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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission file number 001-32373
LAS VEGAS SANDS CORP.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Nevada   27-0099920
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  (IRS Employer
Identification No.)
3355 Las Vegas Boulevard South
Las Vegas, Nevada   89109
(Address of principal executive offices)   (Zip Code)
Registrant's telephone number, including area code:
(702) 923-9000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class   Trading Symbol Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock ($0.001 par value)   LVS New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.   Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports); and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.   Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).   Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large Accelerated Filer    Accelerated Filer Emerging Growth Company
Non-Accelerated Filer    Smaller Reporting Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
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Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).   Yes      No  
As of June 30, 2021, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of the registrant's common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $17,432,074,780 based on the closing sale price on that date as reported on the New York Stock Exchange.
The Company had 763,989,752 shares of common stock outstanding as of February 1, 2022.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the definitive Proxy Statement to be used in connection with the registrant's 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated into Part III (Item 10 through Item 14) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
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Las Vegas Sands Corp.
Table of Contents
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PART I
ITEM 1. — BUSINESS
Our Company
Las Vegas Sands Corp. ("LVSC," or together with its subsidiaries "we" or the "Company") is a Fortune 500 company and the leading global developer of destination properties ("Integrated Resorts") that feature premium accommodations, world-class gaming, entertainment and retail malls, convention and exhibition facilities, celebrity chef restaurants and other amenities.
We currently own and operate Integrated Resorts in Asia and the United States. We believe our geographic diversity, best-in-class properties and convention-based business model provide us with the best platform in the hospitality and gaming industry to continue generating growth and cash flow while simultaneously pursuing new development opportunities. Our unique convention-based marketing strategy allows us to attract business travelers during the slower mid-week periods while leisure travelers occupy our properties during the weekends. Our convention, trade show and meeting facilities, combined with the on-site amenities offered at our Macao, Singapore and Las Vegas Integrated Resorts, provide flexible and expansive space for meetings, incentives, conventions and exhibitions ("MICE").
We focus on the mass market, which comprises our most profitable gaming segment. We believe the mass market segment will continue to deliver long-term growth as a result of the introduction of more high-quality gaming facilities and non-gaming amenities into our markets, particularly in Asia.
Our properties also cater to high-end players by providing them with luxury amenities and premium service levels. These amenities include luxury accommodations, restaurants, lounges, invitation-only clubs and private gaming salons. In each of the regions where we operate, the Paiza brand is associated with certain of these exclusive facilities and represents an important part of our VIP gaming marketing strategy. We also offer players club loyalty programs at our properties, which provide access to rewards, privileges and members-only events. Additionally, we believe being in the retail mall business and, specifically, owning some of the largest retail properties in Asia will provide meaningful value for us, particularly as the retail market in Asia continues to grow.
Through our 69.9% ownership of Sands China Ltd. ("SCL"), we own and operate a collection of Integrated Resorts in the Macao Special Administrative Region ("Macao") of the People's Republic of China ("China"). These properties include The Venetian Macao Resort Hotel ("The Venetian Macao"); The Londoner Macao; The Parisian Macao; The Plaza Macao and Four Seasons Hotel Macao, Cotai Strip (the "Four Seasons Macao"); and the Sands Macao.
In Singapore, we own and operate the iconic Marina Bay Sands, which opened in 2010 and is one of Singapore's major tourist, business and retail destinations.
Our properties in the United States include The Venetian Resort Las Vegas, a luxury resort on the Las Vegas Strip, and the Sands Expo and Convention Center (the "Sands Expo Center," and together with The Venetian Resort Las Vegas, the "Las Vegas Operating Properties") in Las Vegas, Nevada.
We are dedicated to being a good corporate citizen, anchored by the core values of serving people, planet and communities. We strive to deliver a positive working environment for our team members worldwide and pledge to promote the advancement of aspiring team members through a range of educational partnerships, grants and leadership training. We also drive social impact through the Sands Cares charitable giving and community engagement program, and environmental performance through the award-winning Sands ECO360 global sustainability program ("Sands ECO360"). Through Sands ECO360, we develop and implement environmental practices to protect natural resources, offer our team members a safe and healthy work environment, and enhance the resort experiences of our guests. In 2021, for the second consecutive year, we were named to the Dow Jones Sustainability North America Index and to the Dow Jones Sustainability World Index, recognizing our leadership and performance across economic, environmental and social areas. In addition, CDP's annual A List names the world's leading companies in the area of environmental transparency and performance. For the fourth consecutive year, we have been named to the A List for both CDP Water Security and CDP Climate Change. We are committed to creating and investing in industry-leading policies and procedures to safeguard our patrons, partners, employees
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and neighbors. Project Protect is our responsible gaming, anti-human trafficking and financial crime prevention program. Our industry-leading Integrated Resorts provide substantial contributions to our host communities including growth in leisure and business tourism, sustained job creation and ongoing financial opportunities for local small and medium-sized businesses.
LVSC was incorporated in Nevada in August 2004. Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange (the "NYSE") under the symbol "LVS." Our principal executive office is located at 3355 Las Vegas Boulevard South, Las Vegas, Nevada 89109 and our telephone number at that address is (702) 923-9000. Our website address is www.sands.com. The information on our website is not part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements and other Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") filings, and any amendments to those reports and any other filings we file with or furnish to the SEC under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 are made available free of charge on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC and are also available at the SEC's web site address at www.sec.gov.
Investors and others should note we announce material financial information using our investor relations website (https://investor.sands.com), our company website, SEC filings, investor events, news and earnings releases, public conference calls and webcasts. We use these channels to communicate with our investors and the public about our company, our products and services, and other issues.
In addition, we post certain information regarding SCL, a subsidiary of LVSC with ordinary shares listed on The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited, from time to time on our company website and our investor relations website. It is possible the information we post regarding SCL could be deemed to be material information.
The contents of these websites are not intended to be incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K or in any other report or document we file or furnish with the SEC, and any reference to these websites are intended to be inactive textual references only.
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains certain forward-looking statements. See "Item 7 — Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements."
Our principal operating and developmental activities occur in three geographic areas: Macao, Singapore and the United States. Management reviews the results of operations for each of its operating segments, which generally are our Integrated Resorts. In Macao, our operating segments are: The Venetian Macao; The Londoner Macao; The Parisian Macao; The Plaza Macao and Four Seasons Macao; and Sands Macao. In Singapore, our operating segment is Marina Bay Sands. In the United States, our operating segment is the Las Vegas Operating Properties. Through May 30, 2019, the Sands Casino Resort Bethlehem (the "Sands Bethlehem") was included as an operating segment. We also have ferry operations and various other operations that are ancillary to our Macao properties (collectively, "Ferry Operations and Other") that we present to reconcile to our consolidated statements of operations and financial condition. In addition to our reportable segments noted above, management also reviews construction and development activities for each of our primary projects currently under development, which include the expansion and rebranding of Sands Cotai Central to The Londoner Macao and the MBS Expansion Project (as later defined).
From February 2020 through the date of this report, our operations have been significantly impacted by a global pandemic (the “COVID-19 Pandemic”). While the details of this impact have been disclosed throughout this document, the following discussion of our business focuses on execution of our business strategies in a non-pandemic environment based on the assumption the global impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic will eventually diminish and our operations will recover as travel and tourism improves in our markets.
Strengths and Strategies
We believe we have a number of strengths that differentiate our business from our competitors, including:
Diversified, high quality Integrated Resort offerings with substantial non-gaming amenities. Our Integrated Resorts feature non-gaming attractions and amenities including world-class entertainment, expansive retail offerings and market-leading MICE facilities. These attractions and amenities enhance the appeal of our Integrated Resorts, contributing to visitation, length of stay and customer spending at our resorts. The broad appeal
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of our market-leading Integrated Resort offerings in our various markets enables us to serve the widest array of customer segments in each market.
Substantial and diversified cash flow from existing operations. Our Integrated Resorts in Macao, Singapore and the U.S. have contributed 53%, 36% and 11% of our total adjusted property EBITDA, respectively, during the previous five years. In each of these jurisdictions, our cash flow from operations was derived from a combination of gaming and non-gaming sources, including retail malls, hotel, food and beverage, entertainment and MICE.
Market leadership in the growing high-margin mass market gaming segment. In our gaming business, we focus on the high-margin mass gaming segment. Our combined SCL properties had the highest percentage of gaming win from mass tables and slots of the Macao operators, with an average market share of approximately 30% during the previous five years. Management estimates our mass market table revenues typically generated a gross margin approximately four times higher than the gross margin on our VIP table revenues. Additionally, gross gaming revenue from mass tables and slots has contributed to approximately two-thirds of total gross gaming revenue at Marina Bay Sands during the previous five years.
Established brands with broad regional and international market awareness and appeal. The opening of The Venetian Macao provided the foundation and cornerstone for the Cotai Strip and marked a step-change for the Macao gaming market more broadly. Through a combination of its range and scale of facilities and its distinctive theming, The Venetian Macao has remained the foremost example of a themed Integrated Resort in Macao. Recognition has also been garnered by The Parisian Macao, our property with its iconic replica of the Eiffel Tower and other themed attractions. Both of these European-themed Integrated Resorts attract broad brand awareness both regionally and globally, which we expect will continue with the opening of The Londoner Macao over the course of 2022. Marina Bay Sands is an iconic part of the Singapore skyline and is often featured prominently in filmed entertainment and other media.
Experienced management team with a proven track record. Mr. Sheldon G. Adelson was our founder, and until his death in January 2021, served as our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. Mr. Adelson created the MICE-based Integrated Resort and pioneered its development in the Las Vegas and Singapore markets, as well as in Macao, where he planned and developed the Cotai Strip. Mr. Robert G. Goldstein, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, has been an integral part of the Company's executive team from the beginning, joining Mr. Adelson before The Venetian Resort Las Vegas was constructed. Mr. Goldstein is one of the most respected and experienced executives in our industry today. Mr. Patrick Dumont, our President and Chief Operating Officer, has been with the Company for more than eleven years, including the last five as our Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, and has prior experience in corporate finance and management. Our management team is focused on delivering growth, increasing our return on invested capital, balance sheet strength, preserving the Company’s financial flexibility to pursue development opportunities and continuing to execute return of capital to stockholders.
Unique MICE and entertainment facilities. Our market-leading MICE and entertainment facilities contribute to our markets’ diversification and appeal to business and leisure travelers while diversifying our cash flows and increasing revenues and profit. Our approximately 5.2 million square feet of global MICE space is designed to meet the needs of meeting planners and corporate events and trade show organizers from around the world. Our experience and expertise in this industry supports our ability to drive leisure and business tourism to our markets. The live entertainment program at our properties, specifically in Asia, has been a key traffic driver and has established us as a leader in the field of tourism and leisure activities.
Building on our key strengths, we seek to enhance our position as the leading developer and operator of Integrated Resorts and casinos by continuing to implement the following business strategies:
Developing and diversifying our Integrated Resort offerings to include a full complement of products and services to cater to different market segments. Our Integrated Resorts include MICE space, retail, dining and entertainment facilities and a range of hotel offerings, including branded suites and hotel rooms, to cater to different segments of our markets. We are able to leverage the recognition and the sales, marketing and reservation capabilities of premier hotel brands to attract a wide range of customers in different market segments to our properties. We believe our partnerships with renowned hotel management partners, our diverse Integrated Resort offerings and the convenience and accessibility of our properties will continue to increase the appeal of our properties to both the business and leisure customer segments.
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Leveraging our scale of operations to create and maintain an absolute cost advantage. Management expects to benefit from lower unit costs due to the economies of scale inherent in our operations. Opportunities for lower unit costs include, but are not limited to: lower utility costs; more efficient staffing of hotel and gaming operations; and centralized transportation, marketing and sales, and procurement. In addition, our scale allows us to consolidate certain administrative functions.
Focusing on the high-margin mass market gaming segment, while continuing to provide luxury amenities and high service levels to our VIP and premium players. The scale and product mix of our Integrated Resort properties allow us to participate very effectively in all segments of the market. We believe the mass market segment will continue to exhibit long-term growth as a result of the introduction of more high-quality gaming facilities and non-gaming amenities into our various markets, accompanied by supportive long-term trends in business and leisure tourism. Our properties are positioned to harness future growth in the mass market that comprise our most profitable gaming segment, while delivering the immersive destination resort experiences that create loyalty with VIP and premium players.
Identifying targeted investment opportunities to drive growth across our portfolio. We will continue to invest in the expansion of our facilities and the enhancement of the leisure and business tourism appeal of our property portfolio. Our planned development projects include the renovation, expansion and rebranding of Sands Cotai Central into The Londoner Macao and the expansion of Marina Bay Sands.
Our Operations
Macao
The Venetian Macao is the anchor property of our Cotai Strip development and is located approximately two miles from the Taipa Ferry Terminal on Macao's Taipa Island and six miles from the bridge linking Hong Kong, Macao and Zhuhai. The Venetian Macao includes approximately 374,000 square feet of gaming space with approximately 630 table games and 1,120 slot machines and electronic table games ("ETGs"). The Venetian Macao features a 39-floor luxury hotel tower with over 2,900 elegantly appointed luxury suites and the Shoppes at Venetian, approximately 945,000 square feet of unique retail shopping with more than 320 stores featuring many international brands and home to 56 restaurants and food outlets featuring an international assortment of cuisines. In addition, The Venetian Macao has approximately 1.2 million square feet of convention facilities and meeting room space, an 1,800-seat theater, the 15,000-seat Cotai Arena that hosts world-class entertainment and sporting events.
The Londoner Macao (previously Sands Cotai Central), our largest Integrated Resort on the Cotai Strip, is located across the street from The Venetian Macao, The Parisian Macao and The Plaza Macao and Four Seasons Macao. The Londoner Macao is the result of our renovation, expansion and rebranding of Sands Cotai Central, which included the addition of extensive thematic elements both externally and internally. Our construction work on The Londoner Macao Hotel and Londoner Court was completed in 2021. We anticipate the Londoner Arena, expansion of the Shoppes at Londoner and other amenities to be completed before the end of 2022. The Londoner Macao presents a range of new attractions and features, including some of London’s most recognizable landmarks, such as the Houses of Parliament and the Elizabeth Tower (commonly known as "Big Ben"), and interactive guest experiences. The Londoner Macao Hotel opened in January 2021 with 594 London-themed suites, including 14 exclusive Suites by David Beckham. The Integrated Resort also features Londoner Court, which opened on September 16, 2021, and includes approximately 370 luxury suites. The expansion of our retail offerings has been rebranded as Shoppes at Londoner in 2021. The Integrated Resort features four hotel towers. The first hotel tower includes approximately 650 five-star rooms and suites under the Conrad brand and The Londoner Macao Hotel. The second hotel tower consists of approximately 1,800 rooms and suites under the Sheraton brand. The third hotel tower consists of approximately 2,100 rooms and suites under the Sheraton brand. The fourth hotel tower consists of Londoner Court and approximately 400 rooms and suites under the St. Regis brand. The Integrated Resort includes approximately 351,000 square feet of gaming space with approximately 480 table games and 990 slot machines and ETGs, approximately 369,000 square feet of meeting space, a 1,701-seat theater, approximately 532,000 square feet of retail space with more than 110 stores and home to more than 50 restaurants and food outlets featuring an international assortment of cuisines.
The Parisian Macao, which is connected to The Venetian Macao and The Plaza Macao and Four Seasons Macao, includes approximately 248,000 square feet of gaming space with approximately 270 table games and 980
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slot machines and ETGs. The Parisian Macao also features approximately 2,500 rooms and suites and the Shoppes at Parisian, approximately 296,000 square feet of unique retail shopping with 130 stores featuring many international brands and home to 26 restaurants and food outlets featuring an international assortment of cuisines. Other non-gaming amenities at The Parisian Macao include a meeting room complex of approximately 63,000 square feet and a 1,200-seat theater. Directly in front of The Parisian Macao, and connected via a covered walkway to the main building, is a half-scale authentic re-creation of the Eiffel Tower containing a viewing platform and restaurant.
The Plaza Macao and Four Seasons Macao, which is located adjacent to The Venetian Macao, has approximately 127,000 square feet of gaming space with approximately 140 table games and 170 slot machines and ETGs at its Plaza Casino. The Plaza Macao and Four Seasons Macao also has 360 elegantly appointed rooms and suites managed by FS Macau Lda., several food and beverage offerings, and conference and banquet facilities. The Shoppes at Four Seasons includes approximately 244,000 square feet of retail space and is connected to the Shoppes at Venetian. The Plaza Macao and Four Seasons Macao also features 19 ultra-exclusive Paiza Mansions, which are individually designed and made available by invitation only. The Grand Suites at Four Seasons opened in October 2020 and features 289 luxury suites.
The Sands Macao, the first U.S. operated Las Vegas-style casino in Macao, is situated near the Macao-Hong Kong Ferry Terminal on a waterfront parcel centrally located between Macao's Gongbei border gate with China and Macao's central business district. The Sands Macao includes approximately 212,000 square feet of gaming space with approximately 160 table games and 610 slot machines and ETGs. The Sands Macao also includes a 289-suite hotel tower, spa facilities and several restaurants and entertainment areas.
We operate the gaming areas within our Macao properties pursuant to a 20-year gaming subconcession that expires in June 2022. See "Regulation and Licensing — Macao Concession and Our Subconcession."
Singapore
Marina Bay Sands features approximately 2,600 rooms and suites located in three 55-story hotel towers. Atop the three towers is the Sands SkyPark, an extensive outdoor recreation area with a 150-meter infinity swimming pool and leading restaurant and nightlife brands. The Integrated Resort offers approximately 160,000 square feet of gaming space with approximately 530 table games and 2,100 slot machines and ETGs; The Shoppes at Marina Bay Sands, an enclosed retail, dining and entertainment complex with signature restaurants from world-renowned chefs; an event plaza and promenade; and an art/science museum. Marina Bay Sands also includes approximately 1.2 million square feet of meeting and convention space and a state-of-the-art theater for top Broadway shows, concerts and gala events.
We operate the gaming area within our Singapore property pursuant to a 30-year casino concession provided under a development agreement entered into in August 2006. See "Regulation and Licensing — Development Agreement with Singapore Tourism Board."
In April 2019, our wholly owned subsidiary, Marina Bay Sands Pte. Ltd. ("MBS") entered into an additional development agreement (the “Second Development Agreement”) with the Singapore Tourism Board (the "STB") pursuant to which MBS has agreed to construct a development, which will include a hotel tower with approximately 1,000 rooms and suites, a rooftop attraction, convention and meeting facilities and a state-of-the-art live entertainment arena with approximately 15,000 seats (the “MBS Expansion Project”). The Second Development Agreement provides for a total project cost of approximately 4.5 billion Singapore dollars ("SGD," approximately $3.3 billion at exchange rates in effect on December 31, 2021). We amended our 2012 Singapore Credit Facility to provide for the financing of the development and construction costs, fees and other expenses related to the MBS Expansion Project pursuant to the Second Development Agreement. On September 7, 2021, we amended the 2012 Singapore Credit Facility, which, among other things, extended the deadline for delivering the construction cost estimate and the construction schedule for the MBS Expansion Project to March 31, 2022. We are in the process of reviewing the budget and timing of the MBS expansion based on the impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic and other factors. If we do not meet the March 31, 2022 deadline, we will not be permitted to make further draws on the Singapore Delayed Draw Term Facility until these items are delivered to lenders.
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Las Vegas
Our Las Vegas Operating Properties is an Integrated Resort that includes The Venetian Resort Las Vegas and the Sands Expo Center.
The Venetian Resort Las Vegas features three hotel towers. The Venetian Tower is a 35-story three-winged luxury hotel tower with 3,015 suites. The second tower is an adjoining 1,013-suite, 12-story Venezia Tower. The Palazzo Tower has 3,064 suites situated in a 50-story luxury hotel tower, which features modern European ambience and design, and is directly connected to The Venetian Tower and Sands Expo Center. The Venetian Resort Las Vegas has approximately 225,000 square feet of gaming space and includes approximately 190 table games and 1,780 slot machines and ETGs. The Venetian Resort Las Vegas features a variety of amenities for its guests, including a Paiza Club, several theaters and Canyon Ranch SpaClub.
The Venetian Resort Las Vegas features an enclosed retail, dining and entertainment complex, referred to as the Grand Canal Shoppes. The portion of the complex located within The Venetian Tower (previously known as "The Grand Canal Shoppes") and the portion located within The Palazzo Tower (previously known as "The Shoppes at The Palazzo") were sold to GGP Limited Partnership ("GGP") in 2004 and 2008, respectively.
Sands Expo Center is one of the largest overall trade show and convention facilities in the United States (as measured by net leasable square footage), with approximately 1.2 million gross square feet of exhibit and meeting space. We also own an approximately 1.1 million-gross-square-foot meeting and conference facility that links Sands Expo Center to The Venetian Resort Las Vegas. Together, we offer approximately 2.3 million gross square feet of state-of-the-art exhibition and meeting facilities that can be configured to provide small, mid-size or large meeting rooms and/or accommodate large-scale multi-media events or trade shows.
We are working with Madison Square Garden Company ("MSG") to bring a 875,000-square-foot venue built specifically for music and entertainment to Las Vegas. MSG is currently building the MSG Sphere at The Venetian, an 18,000-seat venue, which will be located near, with connectivity to, the Las Vegas Operating Properties and is currently expected to open in 2023.
On March 2, 2021, we entered into definitive agreements to sell its Las Vegas real property and operations, including The Venetian Resort Las Vegas and the Sands Expo Center (collectively referred to as the “Las Vegas Operations”) for a total enterprise value of $6.25 billion to Pioneer OpCo, LLC, an affiliate of certain funds managed by affiliates of Apollo Global Management, Inc., and VICI Properties L.P. We currently anticipate the closing of the transaction in the first quarter of 2022, subject to regulatory review and other closing conditions.
Our Markets
Macao
Macao is the largest gaming market in the world and the only market in China to offer legalized casino gaming. According to Macao government statistics issued publicly on a monthly basis by the Gaming Inspection and Coordination Bureau (commonly referred to as the "DICJ"), annual gross gaming revenues were 86.86 billion patacas in 2021 (approximately $10.81 billion at exchange rates in effect on December 31, 2021), a 43.7% increase and a 70.3% decrease compared to 2020 and 2019, respectively, due to the impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic.
