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Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
Registration No. 333-227847

Prospectus Supplement

To Prospectus Supplement dated July 30, 2019

(To Prospectus dated October 24, 2018)

 

LOGO

Up to $65,000,000

Common Stock

 

 

This prospectus supplement, relating to the offer and sale of up to $65.0 million of shares of our common stock, from time to time, supplements the prospectus supplement, dated July 30, 2019. These sales will be made pursuant to the terms of the Equity Distribution Agreement that we entered into with Canaccord Genuity LLC, or Canaccord, on July 30, 2019, as amended on March 9, 2020, which we collectively refer to as the Equity Distribution Agreement. In accordance with the terms of the Equity Distribution Agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $65.0 million from time to time through Canaccord, acting as sales agent. As of March 6, 2020, we have sold 35,360,311 shares of our common stock with an aggregate offering price of approximately $27.1 million, leaving an aggregate offering price of up to approximately $37.9 million remaining under the Equity Distribution Agreement.

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market, or the Exchange, under the symbol “TTOO.” On March 6, 2020, the last reported sale price of our common stock as reported on the Exchange was $0.5625 per share.

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus supplement and accompanying base prospectus may be made in sales deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Subject to terms of the Equity Distribution Agreement, Canaccord is not required to sell any specific number or dollar amounts of securities but will act as our sales agent using commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the shares of common stock requested to be sold by us consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between Canaccord and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

Canaccord will be entitled to compensation under the terms of the Equity Distribution Agreement at a fixed commission rate equal to 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold. In connection with the sale of our common stock on our behalf, Canaccord will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation of Canaccord will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Canaccord against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

 

Investing in our common stock involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-11 of this prospectus supplement and under similar headings in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and on page 5 of the accompanying base prospectus.

None of the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, any state securities commission or any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement or the accompanying base prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

Canaccord Genuity

The date of this prospectus supplement is March 9, 2020.


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Prospectus Supplement

 

About this Prospectus Supplement

     S-1  

Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference

     S-3  

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

     S-5  

Prospectus Supplement Summary

     S-7  

Risk Factors

     S-11  

Use of Proceeds

     S-47  

Dividend Policy

     S-48  

Plan of Distribution

     S-49  

Legal Matters

     S-51  

Experts

     S-51  

Prospectus

 

About this Prospectus

     1  

Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference

     2  

The Company

     4  

Risk Factors

     5  

Use of Proceeds

     6  

Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges

     7  

Description of Capital Stock

     8  

Description of Debt Securities

     11  

Description of Warrants

     19  

Description of Units

     21  

Global Securities

     22  

Plan of Distribution

     26  

Legal Matters

     28  

Experts

     28  

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

This prospectus supplement is part of a registration statement that we have filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. By using a shelf registration statement, we may offer shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $65,000,000 from time to time under this prospectus supplement at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of offering.

We provide information to you about this offering of our common stock in two separate documents that are bound together: (1) this prospectus supplement, which describes the specific details regarding this offering; and (2) the accompanying base prospectus, which provides general information, some of which may not apply to this offering. Generally, when we refer to this “prospectus,” we are referring to both documents combined. If information in this prospectus supplement is inconsistent with the accompanying base prospectus, you should rely on this prospectus supplement. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus supplement, on the one hand, and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus supplement. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date – for example, a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement – the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

We have not, and Canaccord has not, authorized anyone to provide you with information other than that contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and any free writing prospectus. We are not, and Canaccord is not, making an offer to sell or soliciting any offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted or in which the person making that offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make an offer or solicitation. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering is accurate only as of the respective dates of those documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering in their entirety before making an investment decision.

Before buying any of the common stock that we are offering, we urge you to carefully read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and all of the information incorporated by reference herein and therein, as well as the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.” These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.

We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The distribution of this prospectus supplement and the offering of the common stock in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus supplement must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the common stock and the distribution of this prospectus supplement outside the United States. This prospectus supplement does not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities offered by this prospectus supplement by any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offer or solicitation.

T2 Biosystems®, T2MR®, T2Bacteria®, T2Candida®, T2Dx®, T2Direct Diagnostics, T2HemoStat, and T2Plex, “T2Biosystems” and the T2 Biosystems, Inc. logo design are registered trademarks or trademarks of T2Biosystems, Inc. This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference also include trademarks, tradenames and service marks that are the property of others. Solely for

 

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convenience, trademarks and tradenames referred to in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference appear without the ® and symbols, but those references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights, or that the applicable owner will not assert its rights, to these trademarks and tradenames.

Unless stated otherwise or the context otherwise indicates, all references in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying base prospectus to “T2 Biosystems,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” or “our” refer to T2 Biosystems, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and, where applicable, our wholly owned subsidiary.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

Available Information

We file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is www.sec.gov.

Our website address is www.t2biosystems.com. However, the information on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of this prospectus supplement or accompanying base prospectus. We have included our website address as an inactive textual reference only.

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus are part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and do not contain all of the information in the registration statement. The full registration statement may be obtained from the SEC or us, as provided below. Documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are or may be filed as exhibits to the registration statement. Statements in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying base prospectus about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters. You may inspect a copy of the registration statement through the SEC’s website, as provided above.

Incorporation by Reference

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents instead of having to repeat the information in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus supplement and accompanying base prospectus, and later information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future information filed (rather than furnished) with the SEC under Section 13(a), 13(c), 14, or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, between the date of this prospectus supplement and the termination of this offering. We are not, however, incorporating by reference any documents or portions thereof, whether specifically listed below or filed in the future, that are not deemed “filed” with the SEC, including any information furnished pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or related exhibits furnished pursuant to Item 9.01 of Form 8-K.

This prospectus supplement incorporates by reference the documents set forth below that have previously been filed with the SEC:

 

   

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018.

 

   

Our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2019, June 30, 2019 and September  30, 2019.

 

   

The information specifically incorporated by reference from our Amendment No. 1 to Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A (other than information furnished rather than filed), filed with the SEC on April 30, 2019.

 

   

Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on March 21, 2019, June 12, 2019, July  30, 2019, September 10, 2019, September 10, 2019, November 20, 2019 and January 9, 2020.

 

   

The description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC under Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act on July 25, 2014, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

 

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We will furnish without charge to you, upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated by reference (other than exhibits, unless they are specifically incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement or the accompanying base prospectus), by writing or telephoning us at the following address:

T2 Biosystems, Inc.

101 Hartwell Ave.

Lexington, MA 02421

(781) 761-4646

Attention:

Investor Relations

 

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus, the documents that we incorporate by reference herein and therein and other written and oral statements we make from time to time contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, business strategy, prospective products and product candidates, their expected performance and impact on healthcare costs, marketing clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or the FDA, regulatory clearance, reimbursement for our product candidates, research and development costs, timing of regulatory filings, timing and likelihood of success, plans and objectives of management for future operations, availability of funding for such operations and future results of anticipated products, are forward-looking statements. These statements are often, but are not always, made through the use of words or phrases such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would,” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions. Accordingly, these statements involve estimates, assumptions and uncertainties which could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in them. Any forward-looking statements are qualified in their entirety by reference to the factors discussed throughout this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and the documents that we incorporate by reference herein and therein, and in particular those factors referenced in the section entitled “Risk Factors.”

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus, the documents that we incorporate by reference herein and therein and other written and oral statements we make from time to time contain forward-looking statements that are based on our management’s belief and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. These statements relate to future events or our future financial performance, and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are subject to numerous risks, including, without limitation, the following:

 

   

our status as an early stage company;

 

   

our expectation to incur losses in the future;

 

   

the market acceptance of our T2 Magnetic Resonance, or T2MR, technology;

 

   

our ability to timely and successfully develop and commercialize our existing products and future product candidates;

 

   

the length and variability of our anticipated sales and adoption cycle;

 

   

our limited sales history;

 

   

our ability to gain the support of leading hospitals and key thought leaders and publish the results of our clinical trials in peer-reviewed journals;

 

   

our ability to successfully manage our growth;

 

   

our future capital needs and our ability to raise additional funds;

 

   

the performance of our diagnostics;

 

   

our ability to compete in the highly competitive diagnostics market;

 

   

our ability to obtain marketing clearance from the FDA or regulatory clearance for new product candidates in the United States or any other jurisdiction;

 

   

impacts of and delays caused by future federal government shutdowns;

 

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federal, state and foreign regulatory requirements, including diagnostic product reimbursements and FDA regulation of our product candidates;

 

   

our ability to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights, including our trade secret-protected proprietary rights in T2MR;

 

   

our ability to recruit, train and retain key personnel;

 

   

our dependence on third parties;

 

   

our ability to continue as a going concern;

 

   

manufacturing and other product risks;

 

   

the impact of the adoption of new accounting standards; and

 

   

the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (Tax Reform).

You should read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein completely and with the understanding that our actual results may differ materially from what we expect as expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements. In light of the significant risks and uncertainties to which our forward-looking statements are subject, you should not place undue reliance on or regard these statements as a representation or warranty by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified timeframe, or at all. We discuss many of these risks in greater detail in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including under the heading “Risk Factors.” These forward-looking statements represent our estimates and assumptions only as of the dates of this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, and any free writing prospectus, as applicable, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus or any sale of our common stock and, except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date of this prospectus. For all forward-looking statements, we claim the protection of the safe harbor for forward-looking statements contained in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

This summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus. It does not contain all of the information that you should consider before making an investment decision. For a more complete understanding of our business and this offering, you should carefully read the entire prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, including our historical financial statements and the notes thereto, which are incorporated herein by reference. You should read section titled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement, on page 5 of the accompanying base prospectus and Item 1A. “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, for more information about important risks that you should consider before making a decision to invest in our common stock.

