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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2024
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission File Number: 001-36201
Immunic, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Delaware56-2358443
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
1200 Avenue of the Americas
Suite 200
New York, NY10036
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(332) 255-9818
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.0001 par valueIMUXThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).     Yes     No  

On May 2, 2024, 90,079,016 shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value, were outstanding.



IMMUNIC, INC.
INDEX
 
  Page No.
Item 1.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.

2


IMMUNIC, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)

 
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
(Unaudited)
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$97,312 $46,674 
Other current assets and prepaid expenses5,303 5,860 
Total current assets102,615 52,534 
Property and equipment, net442 466 
Right-of-use assets, net1,098 1,299 
Total assets$104,155 $54,299 
Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$6,767 $5,099 
Accrued expenses12,419 18,664 
Other current liabilities960 966 
Total current liabilities20,146 24,729 
Long-term liabilities
Operating lease liabilities433 639 
Total long-term liabilities433 639 
Total liabilities20,579 25,368 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 4)
Stockholders’ equity:
Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value; 20,000,000 authorized and no shares issued or outstanding as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023
  
Common stock, $0.0001 par value; 500,000,000 and 130,000,000 shares authorized as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively, and 90,079,016 and 45,177,730 shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively
8 4 
Additional paid-in capital519,757 436,060 
Accumulated other comprehensive income 4,287 3,759 
Accumulated deficit(440,476)(410,892)
Total stockholders’ equity83,576 28,931 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$104,155 $54,299 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
3


IMMUNIC, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations
(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)
(Unaudited)
 
 Three Months
 Ended March 31,
 20242023
Operating expenses:
Research and development$18,736 $22,963 
General and administrative5,145 4,288 
Total operating expenses23,881 27,251 
Loss from operations(23,881)(27,251)
Other income (expense):
Interest income1,187 800 
Change in fair value of the tranche rights(4,796) 
Other income (expense), net(2,094)1,179 
Total other income (expense)(5,703)1,979 
Net loss$(29,584)$(25,272)
Net loss per share, basic and diluted$(0.30)$(0.58)
Weighted-average common shares outstanding, basic and diluted97,299,955 43,664,783 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
4


IMMUNIC, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)
 
 Three Months
 Ended March 31,
 20242023
Net loss$(29,584)$(25,272)
Other comprehensive income:
Foreign currency translation528 776 
Total comprehensive loss$(29,056)$(24,496)
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
5


IMMUNIC, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity
(In thousands, except shares)
(Unaudited)
Three Months Ended March 31, 2024
 Common StockAdditional
Paid-In
Capital
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income
Accumulated
Deficit
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
 SharesAmount
Balance at January 1, 202445,177,730 $4 $436,060 $3,759 $(410,892)28,931 
Net loss— — — — (29,584)(29,584)
Stock-based compensation— — 2,750 — — 2,750 
Foreign exchange translation adjustment— — — 528 — 528 
Issuance of common stock and pre-funded warrants - January 2024 Financing, net of issuance costs of $4,037
44,751,286 4 52,360 — — 52,364 
Conversion of tranche rights liability to equity— — 28,396 — — 28,396 
Issuance of common stock - At The Market Sales Agreement net of issuance costs of $6
150,000 — 191 — — 191 
Balance at March 31, 202490,079,016 $8 $519,757 $4,287 $(440,476)$83,576 


Three Months Ended March 31, 2023
Common StockAdditional
Paid-In
Capital
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income
Accumulated
Deficit
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
SharesAmount
Balance at January 1, 202339,307,286 $4 $427,925 $3,035 $(317,280)113,684 
Net loss— — — — (25,272)(25,272)
Stock-based compensation— — 1,979 — — 1,979 
Foreign exchange translation adjustment— — — 776 — 776 
Shares issued from exercise of pre-funded warrants5,096,552 — 51 — — 51 
Balance at March 31, 202344,403,838 $4 $429,955 $3,811 $(342,552)$91,218 


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.








6


IMMUNIC, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)
 
 Three Months
 Ended March 31,
 20242023
Cash flows from operating activities:
Net loss$(29,584)$(25,272)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization26 32 
Unrealized foreign currency loss340 516 
Stock-based compensation2,750 1,979 
Change in fair value of tranche rights4,796  
Fees expensed as part of January 2024 Financing1,690  
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Other current assets and prepaid expenses389 123 
Accounts payable1,794 986 
Accrued expenses(6,145)2,072 
Other liabilities(25)51 
Net cash used in operating activities(23,969)(19,513)
Cash flows from investing activities:
Sale of investments - other 5,439 
Purchases of property and equipment(31)(104)
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities(31)5,335 
Cash flows from financing activities:
Proceeds from public offering of common stock through At The Market Sales Agreement, net191  
Proceeds from the exercise of pre-funded warrants 51 
Proceeds from January 2024 Financing, net of issuance costs74,273  
Net cash provided by financing activities74,464 51 
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents174 143 
Net change in cash and cash equivalents50,638 (13,984)
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of period46,674 106,745 
Cash and cash equivalents, end of period$97,312 $92,761 
Supplemental disclosure of noncash investing and financing activities:
Conversion of tranche rights liability to equity upon increase in authorized shares$28,396 $ 
Operating lease right-of use asset obtained in exchange for lease liability$ $544 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
7


IMMUNIC, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Unaudited)
1. Description of Business and Basis of Financial Statements
Description of Business
Immunic, Inc. ("Immunic" or the "Company") is a biotechnology company developing a clinical pipeline of selective oral immunology therapies focused on treating chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The Company is headquartered in New York City with its main operations in Gräfelfing near Munich, Germany. The Company had approximately 80 employees as of May 1, 2024.
The Company is pursuing clinical development of orally administered, small molecule programs, each of which has unique features intended to directly address the unmet needs of patients with serious chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. These include the vidofludimus calcium (IMU-838) program, which is in Phase 3 clinical development for patients with multiple sclerosis (“MS”) and which has shown therapeutic activity in Phase 2 clinical trials in patients suffering from relapsing-remitting MS, progressive MS and moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis (“UC”); the IMU-856 program, which is targeted to regenerate bowel epithelium and restore intestinal barrier function, which could potentially be applicable in numerous gastrointestinal diseases, such as celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, short bowel syndrome and irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea; and the IMU-381 program, which is a next generation molecule being developed to specifically address the needs of gastrointestinal diseases.
The Company’s business, operating results, financial condition and growth prospects are subject to significant risks and uncertainties, including the failure of its clinical trials to meet their endpoints, failure to obtain regulatory approval and needing additional funding to complete the development and commercialization of the Company's three development programs.
Liquidity and Financial Condition
Immunic has no products approved for commercial sale and has not generated any revenue from product sales. It has never been profitable and has incurred operating losses in each year since inception in 2016. The Company has an accumulated deficit of approximately $440.5 million as of March 31, 2024 and $410.9 million as of December 31, 2023. Substantially all of Immunic's operating losses resulted from expenses incurred in connection with its research and development programs and from general and administrative costs associated with its operations.
Immunic expects to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses for the foreseeable future as it initiates and continues the development of its product candidates and adds personnel necessary to advance its pipeline of product candidates. Immunic expects that its operating losses will fluctuate significantly from quarter-to-quarter and year-to-year due to timing of development programs.
From inception through March 31, 2024, Immunic has raised net cash of approximately $430.9 million from private and public offerings of preferred stock, common stock, pre-funded warrants and tranche rights. As of March 31, 2024, the Company had cash and cash equivalents of approximately $97.3 million. With these funds, Immunic expects to be able to fund its operations beyond twelve months from the date of the issuance of the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements.
Basis of Presentation and Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with United States generally accepted accounting principles ("U.S. GAAP") and include the accounts of Immunic and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, Immunic AG and Immunic Australia Pty Ltd. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. Immunic manages its operations as a single reportable segment for the purposes of assessing performance and making operating decisions.

Unaudited Interim Financial Information
Immunic has prepared the accompanying interim unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles, (“US GAAP”), for interim financial information and with the
8


instructions to Form 10-Q and Regulation S-X of the SEC. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements. These interim unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments consisting of normal recurring accruals which, in the opinion of management, are necessary to present fairly Immunic’s consolidated financial position, consolidated results of operations, consolidated statement of stockholders’ equity and consolidated cash flows for the periods and as of the dates presented. The Company’s fiscal year ends on December 31. The condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2023 was derived from audited consolidated financial statements but does not include all disclosures required by U.S. GAAP. These condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the annual consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included on the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K filed on February 22, 2024. The nature of Immunic’s business is such that the results of any interim period may not be indicative of the results to be expected for the entire year.
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires the Company to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, expenses and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in the Company’s consolidated financial statements. The most significant estimates in the Company’s financial statements and accompanying notes relate to clinical trial expenses and share-based compensation. Management believes its estimates to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates and assumptions.
Foreign Currency Translation and Presentation
The Company’s reporting currency is United States (“U.S.”) dollars. Immunic AG is located in Germany with the euro being its functional currency. Immunic Australia Pty Ltd.’s functional currency is the Australian dollar. All amounts in the financial statements where the functional currency is not the U.S. dollar are translated into U.S. dollar equivalents at exchange rates as follows:
• assets and liabilities at reporting period-end rates;
• income statement accounts at average exchange rates for the reporting period; and
• components of equity at historical rates.
Gains and losses from translation of the financial statements into U.S. dollars are recorded in stockholders’ equity as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). Realized and unrealized gains and losses resulting from foreign currency transactions denominated in currencies other than the functional currency are reflected as general and administrative expenses in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Foreign currency transaction gains and losses related to long-term intercompany loans that are payable in the foreseeable future are recorded in Other Income (Expense). The Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows were prepared by using the average exchange rate in effect during the reporting period which reasonably approximates the timing of the cash flows.
Cash and Cash Equivalents and Investments- other
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents.
Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash on hand and deposits in banks located in the U.S. of approximately $73.2 million, Germany of approximately $22.5 million and Australia of approximately $1.6 million as of March 31, 2024. The Company maintains cash and cash equivalent balances denominated in Euro and U.S. dollars with major financial institutions in the U.S. and Germany in excess of the deposit limits insured by the government. Management periodically reviews the credit standing of these financial institutions. The Company currently deposits its cash and cash equivalents with two large financial institutions. Cash and Cash equivalents in the U.S. are held at JP Morgan and are primarily held in a U.S. Government money market fund account earning interest at a rate of 5.2% during the period ended March 31, 2024. Cash and cash equivalents in Germany are earning interest at a rate of 3.5% to 3.75% during the period ended March 31, 2024.