We welcomed approximately 8 million visitors to Macao in 2021, compared to the approximately 6 million visitors in 2020. We believe visitation will return to pre-pandemic levels and will continue to experience meaningful long-term growth. We believe this growth will be driven by a variety of factors, including the movement of Chinese citizens to urban centers in China, continued growth of the Chinese outbound tourism market, the increased utilization of existing transportation infrastructure, the introduction of new transportation infrastructure and the continued increase in hotel room inventory in Macao and neighboring Hengqin Island. There has been significant investment announced and recently completed by concessionaires and subconcessionaires in new resort development projects on Cotai. These factors should help increase the critical mass on Cotai and further drive Macao's transformation into a leading business and leisure tourism hub in Asia. We believe the development of additional integrated resort products in Macao will also drive a higher demand for gaming products.
Table games are the dominant form of gaming in Asia, with Baccarat being the most popular game. We believe we will continue to experience Macao market-leading visitation and are focused on driving high-margin
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mass market gaming, while providing luxury amenities and high service levels to our VIP and premium players. We intend to continue to introduce more modern and popular products that appeal to the Asian marketplace and believe our continued improvement in our high-quality gaming product offerings has enabled us to capture a meaningful share of the overall Macao gaming market across all player segments.
Proximity to Major Asian Cities
Visitors from Hong Kong, South China, Taiwan and other locations in Asia can reach Macao in a relatively short time, using a variety of transportation methods, and visitors from more distant locations in Asia can take advantage of short travel times by air to Zhuhai, Shenzhen, Guangzhou or Hong Kong, followed by a road, ferry or helicopter trip to Macao. In addition, numerous air carriers fly directly into Macau International Airport from many major cities in Asia. Due to various COVID-19 related restrictions and closures, these transportation methods all continue to be negatively impacted.
Prior to COVID-19, Macao drew a significant number of customers who are visitors or residents of Hong Kong. One of the major methods of transportation to Macao from Hong Kong is the jetfoil ferry service, including our ferry services, Cotai Water Jet. The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge (the “HZMB”), which connects Hong Kong, Macao and Zhuhai, has reduced the travel time between Hong Kong and Macao from one hour by ferry to approximately 45 minutes on the road. The HZMB is part of the Greater Bay Area Initiative and plays a key role in connecting the cities in the Greater Bay Area, facilitating the visitation to Macao. Macao is also accessible from Hong Kong by helicopter.
Competition in Macao
Gaming in Macao is administered by the government through concessions awarded to three different concessionaires and three subconcessionaires, of which we are one. No additional concessions have been granted by the Macao government since 2002; however, if the Macao government were to allow additional gaming operators in Macao through the grant of additional concessions or subconcessions, we would face additional competition. The concessionaires are SJM Resorts, S.A., Wynn Resorts (Macau), S.A. and Galaxy Casino Company Limited ("Galaxy"), with MGM Grand Paradise, S.A., Melco PBL Jogos (Macau), S.A. and our Company operating under subconcessions.
Our Macao operations also face competition from other gaming and resort destinations, both in Asia and globally.
Singapore
Singapore is regarded as having the most developed financial and transportation infrastructure in the Southeast Asia region. Singapore has established itself as a destination for both business and leisure visitors, offering convention and exhibition facilities as well as world-class shopping malls and hotel accommodations. In 2006, after a competitive bid process, the Singapore government awarded two concessions to develop and operate two integrated resorts. We were awarded the concession for the Marina Bay site, which is adjacent to Singapore's central business district, and Genting International was awarded the second site, located on Singapore's Sentosa Island.
Based on figures released by the STB, Singapore welcomed approximately 330,000 international visitors in the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, a 88.0% and 98.3% decrease compared to the same period in 2020 and 2019, respectively, due to the impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic. Tourism receipts were estimated to be SGD 5 million (approximately $4 million at exchange rates in effect on December 31, 2021) in 2020 (the latest information publicly available at the time of filing). The Casino Regulatory Authority (the "CRA"), the gaming regulator in Singapore, does not disclose gaming revenue for the market and thus no official figure exists.
We believe Marina Bay Sands is ideally positioned within Singapore to cater to both business and leisure visitors. The Integrated Resort is centrally located within a 20-minute drive from Singapore's Changi International Airport and near the Marina Bay Cruise Center, a deep-water cruise ship terminal, and Bayfront station, a mass rapid transit station. Marina Bay Sands is also located near several entertainment attractions, including the Gardens by the Bay botanical gardens and the Singapore Sports Hub, a sports complex featuring the 55,000-seat National Stadium.
Baccarat is the preferred table game in both VIP and mass gaming. Additionally, contributions from slot machines and from mass gaming, including ETG offerings, have enhanced the growth of the market. As Marina Bay
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Sands and the Singapore market as a whole continue to mature, we expect to broaden our visitor base to continue to capture visitors from around the world.
Proximity to Major Asian Cities
More than 100 airlines operate in Singapore, connecting it to some 300 cities in approximately 80 countries. In the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, 3 million passengers passed through Singapore's Changi Airport, a 74.1% decrease as compared to the same period in 2020 due to the impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic. In 2019, Changi Jewel, a multi-use retail, hotel and food and beverage destination, opened at Changi Airport, and work is currently underway to expand the number of runways and open a fifth terminal, which would increase passenger capacity. Based on figures released by the STB, the largest source markets for visitors to Singapore over the last five years ending in 2021 were China and Indonesia. The STB's methodology for reporting visitor arrivals does not recognize Malaysian citizens entering Singapore by land, although this method of visitation is generally thought to be substantial.
Competition in Singapore
Gaming in Singapore is administered by the government through the award of licenses to two operators, our Company and Resorts World Sentosa, which is 100% owned by Genting Singapore PLC. The CRA is required to ensure there will not be more than two casino licenses until January 1, 2031.
Our Singapore operations also face competition from other gaming and resort destinations, both in Asia and globally.
Las Vegas
Based on figures released by the Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority (the "LVCVA"), Las Vegas welcomed 32 million visitors during the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, a 69.4% increase as compared to the same period in 2020.
The Las Vegas hotel/casino industry is highly competitive. Hotels on the Las Vegas Strip compete with other hotels on and off the Las Vegas Strip, including hotels in downtown Las Vegas. In addition, there are large projects in Las Vegas in the development stage or currently suspended and, when opened, may target the same customers as we do. Major competitors in Las Vegas continue to implement and evaluate opportunities to expand casino, hotel and convention offerings.
We also compete with legalized gaming from casinos located on Native American tribal lands, including those located in California and, to some extent, with other hotel/casino facilities in Nevada, with hotel/casino and other resort facilities elsewhere in the country and the world, and with Internet gaming and state lotteries. In addition, certain states have legalized, and others may legalize, casino gaming in specific areas.
Las Vegas generally competes with trade show and convention facilities located in and around major U.S. cities. Within Las Vegas, the Sands Expo Center competes with the Las Vegas Convention Center (the "LVCC"), which currently has approximately 4.6 million gross square feet of convention and exhibit facilities. In addition to the LVCC, some of our Las Vegas competitors have convention and conference facilities that compete with our Las Vegas Operating Properties. Based on figures released by the LVCVA, over 2 million convention delegates visited Las Vegas during the twelve months ended December 31, 2021.
Retail Mall Operations
We own and operate retail malls at our Integrated Resorts at The Venetian Macao, The Londoner Macao, The Parisian Macao, The Plaza Macao and Four Seasons Macao, Sands Macao and Marina Bay Sands. Upon completion of all phases of The Londoner Macao, we will own approximately 2.7 million square feet of gross retail space. Management believes being in the retail mall business and, specifically, owning some of the largest retail properties in Asia will provide meaningful value for us, particularly as the retail market in Asia continues to grow. The Grand Canal Shoppes were sold to GGP (now owned by Brookfield Property Partners L.P., "Brookfield") and are not owned or operated by us.
Our malls are designed to complement our other unique amenities and service offerings provided by our Integrated Resorts. Our strategy is to seek out desirable tenants that appeal to our customers and provide a wide
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variety of shopping options. We generate our mall revenue primarily from leases with tenants through base minimum rents, overage rents and reimbursements for common area maintenance ("CAM") and other expenditures. For further information related to the financial performance of our malls, see "Part II — Item 7 — Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations."
The tables below set forth certain information regarding our mall operations on the Cotai Strip and at Marina Bay Sands as of December 31, 2021. These tables do not reflect subsequent activity in 2022.
Mall Name
Total GLA(1)
Selected Significant Tenants
Shoppes at Venetian
814,784(2)
Zara, Victoria's Secret, Uniqlo, Tiffany & Co., Rolex, H&M, Michael Kors, Bvlgari, Polo Ralph Lauren, Lululemon, FURLA, Foot Locker
Shoppes at Londoner
532,175(3)
Marks & Spencer, Zara, Omega, Nike, Chow Tai Fook, Apple, Bottega Veneta, Gucci, Burberry, Lululemon
Shoppes at Parisian 296,322 Alexander McQueen, Zadig & Voltaire, Versace Jeans Couture, Antonia, Arc'teryx, Champion
Shoppes at Four Seasons 244,208 Cartier, Chanel, Louis Vuitton, Hermès, Gucci, Dior, Versace, Zegna, Loro Piana, Saint Laurent, Balenciaga, Loewe, Roger Vivier, Christian Louboutin, Alexander McQueen, Miu Miu, Chloe
The Shoppes at Marina Bay Sands
622,362(4)
Louis Vuitton, Zara, Chanel, Gucci, Dior, Burberry, Prada, Fendi, Moncler, Hermès, Cartier, Apple
____________________
(1)Represents Gross Leasable Area in square feet.
(2)Excludes approximately 130,000 square feet of space on the fifth floor currently not on the market for lease.
(3)The Shoppes at Londoner will feature more than 600,000 square feet of gross leasable area upon completion of all phases of the renovation and expansion to The Londoner Macao.
(4)Excludes approximately 230,000 square feet of space operated by the Company.
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The following table reflects our tenant representation by category for our mall operations as of December 31, 2021:
Category Square Feet % of
Square Feet
Representative Tenants
Fashion (luxury, women's, men's, mixed) 755,572  37  %
Louis Vuitton, Dior, Gucci, Versace, Chanel, Hermès, Balenciaga, Loewe, Saint Laurent, Burberry, Prada, Moncler, Fendi
Restaurants and lounges 368,360  18  % Lei Garden, Cé La Vi, North, Blossom
Multi-Brands 213,170  11  % Duty Free Americas, The Atrium
Fashion accessories and footwear 138,193  % Coach, Rimowa, Michael Kors, FURLA, Oakley & Spectacle Hut, Charles & Keith
Jewelry 159,674  % Bvlgari, Omega, Cartier, Rolex, Tiffany & Co., Chaumet, Van Cleef & Arpels
Lifestyle, sports and entertainment 101,996  % Manchester United, Adidas, Lululemon, Under Armour, Nike, Foot Locker
Health and beauty 93,600  % Sephora, Sa Sa, Chanel, Helena Rubinstein, SkinCeuticals, Valentino Beauty
Home furnishing and electronics 78,806  % Apple, Samsung, Zara Home
Banks and services 46,776  % Bank of China, ICBC, KBL Healthcare
Specialty foods 30,419  % Godiva, Haagen Dazs, Jason's Deli
Arts and gifts 14,954  % Emporio di Gondola
Total 2,001,520  100  %
Human Capital
Talent Management
We directly employ approximately 44,700 employees worldwide, including approximately 44,500 full-time employees, and hire additional temporary employees on an as-needed basis. Of our full-time employees, approximately 50% are female.
Our success depends in large part upon our ability to attract, retain, train, manage and motivate skilled managers and employees at our properties. Our strategy is to be the employer of choice by ensuring a thriving workforce built on integrity and opportunity and to support our employees’ personal, professional and financial well-being. We strive to enhance our culture by creating a safe environment that consists of an inclusive and diverse workforce where all employees are treated fairly and equally and can excel in the performance of their duties. Some examples of key programs and initiatives we have implemented to attract, develop and retain our diverse workforce include:
Competitive pay;
Healthcare: medical/prescription, dental, vision, short-term disability, life and accidental death and disability insurance options at no premium cost; group healthcare insurance; and other support for both physical and mental health, such as a free Employee Assistance Program for employees and their household at SCL, or the MyWellness Connection program in Las Vegas, which provides information regarding nutrition, disease management, stress reduction and injury prevention;
Retirement benefits: all eligible employees are able to participate in retirement planning schemes, which may include contributions from the employer, as well as the employee;
Diversity, Equity and Inclusion Program: through well-established policies, procedures, hiring practices and support systems, we promote diversity, equity and inclusion and integrate these values into our Company;
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Subsidized child care programs for employees, including access to onsite centers in Las Vegas;
On-site provision of meals for employees; and
Training and development: through Sands Academy, our global training and development platform, we provide courses, learning tools, coaching opportunities and one-on-one consulting to help employees fulfill their potential, as well as provide tuition reimbursement.
Our employees are not covered by collective bargaining agreements, except as discussed below with respect to certain Sands Expo Center employees. We believe we have good relations with our employees and any relevant union.
Certain unions have engaged in confrontational and obstructive tactics at some of our properties, including contacting potential customers, tenants, and investors, objecting to various administrative approvals, and informational picketing, and may continue these tactics in the future. Although we believe we will be able to operate despite such tactics, no assurance can be given we will be able to do so or the failure to do so would not have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. Although no assurances can be given, if employees decide to be represented by labor unions, management does not believe such representation would have a material effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Certain culinary personnel and banquet service providers are hired from time to time to provide services for trade shows and conventions at Sands Expo Center and are covered under a collective bargaining agreement between Sands Expo Center and the Local Joint Executive Board of Las Vegas, for and on behalf of Culinary Workers Union Local 226 and Bartenders Union Local No. 165. This collective bargaining agreement expired in December 2000, but automatically renews on an annual basis unless either party gives the other party proper notice of its desire to terminate or change the agreement. As neither party has given such notice, Sands Expo Center continues to operate under the terms of the expired bargaining agreement with respect to these employees.
Health and Safety
During 2021, we continued to focus significant attention on the effective handling of the COVID-19 Pandemic. In 2020, we implemented new protocols and processes designed to limit the spread of the virus. These include the use of hand sanitizers and face masks, new cleaning and disinfecting regimes, testing and tracing and the implementation of social distancing measures in restaurants, bars, gaming, recreation and back of the house areas. We made physical changes to our properties, such as the installation of thermal screening points at entrances to our Macao properties and changes to our heating, ventilation and air conditioning (“HVAC”) systems. The latter included the installation of “hospital grade HEPA” filters in certain circulation areas, increased fresh air/exhaust, and utilization of UV air stream disinfection to reduce airborne COVID-19 particles. In the midst of the COVID-19 Pandemic-related challenges, we have supported our employees by forgoing furloughs and layoffs and maintaining steady paychecks and health benefits.
Commitment to Environmental Sustainability
We focus significant attention on minimizing our environmental impact with the goal of reducing the environmental footprint of our existing properties and offsetting the impact of new developments. Through Sands ECO360, we endeavor to adapt to emerging trends, support new technologies and foster environmental stewardship in the areas of building design and development, resort management and operations, and meetings, events and entertainment. The program is aligned with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and other key environmental standards in the areas of low carbon transition, water stewardship, waste, plastics and packaging, sourcing and biodiversity.
Our Environmental, Social and Governance Report is available on our website and contains further information on our environmental sustainability performance, including data indices that reflect the reporting requirements of the Global Reporting Initiative and the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board. The contents of the Report and our website are not intended to be incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K or in any other report or document we file or furnish with the SEC, and any reference to the Report and our website are intended to be inactive textual references only.
In addition to our internal initiatives, we have developed the Drop by Drop Project, a collaborative water stewardship initiative in conjunction with Clean the World Foundation. The Drop by Drop Project is designed to
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encourage sustainability in our local regions and reinvests capital from our water stewardship efforts into innovative water projects in Las Vegas, Macao and Singapore.
For the second year in a row, in 2021 we were the only U.S.-based casino and gaming company to be named on the Dow Jones Sustainability World Index and North America Index. We were one of only 12 companies in North America to be included on the A List for both CDP Climate Change and Water Security in 2021.
Development Projects
We regularly evaluate opportunities to improve our product offerings, such as refreshing our meeting and convention facilities, suites and rooms, retail malls, restaurant and nightlife mix and our gaming areas, as well as other revenue generating additions to our Integrated Resorts.
Macao
The Londoner Macao is the result of our renovation, expansion and rebranding of Sands Cotai Central, which included the addition of extensive thematic elements both externally and internally. Our construction work on The Londoner Macao Hotel and Londoner Court was completed in 2021. We anticipate the Londoner Arena, expansion of the Shoppes at Londoner and other amenities to be completed before the end of 2022. The Londoner Macao presents a range of new attractions and features, including some of London’s most recognizable landmarks, such as the Houses of Parliament and the Elizabeth Tower (commonly known as "Big Ben"), and interactive guest experiences. The Londoner Macao Hotel opened in January 2021 with 594 London-themed suites, including 14 exclusive Suites by David Beckham. The Integrated Resort also features Londoner Court, which opened on September 16, 2021, and includes approximately 370 luxury suites. The expansion of our retail offerings has been rebranded as Shoppes at Londoner in 2021.
We anticipate the total costs associated with The Londoner Macao development project described above and the completed The Grand Suites at Four Seasons to be approximately $2.2 billion, of which $2.0 billion was spent as of December 31, 2021. We expect to fund our developments through a combination of cash on hand, borrowings from the 2018 SCL Credit Facility and surplus from operating cash flows. See "Item 1A — Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Business — There are significant risks associated with our construction projects."
Singapore
In April 2019, MBS entered into the Second Development Agreement with the STB pursuant to which MBS has agreed to construct a development, which will include a hotel tower with approximately 1,000 rooms and suites, a rooftop attraction, convention and meeting facilities and a state-of-the-art live entertainment arena with approximately 15,000 seats. The Second Development Agreement provides for a total project cost of approximately SGD 4.5 billion (approximately $3.3 billion at exchange rates in effect on December 31, 2021), which investment must be completed within eight years from the effective date of the agreement. The amount of the total project cost will be finalized as we complete design and development and begin construction. We amended our 2012 Singapore Credit Facility to provide for the financing of the development and construction costs, fees and other expenses related to the MBS Expansion Project pursuant to the Second Development Agreement. On September 7, 2021, we amended the 2012 Singapore Credit Facility, which, among other things, extended the deadline for delivering the construction cost estimate and the construction schedule for the MBS Expansion Project to March 31, 2022. We are in the process of reviewing the budget and timing of the MBS expansion based on the impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic and other factors. If we do not meet the March 31, 2022 deadline, we will not be permitted to make further draws on the Singapore Delayed Draw Term Facility until these items are delivered to lenders.
Other
We continue to evaluate additional development projects in each of our markets and pursue new development opportunities globally.
Regulation and Licensing
Macao Concession and Our Subconcession
In June 2002, the Macao government granted one of three concessions to operate casinos in Macao to Galaxy. During December 2002, we entered into a subconcession agreement with Galaxy, which was approved by the Macao
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government. The subconcession agreement allows us to develop and operate certain casino projects in Macao, including Sands Macao, The Venetian Macao, The Plaza Macao and the Four Seasons Macao, The Londoner Macao and The Parisian Macao, separately from Galaxy. Under the subconcession agreement, we are obligated to operate casino games of chance or games of other forms in Macao. We were also obligated to develop and open The Venetian Macao and a convention center by December 2007, and we were required to invest, or cause to be invested, at least 4.4 billion patacas (approximately $548 million at exchange rates in effect at the time of the transaction) in various development projects in Macao by June 2009, which obligations we have fulfilled.
If the Galaxy concession is terminated for any reason, our subconcession will remain in effect. The subconcession may be terminated by agreement between Galaxy and us. Galaxy is not entitled to terminate the subconcession unilaterally; however, the Macao government, after consultation with Galaxy, may terminate the subconcession under certain circumstances. Galaxy has developed, and may continue to develop, hotel and casino projects separately from us.
We are subject to licensing and control under applicable Macao law and are required to be licensed by the Macao gaming authorities to operate a casino. We must pay periodic and regular fees and taxes, and our gaming license is not transferable. We must periodically submit detailed financial and operating reports to the Macao gaming authorities and furnish any other information the Macao gaming authorities may require. No person may acquire any rights over the shares or assets of Venetian Macau Limited ("VML"), SCL's wholly owned subsidiary, without first obtaining the approval of the Macao gaming authorities. Similarly, no person may enter into possession of its premises or operate them through a management agreement or any other contract or through step in rights without first obtaining the approval of, and receiving a license from, the Macao gaming authorities. The transfer or creation of encumbrances over ownership of shares representing the share capital of VML or other rights relating to such shares, and any act involving the granting of voting rights or other stockholders' rights to persons other than the original owners, would require the approval of the Macao government and the subsequent report of such acts and transactions to the Macao gaming authorities.
Our subconcession agreement requires, among other things: (i) approval of the Macao government for transfers of shares in VML, or of any rights over or inherent to such shares, including the grant of voting rights or other stockholder's rights to persons other than the original owners, as well as for the creation of any charge, lien or encumbrance on such shares; (ii) approval of the Macao government for transfers of shares, or of any rights over such shares, in any of our direct or indirect stockholders, provided that such shares or rights are directly or indirectly equivalent to an amount that is equal to or higher than 5% of VML's share capital; and (iii) that the Macao government be given notice of the creation of any encumbrance or the grant of voting rights or other stockholder's rights to persons other than the original owners on shares in any of the direct or indirect stockholders in VML, provided that such shares or rights are equivalent to an amount that is equal to or higher than 5% of VML's share capital. The requirements in provisions (ii) and (iii) above will not apply, however, to securities listed as tradable on a stock exchange.
The Macao gaming authorities may investigate any individual who has a material relationship to, or material involvement with, us to determine whether our suitability and/or financial capacity is affected by this individual. LVSC and SCL shareholders with 5% or more of the share capital, directors and some of our key employees must apply for and undergo a finding of suitability process and maintain due qualification during the subconcession term, and accept the persistent and long-term inspection and supervision exercised by the Macao government. VML is required to notify the Macao government immediately should VML become aware of any fact that may be material to the appropriate qualification of any shareholder who owns 5% or more of the share capital, or any officer, director or key employee. Changes in licensed positions must be reported to the Macao gaming authorities, and in addition to their authority to deny an application for a finding of suitability or licensure, the Macao gaming authorities have jurisdiction to disapprove a change in corporate position. If the Macao gaming authorities were to find one of our officers, directors or key employees unsuitable for licensing, we would have to sever all relationships with that person. In addition, the Macao gaming authorities may require us to terminate the employment of any person who refuses to file appropriate applications.