T2 Biosystems, Inc.

T2 Biosystems, Inc. (“we” or “our”), an in vitro diagnostics company and leader in the rapid detection of sepsis-causing pathogens, is dedicated to improving patient care and reducing the cost of care by helping clinicians effectively treat patients faster than ever before. We have developed an innovative and proprietary technology platform that offers a rapid, sensitive and simple alternative to existing diagnostic methodologies. We are using our T2MR technology to develop a broad set of applications aimed at lowering mortality rates, improving patient outcomes and reducing the cost of healthcare by helping medical professionals make targeted treatment decisions earlier. T2MR enables rapid detection of pathogens, biomarkers and other abnormalities in a variety of unpurified patient sample types, including whole blood, plasma, serum, saliva, sputum and urine, and can detect cellular targets at limits of detection as low as one colony forming unit per milliliter, or CFU/mL. Our products include the T2Dx Instrument, T2Candida Panel, the T2Bacteria Panel, and the T2ResistanceTM Panel, that are all powered by our proprietary T2MR technology. Our initial development efforts target sepsis and Lyme disease, which are areas of significant unmet medical need in which existing therapies could be more effective with improved diagnostics.

Recent Developments

On September 6, 2019, we entered into an agreement (the “BARDA Agreement”) with the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“BARDA”), which may provide up to $69 million in funding to support the further development of our portfolio of diagnostics for sepsis-causing pathogens and antibiotic-resistance genes, including a direct-from-blood panel for detection of biothreat pathogens, including threats such as B. anthracis, F. tularensis, Burkholderia spp., Y. pestis, R. prowazekii, and toxin genes; a separate panel that is expected to cover 99% of all bloodborne bacterial infections by means of greater than 36 reported results (including detection of greater than 250 species), including pan-Gram positive and pan-Gram negative results, in addition to the bloodborne antibiotic resistant threats identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; and a next-generation high-throughput instrument.

The BARDA Agreement is a cost-sharing contract that consists of an initial base period and seven option periods that BARDA may exercise in its sole discretion pursuant to the BARDA Agreement, subject to the Company achieving specified milestones and deliverables. The BARDA Agreement provides for initial commitment by BARDA of an aggregate of $6 million for the initial base period, and up to an additional $63 million if the remaining seven option periods are exercised by BARDA. Under the cost-sharing arrangement, T2 Biosystems will be responsible for a designated portion of the costs associated with each period of work. If all option periods are exercised by BARDA, the estimated period of performance would be extended until approximately August 2024. BARDA is entitled to terminate the projects under the BARDA Agreement for convenience at any time and is not obligated to provide continued funding beyond the base contract.



 

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On September 10, 2019, we announced that Premier Inc., a healthcare improvement company awarded us a Breakthrough Technology contract as part of their Technology Breakthroughs program. The agreement allows Premier’s members, including a network of more than 4,000 U.S. hospitals and health systems, to receive special pricing and access to T2 Biosystems’ T2Bacteria Panel and T2Candida Panel – groundbreaking technology that can rapidly detect sepsis-causing pathogens in three to five hours instead of days – to foster fast, accurate therapy of bloodstream infections.

On September 10, 2019, we also announced that our T2Bacteria Panel became the first in vitro diagnostic test to receive approval for a New Technology Add-on Payment by the United States Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services.

On November 20, 2019, we announced the granting of a CE-Mark to the T2Resistance Panel. With CE-mark, T2 Biosystems has met the requirements of the In-Vitro Diagnostics Directive (98/79/EC) and can market the T2Resistance Panel within the European Economic Area (EEA). The T2Resistance Panel was developed with support from CARB-X, a global non-profit partnership dedicated to accelerating R&D innovation to address the rising global threat of drug-resistant bacteria. The panel was the first CARB-X-powered product to be approved for use in human whole blood specimens from patients. The T2Resistance Panel identifies 13 of the most serious resistance genes on the antibiotic-resistance threat list published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, including genes indicating resistance to common empiric antibiotic therapies such as carbapenems, vancomycin, penicillin and more. It is the first diagnostic test that can detect all of these resistance markers directly from whole blood – in three to five hours.

Fourth Quarter 2019 Financial Results

Our total revenue for the fourth quarter of 2019 was $3.1 million, an increase of 71% compared to the prior year period. Product revenue for the fourth quarter of 2019 was $1.6 million, an increase of 18% compared to the prior year period. Research revenue for the fourth quarter of 2019 was $1.5 million, an increase of 200% compared to the prior year period. Operating expenses for the fourth quarter of 2019 were $11.9 million, an increase of $2.2 million compared to the prior year period. Net loss for the fourth quarter of 2019 was $14.1 million or a loss of $0.30 per share, compared to a net loss of $15.1 million or a loss of $0.34 per share in the prior year period.

Year End 2019 Financial Results

Our total revenue for 2019 was $8.3 million, a decrease of 21%, compared to the prior year period. Product revenue for 2019 was $5.3 million, an increase of 11% compared to the prior year period. Research revenue for 2019 was $3.0 million, a decrease of 47% compared to the prior year period. Operating expenses for 2019 were $43.6 million, an increase of 8% compared to the prior year period. Net loss for 2019 was $59.0 million or a loss of $1.30 per share, compared to a net loss of $51.2 million or a loss of $1.26 per share in 2018. Cash and equivalents as of December 31, 2019 were $11.0 million, including $4.8 million in net proceeds from the sale of 3.8 million shares during the fourth quarter of 2019 pursuant to an “at the market” program governed by our equity distribution agreement with Canaccord, dated as of July 30, 2019.

The foregoing preliminary information and estimates contain forward-looking statements. You should not place undue reliance on such preliminary information and estimates because they may prove to be materially inaccurate. The preliminary information and estimates have not been compiled or examined by our independent auditors and they are subject to revision as we prepare our financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2019, including all disclosures required by U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”), and as our auditors conduct their audit of these financial statements. While we believe that such preliminary information and estimates are based on reasonable assumptions, actual results may vary, and such



 

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variations may be material. Factors that could cause our preliminary information and estimates to differ from the indications presented below include, but are not limited to: (i) additional adjustments in the calculation of, or application of accounting principles for, the financial results for the year ended December 31, 2019 and (ii) discovery of new information that impacts valuation methodologies underlying these results.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in 2006. Our principal executive offices are located at 101 Hartwell Ave., Lexington, MA 02421 and our telephone number is (781) 761-4646. We maintain a website at www.t2biosystems.com. Information contained on our website is not, and should not be interpreted to be, part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying base prospectus.



 

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The Offering

 

Common stock offered by us

Shares of common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $65,000,000.

 

Common stock outstanding prior to this offering

86,011,846

 

Plan of Distribution

“At the market offering” that may be made from time to time through our sales agent, Canaccord. As of March 6, 2020, we have sold 36,360,311 shares of our common stock with an aggregate offering price of approximately $27.1 million, leaving an aggregate offering price of up to approximately $37.9 million remaining under the Equity Distribution Agreement. See “Plan of Distribution” on page S-49.

 

Use of Proceeds

We intend to use the net proceeds, if any, from this offering for general corporate and working capital purposes, which may include funding commercialization efforts and research and development activities. See “Use of Proceeds” on page S-47.

 

Risk Factors

Investing in our common stock involves substantial risk. You should carefully consider the risk factors set forth or cross- referenced in the sections entitled “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-11 of this prospectus supplement and beginning on page 5 of the accompanying base prospectus, and the other information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, prior to making an investment in our common stock.

 

Nasdaq Global Market symbol

“TTOO”

The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding prior to this offering as shown above is based on 50,651,535 shares outstanding as of December 31, 2019 and shares sold pursuant to the Equity Distribution Agreement as of March 6, 2020, and excludes:

 

   

6,353,330 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding options as of December 31, 2019, having a weighted average exercise price of $4.9528 per share;

 

   

1,097,249 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants as of December 31, 2019, having an exercise price of $1.55 per share;

 

   

1,295,508 shares of common stock subject to nonvested restricted stock units as of December 31, 2019;

 

   

537,754 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2014 Incentive Award Plan (the “2014 Plan”) as of December 31, 2019, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under this plan;

 

   

717,000 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our Inducement Award Plan, as amended (the “Inducement Plan”), as of December 31, 2019;

 

   

142,432 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2014 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the “2014 ESPP”) as of December 31, 2019, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under this plan; and

 

   

4,000,000 shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our Inducement Plan pursuant to an amendment after December 31, 2019.



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risk factors described below and the risk factors incorporated by reference to our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K we file after the date of this prospectus supplement, and all other information contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus, including our financial statements and the related notes, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act, before making an investment in our common stock. The risks and uncertainties we have described are not the only ones we face. These risks could have a material and adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and growth prospects. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our operations. The occurrence of any of these risks may cause the trading price of our common stock to decline and you could lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to this Offering

We have identified conditions and events that raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern, which may hinder our ability to obtain future financing.