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Fair Value Measurement
Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or be paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Accounting guidance establishes a fair value hierarchy that requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. The standard describes three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value:
Level 1—Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities. Level 1 assets consisted of money market funds for the periods presented. The Company had no Level 1 liabilities for the periods presented.
Level 2—Inputs other than observable quoted prices for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly; these include quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets and quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active. The Company had no Level 2 assets or liabilities for the periods presented.
Level 3—Unobservable inputs to the valuation methodology that are significant to the measurement of the fair value of assets or liabilities. The Company had no Level 3 assets or liabilities for the periods presented.
The carrying value of cash and cash equivalents, other current assets and prepaid expenses, accounts payable, accrued expenses, and other current liabilities approximates fair value due to the short period of time to maturity.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment is stated at cost. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method based on the estimated service lives of the assets, which range from three to thirteen years. Depreciation expense was $26,000 and $32,000 for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company records impairment losses on long-lived assets used in operations when indicators of impairment are present and the undiscounted cash flows estimated to be generated by those assets are less than the assets’ carrying amount. Impaired assets are then recorded at their estimated fair value. There were no impairment losses during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.
Research and Development Expenses
These costs primarily include external development expenses and internal personnel expenses for its development programs, vidofludimus calcium and IMU-856. Immunic has spent the majority of its research and development resources on vidofludimus calcium, the Company's lead development program, for clinical trials in MS and UC.
Research and development expenses consist of expenses incurred in research and development activities, which include clinical trials, contract research services, certain milestone payments, salaries and related employee benefits, allocated facility costs and other outsourced services. Research and development expenses are charged to operations as incurred.
The Company enters into agreements with contract research organizations (“CROs”) to provide clinical trial services for individual studies and projects by executing individual work orders governed by a Master Service Arrangement (“MSA”). The MSAs and associated work orders provide for regular recurrent payments and payments upon the completion of certain milestones. The Company regularly assesses the timing of payments against actual costs incurred to ensure a proper accrual of related expenses in the appropriate accounting period.
Collaboration Arrangements
Certain collaboration and license agreements may include payments to or from the Company of one or more of the following: non-refundable or partially refundable upfront or license fees; development, regulatory and commercial milestone payments; payment for manufacturing supply services; partial or complete reimbursement of research and development costs; and royalties on net sales of licensed products. The Company assesses whether such contracts are within the scope of Financial
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Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2014-09 “Revenue from Contracts with Customers” and ASU No. 2018-18, “Collaborative Arrangements” ("ASU 2018-18"). ASU 2018-18, clarifies that certain elements of collaborative arrangements could qualify as transactions with customers in the scope of ASC 606.
In October 2018, the Company entered into an option and license agreement (the "Daiichi Sankyo Agreement") with Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd. ("Daiichi Sankyo") which granted the Company the right to license a group of compounds, designated by the Company as IMU-856, as a potential new oral treatment option for gastrointestinal diseases such as celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea and other barrier function associated diseases. During the option period, the Company performed agreed upon research and development activities for which it was reimbursed by Daiichi Sankyo up to a maximum agreed-upon limit. Such reimbursement was recorded as other income. There are no additional research and development reimbursements expected under this agreement.
On January 5, 2020, the Company exercised its option to obtain the exclusive worldwide right to commercialization of IMU-856. Among other things, the option exercise grants Immunic AG the rights to Daiichi Sankyo’s patent application related to IMU-856, for which the Company received a notice of allowance from the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office in August 2022. In connection with the option exercise, the Company paid a one-time upfront licensing fee to Daiichi Sankyo. Under the Daiichi Sankyo Agreement, Daiichi Sankyo is also eligible to receive future development, regulatory and sales milestone payments, as well as royalties related to IMU-856.
Government assistance
Government assistance relating to research and development performed by Immunic Australia is recorded as a component of other (income) expense. This government assistance is recognized at a rate of 43.5% of the qualified research and development expenditures which are incurred. We also receive government assistance from the German Government for reimbursement of research and development expenses up to one million Euros per year. We recognized $36,000 and $1.8 million of other income related to research activities performed during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.
General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and related costs for personnel in executive, finance, business development and other support functions. Other general and administrative expenses include, but are not limited to, stock-based compensation, insurance costs, professional fees for legal, accounting and tax services, consulting, related facility costs and travel.
Stock-Based Compensation 
The Company measures the cost of employee and non-employee services received in exchange for equity awards based on the grant-date fair value of the award recognized generally as an expense (i) on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for those awards whose vesting is based upon a service condition, and (ii) on an accelerated method for awards whose vesting is based upon a performance condition, but only to the extent it is probable that the performance condition will be met. Stock-based compensation is (i) estimated at the date of grant based on the award’s fair value for equity classified awards and (ii) final measurement date for liability classified awards. Forfeitures are recorded in the period in which they occur.
The Company estimates the fair value of stock options using the Black-Scholes-Merton option-pricing model ("BSM"), which requires the use of estimates and subjective assumptions, including the risk-free interest rate, the fair value of the underlying common stock, the expected dividend yield of the Company’s common stock, the expected volatility of the price of the Company’s common stock, and the expected term of the option. These estimates involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management’s judgment. If factors change and different assumptions are used, the Company’s stock-based compensation expense could be materially different in the future.
Leases
The Company leases office space and office equipment. The underlying lease agreements have lease terms of less than 12 months and up to 60 months. Leases with terms of 12 months or less at inception are not included in the operating lease right of use asset and operating lease liability.
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The Company has three existing leases for office and laboratory space. At inception of a lease agreement, the Company determines whether an agreement represents a lease and at commencement each lease agreement is assessed as to classification as an operating or financing lease. The Company's leases have been classified as operating leases and an operating lease right-of-use asset and an operating lease liability have been recorded on the Company’s balance sheet. A right-of-use lease asset represents the Company’s right to use the underlying asset for the lease term and the lease obligation represents its commitment to make the lease payments arising from the lease. Right-of-use lease assets and obligations are recognized at the commencement date based on the present value of remaining lease payments over the lease term. As the Company’s leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company has used an estimated incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at the commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. The right-of-use lease asset includes any lease payments made prior to commencement and excludes any lease incentives. The lease term used in estimating future lease payments may include options to extend when it is reasonably certain that the Company will exercise that option. Operating lease expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term, subject to any changes in the lease or changes in expectations regarding the lease term. Variable lease costs such as common area costs and property taxes are expensed as incurred. Leases with an initial term of twelve months or less are not recorded on the balance sheet.
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Comprehensive income (loss) is defined as the change in equity during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances from non-owner sources. Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) has been reflected as a separate component of stockholders’ equity in the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets and consists of foreign currency translation adjustments (net of tax).
Income Taxes
The Company is subject to corporate income tax laws and regulations in the U.S., Germany and Australia. Tax regulations within each jurisdiction are subject to the interpretation of the related tax laws and regulations and require significant judgment in their application.
The Company utilizes the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the audited consolidated financial statements. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the differences between the financial statement and tax basis of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The effect of changes in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in operations in the period that includes the enactment date. Deferred taxes are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in the opinion of management, it is more likely than not some portion or the entire deferred tax asset will not be realized. As of March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively, the Company maintained a full valuation allowance against the balance of deferred tax assets.
It is the Company’s policy to provide for uncertain tax positions and the related interest and penalties based upon management’s assessment of whether a tax benefit is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by tax authorities. The Company recognizes interest and penalties accrued on any unrecognized tax benefits as a component of income tax expense. The Company is subject to U.S. federal, New York, California, Texas, German and Australian income taxes. The Company is subject to U.S. federal or state income tax examination by tax authorities for tax returns filed for the years 2003 and forward due to the carryforward of NOLs. Tax years 2019 through 2022 are subject to audit by German and Australian tax authorities. The Company is not currently under examination by any tax jurisdictions.
Warrants and Tranche Rights
The Company accounts for issued financial instruments either as a liability or equity in accordance with ASC 480-10, Accounting for Certain Financial Instruments with Characteristics of both Liabilities and Equity (“ASC 480-10”) or ASC 815-40, Accounting for Derivative Financial Instruments Indexed to, and Potentially Settled in, a Company’s Own Stock (“ASC 815-40”). Under ASC 480-10, financial instruments are considered a liability if they are mandatorily redeemable and they require settlement in cash, other assets, or a variable number of shares. If financial instruments do not meet liability classification under ASC 480-10, the Company considers the requirements of ASC 815-40 to determine whether the financial instruments should be classified as a liability or as equity. Under ASC 815-40, contracts that may require settlement for cash are liabilities, regardless of the probability of the occurrence of the triggering event. Liability-classified financial instruments are measured at fair value on the issuance date and at the end of each reporting period. Any change in the fair value of the financial instruments after the issuance date is recorded in the consolidated statements of operations as a gain or loss. If financial
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instruments do not require liability classification under ASC 815-40, in order to conclude financial instruments should be classified as equity, the Company assesses whether the financial instruments are indexed to its common stock and whether the financial instruments are classified as equity under ASC 815-40 or other applicable GAAP standard. Equity-classified financial instruments are accounted for at fair value on the issuance date with no changes in fair value recognized after the issuance date.
Net Loss Per Share
Basic net loss per share attributable to common stockholders is calculated by dividing the net loss by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding for the period, without consideration for common stock equivalents. Diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders is computed by dividing the net loss by the weighted-average number of common shares and, if dilutive, common stock equivalents outstanding for the period determined using the treasury-stock method. For all periods presented, there is no difference in the number of shares used to calculate basic and diluted shares outstanding due to the Company’s net loss position. The weighted average shares outstanding calculation for basic and diluted earnings per share for the three months ended March 31, 2024 includes 11,193,564 pre-funded warrants.
Potentially dilutive securities, not included in the calculation of diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders because to do so would be anti-dilutive, are as follows:
As of March 31,
20242023
Options to purchase common stock10,318,323 5,595,841 
Recently Issued and/or Adopted Accounting Standards
There are no recently issued accounting standards that would have a significant impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.

3. Balance Sheet Details
Other Current Assets and Prepaid Expenses
Other Current Assets and Prepaid Expense consist of (in thousands):
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Prepaid clinical and related costs$2,767 $2,314 
VAT receivable770 703 
Australian research and development tax incentive676 670 
Research grant 1,104 
Other1,090 1,069 
Total$5,303 $5,860 
Accounts Payable
Accounts Payable consist of (in thousands):
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Clinical costs$6,211 $4,726 
Legal and audit costs115 160 
Other441 213 
Total$6,767 $5,099 
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Accrued Expenses
Accrued Expenses consist of (in thousands):
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Accrued clinical and related costs$11,497 $16,863 
Accrued legal and audit costs234 216 
Accrued compensation610 1,460 
Accrued other78 125 
Total$12,419 $18,664 
Other Current Liabilities
Other Current Liabilities consist of (in thousands):
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Lease liabilities$697 $695 
Other263 271 
Total$960 $966 
4. Commitments and Contingencies
Operating Lease
The Company leases certain office space under non-cancelable operating leases. The leases terminate on July 31, 2025 for the New York City office, June 30, 2025 for the Gräfelfing, Germany office and November 30, 2028 for the research laboratory in Planegg, Germany. These agreements include both lease (e.g., fixed rent) and non-lease components (e.g., common-area and other maintenance costs). The non-lease components are deemed to be executory costs and are therefore excluded from the minimum lease payments used to determine the present value of the operating lease obligation and related right-of-use asset. The New York City lease was extended on December 22, 2022 for an additional 27 months resulting in the new lease termination date of July 31, 2025. The New York City lease has a renewal option, but this was not included in calculating the right of use asset and liabilities. On April 7, 2020, the Company signed a five year lease for its facility in Gräfelfing, Germany. On March 1, 2021 and August 1, 2022 the Company added additional lease space at the Gräfelfing, Germany office. Renewal options were not included in calculating the right of use asset and liabilities for this facility. In February 2023, the Company leased space in Germany for a research laboratory. The leases do not have concessions, leasehold improvement incentives or other build-out clauses. Further, the leases do not contain contingent rent provisions. The New York City lease had a six month rent holiday at the beginning of the lease as well as a three month rent holiday upon the 27 month extension starting May 2023. There were net additions of $544,000 related to the addition of new laboratory space in Planegg, Germany in February 2023.
 The leases do not provide an implicit rate and, due to the lack of a commercially salable product, the Company is generally considered unable to obtain commercial credit. Therefore, the Company estimated its incremental interest rate to be 6% for the original leases and 8% for the New York City extension and German laboratory, considering the quoted rates for the lowest investment-grade debt and the interest rates implicit in recent financing leases. Immunic used its estimated incremental borrowing rate and other information available at the lease commencement date in determining the present value of the lease payments.
 Immunic’s operating lease costs and variable lease costs were $257,000 and $195,000 for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. Variable lease costs consist primarily of common area maintenance costs, insurance and taxes which are paid based upon actual costs incurred by the lessor.
 