Any person who fails or refuses to apply for a finding of suitability after being ordered to do so by the Macao gaming authorities may be found unsuitable. Any stockholder found unsuitable who holds, directly or indirectly, any beneficial ownership of the common stock of a company incorporated in Macao and registered with the Macao
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Companies and Moveable Assets Registrar (a "Macao registered corporation") beyond the period of time prescribed by the Macao gaming authorities may lose their rights to the shares. We will be subject to disciplinary action if, after we receive notice that a person is unsuitable to be a stockholder or to have any other relationship with us, we:
pay that person any dividend or interest upon its shares;
allow that person to exercise, directly or indirectly, any voting right conferred through shares held by that person;
pay remuneration in any form to that person for services rendered or otherwise; or
fail to pursue all lawful efforts to require that unsuitable person to relinquish its shares.
The Macao gaming authorities also have the authority to approve all persons owning or controlling the stock of any corporation holding a gaming license.
In addition, the Macao gaming authorities require prior approval for the creation of liens and encumbrances over VML's assets and restrictions on stock in connection with any financing.
The Macao gaming authorities must give their prior approval to changes in control of VML through a merger, consolidation, stock or asset acquisition, management or consulting agreement or any act or conduct by any person whereby he or she obtains control. Entities seeking to acquire control of a Macao registered corporation must satisfy the Macao gaming authorities concerning a variety of stringent standards prior to assuming control. The Macao gaming authorities may also require controlling stockholders, officers, directors and other persons having a material relationship or involvement with the entity proposing to acquire control, to be investigated and licensed as part of the approval process of the transaction.
The Macao gaming authorities may consider some management opposition to corporate acquisitions, repurchases of voting securities and corporate defense tactics affecting Macao gaming licensees, and the Macao registered corporations affiliated with such operations, to be injurious to stable and productive corporate gaming.
The subconcession agreement requires the Macao gaming authorities' prior approval of any recapitalization plan proposed by VML's Board of Directors. The Chief Executive of Macao could also require VML to increase its share capital if he deemed it necessary.
The Macao government also has the right, after consultation with Galaxy, to unilaterally terminate the subconcession agreement at any time upon the occurrence of specified events of default. In addition, we must comply with various covenants and other provisions under the subconcession.
The subconcession agreement also allows the Macao government to request various changes in the plans and specifications of our Macao properties and to make various other decisions and determinations that may be binding on us. For example, the Macao government has the right to require that we contribute additional capital to our Macao subsidiaries or that we provide certain deposits or other guarantees of performance in any amount determined by the Macao government to be necessary. VML is limited in its ability to raise additional capital by the need to first obtain the approval of the Macao gaming and governmental authorities before raising certain debt or equity.
If our subconcession is terminated in the event of a default, the casinos and gaming-related equipment would be automatically transferred to the Macao government without compensation to us and we would cease to generate any revenues from these operations. In many of these instances, the subconcession agreement does not provide a specific cure period within which any such events may be cured and, instead, we would rely on consultations and negotiations with the Macao government to give us an opportunity to remedy any such default.
The casinos and gaming areas located in the Sands Macao, The Venetian Macao, The Plaza Macao and Four Seasons Macao, The Londoner Macao and The Parisian Macao are being operated under our subconcession agreement. This subconcession excludes the following gaming activities: mutual bets, lotteries, raffles, interactive gaming and games of chance or other gaming, betting or gambling activities on ships or planes. Our subconcession is exclusively governed by Macao law. We are subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of Macao in case of any dispute or conflict relating to our subconcession.
Our subconcession agreement expires on June 26, 2022. If our subconcession is not extended or renewed, VML may be prohibited from conducting gaming operations in Macao, and we could cease to generate revenues from our gaming operations when our subconcession agreement expires on June 26, 2022. In addition, all of VML's
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casino premises and gaming-related equipment could be automatically transferred to the Macao government without any compensation to us.
On January 18, 2022, the Macao Legislative Assembly published a draft bill entitled Amendment to Law No. 16/2001 to amend Macao’s gaming Law 16/2002 (the “Gaming Law”).
Certain changes to the Gaming Law set out in the draft bill include a reduction in the term of future gaming concessions to ten (10) years; authorization of up to six (6) gaming concession contracts; an increase in the minimum capital contribution of concessionaires to 5 billion patacas (approximately $622 million at exchange rates in effect on December 31, 2021); and a prohibition of revenue sharing arrangements between gaming promoters and concessionaires.
We are actively monitoring developments with respect to the Macao government’s Gaming Law amendment and concession renewal process and we continue to believe we will be successful in extending the term of our subconcession and/or obtaining a new gaming concession when our current subconcession expires; however, it is possible the Macao government could further change or interpret the associated gaming laws in a manner that could negatively impact us.
Under our subconcession, we are obligated to pay to the Macao government an annual premium with a fixed portion and a variable portion based on the number and type of gaming tables employed and gaming machines operated by us. The fixed portion of the premium is equal to 30 million patacas (approximately $4 million at exchange rates in effect on December 31, 2021). The variable portion is equal to 300,000 patacas per gaming table reserved exclusively for certain kinds of games or players, 150,000 patacas per gaming table not so reserved and 1,000 patacas per electrical or mechanical gaming machine, including slot machines (approximately $37,344, $18,672 and $124, respectively, at exchange rates in effect on December 31, 2021), subject to a minimum of 45 million patacas (approximately $6 million at exchange rates in effect on December 31, 2021). We also have to pay a special gaming tax of 35% of gross gaming revenues and applicable withholding taxes. We must also contribute 4% of our gross gaming revenue to utilities designated by the Macao government, a portion of which must be used for promotion of tourism in Macao. This percentage may be subject to change in the future.
Currently, the gaming tax in Macao is calculated as a percentage of gross gaming revenue; however, unlike Nevada, gross gaming revenue does not include deductions for credit losses. As a result, if we extend credit to our customers in Macao and are unable to collect on the related receivables from them, we have to pay taxes on our winnings from these customers even though we were unable to collect on the related receivables. If the laws are not changed, our business in Macao may not be able to realize the full benefits of extending credit to our customers.
In August 2018, we received an additional exemption from Macao's corporate income tax on profits generated by the operation of casino games of chance for the period of January 1, 2019 through June 26, 2022, the date our subconcession agreement expires. Additionally, we entered into an agreement with the Macao government in April 2019, effective through June 26, 2022, providing for payments as a substitution for a 12% tax otherwise due from VML shareholders on dividend distributions paid from VML gaming profits, namely a payment of 38 million patacas (approximately $5 million at exchange rates in effect on December 31, 2021) for each of the years 2021, 2020 and 2019, each payment to be made on or before January 31 of the following year, and a payment of 18 million patacas (approximately $2 million at exchange rates in effect on December 31, 2021) for the period between January 1, 2022 through June 26, 2022, to be paid on or before July 26, 2022. There is no assurance either of these tax arrangements will be extended beyond their expiration dates.
Development Agreement with Singapore Tourism Board
On August 23, 2006, MBS entered into a development agreement, as amended by a supplementary agreement on December 11, 2009 (the "Development Agreement"), with the STB to design, develop, construct and operate the Marina Bay Sands. The Development Agreement includes a concession for MBS to own and operate a casino within the Integrated Resort. In addition to the casino, the Integrated Resort includes, among other amenities, a hotel, a retail complex, a convention center and meeting room complex, theaters, restaurants and an art/science museum. MBS is one of two companies awarded a concession to operate a casino in Singapore. Under the request for proposals to develop an integrated resort at Marina Bay, Singapore, during an initial ten-year exclusive period (the "Exclusivity Period") only two licensees were granted the right to operate a casino in Singapore, which expired on February 28, 2017. In connection with entering into the Development Agreement, MBS entered into a 60-year lease
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with the STB for the parcels underlying the project site and entered into an agreement with the Land Transport Authority of Singapore for the provision of necessary infrastructure for rapid transit systems and road works within and/or outside the project site. During the Exclusivity Period, the Company, which is currently the 100% indirect shareholder of MBS, was required to be the single largest entity with direct or indirect controlling interest of at least 20% in MBS, unless otherwise approved by the CRA.
The term of the casino concession provided under the Development Agreement is for 30 years commencing from the date the Development Agreement was entered into, or August 23, 2006. In order to renew the casino concession, MBS must give notice to the STB and other relevant authorities in Singapore at least five years before its expiration in August 2036. The Singapore government may terminate the casino concession prior to its expiration in order to serve the best interests of the public, in which event fair compensation will be paid to MBS.
In April 2019, MBS and the STB entered into the Second Development Agreement pursuant to which MBS has agreed to construct a second large-scale development, the MBS Expansion Project, located adjacent to Marina Bay Sands, comprising of additional MICE facilities, a hotel tower with approximately 1,000 rooms and suites, a rooftop attraction, convention and meeting facilities and a state-of-the-art live entertainment arena with approximately 15,000 seats. The Second Development Agreement provides for a total project cost of approximately SGD 4.5 billion (approximately $3.3 billion at exchange rates in effect on December 31, 2021). The amount of the total project cost will be finalized as we complete design and development and begin construction. In connection with the Second Development Agreement, MBS entered into a lease with the STB for the parcels of land underlying the project (the "Land"). In April 2019 and in connection with the lease, MBS provided various governmental agencies in Singapore the required premiums, deposits, stamp duty, goods and services tax and other fees in an aggregate amount of approximately SGD 1.54 billion (approximately $1.14 billion at exchange rates in effect at the time of the transaction). We amended our 2012 Singapore Credit Facility to provide for the financing of the development and construction costs, fees and other expenses related to the MBS Expansion Project pursuant to the Development Agreement. On June 18, 2020, MBS entered into an amendment letter to the 2012 Singapore Credit Facility, which among other things, extends to June 30, 2021, the deadline for delivering the construction costs estimate and the construction schedule for the MBS Expansion Project. On September 7, 2021, we amended the 2012 Singapore Credit Facility, which further extended this deadline to March 31, 2022. We are in the process of reviewing the budget and timing of the MBS expansion based on the impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic and other factors.
The Development Agreement contains, among other things, restrictions limiting the use of the leased land to the development and operation of the project, requirements that MBS obtain prior approval from the STB in order to subdivide the hotel and retail components of the project, prohibitions on any such subdivision during the Exclusivity Period and limitations on MBS' ability to assign the lease or sub-lease any portion of the land during the Exclusivity Period. In addition, the Development Agreement contains events of default, including, among other things, the failure of MBS to perform its obligations under the Development Agreement and events of bankruptcy or dissolution.
Employees whose job duties relate to the operations of the casino are required to be licensed by the relevant authorities in Singapore. MBS also must comply with comprehensive internal control standards or regulations concerning advertising; branch office operations; the location, floor plans and layout of the casino; casino operations including casino-related financial transactions and patron disputes, issuance of credit and collection of debt, relationships with and permitted payments to gaming promoters; security and surveillance; casino access by Singaporeans and non-Singaporeans; compliance functions and the prevention of money laundering; periodic standard and other reports to the CRA; and those relating to social controls including the exclusion of certain persons from the casino.
There is a goods and services tax of 7% imposed on gross gaming revenue and a casino tax of 15% imposed on the gross gaming revenue from the casino after reduction for the amount of goods and services tax, except in the case of gaming by premium players, in which case a casino tax of 5% is imposed on the gross gaming revenue generated from such players after reduction for the amount of the goods and services tax. The current casino tax rates are 5% for premium players and 15% for mass players. Beginning March 1, 2022, the current casino tax rates of 5% for premium players and 15% for mass players will increase to 8% and 18% on gross gaming revenue up to SGD 2.4 billion and SGD 3.1 billion (approximately $1.8 billion and $2.3 billion at exchange rates in effect on
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December 31, 2021), respectively. On gross gaming revenue above the stated thresholds, the casino tax rate for premium players will be 12% and for mass players will be 22%. The provision for bad debts arising from the extension of credit granted to gaming patrons is not deductible against gross gaming revenue when calculating the casino tax, but is deductible for the purposes of calculating the goods and services tax (subject to the prevailing law). MBS is permitted to extend casino credit to persons who are not Singapore citizens or permanent residents, but is not permitted to extend casino credit to Singapore citizens or permanent residents except to premium players.
The key constraint imposed on the casino under the Development Agreement is the total size of the gaming area, which must not be more than 15,000 square meters (approximately 161,000 square feet). The following are not counted towards the gaming area: back of house facilities, reception, restrooms, food and beverage areas, retail shops, stairs, escalators and lift lobbies leading to the gaming area, aesthetic and decorative displays, performance areas and major aisles. The casino located within Marina Bay Sands may not have more than 2,500 gaming machines, but there is no limit on the number of tables for casino games permitted in the casino.
Under the Casino Control Act, as amended (the "Singapore Act"), a casino operator may be subject to a financial penalty, for each ground of disciplinary action which amounts to a serious breach, of a sum not exceeding 10% of the annual gross gaming revenue (as defined in the Singapore Act) of the casino operator for the financial year immediately preceding the date the financial penalty is imposed.
The Singapore Act also requires future applicants and/or renewals for a casino license to be a suitable person to develop, maintain and promote the Integrated Resort as a compelling tourist destination that meets prevailing market demand and industry standards and contributes to the tourism industry in Singapore. The Singapore government has established an evaluation panel that will assess applicants and report to the CRA on this aspect of the casino licensing requirements. Our casino license, which has a three-year term, is set to expire in April 2022. We have filed a renewal application and believe we meet the renewal requirements as determined by the CRA.
The Second Development Agreement contains provisions relating to the construction of the MBS Expansion Project and associated deadlines for completion, levels of insurance and limitations on MBS’ ability to assign the lease or sub-let any portion of the Land. In addition, the Second Development Agreement contains events of default, including, among other things, the failure of MBS to perform its obligations under the Second Development Agreement. The Second Development Agreement also contains, among other things, restrictions limiting the use of the Land to the development and operation of the MBS Expansion Project and requirements that MBS obtain the prior approval of the STB in order to subdivide the Land or any building thereon, which approval, if given, will be subject to such terms and conditions as may be determined by the STB.
The Second Development Agreement makes provision for certain benefits and entitlements conferred on MBS on specified terms and conditions. Among these, upon the achievement of certain milestones, MBS will be entitled to make available an additional 1,000 gaming machines over and above its existing 2,500 gaming machines. On October 7, 2019, MBS was granted entitlement to make available 500 of these additional 1,000 gaming machines. In addition, under the Second Development Agreement, MBS is granted approval for the change of use of the area comprising the whole of the 55th floor of MBS’ hotel tower 1, or such other areas as may be agreed within hotel tower 1, to be developed and used as part of MBS’ casino; and MBS is granted an option to purchase an additional 2,000 square meters of casino gaming area at a price to be determined by the relevant Singapore government authority upon written request by MBS to exercise the option. In addition, the Second Development Agreement contemplates that for a period of not less than 10 years commencing no sooner than March 1, 2022, the rate of casino tax applicable to MBS will not exceed specified tiered rates; there shall not be more than two casino licenses in force under the Casino Control Act at any time prior to January 1, 2031; and for a period of five years from the date of the Second Development Agreement, the entry levy payable by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident for entry into the casino will not exceed SGD 150 for a 24-hour period and SGD 3,000 for a 12-month period. The Second Development Agreement also provides for MBS to be entitled to compensation by STB for any losses or damages suffered under certain conditions and events related to the above-described benefits and entitlements. The Second Development Agreement further provides MBS must maintain compliance with the material terms of the Second Development Agreement to obtain the above-described benefits and entitlements.
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State of Nevada
The ownership and operation of casino gaming facilities in the State of Nevada are subject to the Nevada Gaming Control Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder (collectively, the "Nevada Act") and various local regulations. Our gaming operations are also subject to the licensing and regulatory control of the Nevada Gaming Commission (the "Nevada Commission"), the Nevada Gaming Control Board (the "Nevada Board") and the Clark County Liquor and Gaming Licensing Board (the "CCLGLB" and together with the Nevada Commission and the Nevada Board, the "Nevada Gaming Authorities").
The laws, regulations and supervisory procedures of the Nevada Gaming Authorities are based upon declarations of public policy that are concerned with, among other things:
the prevention of unsavory or unsuitable persons from having a direct or indirect involvement with gaming at any time or in any capacity;
the establishment and maintenance of responsible accounting practices and procedures;
the maintenance of effective controls over the financial practices of licensees, including establishing minimum procedures for internal fiscal affairs and the safeguarding of assets and revenues, providing reliable record-keeping and requiring the filing of periodic reports with the Nevada Gaming Authorities;
the prevention of cheating and fraudulent practices; and
the establishment of a source of state and local revenues through taxation and licensing fees.
Any change in such laws, regulations and procedures could have an adverse effect on our Las Vegas operations.
Las Vegas Sands, LLC ("LVSLLC") is licensed by the Nevada Gaming Authorities to operate the resort hotel. The gaming license requires the periodic payment of fees and taxes and is not transferable. LVSLLC is also registered as an intermediary company of Venetian Casino Resort, LLC ("VCR"). VCR is licensed as a manufacturer and distributor of gaming devices and as a key employee of LVSLLC. LVSLLC and VCR are collectively referred to as the "licensed subsidiaries." LVSC is registered with the Nevada Commission as a publicly traded corporation (the "registered corporation"). As such, we must periodically submit detailed financial and operating reports to the Nevada Gaming Authorities and furnish any other information the Nevada Gaming Authorities may require. No person may become a stockholder of, or receive any percentage of the profits from, the licensed subsidiaries without first obtaining licenses and approvals from the Nevada Gaming Authorities. Additionally, the CCLGLB has taken the position it has the authority to approve all persons owning or controlling the stock of any corporation controlling a gaming licensee. We, and the licensed subsidiaries, possess all state and local government registrations, approvals, permits and licenses required in order for us to engage in gaming activities at The Venetian Resort Las Vegas.
The Nevada Gaming Authorities may investigate any individual who has a material relationship to or material involvement with us or the licensed subsidiaries to determine whether such individual is suitable or should be licensed as a business associate of a gaming licensee. Officers, directors and certain key employees of the licensed subsidiaries must file applications with the Nevada Gaming Authorities and may be required to be licensed by the Nevada Gaming Authorities. Our officers, directors and key employees who are actively and directly involved in the gaming activities of the licensed subsidiaries may be required to be licensed or found suitable by the Nevada Gaming Authorities.
The Nevada Gaming Authorities may deny an application for licensing or a finding of suitability for any cause they deem reasonable. A finding of suitability is comparable to licensing; both require submission of detailed personal and financial information followed by a thorough investigation. The applicant for licensing or a finding of suitability, or the gaming licensee by whom the applicant is employed or for whom the applicant serves, must pay all the costs of the investigation. Changes in licensed positions must be reported to the Nevada Gaming Authorities, and in addition to their authority to deny an application for a finding of suitability or licensure, the Nevada Gaming Authorities have jurisdiction to disapprove a change in a corporate position.
If the Nevada Gaming Authorities were to find an officer, director or key employee unsuitable for licensing or to have an inappropriate relationship with us or the licensed subsidiaries, we would have to sever all relationships
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with such person. In addition, the Nevada Commission may require us or the licensed subsidiaries to terminate the employment of any person who refuses to file appropriate applications. Determinations of suitability or questions pertaining to licensing are not subject to judicial review in Nevada.
We, and the licensed subsidiaries, are required to submit periodic detailed financial and operating reports to the Nevada Commission. Substantially all of our and our licensed subsidiaries' material loans, leases, sales of securities and similar financing transactions must be reported to or approved by the Nevada Commission.
If it were determined we or a licensed subsidiary violated the Nevada Act, the registration and gaming licenses we then hold could be limited, conditioned, suspended or revoked, subject to compliance with certain statutory and regulatory procedures. In addition, we and the persons involved could be subject to substantial fines for each separate violation of the Nevada Act at the discretion of the Nevada Commission. Further, a supervisor could be appointed by the Nevada Commission to operate the casinos, and, under certain circumstances, earnings generated during the supervisor's appointment (except for the reasonable rental value of the casinos) could be forfeited to the State of Nevada. Limitation, conditioning or suspension of any gaming registration or license or the appointment of a supervisor could (and revocation of any gaming license would) have a material adverse effect on our gaming operations.
Any beneficial or record holder of our securities, regardless of the number of shares owned, may be required to file an application, be investigated, and have its suitability as a beneficial holder of our voting securities determined if the Nevada Commission has reason to believe such ownership would otherwise be inconsistent with the declared policies of the State of Nevada. The applicant must pay all costs of investigation incurred by the Nevada Gaming Authorities in conducting any such investigation.
The Nevada Act requires any person who acquires more than 5% of our voting securities to report the acquisition to the Chair of the Nevada Board. The Nevada Act requires beneficial owners of more than 10% of our voting securities apply to the Nevada Commission for a finding of suitability within thirty days after the Chair of the Nevada Board mails the written notice requiring such filing. Under certain circumstances, an "institutional investor" as defined in the Nevada Act, which acquires more than 10%, but not more than 25%, of our voting securities "for investment purposes only" and meets other regulatory requirements (subject to certain additional holdings as a result of certain debt restructurings), may apply to the Nevada Commission for a waiver of such finding of suitability.
If the beneficial holder of securities who must be found suitable is a corporation, partnership or trust, it must submit detailed business and financial information including a list of beneficial owners. The applicant is required to pay all costs of investigation.
Any person who fails or refuses to apply for a finding of suitability or a license within thirty days after being ordered to do so by the Nevada Commission or the Chair of the Nevada Board may be found unsuitable. The same restrictions apply to a record owner if the record owner, after request, fails to identify the beneficial owner. Any stockholder found unsuitable who holds, directly or indirectly, any ownership of the common stock of a registered corporation beyond such period of time as may be prescribed by the Nevada Commission may be guilty of a criminal offense. We are subject to disciplinary action if, after we receive notice that a person is unsuitable to be a stockholder or to have any other relationship with us or a licensed subsidiary, we, or any of the licensed subsidiaries:
pay that person any dividend or interest upon any voting securities;
allow that person to exercise, directly or indirectly, any voting right conferred through securities held by that person;
pay remuneration in any form to that person for services rendered or otherwise; or
fail to pursue all lawful efforts to require such unsuitable person to relinquish his or her voting securities including, if necessary, the purchase for cash at fair market value.
