S. federal income taxation are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process, the IRS and the U.S. Treasury Department, resulting in revisions of regulations and revised interpretations of established concepts as well as statutory changes. Revisions in U.S. federal tax laws and interpretations of these laws could adversely affect the tax consequences of your investment.
Other Tax Consequences
State, local and non-U.S. income tax laws may differ substantially from the corresponding federal income tax laws, and this discussion does not purport to describe any aspect of the tax laws of any state, local or non-U.S. jurisdiction, or any federal tax other than the income tax. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisor regarding the effect of state, local and non-U.S. tax laws with respect to our tax treatment as a REIT and on an investment in our securities.
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
Unless otherwise set forth in a prospectus supplement accompanying this prospectus, we may sell the securities offered pursuant to this prospectus to or through one or more underwriters or dealers, or we may sell the securities to investors directly or through agents. Any such underwriter, dealer or agent involved in the offer and sale of the securities will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement. We may sell securities directly to investors on our own behalf in those jurisdictions where we are authorized to do so.
Underwriters may offer and sell the securities at a fixed price or prices which may be changed, at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, at prices related to such prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices. We also may, from time to time, authorize dealers or agents to offer and sell the securities upon such terms and conditions as may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. In connection with the sale of any of the securities, underwriters may receive compensation from us in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions and may also receive commissions from purchasers of the securities for whom they may act as agent. Underwriters may sell the securities to or through dealers, and such dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters or commissions from the purchasers for whom they may act as agents.
The securities offered pursuant to this prospectus, including our common stock, may also be sold in one or more of the following transactions: (i) block transactions (which may involve crosses) in which a broker-dealer may sell all or a portion of such shares as agent, but may position and resell all or a portion of the block as principal to facilitate the transaction; (ii) purchases by any such broker-dealer as principal, and resale by such broker-dealer for its own account pursuant to a prospectus supplement; (iii) a special offering, an exchange distribution or a secondary distribution in accordance with applicable NYSE or other stock exchange, quotation system or over-the-counter market rules; (iv) ordinary brokerage transactions and transactions in which any such broker-dealer solicits purchasers; (v) sales “at the market” to or through a market maker or into an existing trading market, on an exchange or otherwise, for such shares; and (vi) sales in other ways not involving market makers or established trading markets, including direct sales to purchasers.
Any underwriting compensation paid by us to underwriters or agents in connection with the offering of the securities, and any discounts or concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers, will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions. In compliance with the guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc., or FINRA, the maximum discount or commission to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker-dealer may not exceed 8% of the aggregate offering price of the securities offered hereby. It is anticipated that the maximum compensation to be received in any particular offering of securities will be less than this amount.
Underwriters, dealers and agents may be entitled, under agreements entered into with us, to indemnification against and contribution toward certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. Unless otherwise set forth in an accompanying prospectus supplement, the obligations of any underwriters to purchase any of the securities will be subject to certain conditions precedent, and the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of such securities, if any are purchased.
Underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us and our affiliates in the ordinary course of business.
If indicated in an accompanying prospectus supplement, we may authorize underwriters or other agents to solicit offers by institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to contracts providing for payment and delivery on a future date. Institutions with which we may make these delayed delivery contracts include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and others. The obligations of any purchaser under any such delayed delivery contract will be subject to the condition that the purchase of the securities shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which the purchaser is subject. The underwriters and other agents will not have any responsibility with regard to the validity or performance of these delayed delivery contracts.
In connection with the offering of the securities hereby, certain underwriters, and selling group members and their respective affiliates may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the market price of the applicable securities. Such transactions may include stabilization transactions effected in accordance with
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Rule 104 of Regulation M promulgated by the SEC pursuant to which such persons may bid for or purchase securities for the purpose of stabilizing their market price. The underwriters in an offering of securities may also create a “short position” for their account by selling more securities in connection with the offering than they are committed to purchase from us. In such case, the underwriters could cover all or a portion of such short position by either purchasing securities in the open market following completion of the offering of such securities or by exercising any over-allotment option granted to them by us. In addition, the managing underwriter may impose “penalty bids” under contractual arrangements with other underwriters, which means that they can reclaim from an underwriter (or any selling group member participating in the offering) for the account of the other underwriters, the selling concession with respect to securities that are distributed in the offering but subsequently purchased for the account of the underwriters in the open market. Any of the transactions described in this paragraph or comparable transactions that are described in any accompanying prospectus supplement may result in the maintenance of the price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. None of such transactions described in this paragraph or in an accompanying prospectus supplement are required to be taken by any underwriters and, if they are undertaken, may be discontinued at any time.
Our common stock is listed on the NYSE under the symbol “PLYM.” Any securities that we issue, other than our common stock, will be new issues of securities with no established trading market and may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange, quotation system or over-the-counter market. Any underwriters or agents to or through which securities are sold by us may make a market in such securities, but such underwriters or agents will not be obligated to do so and any of them may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. No assurance can be given as to the liquidity of or trading market for any securities sold by us.
LEGAL MATTERS
Unless the applicable prospectus supplement indicates otherwise, certain legal matters in connection with this offering, including the validity of the securities, will be passed upon for us by Winston & Strawn LLP. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us or any underwriters, dealers or agents by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.
EXPERTS
The financial statements and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting (which is included in Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting) incorporated in this Prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We maintain a web site at www.plymouthreit.com. Information contained on, or accessible through our website is not incorporated by reference into and does not constitute a part of this prospectus or any other report or documents we file with or furnish to the SEC.
We have filed with the SEC a “shelf” registration statement on Form S-3, including exhibits and schedules filed with the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, under the Securities Act, with respect to the securities that may be offered by this prospectus. This prospectus is part of that registration statement, but does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the shares of Common stock to be sold in this offering, reference is made to the registration statement, including the exhibits and schedules to the registration statement. We have omitted parts of the registration statement in accordance with the rules and regulations of the SEC. For more information with respect to us and the securities that may be offered by this prospectus, reference is made to the registration statement, including the exhibits and schedules to the registration statement. Statements contained in this prospectus as to the contents of any contract or other document referred to in this prospectus are necessarily complete and, where that contract or other document has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement, each statement in this prospectus is qualified in all respects by the exhibit to which the reference relates.
The registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, including the exhibits and schedules to the registration statement, may be examined without charge at the public reference room of the SEC, 100 F Street, N.E., Room 1580, Washington, D.C. 20549. Information about the operation of the public reference room may be
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obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0300. Copies of all or a portion of the registration statement may be obtained from the public reference room of the SEC upon payment of prescribed fees. Our SEC filings, including our registration statement, are also available to you, free of charge, on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
Additionally, we file annual, quarterly and current reports and proxy statements with the SEC. The periodic reports and other confirmation are available for inspection and copying at the SEC’s public reference facilities and the website of the SEC referred to above. We will make available to our stockholders’ annual reports containing audited financial information for each year and quarterly reports for the first three quarters of each fiscal year containing unaudited interim financial information.
INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
We have elected to “incorporate by reference” certain information into this prospectus. By incorporating by reference, we are disclosing important information to you by referring you to documents we have filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus, except for information incorporated by reference that is superseded by information contained in this prospectus. The incorporated document contains important information about us, our business and our finances.
Any statement contained in a document that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus is updated and superseded if information contained in this prospectus modifies or replaces this information. We incorporate by reference the following documents we filed with the SEC:
Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023 filed on February 22, 2024;
The sections of our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A filed on April 28, 2023 that are incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022; and
Our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on February 24, 2020, which incorporates the description of our common stock from our Registration Statement on Form S-3 (Reg. No. 333-226438), and all reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.
We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus additional documents that we may file with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act from the date of this prospectus until we have sold all of the securities to which this prospectus relates or the offering is otherwise terminated, including all filings made after the date of the initial filing of this registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and prior to the efffectiveness of the registration statement provided, however, that we are not incorporating any information furnished under either Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of any current report on Form 8-K. These documents may include, among others, Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as proxy statements.
You may obtain copies of any of these filings by contacting Plymouth Industrial REIT, Inc. as described below, or by contacting the SEC or accessing its website as described above. Documents incorporated by reference are available without charge, excluding all exhibits unless an exhibit has been specifically incorporated by reference into those documents, by requesting them in writing, by telephone or via the Internet at:
Plymouth Industrial REIT, Inc.
20 Custom House Street, 11th Floor
Boston, Massachusetts 02110
(617) 340-3814
Website: http://www.plymouthreit.com
THE INFORMATION CONTAINED ON, OR ACCESSIBLE THROUGH, OUR WEBSITE IS NOT INCORPORATED INTO AND DOES NOT CONSTITUTE A PART OF THIS PROSPECTUS.
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PART II
INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS
Item 14.
Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution
The following table sets forth the costs and expenses to be incurred by us in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered hereby. With the exception of the SEC registration fee, all fees and expenses set forth below are estimates.
SEC registration fee
$    *   
NYSE listing fee
$   **   
FINRA filing fee
$   **   
Accounting fees and expenses
$   **   
Legal fees and expenses
$   **   
Printing expenses
$   **   
Miscellaneous expenses
$   **   
Total
$   **   
*
Deferred in accordance with Rule 456(b) and Rule 457(r) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
**
The fees and expenses are calculated based on the number of issuances and amount of securities offered and, accordingly, cannot be estimated at this time.
Item 15.
Indemnification of Directors and Officers
The MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision limiting the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting from (a) actual receipt of an improper personal benefit or profit in money, property or services or (b) bad faith or active and deliberate dishonesty established by a final judgment and which was material to the cause of action. Our charter contains a provision which limits the liability of our directors and officers to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.
Our charter permits us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law, to indemnify and to pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to (a) any present or former director or officer or (b) any individual who, while a director and at our request, serves or has served another real estate investment trust, corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or any other enterprise as a trustee, director, officer or partner of such real estate investment trust, corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise from and against any claim or liability to which such person may become subject or which such person may incur by reason of his status as a present or former director or officer of our company.
Our bylaws obligate us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law, to indemnify and to pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to (a) any present or former director who is made a party to the proceeding by reason of his service in that capacity or (b) any individual who, while a director or officer of our company and at our request, serves or has served another real estate investment trust, corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, limited liability company, employee benefit plan or other enterprise and who is made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity, against any claim or liability to which he or she may become subject by reason of such status. Our charter and bylaws also permit us to indemnify and advance expenses to any person who served a predecessor of our company in any of the capacities described above and to any employee or agent of our company or a predecessor of our company. Maryland law requires us to indemnify against reasonable expenses a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity.
The MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to indemnify and advance expenses to its directors, officers, employees and agents. The MGCL permits a corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that (a) the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the
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matter giving rise to the proceeding and (i) was committed in bad faith or (ii) was a result of active and deliberate dishonesty, (b) the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services or (c) in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful. However, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify for an adverse judgment in a suit by or in the right of the corporation or if the director or officer was adjudged to be liable for an improper personal benefit. In accordance with the MGCL and our bylaws, our bylaws require us, as a condition to advancing expenses, to obtain (a) a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification and (b) a written undertaking by the director or officer or on his or her behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by us if it shall ultimately be determined that the standard of conduct was not met.
We provide insurance from a commercial carrier against certain liabilities that could be incurred by our directors and officers.
Item 16.
Exhibits
Exhibit
Number
Description
1.1
Form of Underwriting Agreement*
Second Articles of Amendment and Restatement of Plymouth Industrial REIT, Inc. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to Amendment No. 2 to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-11 (File No. 333-196798) filed on September 11, 2014)
Second Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Company (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 333-173048) filed on September 10, 2014)
Articles of Amendment of Plymouth Industrial REIT, Inc. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.3 to Amendment No. 8 to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-11 (File No. 333-19748) filed on June 1, 2017)
4.1
Articles Supplementary with respect to any preferred stock issued pursuant to this registration statement.*
4.2
Form of Deposit Agreement for Depositary Shares.*
4.3
Form of Equity Warrant Agreement.*
4.4
Form of Rights Agreement.*
Form of Indenture (for Debt Securities) (open ended).**
4.6
Form of Debt Security.*
Opinion of Winston & Strawn LLP regarding the validity of the securities being registered.**
Opinion of Alston & Bird LLP regarding tax matters.**
Consent of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP**
Consent of Winston & Strawn LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1).**
Consent of Alston & Bird LLP (included in Exhibit 8.1).**
Power of Attorney (included on the Signature Page).
25.1
Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the Trustee under the Indenture. ***
Filing Fee Table
*
To be filed by amendment or incorporated by reference in connection with the specific offering of securities.
**
Filed herewith.
***
Where applicable, to be incorporated by reference to a subsequent filing in accordance with Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.