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Maturities of the operating lease obligation are as follows as of March 31, 2024
:
2024$551,000 
2025433,000 
202678,000 
202782,000 
202879,000 
Thereafter 
Total1,223,000 
Interest(93,000)
Present value of obligation$1,130,000 
Contractual Obligations
As of March 31, 2024, the Company has non-cancelable contractual obligations under certain agreements related to its development programs vidofludimus calcium and IMU-856 totaling approximately $3.0 million, all of which is expected to be paid in 2024 and 2025.
Other Commitments and Obligations
Daiichi Sankyo Agreement
On January 5, 2020, the Company exercised its option to obtain the exclusive worldwide right to commercialization of IMU-856. Among other things, the option exercise grants Immunic AG the rights to Daiichi Sankyo’s patent application related to IMU-856, for which the Company received a notice of allowance from the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office in August 2022. In connection with the option exercise, the Company paid a one-time upfront licensing fee to Daiichi Sankyo. Under the Daiichi Sankyo Agreement, Daiichi Sankyo is also eligible to receive future development, regulatory and sales milestone payments, as well as royalties related to IMU-856.
Legal Proceedings
The Company is not currently a party to any litigation, nor is it aware of any pending or threatened litigation, that it believes would materially affect its business, operating results, financial condition or cash flows. However, its industry is characterized by frequent claims and litigation including securities litigation, claims regarding patent and other intellectual property rights and claims for product liability. As a result, in the future, the Company may be involved in various legal proceedings from time to time.
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5. Fair Value
The following fair value hierarchy tables present information about each major category of the Company’s financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis (in thousands):
 Fair Value Measurement at March 31, 2024
 Fair ValueLevel 1Level 2Level 3
Assets
Money market funds$72,961 $72,961 $ $ 
Total assets at fair value72,961 72,961 $ $ 
 Fair Value Measurement at December 31, 2023
 Fair ValueLevel 1Level 2Level 3
Assets
Money market funds$34,087 $34,087 $ $ 
Total assets at fair value$34,087 $34,087 $ $ 

There were no transfers between Level 1, Level 2 or Level 3 assets during the periods presented.
For the Company’s money market funds which are included as a component of cash and cash equivalents on the consolidated balance sheet, realized gains and losses are included in interest income (expense) on the consolidated statements of operations.
Our money market fund account is held in our bank in the U.S. and was earning interest at a rate of 5.2% in a U.S. Government money market fund.
The Company has cash balances in banks in excess of the maximum amount insured by the FDIC and other international agencies as of March 31, 2024. The Company has not historically experienced any credit losses with balances in excess of FDIC limits.
The Company recorded tranche rights of $23.6 million at January 8, 2024 as a result of the January 2024 Financing (see note 6). The fair value measurement of the tranche rights associated with the January 2024 Financing was classified as Level 3 under the fair value hierarchy. The fair value of the the tranche rights was determined using a Black Scholes Option Pricing Model. The inputs to this model included a risk-free rate range of 3.93%-4.36%, a stock price volatility range of 105-115%, an expected dividend rate of % and remaining term of 1.81-4.81 years. This liability was revalued on March 4, 2024, upon approval to increase its authorized shares of common stock from 130 million to 500 million, which resulted in the reclassification of the tranche rights from a liability to equity. This revaluation resulted in an increase in the tranche rights liability of $4.8 million using a Black Scholes Option Pricing Model. The inputs to this model as of the date of the reclassification included a risk-free rate range of 4.16%-4.63%, a stock price volatility range of 90-105%, an expected dividend rate of % and remaining term of 1.66-4.66 years. The inputs used in the determination of fair value of the liability are level 3 inputs. A rollforward of the fair value of the tranche rights is as follows (in thousands):
December 31, 2023$ 
Fair value as of January 8, 2024$23,600 
Change in fair value through March 4, 2024$4,796 
Reclassification to equity$(28,396)
March 31, 2024$ 
The carrying amounts of other current assets and prepaid expenses, accounts payable, accrued expenses, and other current liabilities approximate their fair values due to their short-term nature. The fair value and book value of the money market funds presented in the table above are the same.
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6. Common Stock
Shelf Registration Statement
In November 2023, we filed a shelf registration statement on Form S-3 (the "2023 Shelf Registration Statement"). The 2023 Shelf Registration Statement permits the offering, issuance and sale of up to $250.0 million of common stock, preferred stock, warrants, debt securities, and/or units in one or more offerings and in any combination of the foregoing. As of May 8, 2024, the 2023 Shelf Registration statement has not been declared effective by the SEC, however, the Company can (i) continue to sell, subject to applicable SEC requirements, unsold securities remaining on the expired 2020 Shelf Registration Statement until the 2023 Shelf Registration Statement has been declared effective (or May 22, 2024, if sooner); and (ii) after the 2023 Shelf Registration Statement has been declared effective, offer and sell additional securities registered on the new Form S-3, as well as unsold securities from the expired 2020 Shelf Registration Statement that are permitted by SEC rules to be included in the 2023 Shelf Registration Statement.
In November 2020, the Company filed a shelf registration statement on Form S-3 (the "2020 Shelf Registration Statement"). The 2020 Shelf Registration Statement permitted the offering, issuance and sale of up to $250.0 million of common stock, preferred stock, warrants, debt securities, and/or units in one or more offerings and in any combination of the foregoing. The 2020 Shelf Registration Statement expired in November 2023 but, as explained above, unsold securities from this expired registration statement can continue to be sold under the 2023 Shelf Registration Statement. As of March 31, 2024, there is $75.0 million of unsold securities from this 2020 Shelf Registration Statement.
In December 2020, the Company filed a Prospectus Supplement for the offering, issuance and sale of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $50.0 million of common stock that may be issued and sold under an at-the-market sales agreement with SVB Leerink LLC (now Leerink Partners LLC) as agent ("December 2020 ATM"). The Company has used and intends to continue to use the net proceeds from the December 2020 ATM to continue to fund the ongoing clinical development of our product candidates and for other general corporate purposes, including funding existing and potential new clinical programs and product candidates. The December 2020 ATM will terminate upon the earlier of (i) the issuance and sale of all of the shares through Leerink Partners LLC on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the December 2020 ATM or (ii) termination of the December 2020 ATM as otherwise permitted thereby. The December 2020 ATM may be terminated at any time by either party upon ten days’ prior notice, or by Leerink Partners LLC at any time in certain circumstances, including the occurrence of a material adverse effect on us. As of March 31, 2024, $7.3 million in capacity remains under the December 2020 ATM.

In May 2022, the Company filed a Prospectus Supplement to the 2020 Shelf Registration Statement for the offering, issuance and sale of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $80.0 million of common stock that may be issued and sold under another at-the-market sales agreement ("May 2022 ATM") with Leerink Partners LLC (formerly SVB Leerink LLC) as agent. The Company intends to use the net proceeds from the offering to continue to fund the ongoing clinical development of its product candidates and for other general corporate purposes, including funding existing and potential new clinical programs and product candidates. The May 2022 ATM will terminate upon the earlier of (i) the issuance and sale of all of the shares through Leerink Partners LLC on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the May 2022 ATM or (ii) termination of the May 2022 ATM as otherwise permitted thereby. The May 2022 ATM may be terminated at any time by either party upon ten days’ prior notice, or by Leerink Partners LLC at any time in certain circumstances, including the occurrence of a material adverse effect on the Company. As of March 31, 2024, $80.0 million in capacity remains under the May 2022 ATM.
  The Company has agreed to pay Leerink Partners LLC a commission equal to 3.0% of the gross proceeds from the sales of common shares pursuant to both ATM's and has agreed to provide Leerink Partners LLC with customary indemnification and contribution rights.
For the three months ended March 31, 2024, we raised gross proceeds of $0.2 million pursuant to the December 2020 ATM through the sale of 150,000 shares of common stock at a weighted average price of $1.31 per share. The net proceeds from the December 2020 ATM were $0.2 million after deducting sales agent commissions of $6,000.
The Company did not have any ATM activity during the three months ended March 31, 2023.
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Equity Offerings
Private Placement of up to $240 million ("The January 2024 Financing")

On January 4, 2024, Immunic entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement with select accredited investors, pursuant to which the Company agreed to issue and sell to the Investors in a three-tranche private placement shares of the Company’s common stock, $0.0001 par value per share or in lieu thereof, pre-funded warrants to purchase shares of Common Stock. The Pre-Funded Warrants are exercisable immediately for $0.0001 per share and until exercised in full.

The first tranche, which closed on January 8, 2024, resulted in the purchase by the Investors of an aggregate of $80 million of Common Stock (or pre-funded warrants) from the Company at a price of $1.43 per share;
The second tranche is a conditional mandatory purchase by the Investors of an additional $80 million of Common Stock (or pre-funded warrants) from the Company at a price of $1.716 per share, equal to 120% of the price paid in the first tranche and is subject to the satisfaction of three conditions:
release by the Company of topline data from its Phase 2b clinical trial of vidofludimus calcium (IMU-838) in progressive multiple sclerosis, which data is currently expected in or around April 2025;
the 10-day volume-weighted average price of the Common Stock is at least $8.00 per share during the 6 months following the data release; and
aggregate trading volume during the same 10-day period is at least $100 million.
The third tranche must occur no later than three years after the second tranche and is conditioned on the same volume-weighted average share price and minimum trading volumes as the second tranche. The third tranche provides for the issuance of $80 million of shares of common stock (or pre-funded warrants) at the same price per share as the second tranche, but permits investors to fund their purchase obligations on a “cashless” or net settlement basis, which would reduce the cash proceeds to be raised by the Company in the Private Placement.
Any of the conditions in the second or third tranches can be waived by holders of a majority of the outstanding securities (including the lead investor).

The Private Placement resulted in gross proceeds to the Company of approximately $80 million in the first tranche, and an additional $80 million if and when the second tranche occurs. If the second tranche is completed and conditions for the third tranche are satisfied or waived, the Company could receive up to an additional $80 million in the third tranche.

As of the closing date of the transaction of January 8, 2024, the Company did not have enough authorized shares to be able to issue the potential shares for tranche 2 and tranche 3 (collectively referred to hereafter as "the tranche rights"). Therefore, the Company recorded the value associated to the tranche rights as a liability of $23.6 million and allocated the remainder of the $80 million received (or $56.4 million) with the common stock and pre-funded warrants to equity. On March 4, 2024, the stockholders voted to increase the Company's authorized common shares from 130 million to 500 million shares. As a result of the ability to issue shares in satisfaction of the tranche rights, the instrument was reclassified to stockholders' equity. The Company allocated the transaction cost across the instruments on a relative fair value basis at the grant date. As a result $4.0 million was netted against the equity proceeds and $1.7 million was recorded in other expense in the Consolidated Statements of Operation for the three months ended March 31, 2024.

The Company registered for resale by the investors in the January 2024 Financing up to 55,944,850 shares of common stock issued (or issuable upon exercise of pre-funded warrants) in the first tranche. The Company will not receive any proceeds from the sale of these shares of common stock. These shares are registered on a registration statement on Form S-3 (registration No. 333-277040), which was declared effective by the SEC on April 30, 2024.
Common Stock
On March 4, 2024, the stockholders of the Company voted to increase the authorized shares of the Company from 130,000,000 shares of common stock to 500,000,000 shares of common stock, par value of $0.0001 per share. The voting, dividend and liquidation rights of the holders of the Company’s common stock are subject to and qualified by the rights, powers and preferences of any holders of preferred stock.
Each share of common stock entitles the holder to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of the Company’s stockholders. Common stockholders are entitled to receive dividends, as may be declared by the Board of Directors, if any.
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Through March 31, 2024, no cash dividends had been declared or paid.
Pre-funded Warrants
The Company issued 11,193,564 pre-funded warrants in connection with the January 2024 Financing, which all remain outstanding as of March 31, 2024.
Preferred Stock
The Company’s certificate of incorporation, as amended and restated, authorizes the Company to issue 20 million shares of $0.0001 par value preferred stock, rights and preferences to be set by the Board of Directors. No preferred shares were issued or outstanding as of March 31, 2024.
Stock Reserved for Future Issuance
Shares reserved for future issuance at March 31, 2024 are as follows:
 Number of
Shares
Common stock reserved for issuance for:
2021 Employee stock purchase plan1,000,011 
Pre-funded stock warrants11,193,564 
Outstanding stock options10,318,323 
     Shares reserved for tranche 2 rights46,620,046 
     Maximum shares reserved for tranche 3 rights46,620,046 
Common stock options available for future grant:
2014 Equity Incentive Plan43,311 
2017 Inducement Equity Incentive Plan46,250 
2019 Omnibus Equity Incentive Plan9,131,506 
Total common shares reserved for future issuance124,973,057 


7. Stock-Based Compensation Plans
2021 Employee Stock Purchase Plan

On April 25, 2021, the Company adopted the 2021 Employee Stock Purchase Plan ("ESPP"), which was approved by stockholder vote at the 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders held on June 10, 2021. The ESPP provides eligible employees of the Company with an opportunity to purchase common stock of the Company through accumulated payroll deductions, which are included in other current liabilities until they are used to purchase Company shares. Eligible employees participating in the bi-annual offering period can choose to have up to the lesser of 15% of their annual base earnings or the IRS annual share purchase limit of $25,000 in aggregate market value to purchase shares of the Company’s common stock. The purchase price of the stock is the lesser of (i) 85% of the closing market price on the date of purchase and (ii) the closing market price at the beginning of the bi-annual offering period. The maximum number of shares initially reserved for delivery under the plan was 200,000 shares. This maximum number was increased by 1 million shares through approval by stockholders of the Company at the Company's Special Meeting of stockholders held on March 4, 2024.