As of December 31, 2019, we had cash and cash equivalents of $11.0 million, which raises substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern, as discussed in the footnotes to our financial statements incorporated by reference herein. Pursuant to the requirements of Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 205-40, Disclosure of Uncertainties about an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern, and as a result of our financial condition and other factors described herein, there is substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. Our ability to continue as a going concern will depend on our ability to obtain additional funding, as to which no assurances can be given. Our future success depends on our ability to raise capital and/or execute our current operating plan. However, we cannot be certain that these initiatives or raising additional capital, whether through selling additional debt or equity securities or obtaining a line of credit or other loan, will be available to us or, if available, will be on terms acceptable to us. If we issue additional securities to raise funds, these securities may have rights, preferences, or privileges senior to those of our common stock, and our current shareholders may experience dilution. If we are unable to obtain funds when needed or on acceptable terms, we may be required to curtail our current development programs, cut operating costs, forego future development and other opportunities or even terminate our operations, which may involve seeking bankruptcy protection.

Additionally, as of September 30, 2019 we had an outstanding balance of $44.3 million under our Term Loan Agreement with CRG Servicing LLC, or CRG. The Term Loan Agreement’s maturity date is December 30, 2022. We may prepay all or a portion of the outstanding principal and accrued unpaid interest under the Term Loan Agreement at any time upon prior notice subject to a certain prepayment fee during the first five years of the term and no prepayment fee thereafter. As security for its obligations under the Term Loan Agreement the Company entered into a security agreement with CRG whereby we granted a lien on substantially all of our assets, including intellectual property. The Term Loan Agreement also contains customary affirmative and negative covenants for a credit facility of this size and type, including a requirement to maintain a $5.0 million minimum cash balance, which we may be unable to maintain and minimum revenue targets for the 24-month period ending December 31, 2020 of $15.0 million and for the 24-month period ending December 31, 2021 of $42 million. There is no assurance that if we fail to maintain the minimum cash balance that CRG will not call the note and there is no assurance we will achieve the minimum revenue targets. Missing a revenue target requires repayment of principal at the rate of two-times the miss.

If you purchase shares of our common stock sold in this offering, you will experience immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value of your shares. In addition, we may issue additional equity or convertible debt securities in the future, which may result in additional dilution to investors.

The price per share of our common stock being offered may be higher than the net tangible book value per share of our outstanding common stock prior to this offering. The actual amount of dilution from this offering will be

 

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based on numerous factors, particularly the use of proceeds and the return generated by such investment, and cannot be determined at this time. To the extent that outstanding options or warrants are exercised, outstanding restricted stock units vest or other shares are issued, investors purchasing our common stock in this offering may experience further dilution. To the extent we need to raise additional capital in the future and we issue additional shares of common stock or securities convertible or exchangeable for our common stock, our then-existing stockholders may experience dilution and the new securities may have rights senior to those of our common stock offered in this offering. We cannot assure you that we will be able to sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is equal to or greater than the price per share paid by investors in this offering. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock or securities convertible or exchangeable for our common stock in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share in this offering.

We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may not use them effectively.

Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering, including for any of the purposes described in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds,” and you will not have the opportunity as part of your investment decision to assess whether the net proceeds are being used appropriately. Because of the number and variability of factors that will determine our use of the net proceeds from this offering, their ultimate use may vary substantially from their currently intended use. Our management might not apply our net proceeds in ways that ultimately increase the value of your investment. We expect to use the net proceeds from this offering for general corporate and working capital purposes, which may include funding commercialization efforts and research and development activities. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could harm our business. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in short- and intermediate-term, interest-bearing obligations, investment-grade instruments, certificates of deposits or direct or guaranteed obligations of the U.S. government. These investments may not yield a favorable return to our stockholders. If we do not invest or apply the net proceeds from this offering in ways that enhance stockholder value, we may fail to achieve expected financial results, which could cause our stock price to decline.

Future sales or issuances of our common stock in the public markets, or the perception of such sales, could depress the trading price of our common stock.

The sale of a substantial number of shares of our common stock or other equity-related securities in the public markets, or the perception that such sales could occur, could depress the market price of our common stock and impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. We may sell large quantities of our common stock at any time pursuant to this prospectus supplement or in one or more separate offerings. We cannot predict the effect that future sales of common stock or other equity-related securities would have on the market price of our common stock.

The actual number of shares we will issue under the Equity Distribution Agreement, at any one time or in total, is uncertain.

Subject to certain limitations in the Equity Distribution Agreement and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver a placement notice to Canaccord at any time throughout the term of the Equity Distribution Agreement. The number of shares that are sold by Canaccord after delivering a placement notice will fluctuate based on the market price of our common stock during the sales period and limits we set with Canaccord. Because the price per share of each share sold will fluctuate based on the market price of our common stock during the sales period, it is not possible at this stage to predict the number of shares that will be ultimately issued.

The common stock offered hereby will be sold in “at the market offerings,” and investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.

Investors who purchase shares in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and so may experience different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand, to

 

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vary the timing, prices, and numbers of shares sold, and there is no minimum or maximum sales price. Investors may experience a decline in the value of their shares as a result of share sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.

Risks Related to our Business and Strategy

We have incurred significant losses since inception and expect to incur losses in the future. We cannot be certain that we will achieve or sustain profitability.

We have incurred significant losses since inception through December 31, 2019 and expect to incur losses in the future. Our accumulated deficit as of December 31, 2019 was $376.3 million and we incurred net losses of $59.1 million, $51.2 million and $62.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. We expect that our losses will continue for at least the next few years as we will be required to invest significant additional funds toward the continued development and commercialization of our technology. We also expect that our selling, general and administrative expenses will continue to increase due to the additional costs associated with growing our sales and marketing infrastructure, and obtaining regulatory clearance or approval for our products currently under development. Our ability to achieve or sustain profitability depends on numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control, including the market acceptance of our products and future product candidates, future product development, our ability to achieve marketing clearance from the FDA and international regulatory clearance for future product candidates, our ability to compete effectively against an increasing number of competitors and new products, and our market penetration and margins. We may never be able to generate sufficient revenue to achieve or sustain profitability. As noted above, we and our auditors have identified conditions and events that raise doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.

We have a limited operating history and may face difficulties encountered by companies early in their commercialization in competitive and rapidly evolving markets.

We received marketing clearance from the FDA for the T2Dx instrument and T2Candida on September 22, 2014 and began commercializing these products in the fourth quarter of 2014. We received marketing clearance from the FDA for T2Bacteria on May 24, 2018 and began commercializing thereafter. Accordingly, we have a relatively limited operating history upon which to evaluate our business and forecast our future sales and operating results. In assessing our business prospects, you should consider the various risks and difficulties frequently encountered by companies early in their commercialization in competitive and rapidly evolving markets, particularly companies that develop and sell medical devices. These risks include our ability to:

 

   

implement and execute our business strategy;

 

   

expand and improve the productivity of our sales and marketing infrastructure to grow sales of our products and product candidates;

 

   

increase awareness of our brand;

 

   

manage expanding operations;

 

   

expand our manufacturing capabilities, including increasing production of current products efficiently while maintaining quality standards and adapting our manufacturing facilities to the production of new product candidates;

 

   

respond effectively to competitive pressures and developments;

 

   

enhance our existing products and develop new products;

 

   

obtain and maintain regulatory clearance or approval to commercialize product candidates and enhance our existing products;

 

   

effectively perform clinical trials with respect to our proposed products;

 

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attract, retain and motivate qualified personnel in various areas of our business; and

 

   

implement and maintain systems and processes that are compliant with applicable regulatory standards.

We may not have the institutional knowledge or experience to be able to effectively address these and other risks that may face our business. In addition, we may not be able to develop insights into trends that could emerge and negatively affect our business and may fail to respond effectively to those trends. As a result of these or other risks, we may not be able to execute key components of our business strategy, and our business, financial condition and operating results may suffer.

Until we achieve scale in our business model our revenue will be primarily generated from research revenue and the T2Dx Instrument, T2Candida and T2Bacteria, and any factors that negatively impact sales of these products may adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

We began to offer our sepsis products for sale in the fourth quarter of 2014 and T2Bacteria in 2018 and expect that we will be dependent upon the sales of these products for the majority of our revenue until we receive regulatory clearance or approval for our other product candidates currently in development. Because we currently rely on a limited number of products to generate a significant portion of our revenue, any factors that negatively impact sales of these products, or result in sales of these products increasing at a lower rate than expected, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results and negatively impact our ability to successfully launch future product candidates currently under development.

If T2MR, our T2Dx Instrument, T2Candida and T2Bacteria products or any of our other product candidates fail to achieve and sustain sufficient market acceptance, we will not generate expected revenue and our growth prospects, operating results and financial condition may be harmed.

The commercialization of T2MR, our T2Dx Instrument, T2Candida, and T2Bacteria products and the future commercialization of our other product candidates in the United States and other jurisdictions in which we intend to pursue marketing clearance are key elements of our strategy. If we are not successful in conveying to hospitals that our current products and future product candidates provide equivalent or superior diagnostic information in a shorter period of time compared to existing technologies, or that these products and future product candidates improve patient outcomes or decrease healthcare costs, we may experience reluctance, or refusal, on the part of hospitals to order, and third-party payors to pay for performing a test in which our product is utilized. For example, T2Candida is labeled for the presumptive diagnosis of candidemia. The results of the web-based survey we conducted of decision makers involved with laboratory purchasing may not be indicative of the actual adoption of T2Candida. In addition, our expectations regarding cost savings from using our products may not be accurate.