Compensatory plan or arrangement.
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Item 17.
Undertakings
(a) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:
(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:
(i) To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;
(ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent, no more than a 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and
(iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement.
Provided, however, that paragraphs (1)(i), (ii) and (iii) above do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in periodic reports filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in this registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.
(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.
(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:
(A) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and
(B) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii) or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.
(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the
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underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:
(A) any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;
(B) any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;
(C) the portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and
(D) any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.
(b) The undersigned registrant hereby further undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(c) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to deliver or cause to be delivered with the prospectus, to each person to whom the prospectus is sent or given, the latest annual report to security holders that is incorporated by reference in the prospectus and furnished pursuant to and meeting the requirements of Rule 14a-3 or Rule 14c-3 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934; and, where interim financial information required to be presented by Article 3 of Regulation S-X is not set forth in the prospectus, to deliver, or cause to be delivered to each person to whom the prospectus is sent or given, the latest quarterly report that is specifically incorporated by reference in the prospectus to provide such interim financial information.
(d) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.
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SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Boston, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, on February 27, 2024.
 
Plymouth Industrial REIT, Inc.
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ Jeffrey E. Witherell
 
 
Jeffrey E. Witherell
 
 
Chief Executive Officer
POWER OF ATTORNEY
KNOW ALL PEOPLE BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below hereby appoints Jeffrey E. Witherell and Anthony Saladino, and each of them severally, acting alone and without the other, his true and lawful attorney-in-fact with full power of substitution or re-substitution, for such person and in such person’s name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign on such person’s behalf, individually and in each capacity stated below, any and all amendments, including post-effective amendments to this Registration Statement, and to sign any and all additional registration statements relating to the same offering of securities that are filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) of the Securities Act, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite or necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as such person might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact, or their substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
Signature
Title
Date
 
 
 
/s/ Jeffrey E. Witherell
Chairman of the Board, Chief Executive Officer and Director (Principal Executive Officer)
February 27, 2024
Jeffrey E. Witherell
 
 
 
/s/ Anthony Saladino
Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)
February 27, 2024
Anthony Saladino
 
 
 
/s/ Philip S. Cottone
Director
February 27, 2024
Philip S. Cottone
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Richard J. DeAgazio
Director
February 27, 2024
Richard J. DeAgazio
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ David G. Gaw
Director
February 27, 2024
David G. Gaw
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ John W. Guinee
Director
February 27, 2024
John W. Guinee
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Caitlin Murphy
Director
February 27, 2024
Caitlin Murphy
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Pendleton P. White, Jr.
Director
February 27, 2024
Pendleton P. White, Jr.
II-5

Exhibit 4.5

 

 

PLYMOUTH INDUSTRIAL OP, LP

 

INDENTURE

 

Dated as of                     , 20

 

 

  

Trustee

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

      PAGE
ARTICLE I DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE 1
  Section 1.1 Definitions. 1
  Section 1.2 Other Definitions. 3
  Section 1.3 Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act. 4
  Section 1.4 Rules of Construction. 4
ARTICLE II THE SECURITIES 5
  Section 2.1 Issuable in Series. 5
  Section 2.2 Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities. 5
  Section 2.3 Execution and Authentication. 7
  Section 2.4 Registrar and Paying Agent. 7
  Section 2.5 Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust. 8
  Section 2.6 Securityholder Lists. 8
  Section 2.7 Transfer and Exchange. 8
  Section 2.8 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities. 9
  Section 2.9 Outstanding Securities. 9
  Section 2.10 Treasury Securities. 10
  Section 2.11 Temporary Securities. 10
  Section 2.12 Cancellation. 10
  Section 2.13 Defaulted Interest. 10
  Section 2.14 Global Securities. 10
  Section 2.15 CUSIP Numbers. 11
ARTICLE III REDEMPTION 11
  Section 3.1 Notice to Trustee. 11
  Section 3.2 Selection of Securities to be Redeemed. 12
  Section 3.3 Notice of Redemption. 12
  Section 3.4 Effect of Notice of Redemption. 12
  Section 3.5 Deposit of Redemption Price. 13
  Section 3.6 Securities Redeemed in Part. 13
ARTICLE IV COVENANTS 13
  Section 4.1 Payment of Principal and Interest. 13
  Section 4.2 SEC Reports. 13
  Section 4.3 Compliance Certificate. 14
  Section 4.4 Stay, Extension and Usury Laws. 14
ARTICLE V SUCCESSORS 14
  Section 5.1 When Operating Partnership May Merge, Etc. 14
 

 

  Section 5.2 Successor Corporation Substituted. 15
       
ARTICLE VI DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES 15
  Section 6.1 Events of Default. 15
  Section 6.2 Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment. 16
  Section 6.3 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee. 16
  Section 6.4 Trustee May File Proofs of Claim. 17
  Section 6.5 Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities. 17
  Section 6.6 Application of Money Collected. 17
  Section 6.7 Limitation on Suits. 18
  Section 6.8 Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest. 18
  Section 6.9 Restoration of Rights and Remedies. 18
  Section 6.10 Rights and Remedies Cumulative. 19
  Section 6.11 Delay or Omission Not Waiver. 19
  Section 6.12 Control by Holders. 19
  Section 6.13 Waiver of Past Defaults. 19
  Section 6.14 Undertaking for Costs. 19
ARTICLE VII TRUSTEE 20
  Section 7.1 Duties of Trustee. 21
  Section 7.2 Rights of Trustee. 21
  Section 7.3 Individual Rights of Trustee. 21
  Section 7.4 Trustee’s Disclaimer. 21
  Section 7.5 Notice of Defaults. 21
  Section 7.6 Reports by Trustee to Holders. 22
  Section 7.7 Compensation and Indemnity. 22
  Section 7.8 Replacement of Trustee. 22
  Section 7.9 Successor Trustee by Merger, Etc. 23
 

 

  Section 7.10 Eligibility; Disqualification. 23
  Section 7.11 Preferential Collection of Claims Against Operating Partnership. 23
ARTICLE VIII SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE 23
  Section 8.1 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture. 23
  Section 8.2 Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification. 24
  8.3 Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series. 25
  Section 8.3 Covenant Defeasance. 26
  Section 8.4 Repayment to Operating Partnership. 27
  Section 8.5 Reinstatement. 27
ARTICLE IX AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS 27
  Section 9.1 Without Consent of Holders. 27
  Section 9.2 With Consent of Holders. 28
  Section 9.3 Limitations. 28
  Section 9.4 Compliance with Trust Indenture Act. 29
  Section 9.5 Revocation and Effect of Consents. 29
  Section 9.6 Notation on or Exchange of Securities. 29
  Section 9.7 Trustee Protected. 30
ARTICLE X MISCELLANEOUS 30
  Section 10.1 Trust Indenture Act Controls. 30
  Section 10.2 Notices. 30
  Section 10.3 Communication by Holders with Other Holders. 31
  Section 10.4 Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent. 31
  Section 10.5 Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion. 31
  Section 10.6 Rules by Trustee and Agents. 31
  Section 10.7 Legal Holidays. 31
  Section 10.8 No Recourse Against Others. 32
  Section 10.9 Counterparts. 32
  Section 10.10 Governing Law; Waiver of Jury Trial. 32
  Section 10.11 No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements. 32
  Section 10.12 Successors. 32
  Section 10.13 Severability. 32
  Section 10.14 Table of Contents, Headings, Etc. 32
  Section 10.15 Securities in a Foreign Currency. 33
  Section 10.16 Judgment Currency. 33
ARTICLE XI SINKING FUNDS 34
  Section 11.1 Applicability of Article. 34
  Section 11.2 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities. 34
  Section 11.3 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund. 34
ARTICLE XII GUARANTEE 35
  Section 12.1 Unconditional Guarantee. 35
  Section 12.2 Execution and Delivery of Notation of Guarantee. 35
  Section 12.3 Limitation on Guarantors’ Liability. 36
  Section 12.4 Release of Guarantors from Guarantee. 36

 

 

EXHIBITS

 

Exhibit A Form of Notation of Guarantee

 

 

 PLYMOUTH INDUSTRIAL OP, LP

Reconciliation and tie between Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and

Indenture, dated as of ____________, 20__

 

Section 310   (a)(1)       7.10    
    (a)(2)       7.10    
    (a)(3)       Not Applicable    
    (a)(4)       Not Applicable    
    (a)(5)       7.10    
    (b)       7.10    
Section 311   (a)       7.11    
    (b)       7.11    
    (c)       Not Applicable    
Section 312   (a)       2.6    
    (b)       10.3    
    (c)       10.3    
Section 313   (a)       7.6    
    (b)(1)       7.6    
    (b)(2)       7.6    
    (c)(1)       7.6    
    (d)       7.6    
Section 314   (a)       4.2, 10.5    
    (b)       Not Applicable    
    (c)(1)       10.4    
    (c)(2)       10.4    
    (c)(3)       Not Applicable    
    (d)       Not Applicable    
    (e)       10.5    
    (f)       Not Applicable    
Section 315   (a)       7.1    
    (b)       7.5    
    (c)       7.1    
    (d)       7.1    
    (e)       6.14    
Section 316   (a)       2.10    
    (a)(1)(a)       6.12    
    (a)(1)(b)       6.13    
    (b)       6.8    
Section 317   (a)(1)       6.3    
    (a)(2)       6.4    
    (b)       2.5    
Section 318   (a)       10.1    

 

Note: This reconciliation and tie shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be part of the Indenture.

 

Indenture dated as of                     , 20     among Plymouth Industrial OP, LP, a Delaware limited partnership (the “Operating Partnership”), the Guarantors (as defined herein) party hereto and                     , as trustee (the “Trustee”).

 

Each party agrees as follows for the benefit of the other party and for the equal and ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities issued under this Indenture.

 

 

ARTICLE I
DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

Section 1.1 Definitions.