Our charter documents include provisions intended to help us comply with these requirements.
The Nevada Commission may, in its discretion, require the holder of any debt security of a registered corporation to file an application, be investigated and be found suitable to own the debt security of such registered corporation. If the Nevada Commission determines a person is unsuitable to own such security, then pursuant to the
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Nevada Act, the registered corporation can be sanctioned, including the loss of its approvals, if without the prior approval of the Nevada Commission, it:
pays to the unsuitable person any dividend, interest, or any distribution whatsoever;
recognizes any voting right by such unsuitable person in connection with such securities; or
pays the unsuitable person remuneration in any form.
We are required to maintain a current stock ledger in Nevada that may be examined by the Nevada Gaming Authorities at any time. If any securities are held in trust by an agent or by a nominee, the record holder may be required to disclose the identity of the beneficial owner to the Nevada Gaming Authorities and we are also required to disclose the identity of the beneficial owner to the Nevada Gaming Authorities. A failure to make such disclosure may be grounds for finding the record holder unsuitable. We are also required to render maximum assistance in determining the identity of the beneficial owner.
We cannot make a public offering of any securities without the prior approval of the Nevada Commission if the securities or the proceeds from the offering are intended to be used to construct, acquire or finance gaming facilities in Nevada, or to retire or extend obligations incurred for such purposes. On November 18, 2021, the Nevada Commission granted us prior approval to make public offerings for a period of three years, subject to certain conditions (the "shelf approval"). The shelf approval, however, may be rescinded for good cause without prior notice upon the issuance of an interlocutory stop order by the Chair of the Nevada Board. The shelf approval does not constitute a finding, recommendation, or approval by the Nevada Commission or the Nevada Board as to the investment merits of any securities offered under the shelf approval. Any representation to the contrary is unlawful.
Changes in our control through a merger, consolidation, stock or asset acquisition, management or consulting agreement, or any act or conduct by any person whereby he or she obtains control, shall not occur without the prior approval of the Nevada Commission. Entities seeking to acquire control of a registered corporation must satisfy the Nevada Board and the Nevada Commission concerning a variety of stringent standards prior to assuming control of such registered corporation. The Nevada Commission may also require controlling stockholders, officers, directors and other persons having a material relationship or involvement with the entity proposing to acquire control, to be investigated and licensed as part of the approval process of the transaction.
The Nevada legislature has declared that some corporate acquisitions opposed by management, repurchases of voting securities and corporate defense tactics affecting Nevada gaming licensees, and registered corporations that are affiliated with those operations, may be injurious to stable and productive corporate gaming. The Nevada Commission has established a regulatory scheme to ameliorate the potentially adverse effects of these business practices upon Nevada's gaming industry and to further Nevada's policy to:
assure the financial stability of corporate gaming operators and their affiliates;
preserve the beneficial aspects of conducting business in the corporate form; and
promote a neutral environment for the orderly governance of corporate affairs.
Approvals are, in certain circumstances, required from the Nevada Commission before we can make exceptional repurchases of voting securities above the current market price thereof and before a corporate acquisition opposed by management can be consummated.
The Nevada Act also requires prior approval of a plan of recapitalization proposed by the Board of Directors in response to a tender offer made directly to our stockholders for the purposes of acquiring control of the registered corporation.
License fees and taxes, computed in various ways depending upon the type of gaming or activity involved, are payable to the State of Nevada and to Clark County, Nevada. Depending upon the particular fee or tax involved, these fees and taxes are payable monthly, quarterly or annually and are based upon:
a percentage of the gross revenues received;
the number of gaming devices operated; or
the number of table games operated.
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The tax on gross gaming revenues received is generally 6.75% for the State of Nevada and 0.55% for Clark County. In addition, an excise tax is paid by us on charges for admission to any facility where certain forms of live entertainment are provided. VCR is also required to pay certain fees and taxes to the State of Nevada as a licensed manufacturer and distributor.
We have deposited with the Nevada Board, and thereafter maintain, a revolving fund in the amount of $50,000 to pay the expenses of any investigation by the Nevada Board into our participation in such gaming operations outside of Nevada. The revolving fund is subject to increase or decrease at the discretion of the Nevada Commission. We are also required to comply with certain reporting requirements on such operation and are subject to disciplinary action by the Nevada Commission if the foreign gaming operations knowingly violate any laws of any foreign jurisdiction pertaining to such foreign gaming operation, fail to conduct such foreign gaming operation in accordance with the standards of honesty and integrity required of Nevada gaming operations, engage in activities harmful to the State of Nevada or its ability to collect gaming taxes and fees, or employ a person in such foreign operation who has been denied a license or a finding of suitability in Nevada on the ground of personal unsuitability or who has been found guilty of cheating at gambling.
The sale of alcoholic beverages by the licensed subsidiaries on the casino premises and at the Sands Expo Center is subject to licensing, control and regulation by the applicable local authorities. Our licensed subsidiaries have obtained the necessary liquor licenses to sell alcoholic beverages. All licenses are revocable and are not transferable. The agencies involved have full power to limit, condition, suspend or revoke any such licenses, and any such disciplinary action could (and revocation of such licenses would) have a material adverse effect on our operations.
Agreements Relating to the Malls in Las Vegas
Restated Reciprocal Easement, Use and Operating Agreement
Our business plan calls for each of The Venetian Resort Las Vegas, Sands Expo Center and the Grand Canal Shoppes, though separately owned, to be integrally related components of one facility (the "LV Integrated Resort"). In establishing the terms for the integrated operation of these components, the Fourth Amended and Restated Reciprocal Easement, Use and Operating Agreement, dated as of February 29, 2008, by and among Interface Group-Nevada, Inc., Grand Canal Shops II, LLC, Phase II Mall Subsidiary, LLC, VCR and Palazzo Condo Tower, LLC (the "REA") sets forth agreements regarding, among other things, encroachments, easements, operating standards, maintenance requirements, insurance requirements, casualty and condemnation, joint marketing and the sharing of some facilities and related costs. Subject to applicable law, the REA binds all current and future owners of all portions of the LV Integrated Resort. Accordingly, subject to applicable law, the obligations in the REA will "run with the land" if any of the components change hands.
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ITEM 1A. — RISK FACTORS
You should carefully consider the risk factors set forth below as well as the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K in connection with evaluating the Company. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Certain statements in "Risk Factors" are forward-looking statements. See "Item 7 — Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements."

Risks Related to Our Business
The COVID-19 Pandemic has materially adversely affected the number of visitors to our facilities and disrupted our operations, and we expect this adverse impact to continue until the COVID-19 Pandemic is contained.
We expect the impact of the disruptions resulting from the impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic, including the extent of their adverse impact on our financial and operational results, will continue to be dictated by the length of time such disruptions continue. Although all our properties are currently open, we cannot predict whether future closures would be appropriate or could be mandated. Even once travel advisories and restrictions are modified or cease to be necessary, demand for Integrated Resorts may remain weak for a significant length of time and we cannot predict if or when the gaming and non-gaming activities of our properties will return to pre-outbreak levels of volume or pricing. In particular, future demand for Integrated Resorts may be negatively impacted by the adverse changes in the perceived or actual economic climate, including higher unemployment rates, declines in income levels and loss of personal wealth or reduced business spending for MICE resulting from the impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic. In addition, we cannot predict the ultimate impact the COVID-19 Pandemic will have on our mall tenants in Macao and Singapore.
Our businesses would also be impacted should the disruptions from the COVID-19 Pandemic impact our current construction projects—for example, we have experienced delays in construction projects in Singapore, as we had expected to commence construction on a new tower of Marina Bay Sands by April 2022 and do not expect to be able to commence construction on that timeline. There are certain limitations on our ability to mitigate the adverse financial impact of these matters, such as the fixed costs at our properties, the access to construction labor due to immigration restrictions or construction materials due to vendor supply chain delays. Government measures intended to address the COVID-19 Pandemic, such as mandatory quarantines, vaccine mandates and regular testing requirements, could also impact the availability of our employees or other workers or could lead to attrition of key employees or reduced willingness of customers to come to our properties. Any of these events may continue to disrupt our ability to staff our business adequately, could continue to generally disrupt our operations or construction projects, particularly in Singapore where we heavily rely on foreign personnel for construction projects and food and beverage services and other labor-intensive tasks.
The COVID-19 Pandemic has had, and will continue to have, a material adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows. Given the uncertainty around the extent and timing of the potential future spread or mitigation of the COVID-19 Pandemic and around the imposition or relaxation of protective measures, we cannot reasonably estimate the impact on our future results of operations, cash flows or financial condition.
Our business is particularly sensitive to reductions in discretionary consumer and corporate spending as a result of downturns in the economy.
Consumer demand for hotel/casino resorts, trade shows and conventions and for the type of luxury amenities we offer is particularly sensitive to downturns in the economy and the corresponding impact on discretionary spending. Changes in discretionary consumer spending or corporate spending on conventions and business travel could be driven by many factors, such as: perceived or actual general economic conditions; fear of exposure to a widespread health epidemic, such as the COVID-19 Pandemic; any weaknesses in the job or housing market; credit market disruptions; high energy, fuel and food costs; the increased cost of travel; the potential for bank failures; perceived or actual disposable consumer income and wealth; fears of recession and changes in consumer confidence in the economy; or fear of war, political instability, civil unrest or future acts of terrorism. These factors could
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reduce consumer and corporate demand for the luxury amenities and leisure and business activities we offer, thus imposing additional limits on pricing and harming our operations.
Natural or man-made disasters, an outbreak of highly infectious or contagious disease, political instability, civil unrest, terrorist activity or war could materially adversely affect the number of visitors to our facilities and disrupt our operations.
So-called "Acts of God," such as typhoons and rainstorms, particularly in Macao, and other natural disasters, man-made disasters, outbreaks of highly infectious or contagious diseases, political instability, civil unrest, terrorist activity or war may result, and in the case of the COVID-19 Pandemic, have resulted, in decreases in travel to and from, and economic activity in, areas in which we operate, and may adversely affect, and the COVID-19 Pandemic has adversely affected, the number of visitors to our properties. We also face potential risks associated with the physical effects of climate change, which may include more frequent or severe storms, typhoons, flooding, rising sea levels and shortages of water. To the extent climate change causes additional changes in weather patterns, our properties along the coast in Macao could be subject to an increase in the number and severity of typhoons and rising sea levels causing damage to these properties, while Las Vegas could be subject to extreme drought conditions leading to water restrictions. Any of these events may disrupt our ability to staff our business adequately, could generally disrupt our operations, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Although we have insurance coverage with respect to some of these events, we cannot assure you any such coverage will provide any coverage or be sufficient to indemnify us fully against all direct and indirect costs, including any loss of business that could result from substantial damage to, or partial or complete destruction of, any of our properties.
Our business is sensitive to the willingness of our customers to travel.
We are dependent on the willingness of our customers to travel. Only a small amount of our business is and will be generated by local residents. Most of our customers travel to reach our Macao, Singapore and Las Vegas properties. Infectious diseases may severely disrupt, and in the case of the COVID-19 Pandemic, have severely disrupted, domestic and international travel, which would result in a decrease in customer visits to Macao, Singapore and Las Vegas, including our properties. Regional political events, acts of terrorism or civil unrest, including those resulting in travelers perceiving areas as unstable or an unwillingness of governments to grant visas, regional conflicts or an outbreak of hostilities or war could have a similar effect on domestic and international travel. Management cannot predict the extent to which disruptions from these types of events in air or other forms of travel would have on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We are subject to extensive regulations that govern our operations in any jurisdiction where we operate.
We are required to obtain and maintain licenses from various jurisdictions in order to operate certain aspects of our business, and we are subject to extensive background investigations and suitability standards in our gaming business. We also will become subject to regulation in any other jurisdiction where we choose to operate in the future. There can be no assurance we will be able to obtain new licenses or renew any of our existing licenses, or if such licenses are obtained, such licenses will not be conditioned, suspended or revoked; and the loss, denial or non-renewal of any of our licenses could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. See “Item 1 — Business — Regulation and Licensing” for further description of regulations that govern our operations.
We are subject to regulations imposed by the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the "FCPA"), which generally prohibits U.S. companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. Any violation of the FCPA could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We also deal with significant amounts of cash in our operations and are subject to various reporting and anti-money laundering regulations. U.S. governmental authorities have evidenced an increased focus on the gaming industry and compliance with anti-money laundering laws and regulations. For instance, we are subject to regulation under the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, commonly known as the "Bank Secrecy Act" ("BSA"), which, among other things, requires us to report to the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network ("FinCEN") certain currency transactions in excess of applicable thresholds and certain suspicious activities where we know, suspect or have reason to suspect such transactions involve funds from illegal activity or are intended to
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violate federal law or regulations or are designed to evade reporting requirements or have no business or lawful purpose. In addition, under the BSA, we are subject to various other rules and regulations involving reporting, recordkeeping and retention. Our compliance with the BSA is subject to periodic audits by the U.S. Treasury Department, and we may be subject to substantial civil and criminal penalties, including fines, if we fail to comply with applicable regulations. We are also subject to similar regulations in Singapore and Macao, as well as regulations set forth by the gaming authorities in the areas in which we operate. Any such laws and regulations could change or could be interpreted differently in the future, or new laws and regulations could be enacted. Any violation of anti-money laundering laws or regulations, or any accusations of money laundering or regulatory investigations into possible money laundering activities, by any of our properties, employees or customers could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Certain local gaming laws apply to our gaming activities and associations in other jurisdictions where we operate or plan to operate.
We are required to comply with certain reporting requirements concerning our current and proposed gaming activities and associations, including Macao, Singapore and other jurisdictions. We will also be subject to disciplinary action by the Nevada Commission if we fail to comply with Nevada gaming laws that govern our operations, as further described in “Item 1 — Business — Regulation and Licensing — State of Nevada.”
The gaming authorities in other jurisdictions where we operate or plan to operate, including in Macao and Singapore, exercise similar powers for purposes of assessing suitability in relation to our activities in other gaming jurisdictions where we do business. Any gaming laws and regulations that apply to us could change or could be interpreted differently in the future, or new laws and regulations could be enacted, and we may incur significant costs to comply, or may be unable to comply, with any new or modified gaming laws and regulations.
We depend primarily on our properties in three markets for all of our cash flow, and because we are a parent company our primary source of cash is and will be distributions from our subsidiaries.
We will not have material operations other than our Macao and Singapore properties after the completion of the sale of our Las Vegas Operating Properties in the first quarter of 2022. As a result, we are primarily dependent upon our Asia properties for all of our cash. Given our operations will be conducted primarily at properties in Macao and Singapore and a large portion of our planned development is in Macao and Singapore, we are subject to greater risk than if we were more diversified.
Additionally, because we are a parent company with limited business operations of our own, our main asset is the capital stock of our subsidiaries. We conduct most of our business operations through our direct and indirect subsidiaries. Accordingly, our primary sources of cash are dividends and distributions with respect to our ownership interests in our subsidiaries derived from the earnings and cash flow generated by our operating properties. Our subsidiaries' payments to us will be contingent upon their earnings and upon other business considerations, which may be impacted by the factors described above. For example, due to the impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic, we suspended our quarterly dividend program beginning in April 2020, and SCL suspended its dividend payments after paying its interim dividend for 2019 on February 21, 2020.
In addition, our Macao and Singapore credit agreements, under certain circumstances, may limit or prohibit certain payments of dividends or other distributions to us. We expect future debt instruments for the financing of future developments may contain similar restrictions.
Our debt instruments, current debt service obligations and substantial indebtedness may restrict our current and future operations.
Our current debt service obligations contain, or any future debt service obligations and instruments may contain, a number of restrictive covenants that impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us, including restrictions on our ability to:
incur additional debt, including providing guarantees or credit support;
incur liens securing indebtedness or other obligations;
dispose of certain assets;
make certain acquisitions;
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pay dividends or make distributions and make other restricted payments, such as purchasing equity interests, repurchasing junior indebtedness or making investments in third parties;
enter into sale and leaseback transactions;
engage in any new businesses;
issue preferred stock; and
enter into transactions with our stockholders and our affiliates.
In addition, our Macao, Singapore and U.S. credit agreements contain various financial covenants. See "Item 8 — Financial Statements and Supplementary Data — Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements — Note 10 — Long-Term Debt" for further description of these covenants.
As of December 31, 2021, we had $14.80 billion of long-term debt outstanding, net of original issue discount and deferred offering costs (excluding those costs related to our revolving facilities). This indebtedness could have important consequences to us. For example, it could:
make it more difficult for us to satisfy our debt service obligations;
increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
impair our ability to obtain additional financing in the future for working capital needs, capital expenditures, development projects, acquisitions or general corporate purposes;
require us to dedicate a significant portion of our cash flow from operations to the payment of principal and interest on our debt, which would reduce the funds available for our operations and development projects;
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in the business and the industry in which we operate;
place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less debt; and
subject us to higher interest expense in the event of increases in interest rates.
Subject to applicable laws, including gaming laws, and certain agreed upon exceptions, our Singapore debt is secured by liens on substantially all of the assets of our Singapore operations.
Our ability to timely refinance and replace our indebtedness in the future will depend upon general economic and credit market conditions, approval required by local government regulators, adequate liquidity in the global credit markets, the particular circumstances of the gaming industry, and prevalent regulations and our cash flow and operations, in each case as evaluated at the time of such potential refinancing or replacement. We have a principal amount of $74 million, $826 million, $1.89 billion, $3.34 billion and $3.50 billion in long-term debt maturing during the years ending December 31, 2022, 2023, 2024, 2025 and 2026, respectively. If we are unable to refinance or generate sufficient cash flow from operations to repay our indebtedness on a timely basis, we might be forced to seek alternate forms of financing, dispose of certain assets or minimize capital expenditures and other investments, or reduce dividend payments. There is no assurance any of these alternatives would be available to us, if at all, on satisfactory terms, on terms that would not be disadvantageous to us, or on terms that would not require us to breach the terms and conditions of our existing or future debt agreements.
We may attempt to arrange additional financing to fund the remainder of our planned, and any future, development projects. If we are required to raise additional capital in the future, our access to and cost of financing will depend on, among other things, global economic conditions, conditions in the global financing markets, the availability of sufficient amounts of financing, our prospects and our credit ratings. If our credit ratings were to be downgraded, or general market conditions were to ascribe higher risk to our rating levels, our industry, or us, our access to capital and the cost of any debt financing would be further negatively impacted. In addition, the terms of future debt agreements could include more restrictive covenants, or require incremental collateral, which may further restrict our business operations or be unavailable due to our covenant restrictions then in effect. There is no guarantee that debt financings will be available in the future to fund our obligations, or that they will be available on terms consistent with our expectations. Our current debt service obligations contain a number of restrictive covenants that impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us, and our Macao, Singapore and U.S. credit agreements contain various financial covenants. SCL, MBS and LVSC have each entered into a waiver and
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amendment request letter with their lenders to waive certain of their financial covenants through January 1, 2023 for SCL and December 31, 2022 for both MBS and LVSC.
The LIBOR calculation method may change and LIBOR is expected to be phased out after 2021.
Some of our credit facilities calculate interest on the outstanding principal balance using London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) or rates that are based, in part, based on LIBOR such as the Singapore Swap Offer Rates (“SOR"). On March 5, 2021, the United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority (the "FCA") announced the cessation dates for LIBOR, with all tenors being ceased by June 30, 2023. In response to the announced cessation of LIBOR, we have renegotiated one of our credit facilities that references LIBOR or SOR as a factor in determining the interest rate for a replacement reference rate and will likely renegotiate others in the future. At this time, it is not possible to predict the effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows of any such changes or any other reforms to LIBOR or SOR that may be enacted in the United Kingdom or elsewhere.
We are subject to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates.
We record transactions in the functional currencies of our reporting entities. Because our consolidated financial statements are presented in U.S. dollars, we translate revenues and expenses, as well as assets and liabilities, into U.S. dollars at exchange rates in effect during or at the end of each reporting period, which subjects us to foreign currency translation risks. The strengthening of the U.S. dollar against the functional currencies of our foreign operations could have an adverse effect on our U.S. dollar financial results.
We are a parent company whose primary source of cash is distributions from our subsidiaries. Fluctuations in the U.S. dollar/SGD exchange rate, the U.S. dollar/Macao pataca exchange rate and/or the U.S. dollar/Hong Kong Dollar ("HKD") exchange rate could have a material adverse effect on the amount of dividends and distributions from our Singapore and Macao operations.
We extend credit to a large portion of our customers and we may not be able to collect gaming receivables from our credit players.
We conduct our gaming activities on a credit and cash basis. Any such credit we extend is unsecured. Table games players typically are extended more credit than slot players, and high-stakes players typically are extended more credit than players who tend to wager lesser amounts.
During the year ended December 31, 2021, approximately 14.5%, 7.9% and 53.9% of our table games drop at our Macao properties, Marina Bay Sands and our Las Vegas properties, respectively, was from credit-based wagering. We extend credit to those customers whose level of play and financial resources warrant, in the opinion of management, an extension of credit. These large receivables could have a significant impact on our results of operations if deemed uncollectible.
While gaming debts evidenced by a credit instrument, including what is commonly referred to as a "marker," and judgments on gaming debts are enforceable under the current laws of Nevada, and Nevada judgments on gaming debts are enforceable in all states under the Full Faith and Credit Clause of the U.S. Constitution, other jurisdictions around the world, including jurisdictions our gaming customers may come from, may determine, or have determined, enforcement of gaming debts is against public policy. Although courts of some foreign nations will enforce gaming debts directly and the assets in the U.S. of foreign debtors may be reached to satisfy a judgment, judgments on gaming debts from courts in the U.S. and elsewhere are not binding in the courts of many foreign nations.
In particular, we expect our Macao operations will be able to enforce gaming debts only in a limited number of jurisdictions, including Macao. To the extent our Macao gaming customers and gaming promoters are from other jurisdictions, our Macao operations may not have access to a forum in which it will be possible to collect all gaming receivables because, among other reasons, courts of many jurisdictions do not enforce gaming debts and our Macao operations may encounter forums that will refuse to enforce such debts. Moreover, under applicable law, our Macao operations remain obligated to pay taxes on uncollectible winnings from customers.