These hurdles may make it difficult to demonstrate to physicians, hospitals and other healthcare providers that our current diagnostic products and future product candidates are appropriate options for diagnosing sepsis, may be superior to available tests and may be more cost-effective than alternative technologies. Furthermore, we may encounter significant difficulty in gaining inclusion in sepsis treatment guidelines, gaining broad market acceptance by healthcare providers, third-party payors and patients using T2MR and our related products and product candidates. Furthermore, healthcare providers may have difficulty in maintaining adequate reimbursement for sepsis treatment, which may negatively impact adoption of our products.

If we fail to successfully commercialize our products and product candidates, we may never receive a return on the significant investments in product development, sales and marketing, regulatory, manufacturing and quality assurance we have made and further investments we intend to make, and may fail to generate revenue and gain economies of scale from such investments.

 

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If T2Lyme does not successfully identify Lyme disease in clinical patients or does not receive FDA marketing clearance, our future revenue could be negatively impacted.

If T2Lyme does not successfully identify Lyme disease in clinical patients with adequate clinical sensitivity and specificity or does not receive FDA marketing clearance, the revenue opportunity for this product candidate could be limited or not realized at all.

We have relatively limited experience in marketing and selling our products, and if we are unable to expand, manage and maintain our direct sales and marketing organizations, or otherwise commercialize our products, our business may be adversely affected.

Because we received FDA clearance to sell our initial sepsis products in the third quarter of 2014 and our T2Bacteria product in 2018, we have limited experience marketing and selling our products. As of December 31, 2019, our direct sales organization consisted of 26 employees, including marketing and a medical affairs team of six United States based Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) clinicians. Our financial condition and operating results are highly dependent upon the sales and marketing efforts of our sales and marketing employees with the assistance of the medical affairs team. If our sales and marketing efforts fail to adequately promote, market and sell our products, our sales may not increase at levels that are in line with our forecasts.

Our future sales growth will depend in large part on our ability to successfully expand the size and geographic scope of our direct sales force and medical affairs team in the United States. Accordingly, our future success will depend largely on our ability to continue to hire, train, retain and motivate skilled sales, marketing and medical affairs personnel. Because the competition for individuals with their skillset is high, there is no assurance we will be able to hire and retain additional personnel on commercially reasonable terms. If we are unable to expand our sales and marketing capabilities, we may not be able to effectively commercialize our products and our business and operating results may be adversely affected.

Outside of the United States, we sell our products through distribution partners and there is no guarantee that we will be successful in attracting or retaining desirable distribution partners for these markets or that we will be able to enter into such arrangements on favorable terms. Distributors may not commit the necessary resources to market and sell our products effectively or may choose to favor marketing the products of our competitors. If distributors do not perform adequately, or if we are unable to enter into effective arrangements with distributors in particular geographic areas, we may not realize international sales and growth.

The sales cycle and implementation and adoption timeline is lengthy and variable and we have a relatively limited sales history, which makes it difficult for us to forecast revenue and other operating results.

Our sales process involves numerous interactions with multiple individuals within an organization and often includes in-depth analysis by potential customers of our products, performance of proof-of-principle studies, preparation of extensive documentation and a lengthy review process. As a result of these factors and the budget cycles of our potential customers, the time from initial contact with a potential customer to our receipt of a purchase order from such potential customer and then implementation and adoption of our products, varies significantly and can be up to 12 months or longer. Given the length and uncertainty of our anticipated sales cycle and implementation and adoption timeline, we likely will experience fluctuations in our product sales on a period-to-period basis. Expected revenue streams are highly dependent on hospitals’ adoption of our consumables-based business model, and we cannot assure you that our potential hospital clients will follow a consistent purchasing pattern. Moreover, it is difficult for us to forecast our revenue as it is dependent upon our ability to convince the medical community of the clinical utility and economic benefits of our products and their potential advantages over existing diagnostic tests, the willingness of hospitals to utilize our products and the cost of our products to hospitals. In addition, we started selling the T2Dx Instrument and T2Candida products in the fourth quarter of 2014 and T2Bacteria in May of 2018 and have a limited sales history to rely on when forecasting revenue and other operating results.

 

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We may not be able to gain and retain the ongoing support of leading hospitals and key thought leaders, or to continue the publication of the results of new clinical trials in peer-reviewed journals, which may make it difficult to establish T2MR as a standard of care and may limit our revenue growth and ability to achieve profitability.

Our strategy includes developing relationships with leading hospitals and key thought leaders in the industry. If these hospitals and key thought leaders determine that T2MR and related products are not clinically effective or that alternative technologies are more effective, or if we encounter difficulty promoting adoption or establishing T2MR as a standard of care, our revenue growth and our ability to achieve profitability could be significantly limited.

We believe that the publication of scientific and medical results in peer-reviewed journals and presentation of data at leading conferences are critical to the broad adoption of T2MR. Publication in leading medical journals is subject to a peer-review process, and peer reviewers may not consider the results of studies involving T2MR sufficiently novel or worthy of publication.

If we are unable to successfully manage our growth, our business will be harmed.

During the past few years, we have significantly expanded our operations. We expect this expansion to continue to an even greater degree as we continue to commercialize our sepsis products, build a targeted sales force, and seek marketing clearance from the FDA and international regulatory bodies for our future product candidates. Our growth has placed, and will continue to place, a significant strain on our management, operating and financial systems and our sales, marketing and administrative resources. As a result of our growth, operating costs may escalate even faster than planned, and some of our internal systems and processes, including those relating to manufacturing our products, may need to be enhanced, updated or replaced. Additionally, our anticipated growth will increase demands placed on our suppliers, resulting in an increased need for us to manage our suppliers and monitor for quality assurance. If we cannot effectively manage our expanding operations, manufacturing capacity and costs, including scaling to meet increased demand and properly managing suppliers, we may not be able to continue to grow or we may grow at a slower pace than expected and our business could be adversely affected.

SEC regulations may limit the number of shares we may sell in the future under our S-3 shelf registration statement.

Under current SEC regulations, if at the time we file our Annual Report on Form 10-K, or Form 10-K, for the year ended December 31, 2019, our public float, calculated by multiplying the number of shares of our common stock held by non-affiliates and the price at which our common stock was last sold, or the average of the bid and asked prices of our common stock, as of a date within 60 days prior to the date of sale, is less than $75.0 million, and for so long as our public float remains less than $75.0 million, the amount we can raise through primary public offerings of securities in any twelve-month period using our S-3 shelf registration statements is limited to an aggregate of one-third of our public float, which is referred to as the baby shelf rules. If our public float decreases, the amount of securities we may sell under our Form S-3 shelf registration statement will also decrease.

Our future capital needs are uncertain, and we may need to raise additional funds in the future.

We currently have limited cash and cash equivalents and in the future we may need to raise substantial additional capital to:

 

   

expand our product offerings;

 

   

expand our sales and marketing infrastructure;

 

   

increase our manufacturing capacity;

 

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fund our operations; and

 

   

continue our research and development activities.

Our future funding requirements will depend on many factors, including:

 

   

our ability to obtain marketing clearance from the FDA and international regulatory clearance to market our future product candidates;

 

   

market acceptance of our products and product candidates;

 

   

the cost and timing of establishing sales, marketing and distribution capabilities;

 

   

the cost of our research and development activities;

 

   

the ability of healthcare providers to obtain coverage and adequate reimbursement by third-party payors for procedures using our products and product candidates;

 

   

the cost and timing of marketing clearance or regulatory clearances;

 

   

the cost of goods associated with our products and product candidates;

 

   

the effect of competing technological and market developments; and

 

   

the extent to which we acquire or invest in businesses, products and technologies, including entering into licensing or collaboration arrangements for products or technology.

We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain additional funds on acceptable terms, or at all. If we raise additional funds by issuing equity or equity-linked securities, our stockholders may experience dilution. Debt financing, if available, may involve covenants restricting our operations or our ability to incur additional debt. Any debt or additional equity financing that we raise may contain terms that are not favorable to us or our stockholders. If we raise additional funds through collaboration and licensing arrangements with third parties, it may be necessary to relinquish some rights to our technologies or our products, or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us. If we are unable to raise adequate funds, we may need to liquidate some or all of our assets or delay, reduce the scope of or eliminate some or all of our development programs.

If we do not have, or are not able to obtain, sufficient funds, we may be required to delay development or commercialization of our product candidates or license to third parties the rights to commercialize our product candidates or technologies that we would otherwise seek to commercialize ourselves. We also may need to reduce marketing, customer support or other resources devoted to our products or cease operations. Any of these factors could harm our operating results.

Our future success is dependent upon our ability to create and expand a customer base for our products in large hospitals.

We market our current sepsis products to the largest hospitals in the United States. We are also targeting the top-tier hospitals in each of the European, African, Australian, and Middle-Eastern markets where we currently sell our products. We may not be successful in promoting adoption of our technologies in those targeted hospitals, which may make it difficult for us to achieve broader market acceptance of these products.

We utilize third-party, single-source suppliers for some components and materials used in our products and product candidates, and the loss of any of these suppliers could have an adverse impact on our business.

We rely on single-source suppliers for some components and materials used in our products and product candidates. Our ability to supply our products commercially and to develop any future products depends, in part, on our ability to obtain these components in accordance with regulatory requirements and in sufficient quantities for commercialization and clinical testing. We have entered into supply agreements with most of our suppliers to

 

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help ensure component availability and flexible purchasing terms with respect to the purchase of such components. While our suppliers have generally met our demand for their products on a timely basis in the past, we cannot assure that they will in the future be able to meet our demand for their products, either because we do not have long-term agreements with those suppliers, our relative importance as a customer to those suppliers, or their ability to produce the components used in our products.