“Additional Amounts” means any additional amounts which are required hereby or by any Security, under circumstances specified herein or therein, to be paid by the Operating Partnership in respect of certain taxes imposed on Holders specified herein or therein and which are owing to such Holders.

“Affiliate” of any specified person means any other person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under common control with such specified person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “controlled by” and “under common control with”), as used with respect to any person, shall mean the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such person, whether through the ownership of voting securities or by agreement or otherwise.

“Agent” means any Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent.

“Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors of the General Partnre or any duly authorized committee thereof.

“Board Resolution” means a resolution duly adopted by the Board of Directors.

“Business Day” means, unless otherwise provided by Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture hereto for a particular Series, any day except a Saturday, Sunday or a legal holiday in The City of New York (or in connection with any payment, the place of payment) on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to close.

“Capital Stock” means (a) in the case of a corporation, corporate stock; (b) in the case of an association or business entity, any and all shares, interests, participations, rights or other equivalents (however designated and whether or not voting) of corporate stock, including each class of common stock and preferred stock of such person; and (c) in the case of a partnership or limited liability company, partnership or membership interests (whether general or limited).

“Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which at any particular time its corporate trust business related to this Indenture shall be principally administered.

“Default” means any event which is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.

“Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any Series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the person designated as Depositary for such Series by the Operating Partnership, which Depositary shall be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act; and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Securities of such Series.

“Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the stated principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2.

“Dollars” and “$” means the currency of the United States of America.

“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

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“Foreign Currency” means any currency or currency unit issued by a government other than the government of the United States of America, including the euro.

“Foreign Government Obligations” means, with respect to Securities of any Series that are denominated in a Foreign Currency, direct obligations of, or obligations guaranteed by, the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.

“GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America set forth in the opinions and pronouncements of the Accounting Principles Board of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and statements and pronouncements of the Financial Accounting Standards Board or in such other statements by such other entity as have been approved by a significant segment of the accounting profession, which are in effect as of the date of determination.

“General Partner” means Plymouth Industrial REIT, Inc., a Maryland corporation, in its capacity as the sole general partner of the Operating Partnership.

“Global Security” or “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, in the form established pursuant to Section 2.2 evidencing all or part of a Series of Securities, issued to the Depositary for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depositary or nominee.

“Guarantor” means (1) the General Partner and (2) each person that executes this Indenture as a guarantor and its respective successors and assigns, in each case until the Guarantee of such person has been released in accordance with the provisions of this Indenture; provided, however, that such person shall be a Guarantor only with respect to a Series of Securities for which such person has executed a Notation of Guarantee with respect to such Series.

“Holder” or “Securityholder” means a person in whose name a Security is registered.

“Indenture” means this Indenture as amended or supplemented from time to time and shall include the form and terms of a particular Series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.

“interest” with respect to any Discount Security which by its terms bears interest only after Maturity, means interest payable after Maturity.

“Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security, means the date on which the principal of such Security becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption or otherwise.

“Notation of Guarantee” means a notation, substantially in the form of Exhibit A, executed by a Guarantor and affixed to each Security of any Series to which the Guarantee of such Guarantor under Article XII of this Indenture applies.

“Officer” means the Chief Executive Officer, the President, the Chief Operating Officer, the Chief Financial Officer, the Treasurer or any Assistant Treasurer, the Secretary or any Assistant Secretary, and any Vice President of the General Partner.

“Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer.

“Operating Partnership Order” means a written order signed by an Officer.

“Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of legal counsel who is reasonably acceptable to the Trustee. The counsel may be an employee of or counsel to the General Partner or its Subsidiaries

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“person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, association, limited liability company, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

“principal” of a Security means the principal of the Security plus, when appropriate, the premium, if any, on, and any Additional Amounts in respect of, the Security.

“Responsible Officer” means any officer of the Trustee in its Corporate Trust Office having responsibility for administration of this Indenture and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with a particular subject.

“SEC” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.

“Securities” means the debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Operating Partnership of any Series authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

“Series” or “Series of Securities” means each series of debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Operating Partnership created pursuant to Sections 2.1 and 2.2 hereof.

“Stated Maturity” when used with respect to any Security, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or interest is due and payable.

“Subsidiary” of any specified person means any corporation, association or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of Capital Stock entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers or trustees thereof is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by such person or one or more of the other Subsidiaries of that person or a combination thereof.

“TIA” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.

“Trustee” means the person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this indenture until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean or include each person who is then a Trustee hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that Series.

“U.S. Government Obligations” means securities which are direct obligations of, or guaranteed by, the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depositary receipt, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

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Section 1.2 Other Definitions.

TERM   DEFINED IN
SECTION
 
“Bankruptcy Law”     6.1  
“Custodian”     6.1  
“Guarantee”     12.1 (b)
“Event of Default”     6.1  
“Judgment Currency”     10.16  
“Legal Holiday”     10.7  
“mandatory sinking fund payment”     11.1  
“New York Banking Day”     10.16  
“Notice Agent”     2.4  
“optional sinking fund payment”     11.1  
“Paying Agent”     2.4  
“Registrar”     2.4  
“Required Currency”     10.16  
“successor person”     5.1  

 

Section 1.3 Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act.

Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the provision is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:

“Commission” means the SEC.

“indenture securities” means the Securities.

“indenture security holder” means a Securityholder.

“indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture.

“indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee.

“obligor” on the indenture securities means the Operating Partnership and any successor obligor upon the Securities.

All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined by TIA reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule under the TIA and not otherwise defined herein are used herein as so defined.

Section 1.4 Rules of Construction.

Unless the context otherwise requires:

(a)       a term has the meaning assigned to it;

(b)       an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with GAAP;

(c)       “or” is not exclusive;

(d)       words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular; and

(e)       provisions apply to successive events and transactions.

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ARTICLE II
THE SECURITIES

Section 2.1 Issuable in Series.

The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more Series. All Securities of a Series shall be identical except as may be set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officer’s Certificate detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution. In the case of Securities of a Series to be issued from time to time, the Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution may provide for the method by which specified terms (such as interest rate, maturity date, record date or date from which interest shall accrue) are to be determined. Securities may differ between Series in respect of any matters, provided that all Series of Securities shall be equally and ratably entitled to the benefits of the Indenture.

Section 2.2 Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities.

At or prior to the issuance of any Securities within a Series, the following shall be established (as to the Series generally in the case of Subsection 2.2.1 and either as to such Securities within the Series or as to the Series generally in the case of Subsections 2.2.2 through 2.2.23) by or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate:

2.2.1       the title (which shall distinguish the Securities of that particular Series from the Securities of any other Series) and ranking (including the terms of any subordination provisions) of the Series;

2.2.2       the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount thereof) at which the Securities of the Series will be issued;

2.2.3       any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the Series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the Series pursuant to Section 2.7, 2.8, 2.11, 3.6 or 9.6);

2.2.4       the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the Series is payable;

2.2.5       the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates (including, but not limited to, any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the Securities of the Series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest, if any, shall accrue, the date or dates on which such interest, if any, shall commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;

2.2.6       the place or places where the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series shall be payable, where the Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange and where notices and demands to or upon the Operating Partnership in respect of the Securities of such Series and this Indenture may be delivered, and the method of such payment, if by wire transfer, mail or other means;

2.2.7       if applicable, the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the Securities of the Series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Operating Partnership;

2.2.8       the obligation, if any, of the Operating Partnership to redeem or purchase the Securities of the Series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the Series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

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2.2.9        the dates, if any, on which and the price or prices at which the Securities of the Series will be repurchased by the Operating Partnership at the option of the Holders thereof and other detailed terms and provisions of such repurchase obligations;

2.2.10       if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the Series shall be issuable;

2.2.11        the forms of the Securities of the Series and whether the Securities will be issuable as Global Securities;

2.2.12        f other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities of the Series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2;

2.2.13       the currency of denomination of the Securities of the Series, which may be Dollars or any Foreign Currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

2.2.14        the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be made;

2.2.15       if payments of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series are to be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which such Securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to such payments will be determined;

2.2.16       the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be determined, if such amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

2.2.17       the provisions, if any, relating to any security provided for the Securities of the Series or the Guarantees;

2.2.18       any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the Series and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.2;

2.2.19       any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants set forth in Articles IV or V which applies to Securities of the Series;

2.2.20       any Depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to Securities of such Series if other than those appointed herein;

2.2.21       the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any Securities of such Series, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price, the conversion or exchange period, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, at the option of the Holders thereof or at the option of the Operating Partnership, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange if such Series of Securities are redeemed;

2.2.22       any other terms of the Series (which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of this Indenture insofar as it applies to such Series), including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that Series; and

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2.2.23       whether the Securities of such Series are entitled to the benefits of the Guarantee of any Guarantor pursuant to this Indenture, whether any such Guarantee shall be made on a senior or subordinated basis and, if applicable, a description of the subordination terms of any such Guarantee.

All Securities of any one Series need not be issued at the same time and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate referred to above.

Section 2.3 Execution and Authentication.

An Officer shall sign the Securities on behalf of the Operating Partnership by manual or facsimile signature.

If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid.

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated by the manual or facsimile signature of the Trustee or an authenticating agent. The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture.

The Trustee shall at any time, and from time to time, authenticate Securities for original issue in the principal amount provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate, upon receipt by the Trustee of an Operating Partnership Order. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.

The aggregate principal amount of Securities of any Series outstanding at any time may not exceed any limit upon the maximum principal amount for such Series set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2, except as provided in Section 2.8.

Prior to the issuance of Securities of any Series, the Trustee shall have received and (subject to Section 7.2) shall be fully protected in relying on: (a) the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate establishing the form of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series and the terms of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series, (b) an Officer’s Certificate complying with Section 10.4, and (c) an Opinion of Counsel complying with Section 10.4(b).

The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities of such Series: (a) if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not be taken lawfully; or (b) if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors or trustees, executive committee or a trust committee of directors and/or vice presidents or a committee of Responsible Officers shall determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability to Holders of any then outstanding Series of Securities.

The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Operating Partnership to authenticate Securities. An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent. An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with the Operating Partnership or an Affiliate of the Operating Partnership.

Section 2.4 Registrar and Paying Agent.

The Operating Partnership shall maintain, with respect to each Series of Securities, at the place or places specified with respect to such Series pursuant to Section 2.2, an office or agency where Securities of such Series may be presented or surrendered for payment (“Paying Agent”), where Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange (“Registrar”) and where notices and demands to or upon the Operating Partnership in respect of the Securities of such Series and this Indenture may be delivered (“Notice Agent”). The Registrar shall keep a register with respect to each Series of Securities and to their transfer and exchange. The Operating Partnership will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the name and address, and any change in the name or address, of each Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent. If at any time the Operating Partnership shall fail to maintain any such required Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the name and address thereof, such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Operating Partnership hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands.

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The Operating Partnership may also from time to time designate one or more co-registrars, additional paying agents or additional notice agents and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Operating Partnership of its obligations to maintain a Registrar, Paying Agent and Notice Agent in each place so specified pursuant to Section 2.2 for Securities of any Series for such purposes. The Operating Partnership will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the name or address of any such co-registrar, additional paying agent or additional notice agent. The term “Registrar” includes any co-registrar; the term “Paying Agent” includes any additional paying agent; and the term “Notice Agent” includes any additional notice agent. The Operating Partnership or any of its Affiliates may serve as Registrar or Paying Agent.