It is also possible our Singapore operations may not be able to collect gaming debts because, among other reasons, courts of certain jurisdictions do not enforce gaming debts. To the extent our Singapore gaming customers'
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assets are situated in such jurisdictions, our Singapore operations may not be able to take enforcement action against such assets to facilitate collection of gaming receivables.
Even where gaming debts are enforceable, they may not be collectible. Our inability to collect gaming debts could have a significant adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows.
Win rates for our gaming operations depend on a variety of factors, some beyond our control, and the winnings of our gaming customers could exceed our casino winnings.
The gaming industry is characterized by an element of chance. In addition to the element of chance, win rates are also affected by other factors, including players' skill and experience, the mix of games played, the financial resources of players, the spread of table limits, the volume of bets played and the amount of time played. Our gaming profits are mainly derived from the difference between our casino winnings and the casino winnings of our gaming customers. Since there is an inherent element of chance in the gaming industry, we do not have full control over our winnings or the winnings of our gaming customers. If the winnings of our gaming customers exceed our winnings, we may record a loss from our gaming operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We face the risk of fraud and cheating.
Our gaming customers may attempt or commit fraud or cheat in order to increase winnings. Acts of fraud or cheating could involve the use of counterfeit chips or other tactics, possibly in collusion with our employees. Internal acts of cheating could also be conducted by employees through collusion with dealers, surveillance staff, floor managers or other casino or gaming area staff. Failure to discover such acts or schemes in a timely manner could result in losses in our gaming operations. In addition, negative publicity related to such schemes could have an adverse effect on our reputation, potentially causing a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our operations face significant competition, which may increase in the future.
The hotel, resort and casino businesses in Macao, Singapore and Las Vegas are highly competitive. Our Macao properties compete with numerous other casinos located within Macao. Additional Macao facilities announced by our competitors and the increasing capacity of hotel rooms in Macao could add to the competitive dynamic of the market.
Our Macao and Singapore operations will also compete to some extent with casinos located elsewhere in Asia, including South Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Australia, Cambodia and elsewhere in the world, including Las Vegas, as well as online gaming and cruise ships that offer gaming. Our operations also face increased competition from new developments in Malaysia, Australia and South Korea. In addition, certain countries have legalized, and others may in the future legalize, casino gaming, including Japan, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam.
Our Las Vegas operations compete, to some extent, with other hotel/casino facilities in Nevada, casinos located on Native American tribal lands, including those in California, as well as hotel/casinos and other resort facilities and vacation destinations elsewhere in the United States and around the world. Our Sands Expo Center provides recurring demand for mid-week room nights for business travelers who attend meetings, trade shows and conventions in Las Vegas and presently competes with other large convention centers, including convention centers in Las Vegas and other cities. To the extent these competitors are able to capture a substantially larger portion of the trade show and convention business, there could be a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
The proliferation of gaming venues and gaming activities, such as online gaming, as well as renovations and expansions by our competitors, and their ability to attract customers away from our properties could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our attempts to expand our business into new markets and new ventures, including through acquisitions or strategic transactions, may not be successful.
We may opportunistically seek to expand our business through, among other things, expansion into new geographies or new ventures complementary to our current operations. These attempts to expand our business could increase the complexity of our business, require significant levels of investment and strain our management,
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personnel, operations and systems. In addition, our attempts to expand into new geographies could pose additional challenges given our limited operational experience in other jurisdictions. In order to facilitate such expansion, we may engage in strategic and complementary acquisitions and other transactions or investments involving other integrated resort, hospitality or gaming brands, businesses, properties or other assets, either on our own or in partnership with others, which are subject to challenges and risks that could affect our business, including: our incurrence of significant transaction costs in connection with the pending transaction or investment, regardless of whether it is completed; the restrictions on and obligations with respect to our business that may exist in connection with the pending transaction or investment; fluctuations in our market value, including the depreciation in our market value if the pending transaction or investment is not completed or the failure of the transaction or investment, even if completed, to increase our market value; and failure to integrate acquired businesses successfully or achieve the anticipated benefits or synergies of the transaction. There can be no assurance that these business expansion efforts will develop as anticipated or that we will succeed, and if we do not, we may be unable to recover our investments, which could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Associated with Our International Operations
There are significant risks associated with our construction projects.
We previously announced the renovation, expansion and rebranding of Sands Cotai Central into The Londoner Macao and the MBS Expansion Project in Singapore. These development projects and any other construction projects we undertake will entail significant risks. Construction activity requires us to obtain qualified contractors and subcontractors, the availability of which may be uncertain. Construction projects are subject to cost overruns and delays caused by events outside of our control or, in certain cases, our contractors' control, such as shortages of materials or skilled labor, unforeseen engineering, environmental and/or geological problems, work stoppages, weather interference, unanticipated cost increases and unavailability of construction materials or equipment. Construction, equipment or staffing problems or difficulties in obtaining any of the requisite materials, licenses, permits, allocations and authorizations from governmental or regulatory authorities could increase the total cost, delay, jeopardize, prevent the construction or opening of our projects, or otherwise affect the design and features. Construction contractors or counterparties for our current projects may be required to bear certain cost overruns for which they are contractually liable, and if such counterparties are unable to meet their obligations, we may incur increased costs for such developments. For example, we are obligated to commence certain construction projects in Singapore under the Second Development Agreement by April 2022, which we will be unable to timely commence. We are in discussions with the Singapore government on the duration of the timeline extension for commencement and completion of the expansion of MBS to fulfill its obligations under the Second Development Agreement. If such extension is not obtained, we will be in breach of our obligations under the Second Development Agreement. In addition, the number of ongoing projects and their locations throughout the world present unique challenges and risks to our management structure. If our management is unable to manage successfully our worldwide construction projects, it could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
The anticipated costs and completion dates for our current projects are based on budgets, designs, development and construction documents and schedule estimates are prepared with the assistance of architects and other construction development consultants and are subject to change as the design, development and construction documents are finalized and as actual construction work is performed. A failure to complete our projects on budget or on schedule may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We may stop generating any gaming revenues from our operations if we cannot secure an extension or renewal of our Macao subconcession, which expires in 2022.
Our subconcession expires on June 26, 2022. If our subconcession is not extended or renewed, VML may be prohibited from conducting gaming operations in Macao, and we could cease to generate revenues from our gaming operations when our subconcession agreement expires on June 26, 2022. In addition, all of VML’s casino premises and gaming-related equipment could be automatically transferred to the Macao government without any compensation to us. We cannot assure you we will be able to extend or renew our subconcession on terms favorable to us or at all.
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Our Macao subconcession and Singapore concession can be terminated under certain circumstances without compensation to us.
The Macao government has the right, after consultation with Galaxy Casino Company Limited, to unilaterally terminate our subconcession in the event of VML's serious non-compliance with its basic obligations under the subconcession and applicable Macao laws. Upon termination of our subconcession, our casinos and gaming-related equipment would automatically be transferred to the Macao government without compensation to us and we would cease to generate any revenues from these operations. The loss of our subconcession would prohibit us from conducting gaming operations in Macao, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
The development agreements between MBS and the STB contains events of default that could permit the STB to terminate the agreement without compensation to us. If the development agreements are terminated, we could lose our right to operate the Marina Bay Sands and our investment in Marina Bay Sands could be lost.
The number of visitors to Macao, particularly visitors from mainland China, may decline or travel to Macao may be disrupted.
Our VIP and mass market gaming customers typically come from nearby destinations in Asia, including mainland China, Hong Kong, South Korea and Japan. Increasingly, a significant number of gaming customers come to our casinos from mainland China. Any slowdown in economic growth or changes of China's current restrictions on travel and currency movements could further disrupt the number of visitors from mainland China to our casinos in Macao as well as the amounts they are willing and able to spend while at our properties.
Policies and measures adopted from time to time by the Chinese government include restrictions imposed on exit visas granted to residents of mainland China for travel to Macao and Hong Kong, such as those implemented in connection with the COVID-19 Pandemic. These measures have, and any future policy developments implemented may have, the effect of reducing the number of visitors to Macao from mainland China, which could adversely impact tourism and the gaming industry in Macao.
The Macao and Singapore governments could grant additional rights to conduct gaming in the future and increase competition we face.
We hold a subconcession under one of only six gaming concessions and subconcessions authorized by the Macao government to operate casinos in Macao through June 26, 2022. We hold one of two licenses granted by the Singapore government to operate a casino in Singapore during an exclusive period expiring on January 1, 2031. If the Macao government were to allow additional gaming operators in Macao or the Singapore government were to license additional casinos, we would face additional competition, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Conducting business in Macao and Singapore has certain political and economic risks.
Our business development plans, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be materially and adversely affected by significant political, social and economic developments in Macao and Singapore, and by changes in policies of the governments or changes in laws and regulations or their interpretations. Our operations in Macao and Singapore are also exposed to the risk of changes in laws and policies that govern operations of companies based in those countries. Jurisdictional tax laws and regulations may also be subject to amendment or different interpretation and implementation, thereby having an adverse effect on our profitability after tax. These changes may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Current Macao and Singapore laws and regulations concerning gaming and gaming concessions and licenses are, for the most part, fairly recent and there is little precedent on the interpretation of these laws and regulations. We believe our organizational structure and operations are in compliance in all material respects with all applicable laws and regulations of Macao and Singapore. These laws and regulations are complex and a court or an administrative or regulatory body may in the future render an interpretation of these laws and regulations, or issue regulations, which differs from our interpretation and could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
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In addition, our activities in Macao and Singapore are subject to administrative review and approval by various government agencies. We cannot assure you we will be able to obtain all necessary approvals, which may have a material adverse effect on our long-term business strategy and operations. Macao and Singapore laws permit redress to the courts with respect to administrative actions; however, such redress is largely untested in relation to gaming issues.
The Macao government approved smoking control legislation, which prohibits smoking in casinos other than in certain enumerated areas. Such legislation may deter potential gaming customers who are smokers from frequenting casinos in jurisdictions with smoking bans such as Macao. Such laws and regulations could change or could be interpreted differently in the future. We cannot predict the future likelihood or outcome of similar legislation or referendums in other jurisdictions where we operate or the magnitude of any decrease in revenues as a result of such regulations, though any smoking ban could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our tax arrangements with the Macao government may not be extended on terms favorable to us or at all beyond their June 26, 2022 expiration dates.
We have had the benefit of a corporate tax exemption in Macao, which exempts us from paying the 12% corporate income tax on profits generated by the operation of casino games, but does not apply to our non-gaming activities. We will continue to benefit from this tax exemption through June 26, 2022, the date our subconcession agreement expires. Additionally, we entered into an agreement with the Macao government in April 2019, effective through June 26, 2022, providing an annual payment as a substitution for a 12% tax otherwise due from VML shareholders on dividend distributions paid from VML gaming profits. There is no certainty either of these tax arrangements will be extended beyond their expiration dates.
We are dependent upon gaming promoters for a portion of our gaming revenues in Macao.
Gaming promoters, which are entities licensed by the gaming regulator in Macao to promote gaming and draw VIP patrons to casinos, are responsible for a portion of our gaming revenues in Macao. There can be no assurance we will be able to maintain, or grow, our relationships with gaming promoters or that gaming promoters will continue to be licensed by the gaming regulator to operate in Macao, which could impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. For example, consistent with the overall market in Macao, we terminated our agreements with our three primary gaming promoters in December 2021.
In addition, the quality of gaming promoters with whom we have relationships is important to our reputation and our ability to continue to operate in compliance with our gaming licenses. While we strive for excellence in our associations with gaming promoters, we cannot assure you the gaming promoters with whom we are associated will meet the high standards we insist upon. If a gaming promoter falls below our standards, we may suffer reputational harm, as well as worsening relationships with, and possible sanctions from, gaming regulators with authority over our operations. In the event a gaming promoter does not meet its financial obligations, there can be no assurance we may not incur financial exposure.
Furthermore, we may be held jointly liable with gaming promoters for activities that occur in our casinos. On November 19, 2021, Macao’s Court of Final Appeal ruled that gaming concessionaires are jointly liable with gaming promoters, including their managers and employees, for activities carried out by gaming promoters in gaming concessionaires’ casinos where those activities relate to the typical activity of the gaming promoters and are carried out for the benefit of gaming concessionaires. While we strive for excellence in systems and practices for monitoring the activities of gaming promoters operating in our casinos, we cannot assure you that we will be able to monitor all activities carried out by them. Furthermore, we cannot assure you to what extent the Macao courts will in the future find us liable for the activities carried out by gaming promoters in our casinos, nor are we able to determine what Macao courts would deem typical activities of gaming promoters to be.
The above factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We are subject to limitations of the pataca exchange markets and restrictions on the export of the renminbi.
Our revenues in Macao are denominated in patacas, the legal currency of Macao, and Hong Kong dollars. The Macao pataca is pegged to the Hong Kong dollar and, in many cases, is used interchangeably with the Hong Kong
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dollar in Macao. Although currently permitted, we cannot assure you patacas will continue to be freely exchangeable into U.S. dollars. Also, our ability to convert large amounts of patacas into U.S. dollars over a relatively short period may be limited.
We are currently prohibited from accepting wagers in renminbi, the legal currency of China. There are also restrictions on the remittance of the renminbi from mainland China and the amount of renminbi that can be converted into foreign currencies, including the pataca and Hong Kong dollar. Restrictions on the remittance of the renminbi from mainland China may impede the flow of gaming customers from mainland China to Macao, inhibit the growth of gaming in Macao and negatively impact our gaming operations. There is no assurance that incremental mainland Chinese regulations will not be promulgated in the future that have the effect of restricting or eliminating the remittance of renminbi from mainland China. Further, if any new mainland Chinese regulations are promulgated in the future that have the effect of permitting or restricting (as the case may be) the remittance of renminbi from mainland China, then such remittances will need to be made subject to the specific requirements or restrictions set out in such rules.
VML may have financial and other obligations to foreign workers managed by its contractors under government labor quotas.
The Macao government has granted VML a quota to permit it to hire foreign workers. VML has effectively assigned the management of this quota to its contractors for the construction of our Cotai Strip projects. VML, however, remains ultimately liable for all employer obligations relating to these employees, including for payment of wages and taxes and compliance with labor and workers' compensation laws. VML requires each contractor to whom it has assigned the management of part of its labor quota to indemnify VML for any costs or liabilities VML incurs as a result of such contractor's failure to fulfill employer obligations. VML's agreements with its contractors also contain provisions that permit it to retain some payments for up to one year after the contractors' complete work on the projects. We cannot assure you VML's contractors will fulfill their obligations to employees hired under the labor quotas or to VML under the indemnification agreements, or the amount of any indemnification payments received will be sufficient to pay for any obligations VML may owe to employees managed by contractors under VML's quotas. Until we make final payments to our contractors, we have offset rights to collect amounts they may owe us, including amounts owed under the indemnities relating to employer obligations. After we have made the final payments, it may be more difficult for us to enforce any unpaid indemnity obligations.
Risks Associated with Our U.S. Operations
We are subject to a number of risks associated with the proposed sale of the Las Vegas Operations, and these risks could adversely impact our operations, financial condition and business.
On March 2, 2021, we entered into definitive agreements (the “Agreements”) to sell our Las Vegas real property and operations, including The Venetian Resort Las Vegas and the Sands Expo and Convention Center (the “Las Vegas Operations”), for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $6.25 billion (the “Las Vegas Sale”). We are subject to a number of risks associated with the Las Vegas Sale, including risks associated with: the failure to satisfy, on a timely basis or at all, the closing conditions set forth in the Agreements, including the receipt of regulatory approvals; legal proceedings, judgments or settlements, including those that may be instituted against us, our board of directors and executive officers and others; the restrictions on and obligations with respect to our business set forth in the Agreements; any required payments of indemnification obligations under the Agreements for retained liabilities and breaches of representations, warranties or covenants; fluctuations in our market value, including the depreciation in our market value if the Las Vegas Sale is not completed or the failure of the transaction, even if completed, to increase our market value; the amount and timing of payments (if any) required under the post-closing contingent lease support agreement to be entered into in connection with the closing of the Las Vegas Sale; failure to receive full repayment of the $1.2 billion in seller financing that we anticipate providing at closing; and conduct of the Las Vegas Operations under the “Venetian” and “Palazzo” brands and certain other trademarks licensed to the Las Vegas Operations pursuant to the Agreements, which could result in reputational harm to certain of the businesses we are retaining that will continue to operate under such brands if the Las Vegas Operations does not continue to operate in accordance with our high standards and applicable law as required under the Agreements.
Risks Related to Stock Ownership and Stockholder Matters
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The interests of our principal stockholders in our business may be different from yours.
Dr. Adelson (the wife of Mr. Adelson), her family members and trusts and other entities established for the benefit of Dr. Adelson‘s family members (collectively our "Principal Stockholders") beneficially owned approximately 57% of our outstanding common stock as of December 31, 2021. (Mr. Adelson was also a Principal Stockholder prior to his death.) Accordingly, our Principal Stockholders exercise significant influence over our business policies and affairs, including the composition of our Board of Directors and any action requiring the approval of our stockholders, including the adoption of amendments to our articles of incorporation and the approval of a merger or sale of substantially all of our assets. The concentration of ownership may also delay, defer or even prevent a change in control of our company and may make some transactions more difficult or impossible without the support of our Principal Stockholders. The interests of our Principal Stockholders may differ from your interests.
Conflicts of interest may arise because certain of our directors and officers are also directors of SCL.
In November 2009, our subsidiary, SCL, listed its ordinary shares on The Main Board of The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited (the "SCL Offering"). We currently own 69.9% of the issued and outstanding ordinary shares of SCL. As a result of SCL having stockholders who are not affiliated with us, we and certain of our officers and directors who also serve as officers and/or directors of SCL may have conflicting fiduciary obligations to our stockholders and to the minority stockholders of SCL. Decisions that could have different implications for us and SCL, including contractual arrangements we have entered into or may in the future enter into with SCL, may give rise to the appearance of a potential conflict of interest.
Certain Nevada gaming regulations apply to beneficial owners of our voting securities.
Any person who acquires beneficial ownership of more than 10% of our voting securities will be required to apply to the Nevada Commission for a finding of suitability within 30 days after the Chair of the Nevada Board mails a written notice requiring the filing. Under certain circumstances, an "institutional investor" as defined under the regulations of the Nevada Commission, which acquires beneficial ownership of more than 10%, but not more than 25%, of our voting securities (subject to certain additional holdings as a result of certain debt restructurings or stock repurchase programs under the Nevada Act), may apply to the Nevada Commission for a waiver of such finding of suitability requirement if the institutional investor holds our voting securities only for investment purposes. In addition, any beneficial owner of our voting securities, regardless of the number of shares beneficially owned, may be required at the discretion of the Nevada Commission to file an application for a finding of suitability as such. In either case, a finding of suitability is comparable to licensing and the applicant must pay all costs of investigation incurred by the Nevada Gaming Authorities in conducting the investigation.
Any person who fails or refuses to apply for a finding of suitability or a license within 30 days after being ordered to do so by the Nevada Gaming Authorities may be found unsuitable. The same restrictions apply to a record owner if the record owner, after request, fails to identify the beneficial owner. Any stockholder found unsuitable who holds, directly or indirectly, any ownership of the common stock of a registered corporation beyond such period of time as may be prescribed by the Nevada Commission may be guilty of a criminal offense. We are subject to disciplinary action if, after we receive notice a person is unsuitable to be a stockholder or to have any other relationship with us or a licensed subsidiary, we, or any of the licensed subsidiaries:
pay that person any dividend or interest upon any voting securities;
allow that person to exercise, directly or indirectly, any voting right conferred through securities held by that person;
pay remuneration in any form to that person for services rendered or otherwise; or
fail to pursue all lawful efforts to require such unsuitable person to relinquish his or her voting securities including, if necessary, purchasing them for cash at fair market value.
Human Capital Related Risk Factors
We depend on the continued services of key officers.
Our historical success was principally dependent on our founder, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Sheldon G. Adelson. On January 12, 2021, we announced the passing of Mr. Adelson. On January 26, 2021, we announced Robert G. Goldstein was appointed Chairman and Chief Executive Officer and Patrick Dumont was appointed President and Chief Operating Officer. Our ability to maintain our competitive position is dependent to a
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large degree on the services of our senior management team, including Messrs. Goldstein and Dumont. The loss of their services or the services of our other senior managers, or the inability to attract and retain additional senior management personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We compete for limited management and labor resources in Macao and Singapore, and policies of those governments may also affect our ability to employ imported managers or labor.
Our success depends in large part upon our ability to attract, retain, train, manage and motivate skilled managers and employees at our properties. The Macao government requires we only hire Macao residents in our casinos for certain employee roles, including as dealers. In addition, we are required in Macao to obtain visas and work permits for managers and employees we seek to employ from other countries. There is significant competition in Macao and Singapore for managers and employees with the skills required to perform the services we offer and competition for these individuals in Macao is likely to increase as other competitors expand their operations. Such competition has intensified recently as certain skilled managers have elected to return to their home countries due to the impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic.
We may have to recruit managers and employees from other countries to adequately staff and manage our properties and certain Macao government policies affect our ability to hire non-resident managers and employees in certain job classifications. Despite our coordination with the Macao labor and immigration authorities to ensure our management and labor needs are satisfied, we may not be able to recruit and retain a sufficient number of qualified managers or employees for our operations or the Macao labor and immigration authorities may not grant us the necessary visas or work permits. For example, due to the impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic, the government in Singapore is increasingly trying to protect jobs for the local population, which could make it more difficult to obtain and renew visas or work permits for our foreign staff members.
If we are unable to obtain, attract, retain and train skilled managers and employees, and obtain any required visas or work permits for our skilled managers and employees, our ability to adequately manage and staff our existing properties and planned development projects could be impaired, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Labor actions and other labor problems could negatively impact our operations.
From time to time, we have experienced attempts by labor organizations to organize certain of our non-union employees. We cannot provide any assurance we will not experience additional and successful union activity in the future. The impact of any union activity is undetermined and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
General Risk Factors
We may fail to establish and protect our IP rights and could be subject to claims of IP infringement.