While we believe replacement suppliers exist for all components and materials we obtain from single sources, establishing additional or replacement suppliers for any of these components or materials, if required, may not be accomplished quickly. Even if we are able to find a replacement supplier, the replacement supplier would need to be qualified and may require additional regulatory authority approval, which could result in further delay. While we seek to maintain adequate inventory of the single-source components and materials used in our products in the event of disruption, those inventories may not be sufficient.

If our third-party suppliers fail to deliver the required commercial quantities of materials on a timely basis and at commercially reasonable prices, and we are unable to find one or more replacement suppliers capable of production at a substantially equivalent cost in substantially equivalent volumes and quality on a timely basis, the continued commercialization of our products, the supply of our products to customers and the development of any future products would be delayed, limited or prevented, which could have an adverse impact on our business.

If we are unable to recruit, train and retain key personnel, we may not achieve our goals.

Our future success depends on our ability to recruit, develop, retain and motivate key personnel, including individual on our senior management, research and development, science and engineering, manufacturing and sales and marketing teams. In particular, we are highly dependent on the management and business expertise of John Sperzel, our President and Chief Executive Officer and on the scientific expertise of Dr. Thomas Lowery, our Chief Scientific Officer. We do not maintain fixed-term employment contracts or key man life insurance with any of our employees. Competition for qualified personnel is intense, particularly in the Boston, Massachusetts area. Our growth depends, in particular, on attracting, retaining and motivating highly skilled sales personnel with the necessary clinical background and ability to understand our systems at a scientific and technical level. In addition, we may need to hire additional employees at our manufacturing facilities to meet demand for our products as we scale up our sales and marketing operations. Because of the complex and technical nature of our products and the dynamic market in which we compete, any failure to attract, develop, retain and motivate qualified personnel could materially harm our operating results and growth prospects.

If our diagnostics do not perform as expected, our operating results, reputation and business will suffer.

Our future success will depend on the market’s confidence that our technologies can provide reliable, high-quality diagnostic results. We believe that our customers are likely to be particularly sensitive to any defects or errors in our products. If our technology fails to detect the presence of Candida or another bacterial pathogen and a patient subsequently suffers from sepsis, then we could face claims against us or our reputation could suffer as a result of such failures. The failure of our current products or planned diagnostic product candidates to perform reliably or as expected could significantly impair our reputation and the public image of our products, and we may be subject to legal claims arising from any defects or errors.

The diagnostics market is highly competitive. If we fail to compete effectively, our business and operating results will suffer.

While the technology of our products and product candidates is different than other products currently available, we compete with commercial diagnostics companies for the limited resources of our customers. In this regard, our principal competition is from a number of companies that offer platforms and applications in our target sepsis and Lyme markets, most of which are more established commercial organizations with considerable name recognition and significant financial resources.

 

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We compete with companies that currently provide traditional blood culture-based diagnostics, including Becton Dickinson & Co. and bioMerieux, Inc. In addition, companies offering post-culture species identification using both molecular and non-molecular methods include bioMerieux, Inc. (and its affiliate, BioFire Diagnostics, Inc.), Bruker Corporation, Accelerate Diagnostics, Luminex, Genmark, Cepheid and Beckman Coulter, a Danaher company. In addition, there may be a number of new market entrants in the process of developing other post-blood culture diagnostic technologies that may be perceived as competitive with our technology. Karius, Inc. offers a lab developed culture independent diagnostic test for the identification of pathogens that has not been cleared by the FDA but may be perceived as competitive with our technology.

Most of our expected competitors are either publicly traded, or are divisions of publicly traded companies, and have a number of competitive advantages over us, including:

 

   

greater name and brand recognition, financial and human resources;

 

   

established and broader product lines;

 

   

larger sales forces and more established distribution networks;

 

   

substantial intellectual property portfolios;

 

   

larger and more established customer bases and relationships; and

 

   

better established, larger scale and lower-cost manufacturing capabilities.

We believe that the principal competitive factors in all of our target markets include:

 

   

impact of products on the health of the patient;

 

   

impact of the use of products on the cost of treating patients in the hospital;

 

   

cost of capital equipment;

 

   

reputation among physicians, hospitals and other healthcare providers;

 

   

innovation in product offerings;

 

   

flexibility and ease-of-use;

 

   

speed, accuracy and reproducibility of results; and

 

   

ability to implement a consumables-based model for panels.

We believe that additional competitive factors specific to the diagnostics market include:

 

   

breadth of clinical decisions that can be influenced by information generated by diagnostic tests;

 

   

volume, quality and strength of clinical and analytical validation data;

 

   

availability of adequate reimbursement for testing services and procedures for healthcare providers using our products; and

 

   

economic benefit accrued to hospitals based on the total cost to treat a patient for a health condition.

We cannot assure you that we will effectively compete or that we will be successful in the face of increasing competition from new products and technologies introduced by our existing competitors or new companies entering our markets. In addition, we cannot assure you that our future competitors do not have or will not develop products or technologies that enable them to produce competitive products with greater capabilities or at lower costs than our products and product candidates. Any failure to compete effectively could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

 

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Undetected errors or defects in our products or product candidates could harm our reputation, decrease market acceptance of our products or expose us to product liability claims.

Our products or product candidates may contain undetected errors or defects. Disruptions or other performance problems with our products or product candidates may damage our customers’ businesses and could harm our reputation. If that occurs, we may incur significant costs, the attention of our key personnel could be diverted or other significant customer relations problems may arise. We may also be subject to warranty and liability claims for damages related to errors or defects in our products or product candidates. A material liability claim or other occurrence that harms our reputation or decreases market acceptance of our products or product candidates could harm our business and operating results.

The sale and use of products or product candidates or services based on our technologies, or activities related to our research and clinical studies, could lead to the filing of product liability claims if someone were to allege that one of our products contained a design or manufacturing defect. A product liability claim could result in substantial damages and be costly and time consuming to defend, either of which could materially harm our business or financial condition. We cannot assure you that our product liability insurance would adequately protect our assets from the financial impact of defending a product liability claim. Any product liability claim brought against us, with or without merit, could increase our product liability insurance rates or prevent us from securing insurance coverage in the future.

We may not be able to develop new product candidates or enhance the capabilities of our systems to keep pace with our industry’s rapidly changing technology and customer requirements, which could have a material adverse impact on our revenue, results of operations and business.

Our industry is characterized by rapid technological changes, frequent new product introductions and enhancements and evolving industry standards. Our success depends on our ability to develop new product candidates and applications for our technology in new markets that develop as a result of technological and scientific advances, while improving the performance and cost-effectiveness of our existing product candidates. New technologies, techniques or products could emerge that might offer better combinations of price and performance than the products and systems that we plan to sell. Existing markets for our intended diagnostic product candidates are characterized by rapid technological change and innovation. It is critical to our success that we anticipate changes in technology and customer requirements and physician, hospital and healthcare provider practices and successfully introduce new, enhanced and competitive technologies to meet our prospective customers’ needs on a timely and cost-effective basis. At the same time, however, we must carefully manage our introduction of new products. If potential customers believe that such products will offer enhanced features or be sold for a more attractive price, they may delay purchases until such products are available. We may also have excess or obsolete inventory of older products as we transition to new products, and we have no experience in managing product transitions. If we do not successfully innovate and introduce new technology into our anticipated product lines or manage the transitions of our technology to new product offerings, our revenue, results of operations and business will be adversely impacted.

Competitors may be able to respond more quickly and effectively than we can to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards or customer requirements. We anticipate that we will face strong competition in the future as expected competitors develop new or improved products and as new companies enter the market with new technologies and products.

We are developing additional product candidates that we intend to be used with the T2Dx Instrument, including T2Lyme for the detection of certain strains of Lyme disease-causing bacteria. We may have problems applying our technologies to these other areas and our new applications may not be as effective in detection as our initial applications. Any failure or delay in creating a customer base or launching new applications may compromise our ability to achieve our growth objectives.

 

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Manufacturing risks may adversely affect our ability to manufacture products and could reduce our gross margins and negatively affect our operating results.

Our business strategy depends on our ability to manufacture and assemble our current and proposed products in sufficient quantities and on a timely basis so as to meet consumer demand, while adhering to product quality standards, complying with regulatory requirements and managing manufacturing costs. We are subject to numerous risks relating to our manufacturing capabilities, including:

 

   

quality or reliability defects in product components that we source from third party suppliers;

 

   

our inability to secure product components in a timely manner, in sufficient quantities or on commercially reasonable terms;

 

   

our failure to increase production of products to meet demand;

 

   

the challenge of implementing and maintaining acceptable quality systems while experiencing rapid growth;

 

   

our inability to modify production lines to enable us to efficiently produce future products or implement changes in current products in response to regulatory requirements; and

 

   

difficulty identifying and qualifying alternative suppliers for components in a timely manner.