The Operating Partnership hereby appoints the Trustee as the initial Registrar, Paying Agent and Notice Agent for each Series unless another Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent, as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that Series are first issued.

Section 2.5 Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust.

The Operating Partnership shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that the Paying Agent will hold in trust, for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities, or the Trustee, all money held by the Paying Agent for the payment of principal of or interest on the Series of Securities, and will notify the Trustee in writing of any default by the Operating Partnership in making any such payment. While any such default continues, the Trustee may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. The Operating Partnership at any time may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. Upon payment over to the Trustee, the Paying Agent (if other than the Operating Partnership or a Subsidiary of the Operating Partnership) shall have no further liability for the money. If the Operating Partnership or a Subsidiary of the Operating Partnership acts as Paying Agent, it shall segregate and hold in a separate trust fund for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities all money held by it as Paying Agent. Upon any bankruptcy, reorganization or similar proceeding with respect to the Operating Partnership, the Trustee shall serve as Paying Agent for the Securities.

Section 2.6 Securityholder Lists.

The Trustee shall preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities and shall otherwise comply with TIA Section 312(a). If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Operating Partnership shall furnish to the Trustee at least ten days before each interest payment date and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing a list, within 30 days of the receipt by the Operating Partnership of any such request, in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities.

Section 2.7 Transfer and Exchange.

Where Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar or a co-registrar with a request to register a transfer or to exchange them for an equal principal amount of Securities of the same Series, the Registrar shall register the transfer or make the exchange if its requirements for such transactions are met. To permit registrations of transfers and exchanges, the Trustee shall authenticate Securities at the Registrar’s or a co-registrar’s request. No service charge shall be made for any registration of transfer or exchange (except as otherwise expressly permitted herein), but the Operating Partnership may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable in connection therewith (other than any such transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable upon exchanges pursuant to Section 2.11, 3.6 or 9.6).

Neither the Operating Partnership nor the Registrar shall be required (a) to issue, register the transfer of, or exchange Securities of any Series for the period beginning at the opening of business 15 days immediately preceding the mailing of a notice of redemption of Securities of that Series selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, or (b) to register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any Series selected, called or being called for redemption as a whole or the portion being redeemed of any such Securities selected, called or being called for redemption in part.

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Section 2.8  Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.

If any mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee, the Operating Partnership shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

If there shall be delivered to the Operating Partnership and the Trustee (a) evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of any Security and (b) such security or indemnity bond as may be required by each of them to hold itself and any of its agents harmless, then, in the absence of notice to the Operating Partnership or the Trustee that such Security has been acquired by a bona fide purchaser, the Operating Partnership shall execute and upon its request the Trustee shall authenticate and make available for delivery, in lieu of any such destroyed, lost or stolen Security, a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

In case any such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security has become or is about to become due and payable, the Operating Partnership in its discretion may, instead of issuing a new Security, pay such Security.

Upon the issuance of any new Security under this Section, the Operating Partnership may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

Every new Security of any Series issued pursuant to this Section in lieu of any destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall constitute an original additional contractual obligation of the Operating Partnership, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that Series duly issued hereunder.

The provisions of this Section are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) all other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities.

Section 2.9 Outstanding Securities.

The Securities outstanding at any time are all the Securities authenticated by the Trustee except for those canceled by it, those delivered to it for cancellation, those reductions in the interest on a Global Security effected by the Trustee in accordance with the provisions hereof and those described in this Section as not outstanding.

If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.8, it ceases to be outstanding until the Trustee receives proof satisfactory to it that the replaced Security is held by a bona fide purchaser.

If the Paying Agent (other than the Operating Partnership, a Subsidiary of the Operating Partnership or an Affiliate of the Operating Partnership) holds on the Maturity of Securities of a Series money sufficient to pay such Securities payable on that date, then on and after that date such Securities of the Series shall cease to be outstanding and interest on them shall cease to accrue.

The Operating Partnership may purchase or otherwise acquire the Securities, whether by open market purchases, negotiated transactions or otherwise. A Security does not cease to be outstanding because the Operating Partnership or an Affiliate of the Operating Partnership holds the Security (but see Section 2.10 below).

In determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding Securities have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, the principal amount of a Discount Security that shall be deemed to be outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2.

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Section 2.10 Treasury Securities.

In determining whether the Holders of the required principal amount of Securities of a Series have concurred in any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, Securities of a Series owned by the Operating Partnership or any Affiliate of the Operating Partnership shall be disregarded, except that for the purposes of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, only Securities of a Series that a Responsible Officer of the Trustee knows are so owned shall be so disregarded.

Section 2.11 Temporary Securities.

Until definitive Securities are ready for delivery, the Operating Partnership may prepare and the Trustee shall authenticate temporary Securities upon an Operating Partnership Order. Temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of definitive Securities but may have variations that the Operating Partnership considers appropriate for temporary Securities. Without unreasonable delay, the Operating Partnership shall prepare, and the Trustee upon receipt of an Operating Partnership Order shall authenticate, definitive Securities of the same Series and date of maturity in exchange for temporary Securities. Until so exchanged, temporary securities shall have the same rights under this Indenture as the definitive Securities.

Section 2.12 Cancellation.

The Operating Partnership at any time may deliver Securities to the Trustee for cancellation. The Registrar and the Paying Agent shall forward to the Trustee any Securities surrendered to them for registration of transfer, exchange or payment. The Trustee shall cancel all Securities surrendered for transfer, exchange, payment, replacement or cancellation and shall destroy such canceled Securities (subject to the record retention requirement of the Exchange Act and the Trustee) and deliver a certificate of such cancellation to the Operating Partnership upon written request of the Operating Partnership. The Operating Partnership may not issue new Securities to replace Securities that it has paid or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

Section 2.13 Defaulted Interest.

If the Operating Partnership defaults in a payment of interest on a Series of Securities, it shall pay the defaulted interest, plus, to the extent permitted by law, any interest payable on the defaulted interest, to the persons who are Securityholders of the Series on a subsequent special record date. The Operating Partnership shall fix the special record date and payment date. At least ten days before the special record date, the Operating Partnership shall mail to the Trustee and to each Securityholder of the Series a notice that states the special record date, the payment date and the amount of interest to be paid. The Operating Partnership may pay defaulted interest in any other lawful manner.

Section 2.14 Global Securities.

2.14.1       Terms of Securities. A Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate shall establish whether the Securities of a Series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities and the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities.

2.14.2       Transfer and Exchange. Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary contained in Section 2.7 of the Indenture and in addition thereto, any Global Security shall be exchangeable pursuant to Section 2.7 of the Indenture for Securities registered in the names of Holders other than the Depositary for such Security or its nominee only if (a) such Depositary notifies the Operating Partnership that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such Global Security or if at any time such Depositary ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and, in either case, the Operating Partnership fails to appoint a successor Depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act within 90 days of such event or (b) the Operating Partnership executes and delivers to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate to the effect that such Global Security shall be so exchangeable. Any Global Security that is exchangeable pursuant to the preceding sentence shall be exchangeable for Securities registered in such names as the Depositary shall direct in writing in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security with like tenor and terms.

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Except as provided in this Section 2.14.2, a Global Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary with respect to such Global Security to a nominee of such Depositary, by a nominee of such Depositary to such Depositary or another nominee of such Depositary or by the Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such a successor Depositary.

2.14.3       Legend. Any Global Security issued hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

“This Security is a Global Security within the meaning of the Indenture hereinafter referred to and is registered in the name of the Depositary or a nominee of the Depositary. This Security is exchangeable for Securities registered in the name of a person other than the Depositary or its nominee only in the limited circumstances described in the Indenture, and may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary to a nominee of the Depositary, by a nominee of the Depositary to the Depositary or another nominee of the Depositary or by the Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such a successor Depositary.”

2.14.4       Acts of Holders. The Depositary, as a Holder, may appoint agents and otherwise authorize participants to give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action which a Holder is entitled to give or take under the Indenture.

2.14.5       Payments. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Indenture, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.2, payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on any Global Security shall be made to the Holder thereof.

2.14.6       Consents, Declaration and Directions. The Operating Partnership, the Trustee and any Agent shall treat a person as the Holder of such principal amount of outstanding Securities of such Series represented by a Global Security as shall be specified in a written statement of the Depositary or by the applicable procedures of the Depositary with respect to such Global Security, for purposes of obtaining any consents, declarations, waivers or directions required to be given by the Holders pursuant to this Indenture.

Section 2.15 CUSIP Numbers.

The Operating Partnership in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP” numbers (if then generally in use) and, if so, the Trustee shall use “CUSIP” numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Holders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other elements of identification printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers.

ARTICLE III
REDEMPTION

Section 3.1 Notice to Trustee.

The Operating Partnership may, with respect to any Series of Securities, reserve the right to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or may covenant to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or any part thereof prior to the Stated Maturity thereof at such time and on such terms as provided for in such Securities. If a Series of Securities is redeemable and the Operating Partnership wants or is obligated to redeem prior to the Stated Maturity thereof all or part of the Series of Securities pursuant to the terms of such Securities, it shall notify the Trustee in writing of the redemption date and the principal amount of Series of Securities to be redeemed. The Operating Partnership shall give the notice at least 15 days before the redemption date (or such shorter period as may be acceptable to the Trustee).

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Section 3.2  Selection of Securities to be Redeemed.

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by a Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate, if less than all the Securities of a Series are to be redeemed, the Trustee shall select the Securities of the Series to be redeemed in any manner that the Trustee deems fair and appropriate, including by lot or other method, unless otherwise required by law or applicable stock exchange requirements, subject, in the case of Global Securities, to the applicable rules and procedures of the Depositary. The Trustee shall make the selection from Securities of the Series outstanding not previously called for redemption. The Trustee may select for redemption portions of the principal of Securities of the Series that have denominations larger than $1,000. Securities of the Series and portions of them it selects shall be in amounts of $1,000 or whole multiples of $1,000 or, with respect to Securities of any Series issuable in other denominations pursuant to Section 2.2.10, the minimum principal denomination for each Series and the authorized integral multiples thereof. Provisions of this Indenture that apply to Securities of a Series called for redemption also apply to portions of Securities of that Series called for redemption.

Section 3.3 Notice of Redemption.

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate, at least 15 days but not more than 60 days before a redemption date, the Operating Partnership shall mail a notice of redemption by first-class mail to each Holder whose Securities are to be redeemed.

The notice shall identify the Securities of the Series to be redeemed and shall state:

(a)       the redemption date;

(b)       the redemption price;

(c)       the name and address of the Paying Agent;

(d)       if any Securities are being redeemed in part, the portion of the principal amount of such Securities to be redeemed and that, after the redemption date and upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the original Security shall be issued in the name of the Holder thereof upon cancellation of the original Security;

(e)       that Securities of the Series called for redemption must be surrendered to the Paying Agent to collect the redemption price;

(f)       that interest on Securities of the Series called for redemption ceases to accrue on and after the redemption date;

(g)       the CUSIP number, if any; and

(h)       any other information as may be required by the terms of the particular Series or the Securities of a Series being redeemed.