We endeavor to establish, protect and enforce our IP, including our trademarks, copyrights, patents, domain names, trade secrets and other confidential and proprietary information. There can be no assurance, however, the steps we take to protect our IP will be sufficient. If a third party successfully challenges our trademarks, we could have difficulty maintaining exclusive rights. If a third party claims we have infringed, currently infringe or could in the future infringe upon its IP rights, we may need to cease use of such IP, defend our rights or take other steps. In addition, if third parties violate their obligations to us to maintain the confidentiality of our proprietary information or there is a security breach or lapse, or if third parties misappropriate or infringe upon our IP, our business may be affected. Our inability to adequately obtain, maintain or defend our IP rights for any reason could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our insurance coverage may not be adequate to cover all possible losses that our properties could suffer and our insurance costs may increase in the future.
We have comprehensive property and liability insurance policies for our properties in operation, as well as those in the course of construction, with coverage features and insured limits we believe are customary in their breadth and scope. Market forces beyond our control may nonetheless limit the scope of the insurance coverage we can obtain or our ability to obtain coverage at reasonable rates. Certain types of losses, generally of a pandemic or catastrophic nature, such as infectious disease, such as the COVID-19 Pandemic, earthquakes, hurricanes and floods,
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or terrorist acts, or certain liabilities may be, or are, uninsurable or too expensive to justify obtaining insurance. As a result, we may not be successful in obtaining insurance without increases in cost or decreases in coverage levels. In addition, in the event of a substantial loss, the insurance coverage we carry may not be sufficient to pay the full market value or replacement cost of our lost investment or in some cases could result in certain losses being totally uninsured. As a result, we could lose some or all of the capital we have invested in a property, as well as the anticipated future revenue from the property, and we could remain obligated for debt or other financial obligations related to the property.
Certain of our debt instruments and other material agreements require us to maintain a certain minimum level of insurance. Failure to satisfy these requirements could result in an event of default under these debt instruments or material agreements.
We are subject to changes in tax laws and regulations.
We are subject to taxation and regulation by various government agencies, primarily in Macao, Singapore and the U.S. (federal, state and local levels). From time to time, U.S. federal, state, local and foreign governments make substantive changes to income tax, indirect tax and gaming tax rules and the application of these rules, which could result in higher taxes than would be incurred under existing tax law or interpretation, such as the casino tax rates in Singapore that will increase and move to a tiered structure on March 1, 2022. In particular, government agencies may make changes that could reduce the profits we can effectively realize from our non-U.S. operations. Like most U.S. companies, our effective income tax rate reflects the fact that income earned and reinvested outside the U.S. is taxed at local rates, which are often lower than U.S. tax rates.
If changes in tax laws and regulations were to significantly increase the tax rates on gaming revenues or income, these changes could increase our tax expense and liability, and therefore, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Failure to maintain the integrity of our information and information systems or comply with applicable privacy and cybersecurity requirements and regulations could harm our reputation and adversely affect our business.
Our business requires the collection and retention of large volumes of data and non-electronic information, including credit card numbers and other information in various information systems we maintain and in those maintained by third parties with whom we contract and may share data. We also maintain internal information about our employees and information relating to our operations. The integrity and protection of that information are important to us. Our collection of such information is subject to extensive private and governmental regulation.
Privacy and cybersecurity laws and regulations are developing and changing frequently, and vary significantly by jurisdiction. We may incur significant costs in our efforts to comply with the various applicable privacy and cybersecurity laws and regulations as they emerge and change. Compliance with applicable privacy laws and regulations also may adversely impact our ability to market our products, properties, and services to our guests and patrons. Non-compliance by us, or potentially by third parties with which we share information, with any applicable privacy and cybersecurity law or regulation, including accidental loss, inadvertent disclosure, unauthorized access or dissemination, or breach of security may result in damage to our reputation and could subject us to fines, penalties, required corrective actions, lawsuits, payment of damages, or restrictions on our use or transfer of data.
We have experienced a sophisticated criminal cybersecurity attack in the past and may experience with more frequency global cybersecurity and information security threats, which may range from uncoordinated individual attempts to sophisticated and targeted measures directed at us. There has been an increase in criminal cybersecurity attacks against companies where customer and company information has been compromised and company data has been destroyed. Our information systems and records, including those we maintain with third-party service providers, may be subject to cyber-attacks and information security breaches. Cyber-attacks and information security breaches may include attempts to access information, computer malware such as viruses, denial of service, ransomware attacks that encrypt, exfiltrate, or otherwise render data unusable or unavailable in an effort to extort money or other consideration as a condition to purportedly returning the data to a usable form, operator errors or misuse, or inadvertent releases of data or documents, and other forms of electronic and non-electronic information security breaches. Our data security measures are reviewed regularly and we rely on proprietary and commercially available systems, software, tools, and monitoring to provide security for processing, transmission, and storage of
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customer and employee information. We also rely extensively on computer systems to process transactions, maintain information, and manage our businesses. Our third-party information system service providers and other third parties that share data with us pursuant to contractual agreements also face risks relating to cybersecurity and privacy, and we do not directly control any of such parties' information security or privacy operations. For example, the systems currently used for the transmission and approval of payment card transactions, and the technology utilized in payment cards themselves, are determined and controlled by the payment card industry, not us. Our gaming operations rely heavily on technology services provided by third parties. In the event there is an interruption of these services to us, it may have an adverse effect on our operations and financial condition. Disruptions in the availability of our computer systems, or those of third parties we engage to provide gaming operating systems for the facilities we operate, through cybersecurity attacks or otherwise, could impact our ability to service our customers and adversely affect our sales and the results of operations.
A significant theft, destruction, loss or fraudulent use of information maintained by us or by a third-party service provider could have an adverse effect on our reputation, cause a material disruption to our operations and management team and result in remediation expenses (including liability for stolen assets or information, repairing system damage and offering incentives to customers or business partners to maintain their relationships after an attack) and regulatory fines, penalties and corrective actions, or lawsuits by regulators, third-party service providers, third parties that share data with us pursuant to contractual agreements and/or people whose data is or may be impacted. Such theft, destruction, loss or fraudulent use could also result in litigation by stockholders. Advances in computer software capabilities and encryption technology, new tools, and other developments, including continuously evolving attack methods that may exploit vulnerabilities based on these advances, may increase the risk of a security breach or other intrusion. In addition, we may incur increased cybersecurity and privacy protection costs that may include organizational changes, deploying additional personnel and protection technologies, training employees and engaging third-party experts and consultants. There can be no assurance the insurance we have in place relating to cybersecurity and privacy risks will be sufficient in the event of a major cybersecurity or privacy event. Any of these events could interrupt our operations, adversely impact our reputation and brand and expose us to increased risks of governmental investigation, litigation, fines and other liability, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Because we own real property, we are subject to extensive environmental regulation.
We have incurred and will continue to incur costs to comply with environmental requirements, such as those relating to discharges into the air, water and land, the handling and disposal of solid and hazardous waste and the cleanup of properties affected by hazardous substances. Under these and other environmental requirements, we may be required to investigate and clean up hazardous or toxic substances or chemical releases at our properties and may be held responsible to governmental entities or third parties, as an owner or operator, for property damage, personal injury and investigation and cleanup costs incurred by them in connection with any contamination. These laws typically impose cleanup responsibility and liability without regard to whether the owner or operator knew of or caused the presence of the contaminants. The costs of investigation, remediation or removal of those substances may be substantial, and the presence of those substances, or the failure to remediate a property properly, may impair our ability to use our properties.
We are subject to risks from litigation, investigations, enforcement actions and other disputes.
Our business is subject to various U.S. and international laws and regulations that could lead to enforcement actions, fines, civil or criminal penalties or the assertion of litigation claims and damages. In addition, improper conduct by our employees, agents or gaming promoters could damage our reputation and/or lead to litigation or legal proceedings that could result in civil or criminal penalties, including substantial monetary fines. In certain circumstances, it may not be economical to defend against such matters and/or our legal strategy may not ultimately result in us prevailing in a matter. The investigations, litigation and other disputes may also lead to additional scrutiny from regulators, which could lead to investigations relating to, and possibly negatively impact, our gaming licenses and our ability to bid successfully for new gaming market opportunities. We cannot predict the outcome of any pending or future proceedings and the impact they will have on our financial results, but any such impact may be material. While some of these claims are covered by insurance, we cannot be certain that all of them will be, which could have an adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We could be negatively impacted by environmental, social and governance and sustainability matters.
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Governments, investors, customers, employees and other stakeholders are increasingly focusing on corporate environmental, social and governance ("ESG") practices and disclosures, and expectations in this area are rapidly evolving and growing. The criteria by which our ESG practices are assessed may change due to the evolution of the sustainability landscape, which could result in greater expectations of us and cause us to undertake costly initiatives to satisfy such new criteria. If we are unable to satisfy such new criteria, stakeholders may conclude our policies and/or actions with respect to ESG matters are inadequate and our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely impacted.

ITEM 1B. — UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 2. — PROPERTIES
We have received concessions from the Macao government to build on a six-acre land site for the Sands Macao and the sites on which The Venetian Macao, The Plaza Macao and Four Seasons Macao, The Londoner Macao and The Parisian Macao are located. We do not own these land sites in Macao; however, the land concessions grant us exclusive use of the land. Land concessions in Macao generally have an initial term of 25 years with automatic extensions of 10 years thereafter in accordance with Macao law. As specified in the land concessions, we are required to pay premiums, which are either payable in a single lump sum upon acceptance of our land concessions by the Macao government or in seven semi-annual installments, as well as annual rent for the term of the land concession, which may be revised every five years by the Macao government. In October 2008, the Macao government amended our land concession to separate the retail and hotel portions of The Plaza Macao and Four Seasons Macao parcel and allowed us to subdivide the parcel into four separate components, consisting of retail; hotel/casino; an apart-hotel tower; and parking areas. In consideration for the amendment, we paid an additional land premium of approximately $18 million and will pay adjusted annual rent over the remaining term of the concession, which increased slightly due to the revised allocation of parcel use.
Under the Development Agreement with the STB, we paid SGD 1.20 billion (approximately $756 million at exchange rates in effect at the time of the transaction) in premium payments for the 60-year lease of the land on which the Marina Bay Sands is located. In connection with the Second Development Agreement with the STB, we paid $963 million in premium payments for the lease of the parcels of land underlying the proposed MBS Expansion Project site, which will be effective until August 21, 2066.
We own an approximately 63-acre parcel of land on which our Las Vegas Operating Properties are located and an approximately 19-acre parcel of land located to the east of the 63-acre parcel. We own these parcels of land in fee simple, subject to certain easements, encroachments and other non-monetary encumbrances.
In March 2004, we entered into a long-term lease with a third party for the airspace over which a portion of The Shoppes at The Palazzo was constructed (the "Leased Airspace"). In January 2008, we acquired fee title from the same third party to the airspace above the Leased Airspace (the "Acquired Airspace") in order to build the Las Vegas Condo Tower, a high-rise residential condominium tower that was being constructed on the Las Vegas Strip within The Venetian Resort Las Vegas. In February 2008, in connection with the sale of The Shoppes at The Palazzo, GGP acquired control of the Leased Airspace. We continue to retain fee title to the Acquired Airspace if ever needed for further expansion.
ITEM 3. — LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
For a discussion of legal proceedings, see "Part II — Item 8 — Financial Statements and Supplementary Data — Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements — Note 15 Commitments and Contingencies — Litigation."
ITEM 4. — MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
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PART II
ITEM 5. — MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information
The Company's common stock trades on the NYSE under the symbol "LVS." As of February 1, 2022, there were 763,989,752 shares of our common stock outstanding that were held by 292 stockholders of record.
Preferred Stock
We are authorized to issue up to 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock. Our Board of Directors is authorized, subject to limitations prescribed by Nevada law and our articles of incorporation, to determine the terms and conditions of the preferred stock, including whether the shares of preferred stock will be issued in one or more series, the number of shares to be included in each series and the powers, designations, preferences and rights of the shares. Our Board of Directors also is authorized to designate any qualifications, limitations or restrictions on the shares without any further vote or action by the stockholders. The issuance of preferred stock may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our Company and may adversely affect the voting and other rights of the holders of our common stock, which could have an adverse impact on the market price of our common stock.
Dividends
Our ability to declare and pay dividends on our common stock is subject to the requirements of Nevada law. In addition, we are a parent company with limited business operations of our own. Accordingly, our primary sources of cash are dividends and distributions with respect to our ownership interest in our subsidiaries derived from the earnings and cash flow generated by our operating properties.
Our subsidiaries' long-term debt arrangements place restrictions on their ability to pay cash dividends to the Company. This may restrict our ability to pay cash dividends other than from cash on hand. See "Item 7 — Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Restrictions on Distributions" and "Item 8 — Financial Statements and Supplementary Data — Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements — Note 10 — Long-Term Debt."
Common Stock Dividends
In April 2020, we suspended our quarterly dividend program due to the impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
There have not been any sales by the Company of equity securities in the last three fiscal years that have not been registered under the Securities Act of 1933.
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer
In June 2018, the Company's Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of $2.50 billion of its outstanding common stock, which was to expire in November 2020. In October 2020, the Company's Board of Directors authorized the extension of the expiration date of the remaining repurchase amount of $916 million to November 2022. During the year ended December 31, 2021, no shares of our common stock were repurchased under this program. All repurchases under the stock repurchase program are made from time to time at our discretion in accordance with applicable federal securities laws. All share repurchases of our common stock have been recorded as treasury shares.

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Performance Graph
The following performance graph compares the performance of our common stock with the performance of the Standard & Poor's 500 Index and the Dow Jones US Gambling Index, during the five years ended December 31, 2021. The graph plots the changes in value of an initial $100 investment over the indicated time period, assuming all dividends are reinvested. The stock price performance in this graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.
LVS-20211231_G1.JPG
12/31/2016 12/31/2017 12/31/2018 12/31/2019 12/31/2020 12/31/2021
Las Vegas Sands Corp. $ 100.00  $ 136.21  $ 106.84  $ 148.97  $ 131.09  $ 82.79 
S&P 500 $ 100.00  $ 121.83  $ 116.49  $ 153.17  $ 181.35  $ 233.41 
Dow Jones US Gambling Index $ 100.00  $ 140.14  $ 97.24  $ 143.49  $ 128.65  $ 112.16 
The performance graph should not be deemed filed or incorporated by reference into any other Company filing under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Exchange Act of 1934, except to the extent the Company specifically incorporates the performance graph by reference therein.
ITEM 6. — [RESERVED]


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ITEM 7. — MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with, and is qualified in its entirety by, the audited consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto, and other financial information included in this Form 10-K. Certain statements in this "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" are forward-looking statements. See "Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements."
Overview
We view each of our Integrated Resorts as an operating segment. Our operating segments in Macao consist of The Venetian Macao; The Londoner Macao; The Parisian Macao; The Plaza Macao and Four Seasons Macao; and the Sands Macao. Our operating segment in Singapore is Marina Bay Sands. Our operating segments in the U.S. consist of the Las Vegas Operating Properties, which includes The Venetian Resort Las Vegas and the Sands Expo Center.
During 2021, we achieved milestones in advancing several of our strategic objectives. We continued progress on our key development projects in Macao for the conversion of Sands Cotai Central into The Londoner Macao, we opened The Londoner Macao Hotel in January 2021, featuring 594 London-themed suites, and we opened Londoner Court in September 2021, featuring approximately 370 luxury suites. In Singapore, we initiated development activities associated with the MBS Expansion Project. We continued to strengthen our balance sheet with the issuance of SCL 2027, 2029 and 2031 Senior Notes with an aggregate principal amount of $1.95 billion. We used the net proceeds from the issuance and cash on hand to redeem in full the outstanding principal amount of the $1.80 billion 4.600% Senior Notes due 2023, and are prepared to complete the sale of the Las Vegas property.
On March 2, 2021, we entered into definitive agreements to sell our Las Vegas real property and operations, including The Venetian Resort Las Vegas and the Sands Expo and Convention Center, for a total enterprise value of $6.25 billion to Pioneer OpCo, LLC, an affiliate of certain funds managed by affiliates of Apollo Global Management, Inc., and VICI Properties L.P, a subsidiary of VICI Properties Inc. The closing of the transaction is subject to regulatory review and other closing conditions and we anticipate the closing of the transaction in the first quarter of 2022.
COVID-19 Pandemic Update
In early January 2020, an outbreak of a respiratory illness caused by a novel coronavirus (“COVID-19”) was identified and the disease spread rapidly across the world causing the World Health Organization to declare the outbreak of a pandemic on March 12, 2020 (the “COVID-19 Pandemic”). Governments around the world mandated actions to contain the spread of the virus that included stay-at-home orders, quarantines, capacity limits, closures of non-essential businesses, including entertainment activities, and significant restrictions on travel. The government actions varied based upon a number of factors, including the extent and severity of the COVID-19 Pandemic within their respective countries and jurisdictions.
Visitation to the Macao Special Administrative Region (“Macao”) of the People’s Republic of China (“China”) has remained substantially below pre-COVID-19 levels as a result of various government policies limiting or discouraging travel. As of the date of this report, other than people from mainland China who in general may enter Macao without quarantine subject to them holding the appropriate travel documents, a negative COVID-19 test result issued within a specified time period and a green health-code, there remains in place a complete ban on entry or a need to undergo various quarantine requirements depending on the person’s residency and recent travel history. Our operations in Macao will continue to be impacted and subject to changes in the government policies of Macao, China, Hong Kong and other jurisdictions in Asia addressing travel and public health measures associated with COVID-19.
On March 3, 2021, the negative COVID-19 test requirement to enter casinos was removed; however, various other health safeguards implemented by the Macao government remain in place, including mandatory mask protection, limitation on the number of seats per table game, slot machine spacing and temperature checks. Management is currently unable to determine when the remaining measures will be eased or cease to be necessary.
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As of the date of this report, most businesses are allowed to remain open, subject to social distancing and health code checking requirements as designated by the Macao government. In January 2022, the Macao government commenced the roll out and trial of a non-mandatory contact tracing QR code function at a range of businesses including government buildings, restaurants, hotels and other public venues.
In support of the Macao government’s initiatives to fight the COVID-19 Pandemic, we provided one tower (approximately 2,100 hotel rooms) at the Sheraton Grand Macao to the Macao government to house individuals who returned to Macao for quarantine purposes. This tower has been utilized for quarantine purposes on several occasions during 2020 and 2021. From October 4, 2021 to October 30, 2021, an additional tower (approximately 1,800 hotel rooms) at the Sheraton Grand Macao was provided.
Our Macao gaming operations remained open during the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to the same period in 2020 when our Macao gaming operations were suspended from February 5, 2020 to February 19, 2020 due to a government mandate, except for gaming operations at The Londoner Macao, which resumed on February 27, 2020. Some of our Macao hotel facilities were also closed during the casino suspension in response to the decrease in visitation and were gradually reopened from February 20, 2020, with the exception of the Conrad Macao at The Londoner Macao (the “Conrad hotel”), which reopened on June 13, 2020.
Operating hours at restaurants and other venues across our Macao properties are continuously being adjusted in line with fluctuations in guest visitation. The majority of retail outlets in our various shopping malls are open with reduced operating hours. The timing and manner in which these areas will return to full operation are currently unknown.
Our ferry operations between Macao and Hong Kong remain suspended. The timing and manner in which our ferry operations will be able to resume are currently unknown.
Our operations in Macao have been significantly impacted by the reduced visitation to Macao. The Macao government announced total visitation from mainland China to Macao increased 48.2% and decreased 74.8% for 2021, as compared to 2020 and 2019, respectively. The Macao government also announced gross gaming revenue increased by 43.7% and decreased by 70.3% for 2021, as compared to 2020 and 2019, respectively.
As of the date of this report, entry into Singapore is largely limited to Singapore citizens and permanent residents, with certain visitors allowed from specified countries on a quarantine-free basis, subject to certain requirements and health control measures. Additionally, there are no stay-at-home orders or curfews except for certain individuals arriving into Singapore who are subject to quarantine and individuals who may be assessed to have been exposed to COVID-19 as a result of the government’s contact tracing efforts. All operations are currently subject to limited capacities and other social distancing measures. As of the date of this report, Marina Bays Sands has implemented vaccination-differentiated safe management measures ("VDS"), allowing only fully vaccinated individuals; individuals who have recovered from COVID-19 within the past 180 days; or individuals medically ineligible for COVID-19 vaccination to enter the casino and other attractions.
Vaccinated Travel Lanes (VTLs) (travel corridors for vaccinated visitors in receipt of a negative COVID-19 test) were introduced for a number of key source markets in November and December of 2021, however, due to the emergence of the Omicron variant, new ticket sales for the VTLs were suspended on December 23, 2021 through January 20, 2022.
Our operations at Marina Bay Sands will continue to be impacted and subject to changes in the government policies of Singapore and other jurisdictions in Asia addressing travel and public health measures associated with COVID-19. These government policies will continue to impact (i) the number of people allowed at business-to-business events, sporting events and live performances; (ii) closure or limited seating at food and beverage or entertainment establishments; and (iii) casino capacity limits, among other restrictions. During the year ended December 31, 2021, gaming operations at Marina Bay Sands were closed from May 17 until May 18, and from July 22 until August 4 due to pandemic-related measures in consultation with the Singapore government authorities.
As a result of the border closures, visitation to Marina Bay Sands continues to be impacted by the effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic. The Singapore Tourism Board (“STB”) announced for the 12 months ended December 31, 2021, total visitation to Singapore decreased approximately 88.0% and 98.3%, as compared to the same period in 2020 and 2019, respectively.
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Effective June 1, 2021, pursuant to State of Nevada and Nevada Gaming Control Board decisions, all capacity limits, restrictions on large gatherings and other restrictions, which had been implemented in response to the impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic, were lifted and our Las Vegas Operating Properties are operating under pre-pandemic guidelines.
During the year ended December 31, 2021, our Las Vegas Operating Properties were open subject to various capacity limits in place at various times throughout the year. This compares to the same period in 2020 when our Las Vegas Operating Properties operations were suspended on March 18, 2020, due to a government mandate, and on June 4, 2020, The Venetian Tower, The Palazzo Tower and select food and beverage outlets reopened, with certain operations subject to reduced capacity. Convention, meeting and certain entertainment related operations remained closed for a portion of the year ended December 31, 2020.
Visitation to our Las Vegas Operating Properties continues to be impacted by the effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic; however, visitation has increased since restrictions have been lifted. The Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority ("LVCVA") announced for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, total visitation to Las Vegas increased 69.4% and decreased 24.2%, respectively, as compared to the same period in 2020 and 2019. The LVCVA also announced for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, gross gaming revenue for the Las Vegas Strip increased 89.9%, and 7.6%, as compared to the same period in 2020 and 2019, respectively.