As demand for our products increases, we will need to invest additional resources to purchase components, hire and train employees, and enhance our manufacturing processes and quality systems. If we fail to increase our production capacity efficiently while also maintaining quality requirements, our sales may not increase in line with our forecasts and our operating margins could fluctuate or decline. In addition, although we expect some of our product candidates to share product features and components with the T2Dx Instrument, T2Candida, T2Bacteria and T2Resistance, manufacturing of these products may require the modification of our production lines, the hiring of specialized employees, the identification of new suppliers for specific components, or the development of new manufacturing technologies. It may not be possible for us to manufacture these products at a cost or in quantities sufficient to make these products commercially viable. Any future interruptions we experience in the manufacturing or shipping of our products could delay our ability to recognize revenues in a particular quarter and could also adversely affect our relationships with our customers.

We currently develop, manufacture and test our products and product candidates and some of their components in two facilities. If these or any future facility or our equipment were damaged or destroyed, or if we experience a significant disruption in our operations for any reason, our ability to continue to operate our business could be materially harmed.

We currently develop our diagnostic products exclusively in a facility in Lexington, Massachusetts and manufacture and test some components of our products and product candidates in, both, Wilmington and Lexington, Massachusetts. If these or any future facility were to be damaged, destroyed or otherwise unable to operate, whether due to fire, floods, hurricanes, storms, tornadoes, other natural disasters, employee malfeasance, terrorist acts, power outages, or otherwise, or if our business is disrupted for any other reason, we may not be able to develop or test our products and product candidates as promptly as our potential customers expect, or possibly not at all.

The manufacture of components of our products and product candidates at our Wilmington facility involves complex processes, sophisticated equipment and strict adherence to specifications and quality systems procedures. Any unforeseen manufacturing problems, such as contamination of our facility, equipment malfunction, or failure to strictly follow procedures or meet specifications, could result in delays or shortfalls in production of our products. Identifying and resolving the cause of any manufacturing issues could require substantial time and resources. If we are unable to keep up with future demand for our products by successfully manufacturing and shipping our products in a timely manner, our revenue growth could be impaired and market acceptance of our product candidates could be adversely affected.

 

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We maintain insurance coverage against damage to our property and equipment, subject to deductibles and other limitations that we believe is adequate. If we have underestimated our insurance needs with respect to an interruption, or if an interruption is not subject to coverage under our insurance policies, we may not be able to cover our losses.

We may be adversely affected by fluctuations in demand for, and prices of, rare earth materials.

T2MR relies, in part, on rare earth materials and products. For example, the T2Dx Instrument utilizes magnets which are extracted from the earth. Although there are currently multiple suppliers for these rare earth materials, changes in demand for, and the market price of, these magnets could significantly affect our ability to manufacture our T2MR-based instruments and, consequently, our profitability. Rare earth minerals and product prices may fluctuate and are affected by numerous factors beyond our control such as interest rates, exchange rates, inflation or deflation, global and regional supply and demand for rare earth minerals and products, and the political and economic conditions of countries that produce rare earth minerals and products.

Provisions of our debt instruments may restrict our ability to pursue our business strategies.

Our credit facilities require us, and any debt instruments we may enter into in the future may require us, to comply with various covenants that limit our ability to, among other things:

 

   

convey, lease, sell, transfer, assign or otherwise dispose of assets;

 

   

change the nature or location of our business;

 

   

complete mergers or acquisitions;

 

   

incur indebtedness;

 

   

encumber assets;

 

   

pay dividends or make other distributions to holders of our capital stock (other than dividends paid solely in common stock);

 

   

make specified investments;

 

   

change certain key management personnel; and

 

   

engage in material transactions with our affiliates.

These restrictions could inhibit our ability to pursue our business strategies. If we default, which includes a material adverse change, under our credit facilities, and such event of default was not cured or waived, the lenders could terminate commitments to lend and cause all amounts outstanding with respect to the debt to be due and payable immediately, which in turn could result in cross defaults under other debt instruments. Our assets and cash flow may not be sufficient to fully repay borrowings under all of our outstanding debt instruments if some or all of these instruments are accelerated upon a default.

We may incur additional indebtedness in the future. The debt instruments governing such indebtedness could contain provisions that are as, or more, restrictive than our existing debt instruments. If we are unable to repay, refinance or restructure our indebtedness when payment is due, the lenders could proceed against the collateral granted to them to secure such indebtedness or force us into bankruptcy or liquidation.

As part of our current business model, we will seek to enter into strategic relationships with third parties to develop and commercialize diagnostic products.

We intend to enter into strategic relationships with third parties for future diagnostic products. However, there is no assurance that we will be successful in doing so. Establishing strategic relationships can be difficult

 

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and time-consuming. Discussions may not lead to agreements on favorable terms, if at all. To the extent we agree to work exclusively with a party in a given area, our opportunities to collaborate with others or develop opportunities independently could be limited. Potential collaborators or licensors may elect not to work with us based upon their assessment of our financial, regulatory or intellectual property position. Even if we establish new strategic relationships, they may never result in the successful development or commercialization of future products.

Acquisitions or joint ventures could disrupt our business, cause dilution to our stockholders and otherwise harm our business.

We may acquire other businesses, products or technologies as well as pursue strategic alliances, joint ventures, technology licenses or investments in complementary businesses. We have not made any acquisitions to date, and our ability to do so successfully is unproven. Any of these transactions could be material to our financial condition and operating results and expose us to many risks, including:

 

   

disruption in our relationships with future customers or with current or future distributors or suppliers as a result of such a transaction;

 

   

unanticipated liabilities related to acquired companies;

 

   

difficulties integrating acquired personnel, technologies and operations into our existing business;

 

   

diversion of management time and focus from operating our business to acquisition integration challenges;

 

   

increases in our expenses and reductions in our cash available for operations and other uses;

 

   

possible write-offs or impairment charges relating to acquired businesses; and

 

   

inability to develop a sales force for any additional product candidates.

Foreign acquisitions involve unique risks in addition to those mentioned above, including those related to integration of operations across different cultures and languages, currency risks and the particular economic, political and regulatory risks associated with specific countries.

Also, the anticipated benefit of any acquisition may not materialize. Future acquisitions or dispositions could result in potentially dilutive issuances of our equity securities, the incurrence of debt, contingent liabilities or amortization expenses or write-offs of goodwill, any of which could harm our financial condition. We cannot predict the number, timing or size of future joint ventures or acquisitions, or the effect that any such transactions might have on our operating results.

If treatment guidelines for sepsis change, or the standard of care evolves, we may need to redesign and seek new marketing clearance from the FDA for our products.

If treatment guidelines for sepsis change, or the standard of care evolves, we may need to redesign and seek new marketing clearance from the FDA for our products. For example, current treatment recommendations for Candida infections, including those published by the Infectious Diseases Society of America, call for identical treatment for two species of Candida, C. albicans and C. tropicalis, and identical treatment for two other species, C. glabrata and C. krusei . Although our T2Candida test is technically capable of distinguishing among these species, we have designed it based on current treatment guidelines and therefore it does not distinguish between two species if they are subject to the same recommended treatment. Our FDA clearance to market the T2Dx Instrument and T2Candida in the United States is also based on current treatment guidelines. If treatment guidelines change so that different treatments become desirable for the two species currently subject to the same recommended treatment, the clinical utility of our T2Candida test could be diminished and we could be required to seek marketing clearance from the FDA for a revised test that would distinguish between the two species. Additionally, for T2Bacteria, if antibiotic or clinical guidelines indicate that tailoring antibiotic therapy to the infectious pathogen is not needed, then the market opportunity could be diminished.

 

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Our ability to use net operating losses to offset future taxable income may be subject to certain limitations.

As of December 31, 2019, we had federal net operating loss carryforwards, or NOLs, of $274.4 million, which are available to offset future taxable income, if any. Of such NOLs, $228.2 million will expire at various dates through 2038 and $46.2 million may be carried forward indefinitely. Under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended (the “Code”), a corporation that undergoes an “ownership change” is subject to limitations on its ability to utilize its NOLs to offset future taxable income. We may have already experienced one or more ownership changes. Depending on the timing of any future utilization of our NOLs, we may be limited as to the amount that can be utilized each year as a result of such previous ownership changes. In addition, future changes in our stock ownership, including as a result of this offering, as well as other changes in our stock ownership that may be outside of our control, could result in additional ownership changes under Section 382 of the Code. As a result, even if we achieve profitability, we may not be able to use a material portion of our NOLs. We have recorded a full valuation allowance related to our NOLs due to the uncertainty of the ultimate realization of the future benefits of those assets.

We face risks related to handling hazardous materials and other regulations governing environmental safety.

Our operations are subject to complex and stringent environmental, health, safety and other governmental laws and regulations that both public officials and private individuals may seek to enforce. Our activities that are subject to these regulations include, among other things, our use of hazardous materials and the generation, transportation and storage of waste. We may not be in material compliance with these regulations. Existing laws and regulations may also be revised or reinterpreted, or new laws and regulations may become applicable to us, whether retroactively or prospectively, that may have a negative effect on our business and results of operations. It is also impossible to eliminate completely the risk of accidental environmental contamination or injury to individuals. In such an event, we could be liable for any damages that result, which could adversely affect our business.

We generate a portion of our revenue internationally and are subject to various risks relating to our international activities which could adversely affect our operating results.