The first enrollment period under the plan commenced on August 1, 2021 and the Company has issued 199,989 shares life-to-date under the ESPP. The Company recognized $0 and $46,000 of expense related to the plan during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.
Stock Option Programs
In July 2019, the Company’s stockholders approved the 2019 Omnibus Equity Incentive Plan, as amended on June 28, 2023 (the “2019 Plan”), which was adopted by the Board of Directors (the "Board") with an effective date of June 14, 2019. The 2019 Plan allows for the grant of equity awards to employees, consultants and non-employee directors. An initial maximum of 1,500,000 shares of the Company’s common stock were available for grant under the 2019 Plan. The 2019 Plan
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included an evergreen provision that allowed for the annual addition of up to 4% of the Company’s fully-diluted outstanding stock, with a maximum allowable increase of 4,900,000 shares over the term of the 2019 Plan. In accordance with this provision, the shares available for grant were increased in 2020 through 2023 by a total of 4,408,871 shares. At the Company's Annual Stockholders meeting on June 28, 2023, stockholders voted to increase the allowable shares under the 2019 plan by 4,440,000 shares as well as to eliminate the evergreen provision. On March 4, 2024, the stockholders voted at the Company's Special Meeting to increase the allowable shares under the 2019 plan by 9,100,000. The 2019 Plan is currently administered by the Board, or, at the discretion of the Board, by a committee of the Board, which determines the exercise prices, vesting schedules and other restrictions of awards under the 2019 Plan at its discretion. Options to purchase stock may not have an exercise price that is less than the fair market value of underlying shares on the date of grant, and may not have a term greater than ten years. Incentive stock options granted to employees typically vest over four years. Non-statutory options granted to employees, officers, members of the Board, advisors, and consultants of the Company typically vest over three or four years.
Shares that are expired, terminated, surrendered or canceled under the 2019 Plan without having been fully exercised will be available for future awards.
Stock Option Repricing
On March 4, 2024, the Company's stockholders voted to approve the repricing of outstanding stock options having an exercise price above $3.00 per share to $1.72 per share. All other terms of the grant remained the same. There were 3,317,596 stock options that were repriced to $1.72 per share. The repricing will result in an addition $1.2 million of stock compensation being recognized by the Company over the remaining term of the repriced grants and $0.9 million of this amount recognized in the quarter ended March 31, 2024.
Movements during the year
The following table summarizes stock option activity for the quarters ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively, for the 2019 Plan:
OptionsWeighted-
Average
Exercise
Price
Weighted-
Average
Remaining
Contractual
Term (Years)
Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value
Outstanding as of January 1, 20246,196,140 $7.15 
Granted4,175,349 $1.21 
Exercised $ 
Repricing Modification $9.55 
Forfeited or expired(53,166)$5.25 
Outstanding as of March 31, 202410,318,323 $1.68 8.64$462,223 
Options vested and expected to vest as of March 31, 202410,318,323 $1.68 8.64$462,223 
Options exercisable as of March 31, 20243,224,039 $2.21 7.23$5,500 
OptionsWeighted-
Average
Exercise
Price
Weighted-
Average
Remaining
Contractual
Term (Years)
Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value
Outstanding as of January 1, 20233,791,688 $11.33 
Granted1,815,314 $1.41 
Exercised $ 
Forfeited or expired(11,161)$13.29 
Outstanding as of March 31, 20235,595,841 $8.11 8.66$161,428 
Options vested and expected to vest as of March 31, 20235,595,841 $8.11 8.66$161,428 
Options exercisable as of March 31, 20231,888,367 $12.66 7.67$1,980 

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Measurement
The weighted-average assumptions used in the BSM option pricing model to determine the fair value of the employee and non-employee stock option grants relating to the 2019 Plan were as follows:
Risk-Free Interest Rate
The risk-free rate assumption is based on U.S. Treasury instruments with maturities similar to the expected term of the stock options.
Expected Dividend Yield
The Company has not issued any dividends and does not expect to issue dividends over the life of the options. As a result, the Company has estimated the dividend yield to be zero.
Expected Volatility
Due to the Company’s limited operating history and a lack of company specific historical and implied volatility data, the Company estimates expected volatility based on the historical volatility of its own stock combined with a group of comparable companies that are publicly traded. The historical volatility data was computed using the daily closing prices for the selected companies’ shares during the equivalent period of the calculated expected term of the stock-based awards.
Expected Term
The expected term of options is estimated considering the vesting period at the grant date, the life of the option and the average length of time similar grants have remained outstanding in the past.
The weighted-average grant date fair value of stock options granted under the 2019 Plan (excluding the repriced stock options) during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 was $0.97 and $1.15, respectively. The weighted average grant date fair value of the repriced stock options was $1.22. The following are the underlying assumptions used in the Black-Scholes option pricing model to determine the fair value of stock options granted to employees and to non-employees under this stock plan:
Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023
Risk-free interest rate4.05%3.97%
Expected dividend yield0%0%
Expected volatility100.0%102.0%
Expected term of options (years)6.026.02
Stock-Based Compensation Expense
Total stock-based compensation expense for all stock awards recognized in the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations is as follows:
 Three Months
 Ended March 31,
 20242023
Research and development$1,163,000 $903,000 
General and administrative1,587,000 1,076,000 
Total$2,750,000 $1,979,000 
As of March 31, 2024, there was $13.5 million in total unrecognized compensation expense relating to the 2019 Plan, including $0.3 million related to repriced stock options, to be recognized over a weighted average period of 3.17 years. There was $0.6 million and $0.3 million of stock-based compensation expense during the three months ended March 31, 2024 related to the repricing included in general and administrative and research and development expense respectively.
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Summary of Equity Incentive Plans Assumed from Vital Therapies, Inc.
On April 12, 2019, we assumed the equity incentive plans of Vital Therapies, Inc. (“Vital”) following an exchange transaction (the “Transaction”) with Immunic AG. In the Transaction, holders of ordinary shares of Immunic AG exchanged all of their shares for shares of our common stock, resulting in Immunic AG becoming our wholly owned subsidiary. Following the Transaction, we changed our name to Immunic, Inc. Upon completion of the Transaction with Vital on April 12, 2019, Vital’s 2012 Stock Option Plan (the “2012 Plan”), Vital’s 2014 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2014 Plan”) and Vital’s 2017 Inducement Equity Incentive Plan (the “Inducement Plan”), were assumed by the Company. All awards granted under these plans have either been forfeited or expired.
There remain 43,311 shares available for grant under the 2014 Plan as of March 31, 2024.
In September 2017, Vital’s board of directors approved the Inducement Plan, which was amended and restated in November 2017. Under the Inducement Plan 46,250 shares of Vital’s common stock were reserved to be used exclusively for non-qualified grants to individuals who were not previously employees or directors as an inducement material to a grantee's entry into employment within the meaning of Rule 5635(c)(4) of the Nasdaq Listing Rules.
No expense was recorded for the plans assumed from Vital during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.


8. Related Party Transactions

Executive Chairman Agreement with Duane Nash

On April 15, 2020, the compensation committee of the Board of Directors of the Company independently reviewed and approved entering into an employment agreement with the Executive Chairman of the Board, Duane Nash, MD, JD, MBA (the “Executive Chairman Agreement”) and pursuant to such approval, on April 17, 2020, the Company and Dr. Nash entered into the Executive Chairman Agreement. The Executive Chairman Agreement establishes an “at will” employment relationship. On December 28, 2022, the Company and Dr. Nash entered into Addendum No. Four, which extended the term of employment from December 31, 2022 to December 31, 2023 with a base salary of $30,250 per month. On October 17, 2023, Immunic, Inc. and Dr. Duane Nash entered into Addendum Number 5 to the Employment Agreement dated April 17, 2020, as amended as of October 15, 2020, April 15, 2021, March 15, 2022, and December 28, 2022, to extend the term of Dr. Nash’s employment as Executive Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Company to December 31, 2024. In connection with the Addendum, the Company increased Dr. Nash’s monthly base salary to $32,368 from $30,250 (which includes the cash retainer payable for serving on the Company’s Board or for acting as the Chairman of the Board). All other terms of the Executive Chairman Agreement remain the same.


Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in Item 1 “Financial Statements” in this Quarterly Report and audited Consolidated Financial Statements for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 of Immunic, Inc. filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"), on our Annual Report on Form 10-K on February 22, 2024. As used in this report, unless the context suggests otherwise, “we,” “us,” “our,” “the Company” or “Immunic” refer to Immunic, Inc. and its subsidiaries.

Forward-Looking Statements
In addition to historical information, this Quarterly Report includes forward-looking statements within the meaning of federal securities laws. Forward-looking statements are subject to certain risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control. Such statements include, but are not limited to, statements preceded by, followed by or that otherwise include the words, “believe,” “may,” “might,” “can,” “could,” “will,” “would,” “should,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “seek,” “plan,” “project,” “expect,” “potential,” “predicts,” or similar expressions and the negatives of those terms.
Forward-looking statements discuss matters that are not historical facts. Our forward-looking statements involve
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assumptions that, if they ever materialize or prove correct, could cause our results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. In this Quarterly Report, for example, we make forward-looking statements, among others, regarding potential strategic options; financial estimates and projections; and the sufficiency of our capital resources to fund our operations.
The inclusion of any forward-looking statements in this Quarterly Report should not be regarded as a representation that any of our plans will be achieved. Our actual results may differ from those anticipated in our forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those noted below under the caption “Part II, Item 1A-Risk Factors,” and the differences may be material. These risk factors include, but are not limited to statements relating to our two development programs and the targeted diseases; the potential for vidofludimus calcium and IMU-856 to safely and effectively target diseases; the nature, strategy and focus of the Company; expectations regarding our capitalization and financial resources; the development and commercial potential of any product candidates of the Company; and our ability to retain certain personnel important to our ongoing operations and to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting.
Although our forward-looking statements reflect the good faith judgment of our management, these statements are based only on facts and factors currently known by us. As a result, investors are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date hereof. All forward-looking statements are qualified in their entirety by this cautionary statement, and we undertake no obligation to revise or update such statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date hereof, except as required by law.
Overview
Immunic, Inc. ("Immunic," “we,” “us,” “our” or the "Company") is a biotechnology company developing a clinical pipeline of selective oral immunology therapies focused on treating chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. We are headquartered in New York City with our main operations in Gräfelfing near Munich, Germany. We had approximately 80 employees as of May 1, 2024.

We are pursuing clinical development of orally administered, small molecule programs, each of which has unique features intended to directly address the unmet needs of patients with serious chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. These include the vidofludimus calcium (IMU-838) program, which is in Phase 3 clinical development for patients with multiple sclerosis (“MS”) and which has shown therapeutic activity in Phase 2 clinical trials in patients suffering from relapsing-remitting MS, progressive MS and moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis (“UC”); the IMU-856 program, which is targeted to regenerate bowel epithelium and restore intestinal barrier function, which could potentially be applicable in numerous gastrointestinal diseases, such as celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease (“IBD”), short bowel syndrome and irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea; and the IMU-381 program, which is a next generation molecule being developed to specifically address the needs of gastrointestinal diseases.