At our Macao properties and Marina Bay Sands, we are adhering to social distancing requirements, which include reduced seating at table games and a decreased number of active slot machines on the casino floor. Additionally, there is uncertainty of the impact the COVID-19 Pandemic will continue to have on operations in future periods. If our Integrated Resorts are not permitted to resume normal operations, travel restrictions such as those related to inbound travel from other countries are not modified or eliminated, there is a resumption of the suspension of the China Individual Visit Scheme, or the global response to contain the COVID-19 Pandemic escalates or is unsuccessful, our operations, cash flows and financial condition will be further materially impacted.
While our Macao and Singapore properties were open and operating at reduced levels due to lower visitation and the implementation of required safety measures as described above during the year ended December 31, 2021, the current economic and regulatory environment on a global basis and in each of our jurisdictions continues to evolve. We cannot predict the manner in which governments will react as the global and regional impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic changes over time, which could significantly alter our current operations.
We have a strong balance sheet and sufficient liquidity in place, including total cash and cash equivalents balance, excluding restricted cash and cash equivalents, of $1.85 billion and access to $1.50 billion, $1.75 billion and $438 million of available borrowing capacity from our LVSC Revolving Facility, 2018 SCL Revolving Facility and the 2012 Singapore Revolving Facility, respectively, and SGD 3.69 billion (approximately $2.73 billion at exchange rates in effect on December 31, 2021) under our Singapore Delayed Draw Term Facility, exclusively for capital expenditures for the MBS Expansion Project (subject to restrictions as described further in Part I — Item 1 — Business — Development Projects), as of December 31, 2021. We believe we are able to support continuing operations, complete the major construction projects that are underway and respond to the current COVID-19 Pandemic challenges. We have taken various mitigating measures to manage through the current environment, including a cost and capital expenditure reduction program to minimize cash outflow of non-essential items.
Macao Subconcession
Gaming in Macao is administered by the government through concession agreements awarded to three different concessionaires and three subconcessionaires, of which Venetian Macau Limited (“VML,” a subsidiary of Sands China Ltd.) is one. These concession agreements expire on June 26, 2022. If VML’s subconcession is not extended or renewed, VML may be prohibited from conducting gaming operations in Macao, and VML could cease to generate revenues from the gaming operations when the subconcession agreement expires on June 26, 2022. In addition, all of VML’s casino premises and gaming-related equipment could be automatically transferred to the Macao government without any compensation to VML.
On January 18, 2022, the Macao Legislative Assembly published a draft bill entitled Amendment to Law No. 16/2001 to amend Macao’s gaming Law 16/2002 (the “Gaming Law”).
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Certain changes to the Gaming Law set out in the draft bill include a reduction in the term of future gaming concessions to ten (10) years; authorization of up to six (6) gaming concession contracts; an increase in the minimum capital contribution of concessionaires to 5 billion patacas (approximately $622 million at exchange rates in effect on December 31, 2021); and a prohibition of revenue sharing arrangements between gaming promoters and concessionaires.
We are actively monitoring developments with respect to the Macao government’s Gaming Law amendment and concession renewal process and we continue to believe we will be successful in extending the term of our subconcession and/or obtaining a new gaming concession when our current subconcession expires; however, it is possible the Macao government could further change or interpret the associated gaming laws in a manner that could negatively impact us.
Under our SCL senior notes indentures, upon the occurrence of any event resulting from any change in Gaming Law (as defined in the indentures) after which none of Sands China Ltd. (“SCL”) or any of its subsidiaries own or manage casino or gaming areas or operate casino games of fortune and chance in Macao in substantially the same manner as they are owning or managing casino or gaming areas or operating casino games as of the issue date of the SCL senior notes, for a period of 30 consecutive days or more, and such event has a material adverse effect on the financial condition, business, properties or results of operations of SCL and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, each holder of the SCL senior notes would have the right to require us to repurchase all or any part of such holder's SCL senior notes at par, plus any accrued and unpaid interest (the “Investor Put Option”).
Additionally, under the 2018 SCL Credit Facility, the events that trigger an Investor Put Option under the SCL senior notes (as described above) would be an event of default, which may result in commitments being immediately cancelled, in whole or in part, and the related outstanding balances and accrued interest, if any, becoming immediately due and payable.
The subconcession not being extended or renewed and the potential impact if holders of the notes and the agent have the ability to, and make the election to, accelerate the repayment of our debt would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. We intend to follow the process for a concession renewal once the process and requirements are announced by the Macao government.
Key Operating Revenue Measurements
Operating revenues at The Venetian Macao, The Londoner Macao, The Parisian Macao, The Plaza Macao and Four Seasons Macao, Marina Bay Sands and our Las Vegas Operating Properties are dependent upon the volume of customers who stay at the hotel, which affects the price charged for hotel rooms and our gaming volume. Operating revenues at Sands Macao are principally driven by casino customers who visit the property on a daily basis.
Management utilizes the following volume and pricing measures in order to evaluate past performance and assist in forecasting future revenues. The various volume measurements indicate our ability to attract customers to our Integrated Resorts. In casino operations, win and hold percentages indicate the amount of revenue to be expected based on volume. In hotel operations, average daily rate and revenue per available room indicate the demand for rooms and our ability to capture that demand. In mall operations, base rent per square foot indicates our ability to attract and maintain profitable tenants for our leasable space.
The following are the key measurements we use to evaluate operating revenues:
Casino revenue measurements for Macao and Singapore: Macao and Singapore table games are segregated into two groups: Rolling Chip play (composed of VIP players) and Non-Rolling Chip play (mostly non-VIP players). The volume measurement for Rolling Chip play is non-negotiable gaming chips wagered and lost. The volume measurement for Non-Rolling Chip play is table games drop ("drop"), which is net markers issued (credit instruments), cash deposited in the table drop boxes and gaming chips purchased and exchanged at the cage. Rolling Chip and Non-Rolling Chip volume measurements are not comparable as they are two distinct measures of volume. The amounts wagered and lost for Rolling Chip play are substantially higher than the amounts dropped for Non-Rolling Chip play. Slot handle, also a volume measurement, is the gross amount wagered for the period cited.
We view Rolling Chip win as a percentage of Rolling Chip volume, Non-Rolling Chip win as a percentage of drop and slot hold (amount won by the casino) as a percentage of slot handle. Win or hold percentage represents the percentage of Rolling Chip volume, Non-Rolling Chip drop or slot handle that is won by the casino and recorded as
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casino revenue. Our win and hold percentages are calculated before discounts, commissions, deferring revenue associated with our loyalty programs and allocating casino revenues related to goods and services provided to patrons on a complimentary basis. Our Rolling Chip win percentage is expected to be 3.15% to 3.45% in Macao and Singapore. Actual win percentage may vary from our expected win percentage and historical win and hold percentages. Generally, slot machine play is conducted on a cash basis. In Macao and Singapore, 14.5% and 7.9%, respectively, of our table games play was conducted on a credit basis for the year ended December 31, 2021.
Casino revenue measurements for the U.S.: The volume measurements in the U.S. are slot handle, as previously described, and table games drop, which is the total amount of cash and net markers issued deposited in the table drop box. We view table games win as a percentage of drop and slot hold as a percentage of slot handle. Our win and hold percentages are calculated before discounts, commissions, deferring revenue associated with our loyalty programs and allocating casino revenues related to goods and services provided to patrons on a complimentary basis. Based upon our mix of table games, our table games are expected to produce a win percentage of 18% to 26% for Baccarat and 16% to 24% for non-Baccarat. Actual win percentage may vary from our expected win percentage and historical win and hold percentages. Similar to Macao and Singapore, slot machine play is generally conducted on a cash basis. Approximately 53.9% of our table games play at our Las Vegas Operating Properties was conducted on a credit basis for the year ended December 31, 2021.
Hotel revenue measurements: Performance indicators used are occupancy rate (a volume indicator), which is the average percentage of available hotel rooms occupied during a period, and average daily room rate ("ADR," a price indicator), which is the average price of occupied rooms per day. Available rooms exclude those rooms unavailable for occupancy during the period due to renovation, development or other requirements (such as government mandated closure, lodging for team members and usage by the Macao and Singapore governments for quarantine measures). The calculations of the occupancy rate and ADR include the impact of rooms provided on a complimentary basis. Revenue per available room ("RevPAR") represents a summary of hotel ADR and occupancy. Because not all available rooms are occupied, ADR is normally higher than RevPAR. Reserved rooms where the guests do not show up for their stay and lose their deposit, or where guests check out early, may be re-sold to walk-in guests.
Mall revenue measurements: Occupancy, base rent per square foot and tenant sales per square foot are used as performance indicators. Occupancy represents gross leasable occupied area ("GLOA") divided by gross leasable area ("GLA") at the end of the reporting period. GLOA is the sum of: (1) tenant occupied space under lease and (2) tenants no longer occupying space, but paying rent. GLA does not include space currently under development or not on the market for lease. Base rent per square foot is the weighted average base or minimum rent charge, excluding rent concessions, in effect at the end of the reporting period for all tenants that would qualify to be included in occupancy. Tenant sales per square foot is the sum of reported comparable sales for the trailing 12 months divided by the comparable square footage for the same period. Only tenants that have been open for a minimum of 12 months are included in the tenant sales per square foot calculation.
Year Ended December 31, 2021 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2020
Summary Financial Results
Our financial results continued to be adversely impacted by continued decreased visitation at each of our operating properties in Asia due to the COVID-19 Pandemic. See “COVID-19 Pandemic” for further information. Net revenues for the year ended December 31, 2021 were $4.23 billion, compared to $2.94 billion for the year ended December 31, 2020. Operating loss was $689 million, compared to operating loss of $1.39 billion for the year ended December 31, 2020. Net loss from continuing operations was $1.47 billion for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to net loss from continuing operations of $1.90 billion for the year ended December 31, 2020.
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Operating Revenues
Our net revenues consisted of the following:
  Year Ended December 31,
  2021 2020 Percent 
Change
  (Dollars in millions)
Casino $ 2,892  $ 2,041  41.7  %
Rooms 415  280  48.2  %
Food and beverage 199  156  27.6  %
Mall 649  381  70.3  %
Convention, retail and other 79  82  (3.7) %
Total net revenues $ 4,234  $ 2,940  44.0  %
Consolidated net revenues were $4.23 billion for the year ended December 31, 2021, an increase of $1.29 billion compared to $2.94 billion for the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase consists of increases of $1.19 billion and $107 million at our Macao operations and Marina Bay Sands, respectively, due to increased casino and rooms revenue from increased visitation related to fewer days in which our gaming operations were closed in 2021 compared to 2020.
Net casino revenues increased $851 million compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. Revenues at our Macao properties and Marina Bay Sands increased $818 million and $33 million, respectively, driven by increases in Non-Rolling Chip drop and slot handle. The following table summarizes the results of our casino activity:
Year Ended December 31,
2021 2020 Change
(Dollars in millions)
Macao Operations:
The Venetian Macao
Total casino revenues $ 944  $ 531  77.8  %
Non-Rolling Chip drop $ 3,234  $ 1,925  68.0  %
Non-Rolling Chip win percentage 27.4  % 25.4  % 2.0  pts
Rolling Chip volume $ 4,412  $ 3,775  16.9  %
Rolling Chip win percentage 3.99  % 3.12  % 0.87  pts
Slot handle $ 1,841  $ 1,041  76.8  %
Slot hold percentage 3.9  % 4.2  % (0.3) pts
The Londoner Macao
Total casino revenues $ 396  $ 192  106.3  %
Non-Rolling Chip drop $ 1,755  $ 881  99.2  %
Non-Rolling Chip win percentage 21.6  % 22.6  % (1.0) pts
Rolling Chip volume $ 3,674  $ 167  2,100.0  %
Rolling Chip win percentage 3.23  % 5.85  % (2.62) pts
Slot handle $ 962  $ 531  81.2  %
Slot hold percentage 3.8  % 4.3  % (0.5) pts
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Year Ended December 31,
2021 2020 Change
(Dollars in millions)
The Parisian Macao
Total casino revenues $ 244  $ 180  35.6  %
Non-Rolling Chip drop $ 1,146  $ 844  35.8  %
Non-Rolling Chip win percentage 22.3  % 23.1  % (0.8) pts
Rolling Chip volume $ 502  $ 3,141  (84.0) %
Rolling Chip win percentage 3.73  % 1.13  % 2.60  pts
Slot handle $ 787  $ 763  3.1  %
Slot hold percentage 3.3  % 3.7  % (0.4) pts
The Plaza Macao and Four Seasons Macao
Total casino revenues $ 298  $ 159  87.4  %
Non-Rolling Chip drop $ 1,140  $ 544  109.6  %
Non-Rolling Chip win percentage 23.5  % 24.6  % (1.1) pts
Rolling Chip volume $ 2,659  $ 3,656  (27.3) %
Rolling Chip win percentage 4.64  % 2.46  % 2.18  pts
Slot handle $ 42  $ 37  13.5  %
Slot hold percentage 5.7  % 4.6  % 1.1  pts
Sands Macao
Total casino revenues $ 105  $ 107  (1.9) %
Non-Rolling Chip drop $ 433  $ 451  (4.0) %
Non-Rolling Chip win percentage 17.1  % 18.7  % (1.6) pts
Rolling Chip volume $ 1,073  $ 1,361  (21.2) %
Rolling Chip win percentage 4.39  % 2.44  % 1.95  pts
Slot handle $ 606  $ 549  10.4  %
Slot hold percentage 3.1  % 3.1  % —  pts
Singapore Operations:
Marina Bay Sands
Total casino revenues $ 905  $ 872  3.8  %
Non-Rolling Chip drop $ 2,679  $ 2,111  26.9  %
Non-Rolling Chip win percentage 15.0  % 18.6  % (3.6) pts
Rolling Chip volume $ 3,901  $ 9,495  (58.9) %
Rolling Chip win percentage 5.79  % 3.56  % 2.23  pts
Slot handle $ 12,084  $ 8,915  35.5  %
Slot hold percentage 4.2  % 4.4  % (0.2) pts
U.S. Operations:
Las Vegas Operating Properties(1)
Total casino revenues $ 443  $ 228  94.3  %
Table games drop $ 1,630  $ 1,258  29.6  %
Table games win percentage 16.4  % 13.2  % 3.2  pts
Slot handle $ 3,830  $ 1,951  96.3  %
Slot hold percentage 8.5  % 8.0  % 0.5  pts
__________________________
(1)    The Las Vegas Operating Properties are classified as a discontinued operation held for sale.
In our experience, average win percentages remain fairly consistent when measured over extended periods of time with a significant volume of wagers, but can vary considerably within shorter time periods as a result of the statistical variances associated with games of chance in which large amounts are wagered.
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Room revenues increased $135 million compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase was primarily due to increased occupancy rates driven by higher visitation across our properties, as well as our properties being closed for longer periods and select number of rooms being utilized for government quarantine purposes during the year ended December 31, 2020. The following table summarizes the results of our room activity:
Year Ended December 31,
2021 2020 Change
(Room revenues in millions)
Macao Operations:
The Venetian Macao
Total room revenues $ 77  $ 46  67.4  %
Occupancy rate 49.7  % 27.2  % 22.5  pts
Average daily room rate (ADR) $ 155  $ 197  (21.3) %
Revenue per available room (RevPAR) $ 77  $ 53  45.3  %
The Londoner Macao
Total room revenues $ 90  $ 42  114.3  %
Occupancy rate 40.3  % 18.3  % 22.0  pts
Average daily room rate (ADR) $ 160  $ 164  (2.4) %
Revenue per available room (RevPAR) $ 64  $ 30  113.3  %
The Parisian Macao
Total room revenues $ 54  $ 33  63.6  %
Occupancy rate 52.1  % 27.3  % 24.8  pts
Average daily room rate (ADR) $ 118  $ 145  (18.6) %
Revenue per available room (RevPAR) $ 61  $ 39  56.4  %
The Plaza Macao and Four Seasons Macao
Total room revenues $ 45  $ 17  164.7  %
Occupancy rate 44.3  % 28.5  % 15.8  pts
Average daily room rate (ADR) $ 438  $ 394  11.2  %
Revenue per available room (RevPAR) $ 194  $ 113  71.7  %
Sands Macao
Total room revenues $ 10  $ 66.7  %
Occupancy rate 68.2  % 39.4  % 28.8  pts
Average daily room rate (ADR) $ 138  $ 157  (12.1) %
Revenue per available room (RevPAR) $ 94  $ 62  51.6  %
Singapore Operations:
Marina Bay Sands(1)
Total room revenues $ 139  $ 136  2.2  %
Occupancy rate 70.1  % 69.1  % 1.0  pts
Average daily room rate (ADR) $ 236  $ 313  (24.6) %
Revenue per available room (RevPAR) $ 165  $ 216  (23.6) %
U.S. Operations:
Las Vegas Operating Properties(2)
Total room revenues $ 454  $ 218  108.3  %
Occupancy rate 82.4  % 56.3  % 26.1  pts
Average daily room rate (ADR) $ 221  $ 220  0.5  %
Revenue per available room (RevPAR) $ 182  $ 124  46.8  %
_________________________
(1)    During the year ended December 31, 2021, 7% of rooms were under construction for renovation purposes.
(2)    The Las Vegas Operating Properties are classified as a discontinued operation held for sale.
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Food and beverage revenues increased $43 million compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase was $34 million and $9 million at our Macao properties and Marina Bay Sands, respectively. The increase was due to increased visitation during the year ended December 31, 2021.
Mall revenues increased $268 million compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase was primarily due to a $207 million decrease in rent concessions granted to our mall tenants in Macao and Singapore compared to the year ended December 31, 2020, as well as a $76 million increase in turnover rents. These items were partially offset by a decrease in occupancy rates for our Macao mall operations.
For further information related to the financial performance of our malls, see "Additional Information Regarding our Retail Mall Operations." The following table summarizes the results of our malls on the Cotai Strip in Macao and in Singapore:
  Year Ended December 31,
  2021 2020 Change
  (Mall revenues in millions)
Macao Operations:
Shoppes at Venetian
Total mall revenues $ 194  $ 125  55.2  %
Mall gross leasable area (in square feet) 814,784  812,936  0.2  %
Occupancy 79.7  % 83.8  % (4.1) pts
Base rent per square foot $ 292  $ 302  (3.3) %
Tenant sales per square foot(1)
$ 1,348  $ 794  69.8  %
Shoppes at Londoner(2)
Total mall revenues $ 55  $ 37  48.6  %
Mall gross leasable area (in square feet) 532,175  525,206  1.3  %
Occupancy 54.4  % 83.9  % (29.5) pts
Base rent per square foot $ 152  $ 96  58.3  %
Tenant sales per square foot(1)
$ 1,462  $ 409  257.5  %
Shoppes at Parisian
Total mall revenues $ 39  $ 27  44.4  %
Mall gross leasable area (in square feet) 296,322  295,963  0.1  %
Occupancy 74.5  % 78.5  % (4.0) pts
Base rent per square foot $ 133  $ 156  (14.7) %
Tenant sales per square foot(1)
$ 648  $ 349  85.7  %
Shoppes at Four Seasons
Total mall revenues $ 184  $ 79  132.9  %
Mall gross leasable area (in square feet) 244,208  244,104  —  %
Occupancy 94.3  % 94.9  % (0.6) pts
Base rent per square foot $ 549  $ 540  1.7  %
Tenant sales per square foot(1)
$ 6,300  $ 2,744  129.6  %
Singapore Operations:
The Shoppes at Marina Bay Sands
Total mall revenues $ 176  $ 112  57.1  %
Mall gross leasable area (in square feet) 622,362  620,330  0.3  %
Occupancy 98.2  % 98.2  % —  pts
Base rent per square foot $ 277  $ 258  7.4  %
Tenant sales per square foot(1)
$ 1,614  $ 1,053  53.3  %
_________________________
Note:    This table excludes the results of mall operations at Sands Macao. As a result of the COVID-19 Pandemic, tenants were provided rent concessions during the year ended December 31, 2021 and 2020. Base rent per square foot presented above excludes the impact of these rent concessions.
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(1)Tenant sales per square foot is the sum of reported comparable sales for the trailing 12 months divided by the comparable square footage for the same period.
(2)The Shoppes at Londoner will feature more than 600,000 square feet of gross leasable area upon completion of all phases of the renovation and expansion to The Londoner Macao.
Operating Expenses
Our operating expenses consisted of the following:
Year Ended December 31,
2021 2020 Percent 
Change
(Dollars in millions)
Casino $ 2,068  $ 1,585  30.5  %
Rooms 164  136  20.6  %
Food and beverage 244  236  3.4  %
Mall 65  59  10.2  %
Convention, retail and other 85  103  (17.5) %
Provision for credit losses 86  (96.5) %
General and administrative 831  798  4.1  %
Corporate 211  168  25.6  %
Pre-opening 19  19  —  %
Development 109  18  505.6  %
Depreciation and amortization 1,041  997  4.4  %
Amortization of leasehold interests in land 56  55  1.8  %
Loss on disposal or impairment of assets 27  73  (63.0) %
Total operating expenses $ 4,923  $ 4,333  13.6  %
Operating expenses were $4.92 billion for the year ended December 31, 2021, an increase of $590 million compared to $4.33 billion for the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase was driven by increased visitation due to fewer days in which our properties were closed during 2021 compared to 2020, and an increase in payroll-related costs due to an increase of $121 million in bonuses and incentives and a decrease in payments from the Job Support Scheme in Singapore received in 2021. The increase was partially offset by certain cost reduction programs implemented by management beginning in 2020 due to the impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic. Operating margins in each business segment remain negatively impacted as we have maintained our staffing levels across our jurisdictions through significantly reduced visitation. We have also continued our payroll cost saving initiatives across each of our properties, implemented in 2020, which included utilization of paid time off and voluntary unpaid leave.
Casino expenses increased $483 million compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase was primarily attributable to an increase of $412 million in gaming taxes due to increased casino revenues, as previously described.
Room expenses increased $28 million compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase consisted of increases of $17 million and $11 million at our Macao properties and Marina Bay Sands, respectively, consistent with the increase in room revenue.