A portion of our revenue comes from international sources. Engaging in international business involves a number of difficulties and risks, including:

 

   

required compliance with existing and changing foreign healthcare and other regulatory requirements and laws, such as those relating to patient privacy or handling of bio-hazardous waste;

 

   

required compliance with anti-bribery laws, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and U.K. Bribery Act, data privacy requirements, labor laws and anti-competition regulations;

 

   

export or import restrictions;

 

   

various reimbursement and insurance regimes;

 

   

laws and business practices favoring local companies;

 

   

longer payment cycles and difficulties in enforcing agreements and collecting receivables through certain foreign legal systems;

 

   

political and economic instability;

 

   

potentially adverse tax consequences, tariffs, customs charges, bureaucratic requirements and other trade barriers;

 

   

foreign exchange controls;

 

   

difficulties and costs of staffing and managing foreign operations;

 

   

difficulties protecting or procuring intellectual property rights; and

 

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pandemics and public health emergencies, such as the coronavirus (COVID-19), could result in disruptions to travel and distribution in geographic locations where our products are sold.

As we expand internationally, our results of operations and cash flows will become increasingly subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates. Our expenses are generally denominated in the currencies in which our operations are located, which is in the United States. If the value of the U.S. dollar increases relative to foreign currencies in the future, in the absence of a corresponding change in local currency prices, our future revenue could be adversely affected as we convert future revenue from local currencies to U.S. dollars.

If we dedicate resources to our international operations and are unable to manage these risks effectively, our business, operating results and prospects will suffer.

Our employees, independent contractors, principal investigators, consultants, commercial partners, distributors and vendors may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including non-compliance with regulatory standards and requirements.

We are exposed to the risk of fraud or other misconduct by our employees, independent contractors, principal investigators, consultants, commercial partners, distributors and vendors. Misconduct by these parties could include intentional, reckless or negligent failures to: comply with the regulations of the FDA and other similar foreign regulatory bodies; provide true, complete and accurate information to the FDA and other similar regulatory bodies; comply with manufacturing standards we have established; comply with healthcare fraud and abuse laws and regulations in the United States and similar foreign fraudulent misconduct laws; or report financial information or data accurately, or disclose unauthorized activities to us. These laws may impact, among other things, our activities with principal investigators and research subjects, as well as our sales, marketing and education programs. In particular, the promotion, sales, marketing and business arrangements in the healthcare industry are subject to extensive laws and regulations intended to prevent fraud, misconduct, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices. These laws may restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, marketing and promotion, sales commission, customer incentive programs and other business arrangements. Such misconduct could also involve the improper use of information obtained in the course of clinical studies, which could result in regulatory sanctions and cause serious harm to our reputation. We currently have a code of conduct applicable to all of our employees, but it is not always possible to identify and deter employee misconduct, and our code of conduct and the other precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses, or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to comply with these laws or regulations. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business, including the imposition of civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, monetary fines, disgorgement, individual imprisonment, possible exclusion from participation in Medicare, Medicaid and other federal healthcare programs, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings, and curtailment of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations. Any of these actions or investigations could result in substantial costs to us, including legal fees, and divert the attention of management from operating our business.

We depend on our information technology systems, and any failure of these systems could harm our business.

We depend on information technology systems for significant elements of our operations, including the storage of data and retrieval of critical business information. We have installed, and expect to expand, a number of enterprise software systems that affect a broad range of business processes and functional areas, including systems handling human resources, financial controls and reporting, contract management, regulatory compliance, sales management and other infrastructure operations. These information technology systems may support a variety of functions, including laboratory operations, test validation, quality control, customer service

 

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support, billing and reimbursement, research and development activities and general administrative activities. Our clinical trial data is currently stored on a third party’s servers.

Information technology systems are vulnerable to damage from a variety of sources, including network failures, malicious human acts and natural disasters. Moreover, despite network security and back-up measures, some of our servers are potentially vulnerable to physical or electronic break-ins, computer viruses and similar disruptive problems. Despite the precautionary measures we have taken to prevent unanticipated problems that could affect our information technology systems, failures or significant downtime of our information technology systems or those used by our third-party service providers could prevent us from conducting our general business operations. Any disruption or loss of information technology systems on which critical aspects of our operations depend could have an adverse effect on our business. Further, we store highly confidential information on our information technology systems, including information related to clinical data, product designs and plans to create new products. If our servers or the servers of the third party on which our clinical data is stored are attacked by a physical or electronic break-in, computer virus or other malicious human action, our confidential information could be stolen or destroyed.

Our internal computer systems, or those used by our third-party research institution collaborators, vendors or other contractors or consultants, may fail or suffer security breaches.

Despite the implementation of security measures, our internal computer systems and those of our vendors and other contractors and consultants may be vulnerable to security breaches and damage from computer viruses and unauthorized access, including the unauthorized encryption of data stored on our computer network. In August 2019, we were the subject of a ransomware attack that resulted in the encryption of certain data stored on our computer network. Although we did not pay the ransom; the attack did not materially affect business operations; and there was no evidence of a loss of data or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, we did incur additional cost, expense and the diversion of time and resources to recover from the attack. Although we have strengthened our network security and infrastructure following the attack, if such an event were to occur again and cause interruptions in our operations, it could result in a material disruption of our business operations. To the extent that any disruption or security breach were to result in a loss of, or damage to, our data or systems, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, we could incur liability and the further development and commercialization of our product candidates could be delayed, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Security breaches and other disruptions could compromise our information and expose us to liability, which would cause our business and reputation to suffer.

In the ordinary course of our business, we store sensitive data, including intellectual property, our proprietary business information and that of our customers, and personally identifiable information of our employees, in our data centers and on our networks. The secure maintenance and transmission of this information is critical to our operations. Despite our security measures and data backup, our information technology and infrastructure may be vulnerable to attacks by hackers or breached due to employee error, malfeasance or other disruptions. Any such breach could compromise our networks and the information stored there could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen. Any such access, disclosure or other loss of information could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability under laws that protect the privacy of personal information, and regulatory penalties, disrupt our operations and damage our reputation, which could adversely affect our business/operating margins, revenues and competitive position.

 

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Risks Related to Government Regulation and Diagnostic Product Reimbursement

Approval and clearance by the FDA and foreign regulatory authorities for our diagnostic tests takes significant time and requires significant research, development and clinical study expenditures and ultimately may not succeed.

The medical device industry is regulated extensively by governmental authorities, principally the FDA and corresponding state and foreign regulatory agencies. The regulations are very complex and are subject to rapid change and varying interpretations. Regulatory restrictions or changes could limit our ability to carry on or expand our operations or result in higher than anticipated costs or lower than anticipated sales. The FDA and other U.S. governmental agencies regulate numerous elements of our business, including:

 

   

product design and development;

 

   

pre-clinical and clinical testing and trials;

 

   

product safety;

 

   

establishment registration and product listing;

 

   

labeling and storage;

 

   

marketing, manufacturing, sales and distribution;

 

   

pre-market clearance or approval;

 

   

servicing and post-market surveillance;

 

   

advertising and promotion; and

 

   

recalls and field safety corrective actions.

Before we begin to label and market our product candidates for use as clinical diagnostics in the United States, we are required to obtain clearance from the FDA under Section 510(k) of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, approval of a de novo reclassification petition for our product, or approval of pre-market approval, or PMA, application from the FDA, unless an exemption from pre-market review applies. In the 510(k) clearance process, the FDA must determine that a proposed device is “substantially equivalent” to a device legally on the market, known as a “predicate” device, with respect to intended use, technology and safety and effectiveness, in order to clear the proposed device for marketing. Clinical data is sometimes required to support substantial equivalence. The PMA pathway requires an applicant to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of the device based, in part, on extensive data, including, but not limited to, technical, preclinical, clinical trial, manufacturing and labeling data. The PMA process is typically required for devices that are deemed to pose the greatest risk, such as life-sustaining, life-supporting or implantable devices. However, some devices are automatically subject to the PMA pathway regardless of the level of risk they pose because they have not previously been classified into a lower risk class by the FDA. Manufacturers of these devices may request that FDA review such devices in accordance with the de novo classification procedure, which allows a manufacturer whose novel device would otherwise require the submission and approval of a PMA prior to marketing to request down-classification of the device on the basis that the device presents low or moderate risk. If the FDA agrees with the down-classification, the applicant will then receive approval to market the device. This device type can then be used as a predicate device for future 510(k) submissions. The process of obtaining regulatory clearances or approvals, or completing the de novo classification process, to market a medical device can be costly and time consuming, and we may not be able to successfully obtain pre-market reviews on a timely basis, if at all.

We received pre-market clearance for our T2Dx instrument and T2Candida under the de novo application procedure in September 2014 and received market clearance for T2Bacteria under the standard 510(k) process in May 2018. From time to time, we may make modifications to these products that may require a new 510(k).

If the FDA requires us to go through a lengthier, more rigorous examination for our future product candidates than we had expected, our product introductions or modifications could be delayed or canceled, which

 

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could cause our launch to be delayed or, in the future, our sales to decline. In addition, the FDA may determine that our product candidates require the more costly, lengthy and uncertain PMA process.

The FDA can delay, limit or deny clearance or approval of a device for many reasons, including:

 

   

we may not be able to demonstrate to the FDA’s satisfaction that our product candidates are safe and effective, sensitive and specific diagnostic tests, for their intended users;

 

   

the data from our pre-clinical studies and clinical trials may be insufficient to support clearance or approval, where required; and

 

   

the manufacturing process or facilities we use may not meet applicable requirements.