The following table summarizes the potential indications, clinical targets and clinical development status of our three product candidates:
pipeline_01_2023_2000px.jpg

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Our most advanced drug candidate, vidofludimus calcium (IMU-838), is being tested in several ongoing MS trials as part of its overall clinical program in order to support a potential approval for patients with MS in major markets. The Phase 3 ENSURE program of vidofludimus calcium in relapsing multiple sclerosis (“RMS”), comprising twin studies evaluating efficacy, safety, and tolerability of vidofludimus calcium versus placebo, and the Phase 2 CALLIPER trial of vidofludimus calcium in progressive multiple sclerosis (“PMS”), designed to corroborate vidofludimus calcium’s neuroprotective potential, are ongoing. On October 9, 2023, we announced positive interim data from the CALLIPER trial, showing biomarker evidence that vidofludimus calcium’s activity extends beyond the previously observed anti-inflammatory effects, thereby further reinforcing its neuroprotective potential. Top-line data from the CALLIPER trial, for which the recruitment of in total 467 patients was completed in August 2023, is expected to be available in April 2025. Moreover, we currently expect to report an interim futility analysis of the ENSURE program in late 2024 and to read-out the first of the ENSURE trials in the second quarter of 2026. Although we currently believe that each of these goals is achievable, they are each dependent on numerous factors, most of which are not under our direct control and can be difficult to predict. We plan to periodically review this assessment and provide updates of material changes as appropriate.

If approved, we believe that vidofludimus calcium, with combined neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral effects, has the potential to be a unique treatment option targeted to the complex pathophysiology of MS. Preclinical data showed that vidofludimus calcium activates the neuroprotective transcription factor nuclear receptor related 1 (“Nurr1”), which is associated with direct neuroprotective properties and may enhance the potential benefit for patients. Additionally, vidofludimus calcium is a known inhibitor of the enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (“DHODH”), which is a key enzyme in the metabolism of overactive immune cells and virus-infected cells. This mechanism is associated with the anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects of vidofludimus calcium. We believe that the combined mechanisms of vidofludimus calcium are unique in the MS space and support the therapeutic performance shown in our Phase 2 EMPhASIS trial in relapsing-remitting MS patients, in particular, via data illustrating the potential to reduce magnetic resonance imaging (“MRI”) lesions, prevent relapses, reduce the rate of disability progression, and reduce levels of serum neurofilament light chain (“NfL”), an important biomarker of neuronal damage. Vidofludimus calcium has shown in clinical trials reported to date a consistent pharmacokinetic, safety and tolerability profile and has already been exposed to more than 1,800 human subjects and patients in either of the drug’s formulations.

IMU-856 is an orally available and systemically acting small molecule modulator that targets Sirtuin 6 (“SIRT6”), a protein which serves as a transcriptional regulator of intestinal barrier function and regeneration of bowel epithelium. Based on preclinical data, we believe this compound may represent a unique treatment approach, as the mechanism of action targets the restoration of the intestinal barrier function and bowel wall architecture in patients suffering from gastrointestinal diseases such as celiac disease, IBD, short bowel syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea and other intestinal barrier function associated diseases. Based on preclinical investigations demonstrating no suppression of immune cells, IMU-856 may have the potential to maintain immune surveillance for patients during therapy, which would be an important advantage versus immunosuppressive medications and may allow the potential for combination with available treatments in gastroenterological diseases.

Data from a Phase 1b clinical trial in celiac disease patients during periods of gluten-free diet and gluten challenge demonstrated positive effects for IMU-856 over placebo in four key dimensions of celiac disease pathophysiology: protection of the gut architecture, improvement of patients’ symptoms, biomarker response, and enhancement of nutrient absorption. IMU-856 was also observed to be safe and well-tolerated in this trial. We are currently preparing clinical Phase 2 testing of IMU-856 in patients with ongoing active celiac disease (“OACD”) despite gluten-free diet, while also considering further potential clinical applications in other gastrointestinal disorders.

Immunic has selected IMU-381 as a development candidate to specifically address the needs of gastrointestinal diseases. IMU-381 is a next generation molecule with improved overall properties, supported by a series of chemical derivatives. IMU-381 is currently in preclinical testing.

Additional research and development activities remain ongoing through preclinical research examining the potential to treat a broad set of neuroinflammatory, autoimmune and viral diseases with new molecules leveraging our chemical and pharmacological research platform as well as generated intellectual property in these areas.

We expect to continue to lead most of our research and development activities from our Gräfelfing, Germany location, where dedicated scientific, regulatory, clinical and medical teams conduct their activities. Due to these teams' key relationships with local and international service providers, we anticipate that this should result in more timely and cost-effective execution of our development programs. In addition, we are using our subsidiary in Melbourne, Australia to perform research and development activities in the Australasia region. We also conduct preclinical work in Halle/Saale, Germany through a collaboration with the Fraunhofer Institute.

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Our business, operating results, financial condition and growth prospects are subject to significant risks and uncertainties, including delays in clinical trials, the failure of our clinical trials to meet their endpoints, failure to obtain regulatory approval and failure to obtain needed additional funding on acceptable terms, if at all, to complete the development and commercialization of our three development programs.
Strategy

We are focused on the development of new molecules that maximize the therapeutic benefits for patients by uniquely addressing biologically relevant immunological targets. We take advantage of our established research and development infrastructure and operations in Germany and Australia to more efficiently develop our product candidates in indications of high unmet need and where the product candidates have the potential to elevate the standard of care for the benefit of patients. Given the mechanisms of action and the data generated for our product candidates, to date, we continue to execute on the clinical development of our programs for established indications as well as explore additional indications where patients could potentially benefit from the unique profiles of each product candidate.

We are currently focused on maximizing the potential of our development programs through the following strategic initiatives:

Executing the ongoing Phase 3 ENSURE and Phase 2 CALLIPER clinical trial programs of vidofludimus calcium in RMS and PMS, respectively.
Executing the IMU-856 development program, including preparation of a Phase 2 clinical trial.
Continuing preclinical research to complement the existing clinical activities, explore additional indications for future development and generating additional molecules for potential future development.
Facilitating readiness for potential commercial launch of our product candidates through targeted and stage-appropriate pre-commercial activities.
Evaluating potential strategic collaborations for each product candidate in order to complement our existing research and development capabilities and to facilitate potential commercialization of these product candidates by taking advantage of the resources and capabilities of strategic collaborators in order to enhance the potential and value of each product candidate.

Liquidity and Financial Condition
We have no products approved for commercial sale and has not generated any revenue from product sales. We have never been profitable and have incurred operating losses in each year since inception in 2016. We have an accumulated deficit of approximately $440.5 million as of March 31, 2024 and $410.9 million as of December 31, 2023. Substantially all of our operating losses resulted from expenses incurred in connection with our research and development programs and from general and administrative costs associated with our operations.
We expect to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses for the foreseeable future as we initiate and continue the development of our product candidates and add personnel necessary to advance our pipeline of product candidates. We expect that our operating losses will fluctuate significantly from quarter-to-quarter and year-to-year due to timing of development programs.
From inception through March 31, 2024, we have raised net cash of approximately $430.9 million from private and public offerings of preferred stock, common stock, pre-funded warrants and tranche rights. As of March 31, 2024, we had cash and cash equivalents of approximately $97.3 million. With these funds, we expect to be able to fund our operations beyond twelve months from the date of the issuance of the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements.

Key Status Updates

Private Placement of up to $240 Million ("The January 2024 Financing")

On January 4, 2024, Immunic entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement with select accredited investors, pursuant to which the Company agreed to issue and sell to the Investors in a three-tranche private placement shares of the Company’s common stock, $0.0001 par value per share or in lieu thereof, pre-funded warrants to purchase shares of Common Stock. The Pre-Funded Warrants are exercisable immediately for $0.0001 per share and until exercised in full.
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The first tranche, which closed on January 8, 2024, resulted in the purchase by the Investors of an aggregate of $80 million of Common Stock (or pre-funded warrants) from the Company at a price of $1.43 per share;
The second tranche is a conditional mandatory purchase by the Investors of an additional $80 million of Common Stock (or pre-funded warrants) from the Company at a price of $1.716 per share, equal to 120% of the price paid in the first tranche and is subject to the satisfaction of three conditions:
release by the Company of topline data from its Phase 2b clinical trial of vidofludimus calcium (IMU-838) in progressive multiple sclerosis, which data is currently expected in or around April 2025;
the 10-day volume-weighted average price of the Common Stock is at least $8.00 per share during the 6 months following the data release; and
aggregate trading volume during the same 10-day period is at least $100 million.
The third tranche must occur no later than three years after the second tranche and is conditioned on the same volume-weighted average share price and minimum trading volumes as the second tranche. The third tranche provides for the issuance of $80 million of shares of common stock (or pre-funded warrants) at the same price per share as the second tranche, but permits investors to fund their purchase obligations on a “cashless” or net settlement basis, which would reduce the cash proceeds to be raised by the Company in the Private Placement.
Any of the conditions in the second or third tranches can be waived by holders of a majority of the outstanding securities (including the lead investor).

The Private Placement resulted in gross proceeds to the Company of approximately $80 million in the first tranche, and an additional $80 million if and when the second tranche occurs. If the second tranche is completed and conditions for the third tranche are satisfied or waived, the Company could receive up to an additional $80 million in the third tranche. However, the amount of cash received in the third tranche would depend on the extent to which the Investors elect to fund the third tranche through a “cashless” or net settlement basis. Therefore, total gross proceeds from the offering to the Company could actually be between $80 million and $240 million. Gross proceeds to the Company will be reduced by fees paid to the placement agents, capital markets advisors and payments of transaction expenses. The Company intends to use the net proceeds from the Private Placement to fund the ongoing clinical development of its three lead product candidates, vidofludimus calcium (IMU-838), IMU-856 and IMU-381, and for other general corporate purposes.

As of the closing date of the transaction of January 8, 2024, the Company did not have enough authorized shares to be able to issue the potential shares for tranche 2 and tranche 3 (collectively referred to hereafter as "the tranche rights"). Therefore, the Company recorded the value associated to the tranche rights as a liability of $23.6 million and allocated the remainder of the $80 million received (or $56.4 million) with the common stock and pre-funded warrants to equity. On March 4, 2024, the stockholders voted to increase the Company's authorized common shares from 130 million to 500 million shares. As a result of the ability to issue shares in satisfaction of the tranche rights, the instrument was reclassified to stockholders' equity. The Company allocated the transaction cost across the instruments on a relative fair value basis. As a result $4.0 million was netted against the equity proceeds and $1.7 million was recorded in other expense in the Consolidated Statements of Operation for the three months ended March 31, 2024.

The financing was led by BVF Partners L.P., and included participation from new and existing investors, including Avidity Partners, Janus Henderson Investors, Soleus Capital, RTW Investments and Adage Capital Partners LP. Leerink Partners acted as the lead placement agent and Ladenburg Thalmann acted as a placement agent in connection with the offering. Piper Sandler, B. Riley Securities and Brookline Capital Markets, a division of Arcadia Securities, LLC, acted as capital markets advisors to the Company.

The Company registered for resale by the investors in the January 2024 Financing up to 55,944,850 shares of common stock issued (or issuable upon exercise of pre-funded warrants) in the first tranche. The Company will not receive any proceeds from the sale of these shares of common stock. These shares are registered on a registration statement on Form S-3 (registration No. 333-277040), which was declared effective by the SEC on April 30, 2024.

Notice of Allowance for Composition-of-Matter Patent of a Specific Polymorph of Vidofludimus Calcium in the United States

On March 20, 2024, we announced Notice of Allowance from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (“USPTO”) for patent application 16/981,122, entitled, “Calcium salt polymorphs as anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-proliferative agents,” covering the composition-of-matter of a specific polymorph of vidofludimus calcium and a related
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method of production of the material. The claims are expected to provide protection into 2039, unless extended further. The patent was previously granted to the company in Australia, Canada, Indonesia, Japan and Mexico.