Convention, retail and other expenses decreased $18 million compared to the year ended December 31, 2020, driven by a $13 million decrease in ferry expenses resulting from decreases in contract labor costs due to a reduction in headcount, lower repair and maintenance costs, and lower fuel costs as ferries were under dry dock. Additionally, convention, retail and other expenses at our Macao properties decreased $5 million as a result of the cancellation of MICE and entertainment events.
The provision for credit losses was $3 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to $86 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. The decrease was primarily due to an increased level of provision recorded during the year ended December 31, 2020 due to the aging of patron receivables in connection with the impact of the
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COVID-19 Pandemic. The amount of this provision can vary over short periods of time because of factors specific to the patrons who owe us money from gaming activities. We believe the amount of our provision for credit losses in the future will depend upon the state of the economy, our credit standards, our risk assessments and the judgment of our employees responsible for granting credit.
General and administrative expenses increased $33 million compared to the year ended December 31, 2020, consisted of increases of $18 million and $15 million at our Macao properties and Marina Bay Sands, respectively. The increases were primarily driven by increases in marketing, payroll and property operation costs.
Corporate expenses increased $43 million compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase was primarily driven by $36 million related to payroll and related costs, driven by no bonus expense recorded during the year ended December 31, 2020. In addition, travel and related expenses increased by $8 million due to increases in corporate aircraft usage and the related fuel costs, as well as higher fuel prices.
Pre-opening expenses represent personnel and other costs incurred prior to the opening of new ventures, which are expensed as incurred. The majority of pre-opening expenses incurred related to The Londoner Macao.
Development expenses were $109 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, and include the costs associated with our evaluation and pursuit of new business opportunities, primarily in Florida and Texas, as well as our digital gaming efforts. Development costs are also expensed as incurred.
Loss on disposal or impairment of assets was $27 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to $73 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. The decrease was primarily due to fewer asset disposals and related demolition costs incurred during the construction of The Londoner Macao compared to 2020.
Segment Adjusted Property EBITDA
The following table summarizes information related to our segments (see "Item 8 — Financial Statements and Supplementary Data — Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements — Note 18 — Segment Information" for discussion of our operating segments and a reconciliation of consolidated adjusted property EBITDA to net income/loss):
Year Ended December 31,
2021 2020 Percent 
Change
(Dollars in millions)
Macao:
The Venetian Macao $ 297  $ (53) (660.4) %
The Londoner Macao (84) (184) (54.3) %
The Parisian Macao (17) (131) (87.0) %
The Plaza Macao and Four Seasons Macao 219  33  563.6  %
Sands Macao (69) (76) (9.2) %
Ferry Operations and Other (8) (20) (60.0) %
338  (431) (178.4) %
Marina Bay Sands 448  383  17.0  %
Consolidated adjusted property EBITDA(1)
$ 786  $ (48) (1,737.5) %
Las Vegas Operating Properties(2)
290  (124) (333.9) %
_________________________
(1)Consolidated adjusted property EBITDA, which is a non-GAAP financial measure, is used by management as the primary measure of the operating performance of our segments. Consolidated adjusted property EBITDA is net income/loss before stock-based compensation expense, corporate expense, pre-opening expense, development expense, depreciation and amortization, amortization of leasehold interests in land, gain or loss on disposal or impairment of assets, interest, other income or expense, gain or loss on modification or early retirement of debt and income taxes. Consolidated adjusted property EBITDA is a supplemental non-GAAP financial measure used by management, as well as industry analysts, to evaluate operations and operating
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performance. In particular, management utilizes consolidated adjusted property EBITDA to compare the operating profitability of our operations with those of our competitors, as well as a basis for determining certain incentive compensation. Integrated Resort companies have historically reported adjusted property EBITDA as a supplemental performance measure to GAAP financial measures. In order to view the operations of their properties on a more stand-alone basis, Integrated Resort companies, including Las Vegas Sands Corp., have historically excluded certain expenses that do not relate to the management of specific properties, such as pre-opening expense, development expense and corporate expense, from their adjusted property EBITDA calculations. Consolidated adjusted property EBITDA should not be interpreted as an alternative to income from operations (as an indicator of operating performance) or to cash flows from operations (as a measure of liquidity), in each case, as determined in accordance with GAAP. We have significant uses of cash flow, including capital expenditures, dividend payments, interest payments, debt principal repayments and income taxes, which are not reflected in consolidated adjusted property EBITDA. Not all companies calculate adjusted property EBITDA in the same manner. As a result, our presentation of consolidated adjusted property EBITDA may not be directly comparable to similarly titled measures presented by other companies.
(2)The Las Vegas Operating Properties are classified as a discontinued operation held for sale.
Adjusted property EBITDA at our Macao operations increased $769 million compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase is primarily due to an increase in casino, mall, and rooms revenues due to fewer property closures as a result of the COVID-19 Pandemic. The increases were due to increases in table drop and slot handle, reduced rent concessions and increases in occupancy and number of rooms available for sale, respectfully.
Adjusted property EBITDA at Marina Bay Sands increased $65 million compared to the year ended December 31, 2020.The increase was primarily due to an increase in casino revenue and mall operations due to fewer property closures as a result of the COVID-19 Pandemic. The increases were due to increased slot handle and reduced rent concessions, respectfully.
Adjusted property EBITDA at our Las Vegas Operating Properties increased $414 million compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase was primarily due to increased casino and room revenue due to no property closures in 2021 as a result of the COVID-19 Pandemic. The increases were due to increases in table drop and slot handle and increased occupancy, respectfully.
Interest Expense
The following table summarizes information related to interest expense:
Year Ended December 31,
2021 2020
(Dollars in millions)
Interest cost
$ 636  $ 544 
Less — capitalized interest (15) (21)
Interest expense, net
$ 621  $ 523 
Cash paid for interest
$ 606  $ 440 
Weighted average total debt balance
$ 14,592  $ 13,412 
Weighted average interest rate
4.4  % 4.0  %
Interest cost increased $92 million compared to the year ended December 31, 2020, resulting primarily from increases in our weighted average interest rate and weighted average total debt balance. The weighted average debt balance increased in connection with the issuance of the SCL 2026 and 2030 Senior Notes in June 2020 and draws on the SCL revolver during the year ended December 31, 2021. Additionally, the weighted average interest rate increased from 4.0% to 4.4% during the year ended December 31, 2021 as a result of the expiration of interest rate swaps in August 2020 related to the SCL senior notes (see "Item 8 — Financial Statements and Supplementary Data — Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements — Note 10 — Long-Term Debt").
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Other Factors Affecting Earnings
Other expense was $31 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to other income of $19 million during the year ended December 31, 2020. The change is primarily attributable to $51 million of foreign currency transaction losses, mostly driven by the U.S. dollar-denominated debt held by SCL.
Our income tax benefit was $5 million on a loss from continuing operations before income taxes of $1.47 billion for the year ended December 31, 2021, resulting in a (0.3%) effective income tax rate. This compares to a 1.3% effective income tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2020. The income tax benefit for the year ended December 31, 2021, reflects a 17% statutory tax rate on our Singapore operations, a 21% corporate income tax rate on our U.S. operations, and a zero percent tax rate on our Macao gaming operations due to our income tax exemption in Macao. Our U.S. operations recorded a tax benefit associated with the pre-tax book losses incurred for the year ended December 31, 2021. Our U.S. tax benefit was partially offset by a valuation allowance recorded on certain U.S. foreign tax credits, which we no longer expect to utilize due to lower royalty income resulting from a decrease in revenues from our Macao and Singapore operations compared to prior estimates.
The net loss attributable to our noncontrolling interests from continuing operations was $315 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to net loss attributable to our noncontrolling interest from continuing operations of $458 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. These amounts were related to the noncontrolling interest of SCL.
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Additional Information Regarding our Retail Mall Operations
The following tables summarize the results of our mall operations on the Cotai Strip and at Marina Bay Sands for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020:
Shoppes at Venetian Shoppes at Four Seasons Shoppes at Londoner Shoppes at Parisian The Shoppes at Marina Bay Sands
(In millions)
For the year ended December 31, 2021
Mall revenues:
Minimum rents(1)
$ 181  $ 121  $ 29  $ 29  $ 144 
Overage rents 15  54  15  25 
Rent concessions(2)
(31) (1) (3) (6) (24)
Other(3)
—  —  —  — 
Total overage rents and rent concessions
(16) 53  12  — 
CAM, levies and direct recoveries 29  10  14  10  25 
Total mall revenues 194  184  55  39  176 
Mall operating expenses:
Common area maintenance 12  16 
Marketing and other direct operating expenses
Mall operating expenses 18  10  22 
Property taxes(4)
—  —  — 
Provision for (recovery of) credit losses (1) —  —  — 
Mall-related expenses(5)
$ 18  $ $ 10  $ $ 24 
For the year ended December 31, 2020
Mall revenues:
Minimum rents(1)
$ 192  $ 121  $ 37  $ 34  $ 137 
Overage rents 13  10  11 
Rent concessions(2)
(111) (61) (22) (20) (56)
Total overage rents and rent concessions
(98) (51) (18) (18) (45)
CAM, levies and direct recoveries 31  18  11  20 
Total mall revenues 125  79  37  27  112 
Mall operating expenses:
Common area maintenance 11  13 
Marketing and other direct operating expenses
Mall operating expenses 16  18 
Property taxes(4)
—  —  — 
Provision for credit losses —  —  — 
Mall-related expenses(5)
$ 19  $ $ $ $ 20 
____________________
Note:    This table excludes the results of our mall operations at Sands Macao.
(1)    Minimum rents include base rents and straight-line adjustments of base rents.
(2)    Rent concessions were provided to tenants as a result of the COVID-19 Pandemic and the related impact on mall operations.
(3)    The amount for Marina Bay Sands of $6 million related to a grant provided by the Singapore government to lessors to support small and medium enterprises impacted by the COVID-19 Pandemic in connection with their rent obligations.
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(4)    Commercial property that generates rental income is exempt from property tax for the first six years for newly constructed buildings in Cotai. Each property is also eligible to obtain an additional six-year exemption, provided certain qualifications are met. To date, The Venetian Macao, The Plaza Macao and Four Seasons Macao, The Londoner Macao and The Parisian Macao have obtained a second exemption. The exemption for The Venetian Macao and The Plaza Macao and Four Seasons Macao expired in August 2019 and August 2020, respectively, and the exemption for The Londoner Macao and The Parisian Macao will be expiring in December 2027 and September 2028, respectively.
(5)    Mall-related expenses consist of CAM, marketing fees and other direct operating expenses, property taxes and provision for credit losses, but excludes depreciation and amortization and general and administrative costs.
It is common in the mall operating industry for companies to disclose mall net operating income ("NOI") as a useful supplemental measure of a mall's operating performance. Because NOI excludes general and administrative expenses, interest expense, impairment losses, depreciation and amortization, gains and losses from property dispositions, allocations to noncontrolling interests and provision for income taxes, it provides a performance measure that, when compared year over year, reflects the revenues and expenses directly associated with owning and operating commercial real estate properties and the impact on operations from trends in occupancy rates, rental rates and operating costs.
In the table above, we believe taking total mall revenues less mall-related expenses provides an operating performance measure for our malls. Other mall operating companies may use different methodologies for deriving mall-related expenses. As such, this calculation may not be comparable to the NOI of other mall operating companies.
Year Ended December 31, 2020 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2019
A discussion of changes in our results of operations between 2020 and 2019 has been omitted from this Form 10-K and can be found in "Item 7 — Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Year Ended December 31, 2020 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2019" of the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.
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Liquidity and Capital Resources
Cash Flows — Summary
Our cash flows consisted of the following:
Year Ended December 31,
2021 2020
(In millions)
Net cash generated from (used in) operating activities $ (243) $ (1,191)
Cash flows from investing activities:
Net proceeds from sale of Sands Bethlehem —  — 
Capital expenditures
(828) (1,227)
Proceeds from disposal of property and equipment
Acquisition of intangible assets and other (11) — 
Net cash generated from (used in) investing activities (832) (1,226)
Cash flows from financing activities:
Proceeds from exercise of stock options
19  24 
Repurchase of common stock
—  — 
Dividends paid and noncontrolling interest payments
—  (911)
Proceeds from long-term debt
2,702  1,945 
Repayments of long-term debt
(1,867) (467)
Payments of financing costs
(38) (31)
Make-whole premium on early extinguishment of debt (131) — 
Transaction with discontinued operations 178  (205)
Net cash generated from (used in) financing activities from continuing operations 863  355 
Net cash generated from (used in) discontinued operations 16  (19)
Effect of exchange rate on cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
(16) (24)
Decrease in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash and cash equivalents (212) (2,105)
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash and cash equivalents at beginning of year 2,137  4,242 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash and cash equivalents at end of year 1,925  2,137 
Less: cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period for discontinued operations (55) (39)
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period from continuing operations $ 1,870  $ 2,098 
A discussion of changes in cash flows between 2020 and 2019 has been omitted from this Form 10-K and can be found in "Item 7 — Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Liquidity and Capital Resources" of the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.
Cash Flows — Operating Activities
Table games play at our properties is conducted on a cash and credit basis, while slot machine play is primarily conducted on a cash basis. Our rooms, food and beverage and other non-gaming revenues are conducted primarily on a cash basis or as a trade receivable, resulting in operating cash flows being generally affected by changes in operating income and accounts receivable. For the year ended December 31, 2021, cash used in operations was $243 million, a decrease of $948 million compared to $1.19 billion for the year ended December 31, 2020, primarily resulting from a decrease in net loss as our properties remained opened during the year ended December 31, 2021, with the exception of the closure of the casino at Marina Bay Sands on two different occasions (approximately 15 days total), compared to the year ended December 31, 2020, in which our properties were closed at various times
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and for an extended period. Additionally, our net working capital requirements decreased during the year ended December 31, 2021.
Cash Flows — Investing Activities
Capital expenditures for the year ended December 31, 2021, totaled $828 million, including $653 million in Macao, which consisted of $551 million for The Londoner Macao, $71 million for The Venetian Macao and $19 million for The Plaza Macao and Four Seasons Macao; $148 million at Marina Bay Sands in Singapore; and $27 million for corporate and other.
Capital expenditures for the year ended December 31, 2020, totaled $1.23 billion, including $1.06 billion in Macao, which consisted of $739 million for The Londoner Macao, $157 million for The Plaza Macao and Four Seasons Macao primarily for The Grand Suites at Four Seasons, and $140 million for The Venetian Macao; $164 million in Singapore; and $5 million for corporate and other.
Cash Flows — Financing Activities
Net cash flows generated from financing activities were $863 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, which was primarily attributable to net proceeds of $756 million, received from the drawdown of our SCL revolving facility, and transactions with discontinued operations. These items were partially offset by a $131 million make-whole premium for the early redemption of the SCL senior note due 2023 and $38 million in financing costs related to the issuance of the new unsecured notes at SCL and the covenant waivers obtained on the LVSC Revolving Facility, 2018 SCL Credit Facility and 2012 Singapore Credit Facility.
Net cash flows generated from financing activities were $355 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, which was primarily attributable to the issuance of $1.50 billion of unsecured notes at SCL, partially offset by $911 million in dividend payments, and transactions with discontinued operations.
As of December 31, 2021, we had $3.68 billion available for borrowing under our U.S., Macao and Singapore revolving facilities, net of letters of credit. Additionally, we had $2.73 billion available for borrowing under the 2012 Singapore Delayed Draw Term Facility to finance construction costs incurred in connection with the MBS Expansion Project.
Capital Financing Overview
We fund our development projects primarily through borrowings from our debt instruments (see "Item 8 — Financial Statements and Supplementary Data — Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements — Note 10 — Long-Term Debt") and operating cash flows.
In September 2021, SCL issued, in a private offering, three series of unsecured notes in an aggregate principal amount of $1.95 billion. The net proceeds from the offering, along with cash on hand, was used to redeem in full the outstanding principal amount of the $1.80 billion 4.600% senior notes due 2023, any accrued interest and the associated make-whole premium as determined under the related senior notes indenture dated as of August 9, 2018. (See "Item 8 — Financial Statements and Supplementary Data — Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements — Note 10 — Long-Term Debt — Corporate and U.S. Related Debt — SCL Senior Notes").
Our U.S., SCL and Singapore credit facilities, as amended, contain various financial covenants, which include maintaining a maximum leverage ratio or net debt, as defined, to trailing twelve-month adjusted earnings before interest, income taxes, depreciation and amortization, as defined. In September 2021, LVSC extended the amendment, pursuant to which lenders, among other things, removed LVSC’s requirement to maintain a maximum leverage ratio as of the last day of the fiscal quarter, through and including December 31, 2022. In July 2021, SCL extended the waiver and amendment request letter, pursuant to which lenders, among other things, waived SCL’s requirement to ensure the leverage ratio does not exceed 4.0x and the interest coverage ratio is greater than 2.50x, through January 1, 2023. In September 2021, MBS extended the amendment letter, pursuant to which MBS will not have to comply with the leverage or interest coverage covenants as of the last day of the fiscal quarter, through and including December 31, 2022. Our compliance with our financial covenants for periods beyond December 31, 2022 could be affected by certain factors beyond our control, such as the impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic, including current travel and border restrictions continuing in the future. We will pursue additional waivers to meet the required financial covenant ratios, which include a maximum leverage ratio of 4.0x, 4.0x and 4.5x under our U.S., Macao and
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Singapore credit facilities, respectively, for periods beyond December 31, 2022 for LVSC and MBS and January 1, 2023 for SCL, if deemed necessary. We believe we will be successful in obtaining the additional waivers, although no assurance can be provided that such waivers will be granted, which could negatively impact our ability to be in compliance with our debt covenants for periods beyond December 31, 2022 for LVSC and MBS and January 1, 2023 for SCL.
In addition, pursuant to the Second Amendment and subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions specified therein, the requisite lenders under the existing LVSC Revolving Credit Agreement consented to, and waived any applicable restrictions prohibiting, the consummation of the announced sale of the Las Vegas Operations.
Any defaults under our debt agreements would allow the lenders, in each case, to exercise their rights and remedies as defined under their respective agreements. If the lenders were to exercise their rights to accelerate the due dates of the indebtedness outstanding, there can be no assurance we would be able to repay or refinance any amounts that may become due and payable under such agreements, which could force us to restructure or alter our operations or debt obligations.
We held unrestricted cash and cash equivalents of $1.85 billion and restricted cash and cash equivalents of $16 million as of December 31, 2021, of which approximately $1.06 billion of the unrestricted amount is held by non-U.S. subsidiaries. Of the $1.06 billion, approximately $706 million is available to be repatriated to the U.S., and we do not expect withholding taxes or other foreign income taxes to apply should these earnings be distributed in the form of dividends or otherwise. The remaining unrestricted amounts held by non-U.S. subsidiaries are not available for repatriation primarily due to dividend requirements to third-party public stockholders in the case of funds being repatriated from SCL.
We believe the cash on hand and cash flow generated from operations, as well as the $3.68 billion available for borrowing under our U.S., Macao and Singapore credit facilities, net of outstanding letters of credit, and SGD 3.69 billion (approximately $2.73 billion at exchange rates in effect on December 31, 2021) under the 2012 Singapore Delayed Draw Term Facility, as of December 31, 2021, will be sufficient to maintain compliance with the financial covenants of our credit facilities and fund our working capital needs, committed and planned capital expenditures, development opportunities and debt obligations. If the construction cost estimate and construction schedule to the MBS Expansion Project are not delivered by the extended deadline, we will not be permitted to make further draws on the Singapore Delayed Draw Term Facility after March 31, 2022 until these items are delivered to lenders. In the normal course of our activities, we will continue to evaluate global capital markets to consider future opportunities for enhancements of our capital structure. During 2020, we entered into an amendment request letter on the 2018 SCL Credit Facility, which provides us with the option to increase the total borrowing capacity by an aggregate amount of up to $1.0 billion. Subsequently, on January 25, 2021, we increased the amount available under the SCL revolving credit facility by HKD 3.83 billion (approximately $491 million in exchange rates in effect on December 31, 2021) to further enhance our liquidity. During the year ended December 31, 2021, SCL drew down $71 million and HKD 5.31 billion (approximately $681 million at exchange rates in effect on December 31, 2021) under this facility for general corporate purposes.
We have suspended our quarterly dividend program beginning in April 2020, and SCL suspended its dividend payments after paying its interim dividend for 2019 on February 21, 2020.
In June 2018, our Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of $2.50 billion of our outstanding common stock, which was to expire in November 2020. In October 2020, our Board of Directors authorized the extension of the expiration date of the remaining repurchase amount of $916 million to November 2022. During the year ended December 31, 2021, no shares of our common stock were repurchased under this program. All share repurchases of our common stock have been recorded as treasury stock. Repurchases of our common stock are made at our discretion in accordance with applicable federal securities laws in the open market or otherwise. The timing and actual number of shares to be repurchased in the future will depend on a variety of factors, including our financial position, earnings, cash flows, legal requirements, other investment opportunities and market conditions.
We believe we have a strong balance sheet and sufficient liquidity in place, including access to available borrowing capacity under our credit facilities. We also believe we are well positioned to support our continuing operations, complete the major construction projects in Macao and Singapore that are underway and respond to the current COVID-19 Pandemic challenges. We have taken various mitigating measures to manage through the current
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environment, including a cost and capital expenditure reduction program to minimize cash outflow for non-essential items.
Aggregate Indebtedness and Other Contractual Obligations
Our total long-term indebtedness and other contractual obligations are summarized below as of December 31, 2021:
Payments Due by Period(1)
2022 2023 - 2024 2025 - 2026 Thereafter Total
(In millions)
Long-Term Debt Obligations(2)
LVSC Senior Notes $ —  $ 1,750  $ 1,500  $ 750  $ 4,000 
SCL Senior Notes —  —  2,600  4,550  7,150 
2018 SCL Credit Facility — Revolving —  753  —  —  753 
2012 Singapore Credit Facility 62  200  2,683  —  2,945 
Singapore Delayed Draw Term Facility —  —  46  —  46 
Finance Leases, Including Imputed Interest 10  14  —  26 
Fixed Interest Payments 441  890  649  552  2,532 
Variable Interest Payments(3)
79  133  71  —  283 
Contractual Obligations
Operating Leases, Including Imputed Interest(4)
16  19  11  310  356 
Mall Deposits(5)
58  58  16  11  143 
Macao Annual Premium(6)
22  —  —  —  22 
Other(7)
92  126  85  149  452 
Total $ 780  $ 3,943  $