At the Operating Partnership’s request, the Trustee shall give the notice of redemption in the Operating Partnership’s name and at its expense, provided, however, that the Operating Partnership has delivered to the Trustee, at least five days (or such shorter period as may be acceptable to the Trustee) prior to the notice date, an Officer’s Certificate requesting that the Trustee give such notice and setting forth the information to be stated in such notice.

Section 3.4 Effect of Notice of Redemption.

Once notice of redemption is mailed as provided in Section 3.3, Securities of a Series called for redemption become due and payable on the redemption date and at the redemption price. Notice of redemption may, at the Operating Partnership’s option and discretion, be subject to one or more conditions precedent. Upon surrender to the Paying Agent, such Securities shall be paid at the redemption price plus accrued interest to but excluding the redemption date.

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Section 3.5 Deposit of Redemption Price.

On or before 11:00 a.m., New York City time (or such later time as has been agreed to by the Paying Agent), on the redemption date, the Operating Partnership shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the redemption price of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all Securities to be redeemed on that date. The Paying Agent shall promptly return to the Operating Partnership any money deposited with the Paying Agent in excess of the amounts necessary to pay the redemption price of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all Securities to be redeemed or purchased.

If the Operating Partnership complies with the preceding paragraph, then, unless the Operating Partnership defaults in the payment of such redemption price plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, interest on the Securities to be redeemed will cease to accrue on and after the applicable redemption date, whether or not such Securities are presented for payment.

Section 3.6 Securities Redeemed in Part.

Upon surrender of a Security that is redeemed in part, the Trustee shall authenticate for the Holder a new Security of the same Series and the same maturity equal in principal amount to the unredeemed portion of the Security surrendered.

ARTICLE IV 
COVENANTS

Section 4.1 Payment of Principal and Interest.

The Operating Partnership covenants and agrees for the benefit of the Holders of each Series of Securities that it will duly and punctually pay the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of that Series in accordance with the terms of such Securities and this Indenture. On or before 11:00 a.m., New York City time, on the applicable payment date, the Operating Partnership shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of each Series in accordance with the terms of such Securities and this Indenture.

Section 4.2 SEC Reports.

Whether or not the Operating Partnership is subject to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, during any time that any Securities remain outstanding, the Operating Partnership will, to the extent permitted under the Exchange Act, file with the SEC the annual reports, quarterly reports and other documents which the Operating Partnership would have been required to file with the SEC pursuant to such Section 13 or 15(d) if the Operating Partnership were so subject (the “Financial Information”), such documents to be filed with the SEC on or prior to the respective dates (the “Required Filing Dates”) by which the Operating Partnership would have been required so to file such documents if the Operating Partnership were so subject; provided, however, that notwithstanding the foregoing, during any period in which the Operating Partnership is not subject to the reporting requirements of Sections 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, the General Partner may elect to satisfy the Operating Partnership’s obligations under this Section 4.2 by filing with the SEC the Financial Information required to be filed by the General Partner under Sections 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The Operating Partnership also will in any event (unless available on the SEC’s Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval System (or successor system)) within 15 days of each Required Filing Date (i) transmit by mail to all Holders, without cost to such Holders, copies of the Financial Information filed with the SEC by the Operating Partnership or the General Partner, as applicable; and (ii) file with the Trustee copies of such Financial Information. If the filing of the Financial Information by the Operating Partnership or the General Partner, as applicable, with the SEC is not permitted under the Exchange Act, the Operating Partnership will promptly upon written request and payment of the reasonable cost of duplication and delivery, supply copies of the Financial Information to any prospective Holder.

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Delivery of any such reports, information and documents to the Trustee is for informational purposes only and the Trustee’s receipt of such shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Operating Partnership’s compliance with any of its covenants hereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on Officer’s Certificates). The Trustee shall have no liability or responsibility for the filing, content or timeliness of any report delivered hereunder (aside from the report required under Section 7.6 hereunder).

Section 4.3 Compliance Certificate.

The Operating Partnership shall, so long as any Securities are outstanding, deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Operating Partnership, an Officer’s Certificate stating that a review of the activities of the Operating Partnership and its Subsidiaries during the preceding fiscal year has been made under the supervision of the signing Officer with a view to determining whether the Operating Partnership and any Guarantor has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled its obligations under this Indenture, and further stating, as to such Officer signing such certificate, that to the best of such Officer’s knowledge the Operating Partnership and any Guarantor has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled each and every covenant contained in this Indenture and is not in default in the performance or observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions hereof (or, if a Default or Event of Default shall have occurred, describing all such Defaults or Events of Default of which such Officer may have knowledge).

The Operating Partnership will, so long as any of the Securities are outstanding, deliver to the Trustee, promptly upon becoming aware of any Default or Event of Default, an Officer’s Certificate specifying such Default or Event of Default and what action the Operating Partnership is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto.

Section 4.4 Stay, Extension and Usury Laws.

The Operating Partnership covenants (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) that it will not at any time insist upon, plead, or in any manner whatsoever claim or take the benefit or advantage of, any stay, extension or usury law wherever enacted, now or at any time hereafter in force, which may affect the covenants or the performance of this Indenture or the Securities and the Operating Partnership (to the extent it may lawfully do so) hereby expressly waives all benefit or advantage of any such law and covenants that it will not, by resort to any such law, hinder, delay or impede the execution of any power herein granted to the Trustee, but will suffer and permit the execution of every such power as though no such law had been enacted.

ARTICLE V
SUCCESSORS

Section 5.1 When Operating Partnership May Merge, Etc.

The Operating Partnership shall not consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of it and its Subsidiaries’ properties and assets, taken as a whole, to, any person (a “successor person”) unless:

(a)       the Operating Partnership is the surviving entity or the successor person (if other than the Operating Partnership) is a corporation, limited liability company, partnership (including a limited partnership), trust or other entity organized and validly existing under the laws of any U.S. domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes the Operating Partnership’s obligations on the Securities and under this Indenture;

(b)        immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing; and

(c)        if the Operating Partnership is not the successor person, then each Guarantor (if any), unless it has become the successor person, shall confirm that its Guarantee shall continue to apply to the obligations under the Securities and this Indenture to the same extent as prior to such merger, conveyance, transfer or lease, as applicable.

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The Operating Partnership shall deliver to the Trustee prior to the consummation of the proposed transaction an Officer’s Certificate to the foregoing effect and an Opinion of Counsel stating that the proposed transaction and any supplemental indenture comply with this Indenture.

Notwithstanding the above, any Subsidiary of the Operating Partnership may consolidate with, merge into or transfer all or part of its properties and assets to the Operating Partnership or any Guarantor. Neither an Officer’s Certificate nor an Opinion of Counsel shall be required to be delivered in connection therewith.

Section 5.2 Successor Corporation Substituted.

Upon any consolidation or merger, or any sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of the Operating Partnership in accordance with Section 5.1, the successor corporation formed by such consolidation or into or with which the Operating Partnership is merged or to which such sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Operating Partnership under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor person has been named as the Operating Partnership herein; provided, however, that the predecessor Operating Partnership in the case of a sale, conveyance or other disposition (other than a lease) shall be released from all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

ARTICLE VI
DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES

Section 6.1 Events of Default.

“Event of Default,” wherever used herein with respect to Securities of any Series, means any one of the following events, unless in the establishing Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officer’s Certificate, it is provided that such Series shall not have the benefit of said Event of Default:

(a)       default in the payment of any interest on any Security of that Series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of such payment is deposited by the Operating Partnership with the Trustee or with a Paying Agent prior to 11:00 a.m., New York City time, on the 30th day of such period); or

(b)       default in the payment of principal of any Security of that Series at its Maturity; or

(c)       default in the performance or breach of any covenant or warranty of the Operating Partnership in this Indenture (other than defaults pursuant to paragraph (a) or (b) above or pursuant to a covenant or warranty that has been included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of a Series of Securities other than that Series), which default continues uncured for a period of 90 days after there has been given, by registered or certified mail, to the Operating Partnership by the Trustee or to the Operating Partnership and the Trustee by the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder; or

(d)        the Operating Partnership pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law:

(i)       commences a voluntary case,

(ii)       consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case,

(iii)       consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property, 

(iv)       makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors, or

(v)       generally, is unable to pay its debts as the same become due; or

(e)       a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order or decree under any Bankruptcy Law that:

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(i)       is for relief against the Operating Partnership in an involuntary case,

(ii)       appoints a Custodian of the Operating Partnership or for all or substantially all of its property, or

(iii)       orders the liquidation of the Operating Partnership, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 60 days; or

any other Event of Default provided with respect to Securities of that Series, which is specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate, in accordance with Section 2.2.18.

 

The term “Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors. The term “Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

Section 6.2 Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment.

If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing (other than an Event of Default referred to in Section 6.1(d) or (e)), then in every such case the Trustee or the Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series may declare the principal amount (or, if any Securities of that Series are Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such Securities) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all of the Securities of that Series to be due and payable immediately, by a notice in writing to the Operating Partnership (and to the Trustee if given by Holders), and upon any such declaration such principal amount (or specified amount) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, shall become immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default specified in Section 6.1(d) or (e) shall occur, the principal amount (or specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all outstanding Securities shall ipso facto become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or any Holder.

At any time after such a declaration of acceleration with respect to any Series has been made and before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the Trustee as hereinafter in this Article provided, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series, by written notice to the Operating Partnership and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from such acceleration, if all Events of Default with respect to Securities of that Series, other than the non-payment of the principal and interest, if any, of Securities of that Series which have become due solely by such declaration of acceleration, have been cured or waived as provided in Section 6.13.

No such rescission shall affect any subsequent Default or impair any right consequent thereon.

Section 6.3 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

The Operating Partnership covenants that if

(a)        default is made in the payment of any interest on any Security when such interest becomes due and payable and such default continues for a period of 30 days, or

(b)       default is made in the payment of principal of any Security at the Maturity thereof, or

(c)       is made in the deposit of any sinking fund payment when and as due by the terms of a Security,

then, the Operating Partnership will, upon demand of the Trustee, pay to it, for the benefit of the Holders of such Securities, the whole amount then due and payable on such Securities for principal and interest and, to the extent that payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable, interest on any overdue principal and any overdue interest at the rate or rates prescribed therefor in such Securities, and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel.

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If the Operating Partnership fails to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, may institute a judicial proceeding for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, may prosecute such proceeding to judgment or final decree and may enforce the same against the Operating Partnership, any Guarantor or any other obligor upon such Securities and collect the moneys adjudged or deemed to be payable in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Operating Partnership, any Guarantor or any other obligor upon such Securities, wherever situated.

If an Event of Default with respect to any Securities of any Series occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce its rights and the rights of the Holders of Securities of such Series by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any such rights, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted herein, or to enforce any other proper remedy.

Section 6.4 Trustee May File Proofs of Claim.

In case of the pendency of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, arrangement, adjustment, composition or other judicial proceeding relative to the Operating Partnership or any other obligor upon the Securities or the property of the Operating Partnership or of such other obligor or their creditors, the Trustee (irrespective of whether the principal of the Securities shall then be due and payable as therein expressed or by declaration or otherwise and irrespective of whether the Trustee shall have made any demand on the Operating Partnership for the payment of overdue principal or interest) shall be entitled and empowered, by intervention in such proceeding or otherwise,

(a)       to file and prove a claim for the whole amount of principal and interest owing and unpaid in respect of the Securities and to file such other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel) and of the Holders allowed in such judicial proceeding, and

(b)       to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims and to distribute the same,

and any custodian, receiver, assignee, trustee, liquidator, sequestrator or other similar official in any such judicial proceeding is hereby authorized by each Holder to make such payments to the Trustee and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to the Holders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.7.

Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Holder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities or the rights of any Holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Holder in any such proceeding.

Section 6.5 Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities.

All rights of action and claims under this Indenture or the Securities may be prosecuted and enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of the Securities or the production thereof in any proceeding relating thereto, and any such proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for the payment of the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, be for the ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities in respect of which such judgment has been recovered.

Section 6.6 Application of Money Collected.

Any money or property collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such money or property on account of principal or interest, upon presentation of the Securities and the notation thereon of the payment if only partially paid and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

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First: To the payment of all amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.7; and

Second: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid for principal of and interest on the Securities in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal and interest, respectively; and

Third: To the Operating Partnership or the Guarantors, as applicable.

Section 6.7 Limitation on Suits.

No Holder of any Security of any Series shall have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to this Indenture, or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless

(a)       such Holder has previously given written notice to the Trustee of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of that Series;

(b)        the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series shall have made written request to the Trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as Trustee hereunder;

(c)        such Holder or Holders have offered to the Trustee indemnity or security reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by the Trustee in compliance with such request;

(d)        the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity has failed to institute any such proceeding; and

(e)        no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the Trustee during such 60-day period by the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series;

it being understood, intended and expressly covenanted by the Holder of every Security with every other Holder and the Trustee that no one or more of such Holders shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue of, or by availing of, any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other of such Holders, or to obtain or to seek to obtain priority or preference over any other of such Holders or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal and ratable benefit of all such Holders of the applicable Series.

Section 6.8 Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest.

Notwithstanding any other provision in this Indenture, the Holder of any Security shall have the right, which is absolute and unconditional, to receive payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on such Security on the Maturity of such Security, including the Stated Maturity expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the redemption date) and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment, and such rights shall not be impaired without the consent of such Holder.

Section 6.9 Restoration of Rights and Remedies.

If the Trustee or any Holder has instituted any proceeding to enforce any right or remedy under this Indenture and such proceeding has been discontinued or abandoned for any reason, or has been determined adversely to the Trustee or to such Holder, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceeding, the Operating Partnership, the Guarantors, the Trustee and the Holders shall be restored severally and respectively to their former positions hereunder and thereafter all rights and remedies of the Trustee and the Holders shall continue as though no such proceeding had been instituted.

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Section 6.10 Rights and Remedies Cumulative.

Except as otherwise provided with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities in Section 2.8, no right or remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the Trustee or to the Holders is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every right and remedy shall, to the extent permitted by law, be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at law or in equity or otherwise. The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not, to the extent permitted by law, prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other appropriate right or remedy.

Section 6.11 Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Holder of any Securities to exercise any right or remedy accruing upon any Event of Default shall impair any such right or remedy or constitute a waiver of any such Event of Default or an acquiescence therein. Every right and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or to the Holders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as may be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Holders, as the case may be.

Section 6.12 Control by Holders.

The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee, with respect to the Securities of such Series, provided that

(a)       such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture,

(b)        the Trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the Trustee which is not inconsistent with such direction,

(c)       subject to the provisions of Section 6.1, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed would involve the Trustee in personal liability, and

(d)       prior to taking any action as directed under this Section 6.12, the Trustee shall be entitled to indemnity reasonably satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction.

Section 6.13 Waiver of Past Defaults.

The Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may on behalf of the Holders of all the Securities of such Series waive any past Default hereunder with respect to such Series and its consequences, except a Default in the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security of such Series (provided, however, that the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from such acceleration). Upon any such waiver, such Default shall cease to exist, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other Default or impair any right consequent thereon.

Section 6.14 Undertaking for Costs.

All parties to this Indenture agree, and each Holder of any Security by his acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Operating Partnership, to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Holder, or group of Holders, holding in the aggregate more than 10% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series, or to any suit instituted by any Holder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security on or after the Maturity of such Security, including the Stated Maturity expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the redemption date).

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ARTICLE VII
TRUSTEE

Section 7.1 Duties of Trustee.

(a)       If an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, the Trustee shall exercise the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of such person’s own affairs.

(b)        Except during the continuance of an Event of Default:

(i)       The Trustee need perform only those duties that are specifically set forth in this Indenture and no others.

(ii)       In the absence of bad faith on its part, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon Officer’s Certificates or Opinions of Counsel furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; however, in the case of any such Officer’s Certificates or Opinions of Counsel which by any provisions hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall examine such Officer’s Certificates and Opinions of Counsel to determine whether or not they conform to the form requirements of this Indenture.

(c)       The Trustee may not be relieved from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act or its own willful misconduct, except that:

(i)       This paragraph does not limit the effect of paragraph (b) of this Section.

(ii)       The Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer, unless it is proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts.

(iii)       The Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it with respect to Securities of any Series in good faith in accordance with the direction of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee, under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such Series in accordance with Section 6.12.

(d)       Every provision of this Indenture that in any way relates to the Trustee is subject to paragraph (a), (b) and (c) of this Section.

(e)       The Trustee may refuse to perform any duty or exercise any right or power unless it receives indemnity reasonably satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in performing such duty or exercising such right or power.

(f)       The Trustee shall not be liable for interest on any money received by it except as the Trustee may agree in writing with the Operating Partnership. Money held in trust by the Trustee need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

(g)       No provision of this Indenture shall require the Trustee to risk its own funds or otherwise incur any financial liability in the performance of any of its duties, or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, if adequate indemnity against such risk is not assured to the Trustee to its reasonable satisfaction.

(h)       The Paying Agent, the Registrar and any authenticating agent shall be entitled to the protections and immunities as are set forth in paragraphs (e), (f) and (g) of this Section, each with respect to the Trustee.

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Section 7.2 Rights of Trustee.

(a)       The Trustee may rely on and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any document (whether in its original or facsimile form) believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper person. The Trustee need not investigate any fact or matter stated in the document.

(b)       Before the Trustee acts or refrains from acting, it may require an Officer’s Certificate. The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in reliance on such Officer’s Certificate.

(c)       The Trustee may act through agents and shall not be responsible for the misconduct or negligence of any agent appointed with due care. No Depositary shall be deemed an agent of the Trustee and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any act or omission by any Depositary.

(d)        The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith which it believes to be authorized or within its rights or powers, provided that the Trustee’s conduct does not constitute willful misconduct or negligence.

(e)       The Trustee may consult with counsel and the advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted by it hereunder without willful misconduct or negligence, and in reliance thereon.

(f)       The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request or direction of any of the Holders of Securities unless such Holders shall have offered to the Trustee security or indemnity reasonably satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction.

(g)       The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, direction, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, other evidence of indebtedness or other paper or document, but the Trustee, in its discretion, may make such further inquiry or investigation into such facts or matters as it may see fit.

(h)       The Trustee shall not be deemed to have notice of any Default or Event of Default unless a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has actual knowledge thereof or unless written notice of any event which is in fact such a default is received by the Trustee at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and such notice references the Securities generally or the Securities of a particular Series and this Indenture.

Section 7.3 Individual Rights of Trustee.

The Trustee in its individual or any other capacity may become the owner or pledgee of Securities and may otherwise deal with the Operating Partnership or an Affiliate of the Operating Partnership with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee. Any Agent may do the same with like rights. The Trustee is also subject to Sections 7.10 and 7.11.

Section 7.4 Trustee’s Disclaimer.

The Trustee makes no representation as to the validity or adequacy of this Indenture or the Securities, it shall not be accountable for the Operating Partnership’s use of the proceeds from the Securities, and it shall not be responsible for any statement in the Securities other than its authentication.

Section 7.5 Notice of Defaults.

If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the Securities of any Series and if it is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, the Trustee shall mail to each Securityholder of the Securities of that Series notice of a Default or Event of Default within 90 days after it occurs or, if later, after a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has knowledge of such Default or Event of Default. Except in the case of a Default or Event of Default in payment of principal of or interest on any Security of any Series, the Trustee may withhold the notice if and so long as its corporate trust committee or a committee of its Responsible Officers in good faith determines that withholding the notice is in the interests of Securityholders of that Series.

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Section 7.6 Reports by Trustee to Holders.

Within 60 days after each anniversary of the date of this Indenture, the Trustee shall transmit by mail to all Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear on the register kept by the Registrar, a brief report dated as of such anniversary date, in accordance with, and to the extent required under, TIA Section 313.

A copy of each report at the time of its mailing to Securityholders of any Series shall be filed with the SEC and each national securities exchange on which the Securities of that Series are listed. The Operating Partnership shall promptly notify the Trustee in writing when Securities of any Series are listed on any national securities exchange.

Section 7.7 Compensation and Indemnity.

The Operating Partnership shall pay to the Trustee from time to time compensation for its services as the Operating Partnership and the Trustee shall from time to time agree upon in writing. The Trustee’s compensation shall not be limited by any law on compensation of a trustee of an express trust. The Operating Partnership shall reimburse the Trustee upon request for all reasonable out-of-pocket expenses incurred by it. Such expenses shall include the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel.

The Operating Partnership shall indemnify each of the Trustee and any predecessor Trustee (including the cost of defending itself) against any cost, expense or liability, including taxes (other than taxes based upon, measured by or determined by the income of the Trustee) incurred by it except as set forth in the next paragraph in the performance of its duties under this Indenture as Trustee or Agent. The Trustee shall notify the Operating Partnership promptly of any claim for which it may seek indemnity. Failure by the Trustee to so notify the Operating Partnership shall not relieve the Operating Partnership of its obligations under this Section 7.7 except to the extent that the Operating Partnership suffers actual prejudice as a result of such failure. The Operating Partnership shall defend the claim and the Trustee shall cooperate in the defense. The Trustee may have one separate counsel and the Operating Partnership shall pay the reasonable fees and expenses of such counsel. The Operating Partnership need not pay for any settlement made without its consent, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld. This indemnification shall apply to officers, directors, employees, shareholders and agents of the Trustee.

 The Operating Partnership need not reimburse any expense or indemnify against any loss or liability incurred by the Trustee or by any officer, director, employee, shareholder or agent of the Trustee through willful misconduct or negligence.

To secure the Operating Partnership’s payment obligations in this Section, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities of any Series on all money or property held or collected by the Trustee, except that held in trust to pay principal of and interest on particular Securities of that Series.

When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services after an Event of Default specified in Section 6.1(d) or (e) occurs, the expenses and the compensation for the services are intended to constitute expenses of administration under any Bankruptcy Law.

The provisions of this Section shall survive the termination of this Indenture.

Section 7.8 Replacement of Trustee.

A resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor Trustee shall become effective only upon the successor Trustee’s acceptance of appointment as provided in this Section.