Publication of Extended Data From Phase 2 EMPhASIS Trial of Vidofludimus Calcium in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis in the Peer Reviewed Journal, Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation

On April 30, 2024, we announced that data from our phase 2 EMPhASIS trial of vidofludimus calcium in patients with relapsing-remitting MS has been published online on April 25, 2024 in Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation, an official journal of the American Academy of Neurology. The paper, lead authored by coordinating investigator, Robert J. Fox, M.D., Staff Neurologist, Mellen Center for Multiple Sclerosis, Vice-Chair for Research, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, is entitled, “Safety and Dose-Response of Vidofludimus Calcium in Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis: Extended Results of a Placebo-Controlled Phase 2 Trial.”
Components of Results of Operations
Revenue
To date, we have not generated any revenue from product sales and do not expect to generate any revenue from the sale of products in the foreseeable future. If our development efforts for our product candidates are successful and result in regulatory approval, we may generate revenue in the future from product sales. We cannot predict if, when, or to what extent we will generate revenue from the commercialization and sale of our product candidates. We may never succeed in obtaining regulatory approval for any of our product candidates or achieving market acceptance and commercial success for any product that does receive regulatory approval.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development expenses consist of costs associated with our research activities, including our product discovery efforts and the development of our product candidates. Our research and development expenses include:

external research and development expenses and milestone payments incurred under arrangements with third parties, such as CROs, contract manufacturing organizations, collaborations with partners, consultants, and our scientific advisors; and

internal personnel expenses.
We expense research and development costs as incurred. Non-refundable advance payments for goods and services that will be used in future research and development activities are capitalized as prepaid expenses and expensed when the service has been performed or when the goods have been received.
Since our inception in March 2016, we have spent a total of approximately $316.8 million in research and development expenses through March 31, 2024.
These costs primarily include external development expenses and internal personnel expenses for the three development programs, vidofludimus calcium, IMU-856 and IMU-381. We have spent the majority of our research and development resources on vidofludimus calcium, our lead development program, for clinical trials in MS and UC.
In August 2019, Immunic AG received a grant of up to approximately $726,000 from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, in support of the InnoMuNiCH (Innovations through Munich-Nippon Cooperation in Healthcare) project. The grant funds have been used to fund a three-year research project relating to autoimmune diseases by us and our three project partners. Since the inception of the grant, we have recorded $726,000 of income in total which was classified in Other Income in the accompanying consolidated statement of operations. No income was recorded for the periods ending March 31, 2023 and 2024. The funding of this grant is now completed.
Our research and development expenses are expected to increase in the foreseeable future as we continue to conduct ongoing research and development activities, initiate new preclinical and clinical trials and build our pipeline of product candidates. Our research and development expenses may also increase in the foreseeable future due to the current inflationary environment as well as supply chain shortages, which result in increased costs. The process of conducting clinical trials and preclinical studies necessary to obtain regulatory approval is costly and time consuming. We may never succeed in achieving regulatory approval for any of our product candidates.
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Successful development of product candidates is highly uncertain and may not result in approved products. Completion dates and completion costs can vary significantly for each product candidate and are difficult to predict. We anticipate that we will make determinations as to which programs to pursue and how much funding to direct to each program on an ongoing basis in response to the development and regulatory success of each product candidate, and ongoing assessments as to each product candidate’s commercial potential.
General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel expenses, professional fees for legal, accounting, tax and business consulting services, insurance premiums and stock-based compensation.
Other Income (Expense)
Interest Income
Interest income consists of interest earned on our money market funds and bank accounts which are a portion of our cash and cash equivalents balance. Our interest income has been increasing throughout 2023 and 2024 as global interest rates have been increasing.
Change in the Fair Value of the Tranche Rights
The change in fair value of the tranche rights is a non-cash charge related to the change in fair value of the tranche 2 and tranche 3 rights associated with the January 2024 Financing from January 8, 2024 until March 4, 2024.
Other Income (Expense), Net
Other income (expense) consists of (i) deal costs from the January 2024 Financing related to tranche rights that were established at the time of the deal closing (ii) a research and development tax incentive related to clinical trials performed in Australia, (iii) a German Government research and development grant and (iv) foreign currency transaction gains and losses.
Results of Operations
Comparison of the Three Months Ended March 31, 2024 and 2023
The following table summarizes our operating expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023:
 Three Months Ended March 31,Change
 20242023$%
(dollars in thousands)(unaudited)
Operating expenses:
Research and development$18,736 $22,963 $(4,227)(18)%
General and administrative5,145 4,288 857 20 %
Total operating expenses$23,881 $27,251 $(3,370)(12)%
Loss from operations(23,881)(27,251)3,370 (12)%
Other income (expense):
Interest income1,187 800 $387 48 %
Change in fair value of the tranche rights(4,796)— $(4,796)N/A
Other income (expense), net(2,094)1,179 $(3,273)(278)%
Total other income (expense)(5,703)1,979 $(7,682)(388)%
Net loss$(29,584)$(25,272)$(4,312)17 %

Research and development expenses decreased by $4.2 million during the three months ended March 31, 2024, as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2023. The decrease reflects (i) a decrease of $2.4 million from deprioritizing the izumerogant program in psoriasis and castration-resistant prostate cancer, (ii) a $1.4 million decrease in external development costs related to the vidofludimus calcium programs and (iii) a $1.1 million decrease in external development costs related to IMU-856 due to the completion of the phase 1 trial in celiac disease. The decreases were offset by a $0.7 million increase in
28


personnel costs, $0.3 million of which is related to non-cash stock compensation and the remainder of which is due to an increase in headcount.

General and administrative expenses increased by $0.9 million during the three months ended March 31, 2024, as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2023. The increase was primarily due to (i) a $0.8 million increase in personnel expense in general and administrative, $0.5 million of which is related to non-cash stock compensation expense and the remainder of which is related to an increase in headcount and (ii) $0.1 million in legal and consultancy expenses.

Interest income increased by $0.4 million during the three months ended March 31, 2024, as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2023 due to higher interest rates.

The change in fair value of the tranche rights of $4.8 million is a non-cash charge related to the change in value of the tranche rights associated with the January 2024 Financing from January 8, 2024 until March 4, 2024. These tranches were initially classified as a liability but were reclassified to equity on March 4, 2024 when stockholders approved the increase in our authorized shares from 130 million to 500 million shares of common stock and therefore the tranche 2 and tranche 3 rights needed to be revalued to fair value upon the reclass to equity.

Other income decreased by $3.3 million during the three months ended March 31, 2024, as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2023. The decrease was primarily attributable to (i) a $1.7 million expense related to the portion of deal costs from the January 2024 Financing related to the tranche rights that were established at the time of the deal closing, (ii) the German Federal Ministry of Finance grant of $1.1 million being recognized in the fourth quarter of 2023 which was one quarter earlier than in the prior year that was recognized in the first quarter of 2023 and (iii) a $0.5 million decrease in research and development tax incentives for clinical trials in Australia as a result of decreased spending on clinical trials in Australia.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
We have no products approved for commercial sale and has not generated any revenue from product sales. We have never been profitable and have incurred operating losses in each year since inception in 2016. We have an accumulated deficit of approximately $440.5 million as of March 31, 2024 and $410.9 million as of December 31, 2023. Substantially all of our operating losses resulted from expenses incurred in connection with our research and development programs and from general and administrative costs associated with our operations.
We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses for the foreseeable future as we initiate and continue the preclinical and clinical development of our product candidates and add personnel necessary to operate as a company with an advanced clinical pipeline of product candidates. To the extent additional funds are necessary to meet long-term liquidity needs as we continue to execute our business strategy, we anticipate that they will be obtained through the incurrence of indebtedness, additional equity financings or a combination of these potential sources of funds, although we can provide no assurance that these sources of funding will be available on reasonable terms, if at all.
From inception through March 31, 2024, we have raised net cash of approximately $430.9 million from private and public offerings of preferred stock, common stock, prefunded warrants and tranche rights. As of March 31, 2024, we had cash and cash equivalents of approximately $97.3 million. With these funds, we expect to be able to fund our operations beyond twelve months from the date of the issuance of the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements.
In November 2023, we filed a shelf registration statement on Form S-3 (the "2023 Shelf Registration Statement"). The 2023 Shelf Registration Statement permits the offering, issuance and sale of up to $250.0 million of common stock, preferred stock, warrants, debt securities, and/or units in one or more offerings and in any combination of the foregoing. As of May 8, 2024, the 2023 Shelf Registration statement has not been declared effective by the SEC, however, the Company can (i) continue to sell, subject to applicable SEC requirements, unsold securities remaining on the expired 2020 Shelf Registration Statement until the 2023 Shelf Registration Statement has been declared effective (or May 22, 2024, if sooner); and (ii) after the 2023 Shelf Registration Statement has been declared effective, offer and sell additional securities to be registered on the new Form S-3, as well as unsold securities from the expired 2020 Shelf Registration Statement that are permitted by SEC rules to be included in the new 2023 Shelf Registration Statement.
In November 2020, we filed a shelf registration statement on Form S-3 (the "2020 Shelf Registration Statement"). The 2020 Shelf Registration Statement permitted the offering, issuance and sale of up to $250.0 million of common stock, preferred stock, warrants, debt securities, and/or units in one or more offerings and in any combination of the foregoing. The 2020 Shelf Registration Statement expired in November 2023 but, as explained above, unsold securities from this expired registration statement can continue to be sold under the 2023 Shelf Registration Statement. As of March 31, 2024, there is $75.0 million of unsold securities from this 2020 Shelf Registration Statement.
29


In December 2020, we filed a Prospectus Supplement to the 2020 Shelf Registration Statement for the offering, issuance and sale of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $50.0 million of common stock that may be issued and sold under an at-the-market sales agreement with SVB Leerink LLC (now Leerink Partners LLC) as agent ("December 2020 ATM"). We have used and intend to continue to use the net proceeds from the December 2020 ATM to continue to fund the ongoing clinical development of our product candidates and for other general corporate purposes, including funding existing and potential new clinical programs and product candidates. The December 2020 ATM will terminate upon the earlier of (i) the issuance and sale of all of the shares through Leerink Partners LLC on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the December 2020 ATM or (ii) termination of the December 2020 ATM as otherwise permitted thereby. The December 2020 ATM may be terminated at any time by either party upon ten days’ prior notice, or by Leerink Partners LLC at any time in certain circumstances, including the occurrence of a material adverse effect on us. As of March 31, 2024, $7.3 million in capacity remains under the December 2020 ATM.

In May 2022, we filed a Prospectus Supplement to the 2020 Shelf Registration Statement for the offering, issuance and sale of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $80.0 million of common stock that may be issued and sold under another at-the-market sales agreement ("May 2022 ATM") with Leerink Partners LLC (formerly SVB Leerink LLC) as agent. We intend to use the net proceeds from the offering to continue to fund the ongoing clinical development of its product candidates and for other general corporate purposes, including funding existing and potential new clinical programs and product candidates. The May 2022 ATM will terminate upon the earlier of (i) the issuance and sale of all of the shares through Leerink Partners LLC on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the May 2022 ATM or (ii) termination of the May 2022 ATM as otherwise permitted thereby. The May 2022 ATM may be terminated at any time by either party upon ten days’ prior notice, or by Leerink Partners LLC at any time in certain circumstances, including the occurrence of a material adverse effect on the Company. As of March 31, 2024, $80.0 million in capacity remains under the May 2022 ATM.

We agreed to pay Leerink Partners LLC a commission equal to 3.0% of the gross proceeds from the sales of common shares pursuant to both ATM's and has agreed to provide Leerink Partners LLC with customary indemnification and contribution rights.
For the three months ended March 31, 2024, we raised gross proceeds of $0.2 million pursuant to the December 2020 ATM through the sale of 150,000 shares of common stock at a weighted average price of $1.31 per share. The net proceeds from the December 2020 ATM were $0.2 million after deducting sales agent commissions of $6,000.
We did not have any ATM activity during the three months ended March 31, 2023.
Equity Offerings
Private Placement of up to $240 Million

On January 4, 2024, Immunic entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement with select accredited investors, pursuant to which the Company agreed to issue and sell to the Investors in a three-tranche private placement shares of the Company’s common stock, $0.0001 par value per share or in lieu thereof, pre-funded warrants to purchase shares of Common Stock. The pre-funded warrants are exercisable immediately for $0.0001 per share and until exercised in full.

The first tranche, which closed on January 8, 2024, resulted in the purchase by the Investors of an aggregate of $80 million of Common Stock (or pre-funded warrants) from the Company at a price of $1.43 per share; The second tranche is a conditional mandatory purchase by the Investors of an additional $80 million of Common Stock (or pre-funded warrants) from the Company at a price of $1.716 per share, equal to 120% of the price paid in the first tranche and is subject to the satisfaction of three conditions:

release by the Company of topline data from its Phase 2b clinical trial of vidofludimus calcium (IMU-838) in progressive multiple sclerosis, which data is currently expected in or around April 2025;
the 10-day volume-weighted average price of the Common Stock is at least $8.00 per share during the 6 months following the data release; and
aggregate trading volume during the same 10-day period is at least $100 million.

The third tranche must occur no later than three years after the second tranche and is conditioned on the same volume-weighted average share price and minimum trading volumes as the second tranche. The third tranche provides for the issuance of $80 million of shares of common stock (or pre-funded warrants) at the same price per share as the second tranche, but permits investors to fund their purchase obligations on a “cashless” or net settlement basis, which would reduce the cash proceeds to be raised by the Company in the Private Placement.
30


Any of the conditions in the second or third tranches can be waived by holders of a majority of the outstanding securities (including the lead Investor).

The Private Placement resulted in gross proceeds to the Company of approximately $80 million in the first tranche, and an additional $80 million if and when the second tranche occurs. If the second tranche is completed and conditions for the third tranche are satisfied or waived, the Company could receive up to an additional $80 million in the third tranche. However, the amount of cash received in the third tranche would depend on the extent to which the Investors elect to fund the third tranche through a “cashless” or net settlement basis. Therefore, total gross proceeds from the offering to the Company could actually be between $80 million and $240 million. Gross proceeds to the Company will be reduced by fees paid to the placement agents, capital markets advisors and payments of transaction expenses. The Company intends to use the net proceeds from the Private Placement to fund the ongoing clinical development of its three lead product candidates, vidofludimus calcium (IMU-838), IMU-856 and IMU-381, and for other general corporate purposes
Future Capital Requirements
As noted above, we have not generated any revenue from product sales and we do not know when, or if, we will generate any revenue from product sales. We do not expect to generate any revenue from product sales unless and until we obtain regulatory approval for and commercialize any of our product candidates. We expect our expenses to continue to increase as we continue the ongoing research, development, manufacture and clinical trials of, and seek regulatory approval for, our product candidates. We also incur additional costs associated with operating as a public company. In addition, subject to obtaining regulatory approval of any of our product candidates, we anticipate that we will need substantial additional funding in connection with our continuing operations.
Our future expenses and capital requirements are difficult to forecast and will depend on many factors, including, but not limited to:
the timing and structure of any strategic options and transactions, if any;
personnel-related expenses, including salaries, benefits, stock-based compensation expense and other compensation expenses related to retention and termination of personnel;
the scope, progress, duration, results and costs of research and development and ongoing clinical trials;
the cost and timing of future regulatory submissions;
the cost and timing of developing and validating the manufacturing processes for any potential product candidates;
the cost and timing of any commercialization activities, including reimbursement, marketing, sales and distribution costs;
our ability to establish new collaborations, licensing or other arrangements and the financial terms of such agreements;
the number and characteristics of any future product candidates we pursue;
the costs involved with being a public company;
the costs involved in preparing, filing, prosecuting, maintaining, defending and enforcing patents, including litigation costs and the outcome of such litigation;
the cost, timing and outcome of any future litigation; and
the timing, receipt and amount from the sales of, or royalties on, any future products.
31


Until such time, if ever, as we can generate substantial product revenues, we expect to finance our cash needs through a combination of stock offerings, debt financings, strategic alliances, collaborations and licensing arrangements. We do not expect to achieve revenue from product sales prior to the use of all the net proceeds from our public and private offerings to date. We do not have any committed external source of funds. Additional funds may not be available on acceptable terms, if at all. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity securities, the ownership interest of our stockholders will be diluted and it may be on terms that are not favorable to us or our stockholders. Sales of equity securities will also be more difficult for at least the foreseeable future because of general volatility in the equity markets for companies like us. Debt financing, if available, may involve covenants restricting our operations or our ability to incur additional debt or other terms that are not favorable to us or our stockholders. Also, the cost of debt financing has increased due to the rise in interest rates over the past few years. If we raise additional funds through collaborations and licensing arrangements with third parties, we would expect to relinquish substantial rights to our technologies or our future products, or grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. If we were to complete a merger, or other business combination, we may relinquish all control over the organization and could experience detrimental tax effects. If we are unable to raise adequate funds, we may have to curtail our product development programs and liquidate some or all of our assets. Any of these factors could harm our operating results and could result in substantial declines in the trading price of our common stock.
As of March 31, 2024, we had approximately $97.3 million in cash and cash equivalents.
Cash Flows
The following table shows a summary of our cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023:
 Three Months Ended March 31,
 20242023
(in thousands)(unaudited)
Cash (used in) provided by:
Operating activities$(23,969)$(19,513)
Investing activities$(31)$5,335 
Financing activities$74,464 $51 
Operating activities
During the three months ended March 31, 2024, operating activities used $24.0 million of cash. The use of cash primarily resulted from (i) our net loss of $29.6 million adjusted for non-cash charges of $7.9 million related to a $4.8 million change in the fair value of the tranche rights, $2.8 million for stock-based compensation and $0.3 million related to unrealized foreign currency loss and depreciation and amortization as well as fees expensed as part of the January 2024 Financing (ii) a $4.0 million net decrease in our operating assets and liabilities. Changes in our operating assets and liabilities during the three months ended March 31, 2024 consisted primarily of a net decrease of $4.4 million in accounts payable and other accrued expenses partially offset by $0.4 million decrease in our other current assets and prepaid expenses.
During the three months ended March 31, 2023, operating activities used $19.5 million of cash. The use of cash primarily resulted from (i) our net loss of $25.3 million adjusted for non-cash charges of $2.0 million related to stock-based compensation, $0.5 million related to unrealized foreign currency loss and depreciation and amortization and (ii) a $3.3 million net decrease in our operating assets and liabilities. Changes in our operating assets and liabilities during the three months ended March 31, 2023 consisted primarily of a decrease of $3.2 million in accounts payable and other accrued expenses as well as a $0.1 million decrease in our other current assets and prepaid expenses.
Investing activities
During the three months ended March 31, 2024, net investing activities used $31,000 due to the purchase of property and equipment.
During the three months ended March 31, 2023, net investing activities provided $5.3 million of cash, primarily due to the sale of $5.4 million of time deposits partially offset by the purchase of $104,000 of property and equipment.
Financing Activities
Net cash provided by financing activities was $74.4 million during the three months ended March 31, 2024 primarily consisting of net cash proceeds from the January 2024 Financing.
32


Net cash provided by financing activities was $51,000 during the three months ended March 31, 2023 consisting of net cash proceeds from the issuance of common stock related to the exercise of pre-funded warrants.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
Through March 31, 2024, we have not entered into and did not have any relationships with unconsolidated entities or financial collaborations, such as entities often referred to as structured finance or special purpose entities, established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements or other contractually narrow or limited purpose.
Other Commitments and Obligations
See Note 2 - Collaboration Arrangements of the Notes to the Financial Statements regarding the Company’s obligations under the option agreement with Daiichi Sankyo, which includes the potential payment of future development, regulatory and sales milestone payments, as well as royalties related to IMU-856.

Maturities of the operating lease obligation are as follows as of March 31, 2024:
2024$551,000 
2025433,000 
202678,000 
202782,000 
202879,000 
Thereafter— 
Total1,223,000 
Interest(93,000)
Present value of obligation$1,130,000 
As of March 31, 2024, we have non-cancelable contractual obligations under certain agreements related to our development programs vidofludimus calcium and IMU-856 totaling approximately $3.0 million, all of which is expected to be paid in 2024 and 2025.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements are prepared in conformity with U.S. GAAP. The preparation of our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, costs and expenses, and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in our financial statements. We base our estimates on historical experience, known trends and events and various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. We evaluate our estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis. Our actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. We have reviewed these critical accounting policies and related disclosures with the Audit Committee of our Board.
During the first three months of 2024, we had a change in our warrants and tranche rights accounting policy which is described along with our other significant accounting policies in more detail in (i) Note 2 to our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report and (ii) Note 2 to our audited consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 filed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K on February 22, 2024.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
There are no recently issued accounting standards that would have a significant impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
33



Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
Interest Rate Sensitivity
We had cash and cash equivalents and investments of $97.3 million as of March 31, 2024, which were held for working capital purposes. We do not enter into investments for trading or speculative purposes. We do not believe that we have any material exposure to changes in the fair value of these investments as a result of changes in interest rates due to their short-term nature. However, $22.5 million of these funds are held in German bank accounts that were earning between 3.5%-3.75% interest as of March 31, 2024. Decreases or increases in interest rates, however, will reduce or increase future investment income, respectively, to the extent we have funds available for investment.
Foreign Currency Exchange Risk
Our primary research and development operations are conducted in our facilities in Germany. We have entered into and may continue to enter into international agreements, primarily related to our clinical studies. Accordingly, we have exposure to foreign currency exchange rates and fluctuations between the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies, primarily the euro and the Australian dollar, which could adversely affect our financial results, including income and losses as well as assets and liabilities. To date, we have not entered into, and do not have any current plans to enter into, any foreign currency hedging transactions or derivative financial transactions. Our exposure to foreign currency risk will fluctuate in future periods as our research and clinical development activities in Europe and Australia change. We currently maintain a significant amount of our assets outside of the U.S.
The functional currencies of our foreign subsidiaries are the applicable local currencies. Accordingly, the effects of exchange rate fluctuations on the net assets of these operations are accounted for as translation gains or losses in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) within stockholders’ equity. Foreign currency transaction gains and losses related to long-term intercompany loans that are payable in the foreseeable future are recorded in Other Income (Expense). Our German subsidiary is currently a significant portion of our business and, accordingly, a change of 10% in the currency exchange rates, primarily the euro, could have a material impact on our financial position or results of operations.
Although operating in local currencies may limit the impact of currency rate fluctuations on the results of operations of our German and Australian subsidiaries, rate fluctuations may impact the consolidated financial position as the assets and liabilities of our foreign operations are translated into U.S. dollars in preparing our consolidated balance sheets. As of March 31, 2024, our German and Australian subsidiaries had net current assets (defined as current assets less current liabilities), subject to foreign currency translation risk, of $10.3 million. A decrease of approximately $1.0 million in net current assets would result as of March 31 2024, from a hypothetical 10% adverse change in quoted foreign currency exchange rates, primarily due to the euro. In addition, a 10% change in the foreign currency exchange rates for the three months ended March 31, 2024, would have impacted our net loss by approximately $1.9 million, primarily due to the euro.
Effects of Inflation
We have experienced a general increase in costs as a result of global inflation, however, we do not believe that inflation and changing prices had a material impact on our results of operations for any periods presented herein.
Item 4. Controls and Procedures
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
An evaluation was carried out, under the supervision of and with the participation of our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and our Principal Financial Officer, of the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15 (e)) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended ("the Exchange Act"), as of the end of the period covered by this report. Based on such evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and our Principal Financial Officer have concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures are effective to ensure that the information required to be disclosed by us in the reports we file or submit under the Exchange Act was recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms.