The Trustee may resign with respect to the Securities of one or more Series by so notifying the Operating Partnership at least 30 days prior to the date of the proposed resignation. The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any Series may remove the Trustee with respect to that Series by so notifying the Trustee and the Operating Partnership. The Operating Partnership may remove the Trustee with respect to Securities of one or more Seriesif:

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(a)       the Trustee fails to comply with Section 7.10;

(b)       the Trustee is adjudged a bankrupt or an insolvent or an order for relief is entered with respect to the Trustee under any Bankruptcy Law;

(c)       (c) a Custodian or public officer takes charge of the Trustee or its property; or

(d)       the Trustee becomes incapable of acting.

If the Trustee resigns or is removed or if a vacancy exists in the office of Trustee for any reason, the Operating Partnership shall promptly appoint a successor Trustee. Within one year after the successor Trustee takes office, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities may appoint a successor Trustee to replace the successor Trustee appointed by the Operating Partnership.

If a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any one or more Series does not take office within 60 days after the retiring Trustee resigns or is removed, the retiring Trustee, the Operating Partnership or the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the Securities of the applicable Series may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee.

A successor Trustee shall deliver a written acceptance of its appointment to the retiring Trustee and to the Operating Partnership. Immediately after that, the retiring Trustee shall transfer all property held by it as Trustee to the successor Trustee subject to the lien provided for in Section 7.7, the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective, and the successor Trustee shall have all the rights, powers and duties of the Trustee with respect to each Series of Securities for which it is acting as Trustee under this Indenture. A successor Trustee shall mail a notice of its succession to each Securityholder of each such Series. Notwithstanding replacement of the Trustee pursuant to this Section 7.8, the Operating Partnership’s obligations under Section 7.7 hereof shall continue for the benefit of the retiring Trustee with respect to expenses and liabilities incurred by it for actions taken or omitted to be taken in accordance with its rights, powers and duties under this Indenture prior to such replacement.

Section 7.9 Successor Trustee by Merger, Etc.

If the Trustee consolidates with, merges or converts into, or transfers all or substantially all of its corporate trust business to, another corporation, the successor corporation without any further act shall be the successor Trustee, subject to Section 7.10.

Section 7.10 Eligibility; Disqualification.

This Indenture shall always have a Trustee who satisfies the requirements of TIA Section 310(a)(1), (2) and (5). The Trustee shall always have a combined capital and surplus of at least $25,000,000 as set forth in its most recent published annual report of condition. The Trustee shall comply with TIA Section 310(b).

Section 7.11 Preferential Collection of Claims Against Operating Partnership.

The Trustee is subject to TIA Section 311(a), excluding any creditor relationship listed in TIA Section 311(b). A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to TIA Section 311(a) to the extent indicated.

ARTICLE VIII
SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE

Section 8.1 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.

This Indenture shall upon the direction of the Operating Partnership pursuant to an Operating Partnership Order cease to be of further effect with respect to any Series of Securities specified in such Operating Partnership Order (except as hereinafter provided in this Section 8.1), and the Trustee, at the expense of the Operating Partnership, shall execute instruments acknowledging satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture as to such Series, when

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(a)       either

(i)       all Securities of such Series theretofore authenticated and delivered (other than Securities that have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that have been replaced or paid) have been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation; or

(ii)       all such Securities of such Series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation

(1)       have become due and payable, or

(2)       will become due and payable at their Stated Maturity within one year, or

(3)       have been called for redemption or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption by the Trustee in the name, and at the expense, of the Operating Partnership, or

(4)       are deemed paid and discharged pursuant to Section 8.3, as applicable;

and the Operating Partnership, in the case of (1), (2) or (3) above, has irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds in trust for such purpose an amount of money or U.S. Government Obligations sufficient for the purpose of paying and discharging the entire indebtedness on such Securities not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including the principal of, any premium and interest on, and, to the extent that the Securities of such Series provide for the payment of Additional Amounts thereon and the amount of any such Additional Amounts which are or will be payable with respect to such Securities is at the time of the deposit determinable by the Operating Partnership (in the Operating Partnership’s exercise of reasonable discretion), any Additional Amounts with respect to, such Securities to the date of such deposit (in the case of Securities which have become due and payable on or prior to the date of such deposit) or to the Stated Maturity or redemption date, as the case may be;

(b)       the Operating Partnership has paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Operating Partnership; and

(c)        the Operating Partnership has delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture have been complied with.

Notwithstanding the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, the obligations of the Operating Partnership to the Trustee under Section 7.7, and, if money shall have been deposited with the Trustee pursuant to clause (a) of this Section, the provisions of Sections 2.4, 2.7, 2.8, 8.2 and 8.5 shall survive.

If the Operating Partnership exercises the satisfaction and discharge provisions in compliance with this Indenture with respect to Securities of a particular Series that are entitled to the benefit of the Guarantee of any Guarantor, the Guarantee will terminate with respect to that Series of Securities.

Section 8.2 Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification.

(a)       Subject to the provisions of Section 8.5, all money or U.S. Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.1, all money and U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.3 or 8.4 and all money received by the Trustee in respect of U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.3 or 8.4, shall be held in trust and applied by it, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent (including the Operating Partnership acting as its own Paying Agent) as the Trustee may determine, to the persons entitled thereto, of the principal and interest for whose payment such money has been deposited with or received by the Trustee or to make mandatory sinking fund payments or analogous payments as contemplated by Section 8.3 or 8.4.

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(b)       The Operating Partnership shall pay and shall indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Section 8.3 or 8.4 or the interest and principal received in respect of such obligations other than any payable by or on behalf of Holders.

(c)       The Trustee shall deliver or pay to the Operating Partnership from time to time upon Operating Partnership Order any U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations or money held by it as provided in Section 8.3 or 8.4 which, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent certified public accountants or investment bank expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, are then in excess of the amount thereof which then would have been required to be deposited for the purpose for which such U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations or money were deposited or received. This provision shall not authorize the sale by the Trustee of any U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations held under this Indenture.


8.3 Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series.

Unless this Section 8.3 is otherwise specified, pursuant to Section 2.2, to be inapplicable to Securities of any Series, the Operating Partnership shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness on all the outstanding Securities of any Series on the 91st day after the date of the deposit referred to in subparagraph (d) hereof, and the provisions of this Indenture, as it relates to such outstanding Securities of such Series, shall no longer be in effect and any Guarantee will terminate with respect to that Series of Securities (and the Trustee, at the expense of the Operating Partnership, shall, upon receipt of an Operating Partnership Order, execute instruments acknowledging the same), except as to:

(d)        the rights of Holders of Securities of such Series to receive, from the trust funds described in subparagraph (d) hereof, (i) payment of the principal of and each installment of principal of and interest on the outstanding Securities of such Series on the Maturity of such principal or installment of principal or interest and (ii) the benefit of any mandatory sinking fund payments applicable to the Securities of such Series on the day on which such payments are due and payable in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and the Securities of such Series;

(e)       the provisions of Sections 2.4, 2.7, 2.8, 8.2 and 8.5; and

(f)       the rights, powers, trust and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and the Operating Partnership’s obligations in connection therewith;

provided that the following conditions shall have been satisfied:

(g)       the Operating Partnership shall have deposited or caused to be irrevocably deposited (except as provided in Section 8.2(c)) with the Trustee as trust funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments, specifically pledged as security for and dedicated solely to the benefit of the Holders of such Securities (i) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in Dollars, cash in Dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations, or (ii) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in a Foreign Currency (other than a composite currency), money and/or Foreign Government Obligations, which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof in accordance with their terms, will provide (and without reinvestment and assuming no tax liability will be imposed on such Trustee), not later than one day before the due date of any payment of money, an amount in cash, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge each installment of principal of and interest, if any, on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of all the Securities of such Series on the dates such installments of interest or principal and such sinking fund payments are due;

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(h)       such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, this Indenture or any other agreement or instrument to which the Operating Partnership is a party or by which it is bound (other than a Default or Event of Default resulting from the borrowing of funds to be applied to such deposit (and any similar concurrent deposit related to other indebtedness of the Operating Partnership or any Subsidiary) and the granting of liens to secure such borrowings);

(i)       no Default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit or during the period ending on the 91st day after such date;

(j)       the Operating Partnership shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that (i) the Operating Partnership has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling, or (ii) since the date of execution of this Indenture, there has been a change in the applicable federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such Opinion of Counsel shall confirm that, the Holders of the Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amount and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred;

(k)        

(l)       the Operating Partnership shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that the deposit was not made by the Operating Partnership with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any other creditors of the Operating Partnership; and

(m)       the Operating Partnership shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for relating to the defeasance contemplated by this Section have been complied with.

Section 8.3 Covenant Defeasance.

Unless this Section 8.4 is otherwise specified pursuant to Section 2.2 to be inapplicable to Securities of any Series, the Operating Partnership may omit to comply with respect to the Securities of any Series with any term, provision or condition set forth under Sections 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4 as well as any additional covenants specified in a supplemental indenture for such Series of Securities or a Board Resolution or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 (and the failure to comply with any such covenants shall not constitute a Default or Event of Default with respect to such Series under Section 6.1) and the occurrence of any event specified in a supplemental indenture for such Series of Securities or a Board Resolution or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2.18 and designated as an Event of Default shall not constitute a Default or Event of Default hereunder, with respect to the Securities of such Series, provided that the following conditions shall have been satisfied:

(a)       With reference to this Section 8.4, the Operating Partnership has deposited or caused to be irrevocably deposited (except as provided in Section 8.2(c)) with the Trustee as trust funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to, the benefit of the Holders of such Securities (i) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in Dollars, cash in Dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations, or (ii) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in a Foreign Currency (other than a composite currency), money and/or Foreign Government Obligations, which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof in accordance with their terms, will provide (and without reinvestment and assuming no tax liability will be imposed on such Trustee), not later than one day before the due date of any payment of money, an amount in cash, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent certified public accountants or investment bank expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge each installment of principal of and interest, if any, on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the Securities of such Series on the dates such installments of interest or principal and such sinking fund payments are due;

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(b)       Such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, this Indenture or any other agreement or instrument to which the Operating Partnership is a party or by which it is bound (other than a Default or Event of Default resulting from the borrowing of funds to be applied to such deposit (and any similar concurrent deposit related to other indebtedness of the Operating Partnership or any Subsidiary) and the granting of liens to secure such borrowings);

(c)       No Default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit;

(d)       The Operating Partnership shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that Holders of the Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit and covenant defeasance and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit and covenant defeasance had not occurred;

(e)       The Operating Partnership shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that the deposit was not made by the Operating Partnership with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any other creditors of the Operating Partnership; and

(f)        The Operating Partnership shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to the covenant defeasance contemplated by this Section have been complied with.

Section 8.4 Repayment to Operating Partnership.

Subject to applicable abandoned property law, the Trustee and the Paying Agent shall pay to the Operating Partnership upon request any money held by them for the payment of principal and interest that remains unclaimed for two years. After that, Securityholders entitled to the money must look to the Operating Partnership for payment as general creditors unless an applicable abandoned property law designates another person.

Section 8.5 Reinstatement.