34


Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
There was no change in our internal control over financial reporting that occurred during the quarter ended March 31, 2024 that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

Part II - OTHER INFORMATION
Item 1. Legal Proceedings
We are not currently a party to any litigation, nor are we aware of any pending or threatened litigation against us, that we believe would materially affect our business, operating results, financial condition or cash flows. Our industry is characterized by frequent claims and litigation including securities litigation, claims regarding patent and other intellectual property rights and claims for product liability. As a result, in the future, we may be involved in various legal proceedings from time to time.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
See Risk factors in the Company's 2023 Form 10K filed on February 22, 2024.

Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds
None.

Item 3. Defaults Upon Senior Securities
Not applicable.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
Item 5. Other Information

None.
Item 6. Exhibits
  Incorporated by Reference
Exhibit
Number
Exhibit TitleFormExhibitFiling Date
3.18-K3.1 July 17, 2019
3.28-K3.1 July 17, 2019
4.1S-84.2 August 21, 2023
4.2+S-810.3 July 28, 2021
4.48-K4.1January 4, 2024
10.18-K10.1October 17, 2023
10.28-K10.3December 18, 2023
10.38-K10.1December 18, 2023
10.48-K10.2December 18, 2023
10.58-K10.4December 18, 2023
35


10.68-K10.1January 4, 2024
10.78-K10.4July 17, 2019
10.810-K10.5February 23, 2023
10.910-K10.6February 23, 2023
10.108-K10.5July 17, 2019
10.118-K99.3September 5, 2019
10.128-K10.2April 20, 2020
10.138-K10.3June 10, 2021
10.148-K10.4June 10, 2021
10.158-K10.1October 14, 2021
24.1
31.1*
31.2*
32.1**
32.2**
101.INS*XBRL Instance Document
101.SCH*XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document.
101.CAL*XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document.
101.DEF*XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Database.
101.LAB*XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document.
101.PRE*XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document.
36


104*Cover Page Interactive Data File


+Indicates a management contract or compensatory plan or arrangement.
*Filed herewith
**In accordance with Item 601(b)(32)(ii) of Regulation S-K and SEC Release No. 33-8238 and 34-47986, Final Rule: Management’s Reports on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting and Certification of Disclosure in Exchange Act Periodic Reports, the certifications furnished in Exhibits 32.1 and 32.2 hereto are deemed to accompany this Form 10-Q and will not be deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act. Such certifications will not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filings under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, except to the extent that the registrant specifically incorporates it by reference.

37


SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned thereunto duly authorized.

IMMUNIC, INC.

Date: May 8, 2024                    By: /s/ Daniel Vitt
    Daniel Vitt
    Chief Executive Officer and President




38

Exhibit 31.1
CERTIFICATIONS
I, Daniel Vitt, certify that:
1. I have reviewed this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q of Immunic, Inc.;
2. Based on my knowledge, this report does not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements made, in light of the circumstances under which such statements were made, not misleading with respect to the period covered by this report;
3. Based on my knowledge, the financial statements, and other financial information included in this report, fairly present in all material respects the financial condition, results of operations and cash flows of the registrant as of, and for, the periods presented in this report;
4. The registrant’s other certifying officer and I are responsible for establishing and maintaining disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e)) and internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f)) for the registrant and have:
a) Designed such disclosure controls and procedures, or caused such disclosure controls and procedures to be designed under our supervision, to ensure that material information relating to the registrant, including its consolidated subsidiaries, is made known to us by others within those entities, particularly during the period in which this report is being prepared;
b) Designed such internal control over financial reporting, or caused such internal control over financial reporting to be designed under our supervision, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;
c)Evaluated the effectiveness of the registrant’s disclosure controls and procedures and presented in this report our conclusions about the effectiveness of the disclosure controls and procedures, as of the end of the period covered by this report based on such evaluation; and
d) Disclosed in this report any change in the registrant’s internal control over financial reporting that occurred during the registrant’s most recent fiscal quarter (the registrant’s fourth fiscal quarter in the case of an annual report) that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the registrant’s internal control over financial reporting; and
5. The registrant’s other certifying officer and I have disclosed, based on our most recent evaluation of internal control over financial reporting, to the registrant’s auditors and the audit committee of the registrant’s board of directors (or persons performing the equivalent functions):
a) All significant deficiencies and material weaknesses in the design or operation of internal control over financial reporting which are reasonably likely to adversely affect the registrant’s ability to record, process, summarize and report financial information; and
b) Any fraud, whether or not material, that involves management or other employees who have a significant role in the registrant’s internal control over financial reporting.
 
Date: May 8, 2024By:/s/ Daniel Vitt
Daniel Vitt
Chief Executive Officer and President
(Principal Executive Officer)



Exhibit 31.2
CERTIFICATIONS
I, Glenn Whaley, certify that:
1. I have reviewed this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q of Immunic, Inc.;
2. Based on my knowledge, this report does not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements made, in light of the circumstances under which such statements were made, not misleading with respect to the period covered by this report;
3. Based on my knowledge, the financial statements, and other financial information included in this report, fairly present in all material respects the financial condition, results of operations and cash flows of the registrant as of and for the periods presented in this report;
4. The registrant’s other certifying officer and I are responsible for establishing and maintaining disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e)) and internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f)) for the registrant and have:
a) Designed such disclosure controls and procedures, or caused such disclosure controls and procedures to be designed under our supervision, to ensure that material information relating to the registrant, including its consolidated subsidiaries, is made known to us by others within those entities, particularly during the period in which this report is being prepared;
b) Designed such internal control over financial reporting, or caused such internal control over financial reporting to be designed under our supervision, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;
c) Evaluated the effectiveness of the registrant’s disclosure controls and procedures and presented in this report our conclusions about the effectiveness of the disclosure controls and procedures, as of the end of the period covered by this report based on such evaluation; and
d) Disclosed in this report any change in the registrant’s internal control over financial reporting that occurred during the registrant’s most recent fiscal quarter (the registrant’s fourth fiscal quarter in the case of an annual report) that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the registrant’s internal control over financial reporting; and
5. The registrant’s other certifying officer and I have disclosed, based on our most recent evaluation of internal control over financial reporting, to the registrant’s auditors and the audit committee of the registrant’s board of directors (or persons performing the equivalent functions):
a) All significant deficiencies and material weaknesses in the design or operation of internal control over financial reporting which are reasonably likely to adversely affect the registrant’s ability to record, process, summarize and report financial information; and
b) Any fraud, whether or not material, that involves management or other employees who have a significant role in the registrant’s internal control over financial reporting.
 
Date: May 8, 2024By:/s/ Glenn Whaley
Glenn Whaley
Chief Financial Officer
(Principal Financial Officer)



Exhibit 32.1
CERTIFICATION PURSUANT TO 18 U.S.C. SECTION 1350,
AS ADOPTED PURSUANT TO
SECTION 906 OF THE SARBANES-OXLEY ACT OF 2002
In connection with the Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q of Immunic, Inc. (the “Company”) for the period ended March 31, 2024, as filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on the date hereof (the “Report”), the undersigned, Daniel Vitt, as Chief Executive Officer and President of the Company, hereby certifies, pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, that to my knowledge:
(1) the Report fully complies with the requirements of Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934; and
(2) the information contained in the Report fairly presents, in all material respects, the financial condition and results of operations of the Company.
 
Date: May 8, 2024By:/s/ Daniel Vitt
Daniel Vitt
Chief Executive Officer and President
(Principal Executive Officer)



Exhibit 32.2
CERTIFICATION PURSUANT TO 18 U.S.C. SECTION 1350,
AS ADOPTED PURSUANT TO
SECTION 906 OF THE SARBANES-OXLEY ACT OF 2002
In connection with the Quarterly Report on Form 10-K of Immunic, Inc. (the “Company”) for the period ended March 31, 2024, as filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on the date hereof (the “Report”), the undersigned, Glenn Whaley as Chief Financial Officer of the Company, hereby certifies, pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, that to my knowledge::
(1) the Report fully complies with the requirements of Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934; and
(2) the information contained in the Report fairly presents, in all material respects, the financial condition and results of operations of the Company.
 
Date: May 8, 2024By:/s/ Glenn Whaley
Glenn Whaley
Chief Financial Officer
(Principal Financial Officer)


v3.24.1.u1
Cover Page - shares
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2024
May 02, 2024
Cover [Abstract]    
Document Type 10-Q  
Document Quarterly Report true  
Document Period End Date Mar. 31, 2024  
Document Transition Report false  
Entity File Number 001-36201  
Entity Registrant Name Immunic, Inc.  
Entity Incorporation, State or Country Code DE  
Entity Tax Identification Number 56-2358443  
Entity Address, Address Line One 1200 Avenue of the Americas  
Entity Address, Address Line Two Suite 200  
Entity Address, City or Town New York,  
Entity Address, State or Province NY  
Entity Address, Postal Zip Code 10036  
City Area Code 332  
Local Phone Number 255-9818  
Title of 12(b) Security Common Stock, $0.0001 par value  
Trading Symbol IMUX  
Security Exchange Name NASDAQ  
Entity Current Reporting Status Yes  
Entity Interactive Data Current Yes  
Entity Filer Category Non-accelerated Filer  
Entity Small Business true  
Entity Emerging Growth Company false  
Entity Shell Company false  
Entity Common Stock, Shares Outstanding   90,079,016
Document Fiscal Year Focus 2024  
Document Fiscal Period Focus Q1  
Amendment Flag false  
Current Fiscal Year End Date --12-31  
Entity Central Index Key 0001280776  
v3.24.1.u1
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets - USD ($)
$ in Thousands
Mar. 31, 2024
Dec. 31, 2023
Current assets:    
Cash and cash equivalents $ 97,312 $ 46,674
Other current assets and prepaid expenses 5,303 5,860
Total current assets 102,615 52,534
Property and equipment, net 442 466
Right-of-use assets, net 1,098 1,299
Total assets 104,155 54,299
Current liabilities:    
Accounts payable 6,767 5,099
Accrued expenses 12,419 18,664
Other current liabilities 960 966
Total current liabilities 20,146 24,729
Long-term liabilities    
Operating lease liabilities 433 639
Total long-term liabilities 433 639
Total liabilities 20,579 25,368
Commitments and contingencies (Note 4)
Stockholders’ equity:    
Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value; 20,000,000 authorized and no shares issued or outstanding as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 0 0
Common stock, $0.0001 par value; 500,000,000 and 130,000,000 shares authorized as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively, and 90,079,016 and 45,177,730 shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively 8 4
Additional paid-in capital 519,757 436,060
Accumulated other comprehensive income 4,287 3,759
Accumulated deficit (440,476) (410,892)
Total stockholders’ equity 83,576 28,931
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity $ 104,155 $ 54,299
v3.24.1.u1
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets (Parenthetical) - $ / shares
Mar. 31, 2024
Dec. 31, 2023
Statement of Financial Position [Abstract]    
Preferred stock, par value (in USD per share) $ 0.0001 $ 0.0001
Preferred stock, shares authorized (in shares) 20,000,000 20,000,000
Preferred stock, shares issued (in shares) 0 0
Preferred stock, shares outstanding (in shares) 0 0
Common stock, par value (in USD per share) $ 0.0001 $ 0.0001
Common stock, shares authorized (in shares) 500,000,000 130,000,000
Common stock, shares issued (in shares) 90,079,016 45,177,730
Common stock, shares outstanding (in shares) 90,079,016 45,177,730
v3.24.1.u1
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations - USD ($)
$ in Thousands
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2024
Mar. 31, 2023
Operating expenses:    
Research and development $ 18,736 $ 22,963
General and administrative 5,145 4,288
Total operating expenses 23,881 27,251
Loss from operations (23,881) (27,251)
Other income (expense):    
Interest income 1,187 800
Change in fair value of the tranche rights (4,796) 0
Other income (expense), net (2,094) 1,179
Total other income (expense) (5,703) 1,979
Net loss $ (29,584) $ (25,272)
Net loss per share, basic (in USD per share) $ (0.30) $ (0.58)
Net loss per share, diluted (in USD per share) $ (0.30) $ (0.58)
Weighted-average common shares outstanding, basic (in shares) 97,299,955 43,664,783
Weighted-average common shares outstanding, diluted (in shares) 97,299,955 43,664,783