If the Trustee or the Paying Agent is unable to apply any money deposited with respect to Securities of any Series in accordance with Section 8.1 by reason of any legal proceeding or by reason of any order or judgment of any court or governmental authority enjoining, restraining or otherwise prohibiting such application, the obligations of the Operating Partnership under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such Series and under the Securities of such Series shall be revived and reinstated as though no deposit had occurred pursuant to Section 8.1 until such time as the Trustee or the Paying Agent is permitted to apply all such money in accordance with Section 8.1; provided, however, that if the Operating Partnership has made any payment of principal of or interest on or any Additional Amounts with respect to any Securities because of the reinstatement of its obligations, the Operating Partnership shall be subrogated to the rights of the Holders of such Securities to receive such payment from the money or U.S. Government Obligations held by the Trustee or Paying Agent after payment in full to the Holders.

ARTICLE IX
AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS

Section 9.1 Without Consent of Holders.

The Operating Partnership, any Guarantors and the Trustee may amend or supplement this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series without the consent of any Securityholder:

to cure any ambiguity, omission, defect or inconsistency;

(a)       to comply with Article V;

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(b)       to provide for uncertificated Securities in addition to or in place of certificated Securities;

(c)       to surrender any of the Operating Partnership’s rights or powers under this Indenture;

(d)       to add covenants or events of default for the benefit of the holders of Securities of any Series;

(e)       to comply with the applicable procedures of the applicable depositary;

(f)       to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder;

(g)       to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of Securities of any Series as permitted by this Indenture;

(h)       to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee;

(i)        to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of this Indenture under the TIA;

(j)       to reflect the release of any Guarantor in accordance with Article XII; or

(k)       to add Guarantors with respect to any or all of the Securities or to secure any or all of the Securities or the Guarantees.

Section 9.2 With Consent of Holders.

The Operating Partnership, any Guarantors and the Trustee may enter into a supplemental indenture with the written consent of the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of each Series affected by such supplemental indenture (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for the Securities of such Series), for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner the rights of the Securityholders of each such Series. Except as provided in Section 6.13, the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series by notice to the Trustee (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for the Securities of such Series) may waive compliance by the Operating Partnership with any provision of this Indenture or the Securities with respect to such Series.

It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Holders of Securities under this Section 9.2 to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if such consent approves the substance thereof. After a supplemental indenture or waiver under this section becomes effective, the Operating Partnership shall mail to the Holders of Securities affected thereby, a notice briefly describing the supplemental indenture or waiver. Any failure by the Operating Partnership to mail or publish such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture or waiver.

Section 9.3 Limitations.

Without the consent of each Securityholder affected, an amendment or waiver may not:

(a)       reduce the principal amount of Securities whose Holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver;

(b)       reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any Security;

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(c)       reduce the principal or change the Stated Maturity of any Security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation;

(d)       reduce the principal amount of Discount Securities payable upon acceleration of the maturity thereof;

(e)       waive a Default or Event of Default in the payment of the principal of or interest, if any, on any Security (except a rescission of acceleration of the Securities of any Series by the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

(f)       make the principal of or interest, if any, on any Security payable in any currency other than that stated in the Security;

(g)       make any change in Section 6.8, 6.13 or 9.3 (this sentence);

(h)       waive a redemption payment with respect to any Security, provided that such redemption is made at the Operating Partnership’s option; or

(i)       if the Securities of that Series are entitled to the benefit of the Guarantee, release any Guarantor of such Series other than as provided in this Indenture or modify the Guarantee in any manner adverse to the Holders.

Section 9.4 Compliance with Trust Indenture Act.

Every amendment to this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series shall be set forth in a supplemental indenture hereto that complies with the TIA as then in effect.

Section 9.5 Revocation and Effect of Consents.

Until an amendment is set forth in a supplemental indenture or a waiver becomes effective, a consent to it by a Holder of a Security is a continuing consent by the Holder and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder’s Security, even if notation of the consent is not made on any Security. However, any such Holder or subsequent Holder may revoke the consent as to his Security or portion of a Security if the Trustee receives the notice of revocation before the date of the supplemental indenture or the date the waiver becomes effective.

Any amendment or waiver once effective shall bind every Securityholder of each Series affected by such amendment or waiver unless it is of the type described in any of clauses (a) through (h) of Section 9.3. In that case, the amendment or waiver shall bind each Holder of a Security who has consented to it and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder’s Security.

The Operating Partnership may, but shall not be obligated to, fix a record date for the purpose of determining the Holders entitled to give their consent or take any other action described above or required or permitted to be taken pursuant to this Indenture. If a record date is fixed, then notwithstanding the immediately preceding paragraph, those persons who were Holders at such record date (or their duly designated proxies), and only those persons, shall be entitled to give such consent or to revoke any consent previously given or take any such action, whether or not such persons continue to be Holders after such record date. No such consent shall be valid or effective for more than 120 days after such record date.

Section 9.6 Notation on or Exchange of Securities.

The Operating Partnership or the Trustee may place an appropriate notation about an amendment or waiver on any Security of any Series thereafter authenticated. The Operating Partnership in exchange for Securities of that Series may issue and the Trustee shall authenticate upon request new Securities of that Series that reflect the amendment or waiver.

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Section 9.7 Trustee Protected.

In executing, or accepting the additional trusts created by, any supplemental indenture permitted by this Article or the modifications thereby of the trusts created by this Indenture, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 7.1) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Officer’s Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel complying with Section 10.4. The Trustee shall sign all supplemental indentures upon delivery of such an Officer’s Certificate or Opinion of Counsel, except that the Trustee need not sign any supplemental indenture that adversely affects its rights.

ARTICLE X 
MISCELLANEOUS

Section 10.1 Trust Indenture Act Controls.

If any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies, or conflicts with another provision which is required or deemed to be included in this Indenture by the TIA, such required or deemed provision shall control.

Section 10.2 Notices.

Any notice or communication by the Operating Partnership, any Guarantor or the Trustee to the other, or by a Holder to the Operating Partnership, any Guarantor or the Trustee, is duly given if in writing and delivered in person or mailed by first-class mail:

if to the Operating Partnership or any Guarantor:

Plymouth Industrial REIT, Inc.

20 Custom House Street, 11th Floor

Boston, MA 02110

Attention: Jeffrey E. Witherell, Chief Executive Officer

with a copy to:

Winston & Strawn LLP

2121 N. Pearl Street, Suite 900

Dallas, TX 75201

Attention:   Kenneth L. Betts

if to the Trustee:

 

Attention:      

The Operating Partnership, any Guarantor or the Trustee by notice to the other may designate additional or different addresses for subsequent notices or communications.

Any notice or communication to a Securityholder shall be mailed by first-class mail to his address shown on the register kept by the Registrar. Failure to mail a notice or communication to a Securityholder of any Series or any defect in it shall not affect its sufficiency with respect to other Securityholders of that or any other Series.

If a notice or communication is mailed or published in the manner provided above, within the time prescribed, it is duly given, whether or not the Securityholder receives it.

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If the Operating Partnership or any Guarantor mails a notice or communication to Securityholders, it shall mail a copy to the Trustee and each Agent at the same time.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture or any Security, where this Indenture or any Security provides for notice of any event (including any notice of redemption) to a Holder of a Global Security (whether by mail or otherwise), such notice shall be sufficiently given to the Depositary for such Security (or its designee) pursuant to the customary procedures of such Depositary.

Section 10.3 Communication by Holders with Other Holders.

Securityholders of any Series may communicate pursuant to TIA Section 312(b) with other Securityholders of that Series or any other Series with respect to their rights under this Indenture or the Securities of that Series or all Series. The Operating Partnership, the Trustee, the Registrar and anyone else shall have the protection of TIA Section 312(c).

Section 10.4 Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent.

(a)       Upon any request or application by the Operating Partnership to the Trustee to take any action under this Indenture, the Operating Partnership shall furnish to the Trustee:

an Officer’s Certificate stating that, in the opinion of the signers, all conditions precedent, if any, provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with; and

(b)       an Opinion of Counsel stating that, in the opinion of such counsel, all such conditions precedent have been complied with.

Section 10.5 Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion.

Each certificate or opinion with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture (other than a certificate provided pursuant to TIA Section 314(a)(4)) shall comply with the provisions of TIA Section 314(e) and shall include:

(a)       a statement that the person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition;

(b)       a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based;

(c)       a statement that, in the opinion of such person, he has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and

(d)       a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

Section 10.6 Rules by Trustee and Agents.

The Trustee may make reasonable rules for action by or a meeting of Securityholders of one or more Series. Any Agent may make reasonable rules and set reasonable requirements for its functions.

Section 10.7 Legal Holidays.

Unless otherwise provided by Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture hereto for a particular Series, a “Legal Holiday” is any day that is not a Business Day. If a payment date is a Legal Holiday at a place of payment, payment may be made at that place on the next succeeding day that is not a Legal Holiday, and no interest shall accrue for the intervening period.

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Section 10.8 No Recourse Against Others.

A director, officer, employee, stockholder or controlling person (past or present), as such, of the Operating Partnership or any Guarantor shall not have any liability for any obligations of the Operating Partnership under the Securities, the Guarantee or the Indenture or for any claim based on, in respect of or by reason of such obligations or their creation. Each Securityholder by accepting a Security waives and releases all such liability. The waiver and release are part of the consideration for the issue of the Securities.

Section 10.9 Counterparts.

This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts and by the parties hereto in separate counterparts, each of which when so executed shall be deemed to be an original and all of which taken together shall constitute one and the same agreement. The exchange of copies of this Indenture and of signature pages by facsimile or PDF transmission shall constitute effective execution and delivery of this Indenture as to the parties hereto and may be used in lieu of the original Indenture for all purposes. Signatures of the parties hereto transmitted by facsimile or PDF shall be deemed to be their original signatures for all purposes.

Section 10.10 Governing Law; Waiver of Jury Trial.

THIS INDENTURE AND THE SECURITIES, INCLUDING ANY CLAIM OR CONTROVERSY ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THE INDENTURE OR THE SECURITIES, SHALL BE GOVERNED BY THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK (WITHOUT REGARD TO THE CONFLICTS OF LAWS PROVISIONS THEREOF OTHER THAN SECTION 5-1401 OF THE GENERAL OBLIGATIONS LAW). EACH OF THE PARTIES HERETO IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS INDENTURE AND THE NOTES OR THE TRANSACTION CONTEMPLATED HEREBY.

Section 10.11  No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements.

This Indenture may not be used to interpret another indenture, loan or debt agreement of the Operating Partnership or a Subsidiary of the Operating Partnership. Any such indenture, loan or debt agreement may not be used to interpret this Indenture.

Section 10.12 Successors.

All agreements of the Operating Partnership and the Guarantors in this Indenture and the Securities shall bind their respective successors. All agreements of the Trustee in this Indenture shall bind its successor.

Section 10.13 Severability.

In case any provision in this Indenture or in the Securities shall be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby.

Section 10.14 Table of Contents, Headings, Etc.

The Table of Contents, Cross Reference Table, and headings of the Articles and Sections of this Indenture have been inserted for convenience of reference only, are not to be considered a part hereof, and shall in no way modify or restrict any of the terms or provisions hereof.

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Section 10.15 Securities in a Foreign Currency.

Unless otherwise specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 of this Indenture with respect to a particular Series of Securities, whenever for purposes of this Indenture any action may be taken by the Holders of a specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of Securities of all Series or all Series affected by a particular action at the time outstanding and, at such time, there are outstanding Securities of any Series which are denominated in more than one currency, then the principal amount of Securities of such Series which shall be deemed to be outstanding for t