In addition, the FDA may change its clearance and approval policies, adopt additional regulations or revise existing regulations, or take other actions which may prevent or delay approval or clearance of our products under development or impact our ability to modify our currently approved or cleared products on a timely basis. For example, in response to industry and healthcare provider concerns regarding the predictability, consistency and rigor of the 510(k) regulatory pathway, the FDA initiated an evaluation of the program, and in January 2011, announced several proposed actions intended to reform the review process governing the clearance of medical devices. The FDA intends these reform actions to improve the efficiency and transparency of the clearance process, as well as bolster patient safety. In addition, as part of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act, or FDASIA, Congress reauthorized the Medical Device User Fee Amendments with various FDA performance goal commitments and enacted several “Medical Device Regulatory Improvements” and miscellaneous reforms which are further intended to clarify and improve medical device regulation both pre- and post-approval.

Any delay in, or failure to receive or maintain, clearance or approval for our product candidates could prevent us from generating revenue from these product candidates and adversely affect our business operations and financial results. Additionally, the FDA and other regulatory authorities have broad enforcement powers. Regulatory enforcement or inquiries, or other increased scrutiny on us, could affect the perceived safety and efficacy of our products and product candidates and dissuade our customers from using our products and product candidates.

Obtaining FDA clearance, de novo down classification, or approval for diagnostics can be expensive and uncertain, and generally takes from several months to several years, and generally requires detailed and comprehensive scientific and clinical data. Notwithstanding the expense, these efforts may never result in FDA clearance. Even if we were to obtain regulatory clearance, it may not be for the uses we believe are important or commercially attractive, in which case we would not be permitted to market our product for those uses.

Even if granted, a 510(k) clearance, de novo down classification, or PMA approval for any future product would likely place substantial restrictions on how our device is marketed or sold, and the FDA will continue to place considerable restrictions on our products and operations. For example, the manufacture of medical devices must comply with the FDA’s Quality System Regulation, or QSR. In addition, manufacturers must register their manufacturing facilities, list the products with the FDA, and comply with requirements relating to labeling, marketing, complaint handling, adverse event and medical device reporting, reporting of corrections and removals, and import and export. The FDA monitors compliance with the QSR and these other requirements through periodic inspections. If our facilities or those of our manufacturers or suppliers are found to be in violation of applicable laws and regulations, or if we or our manufacturers or suppliers fail to take satisfactory corrective action in response to an adverse inspection, the regulatory authority could take enforcement action, including any of the following sanctions:

 

   

untitled letters, warning letters, fines, injunctions, consent decrees and civil penalties;

 

   

customer notifications or repair, replacement, refunds, detention or seizure of our products;

 

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operating restrictions or partial suspension or total shutdown of production;

 

   

refusing or delaying requests for 510(k) marketing clearance or PMA approvals of new products or modified products;

 

   

withdrawing 510(k) marketing clearances or PMA approvals that have already been granted;

 

   

refusing to provide Certificates for Foreign Government;

 

   

refusing to grant export approval for our products; or

 

   

pursuing criminal prosecution.

Any of these sanctions could impair our ability to produce our products and product candidates in a cost-effective and timely manner in order to meet our customers’ demands, and could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, results of operations and financial condition. We may also be required to bear other costs or take other actions that may have a negative impact on our future sales and our ability to generate profits.

Sales of our diagnostic products and product candidates outside the United States are subject to foreign regulatory requirements governing clinical studies, vigilance reporting, marketing approval, manufacturing, product licensing, pricing and reimbursement. These regulatory requirements vary greatly from country to country. As a result, the time required to obtain approvals outside the United States may differ from that required to obtain FDA clearance and we may not be able to obtain foreign regulatory approvals on a timely basis or at all. Clearance by the FDA does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries, and approval by one foreign regulatory authority does not ensure clearance or approval by regulatory authorities in other countries or by the FDA. Foreign regulatory authorities could require additional testing. Failure to comply with these regulatory requirements, or to obtain required clearances or approvals, could impair our ability to commercialize our diagnostic products and product candidates outside of the United States.

Modifications to our products, if cleared or approved, may require new 510(k) clearances or pre-market approvals, or may require us to cease marketing or recall the modified products until clearances are obtained.

Any modification to a device authorized for marketing that could significantly affect its safety or effectiveness, or that would constitute a major change in its intended use, design or manufacture, requires a new 510(k) clearance or, possibly, approval of a PMA. The FDA requires every manufacturer to make this determination in the first instance, but the FDA may review any manufacturer’s decision. The FDA may not agree with our decisions regarding whether new clearances or approvals are necessary. If the FDA disagrees with our determination and requires us to submit new 510(k) notifications or PMAs for modifications to previously cleared products for which we conclude that new clearances or approvals are unnecessary, we may be required to cease marketing or to recall the modified product until we obtain clearance or approval, and we may be subject to significant regulatory fines or penalties.

FDA is continuing the trend to uphold safety and effectiveness of commercial devices, while maintaining the least burdensome approach provision. This provision states that FDA shall only request the “minimum required information” necessary to support a determination of substantial equivalence (sections 513(i)(l)(D)(ii)-(iii) of the FD&C Act). Their recommendations are further discussed in the 2017 Guidance on deciding when to submit a 510(k) for a change to an existing device. As written, this outwardly suggests a more efficient process of interacting with FDA; however, the demonstration of device safety now includes more comprehensive planning and reporting through the lifecycle of the device, including Risk Evaluation, Post-Marketing Surveillance, and Medical Device Reporting for adverse events.

A recall of our products, either voluntarily or at the direction of the FDA, or the discovery of serious safety issues with our products that leads to corrective actions, could have a significant adverse impact on us.

The FDA and similar foreign governmental authorities have the authority to require the recall of commercialized products in the event of material deficiencies or defects in design or manufacture of a product or

 

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in the event that a product poses an unacceptable risk to health. Manufacturers may, under their own initiative, recall a product if any material deficiency in a device is found. A government-mandated or voluntary recall by us or one of our distributors could occur as a result of an unacceptable risk to health, component failures, manufacturing errors, design or labeling defects or other deficiencies and issues. Under the FDA’s medical device reporting regulations, we are required to report to the FDA any incident in which our product may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury or in which our product malfunctioned and, if the malfunction were to recur, would likely cause or contribute to death or serious injury. Repeated product malfunctions may result in a voluntary or involuntary product recall. Recalls of any of our products would divert managerial and financial resources and have an adverse effect on our reputation, results of operations and financial condition, which could impair our ability to produce our products in a cost-effective and timely manner in order to meet our customers’ demands. Depending on the corrective action we take to redress a product’s deficiencies or defects, the FDA may require, or we may decide, that we will need to obtain new approvals or clearances for the device before we may market or distribute the corrected device. Seeking such approvals or clearances may delay our ability to replace the recalled devices in a timely manner. Moreover, if we do not adequately address problems associated with our devices, we may face additional regulatory enforcement action, including FDA warning letters, product seizure, injunctions, administrative penalties, or civil or criminal fines. We may also be required to bear other costs or take other actions that may have a negative impact on our sales as well as face significant adverse publicity or regulatory consequences, which could harm our business, including our ability to market our products in the future.

Any adverse event involving our products could result in future voluntary corrective actions, such as recalls or customer notifications, or agency action, such as inspection, mandatory recall or other enforcement action. Any corrective action, whether voluntary or involuntary, as well as defending ourselves in a lawsuit, would require the dedication of our time and capital, distract management from operating our business and may harm our reputation and financial results.

We may rely on third parties to conduct future studies of our product candidates that may be required by the FDA or other regulatory authorities, and those third parties may not perform satisfactorily.

We may rely on third parties, including medical investigators, to conduct such studies. Our reliance on these third parties for clinical development activities will reduce our control over these activities. These third parties may not complete activities on schedule or conduct studies in accordance with regulatory requirements or our study design. If applicable, our reliance on third parties that we do not control will not relieve us of any applicable requirement to prepare, and ensure compliance with, various procedures required under good clinical practices. If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or regulatory obligations or meet expected deadlines, if the third parties need to be replaced or if the quality or accuracy of the data they obtain is compromised due to their failure to adhere to our clinical protocols or regulatory requirements or for other reasons, our studies may be extended, delayed, suspended or terminated, and we may not be able to obtain marketing clearance from the FDA or regulatory clearance for our product candidates.

Our customers are highly dependent on payment from third-party payors, and inadequate coverage and/or inadequate reimbursement for diagnostic tests using our technology or for procedures using our products and product candidates and the commercial success of our diagnostic products and product candidates would be compromised.

Successful commercialization of our diagnostic products and product candidates depends, in large part, on the extent to which the costs of our products and product candidates purchased by our customers are reimbursed, either separately or through bundled payment, by third-party private and governmental payors, including Medicare, Medicaid, managed care organizations and private insurance plans. There is significant uncertainty surrounding third-party coverage and reimbursement for the use of tests that incorporate new technology, such as T2MR. There may be significant delays in obtaining coverage and reimbursement for newly approved products, and coverage may be more limited than the purposes for which the product is approved by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities.

 

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Hospitals, clinical laboratories and other healthcare provider customers that may purchase our products and product candidates, if approved, generally bill various third-party payors to cover all or a portion of the costs and fees associated with diagnostic tests, including the cost of the purchase of our products and product candidates. We currently expect that the majority of our diagnostic tests will be performed in a hospital inpatient setting, where governmental payors, such as Medicare, generally reimburse hospitals a single bundled payment that is based on the patients’ diagnosis under a classification system known as the Medicare severity diagnosis-related groups, classification for all items and services provided to the patient during a single hospitalization, regardless of whether our diagnostic tests are performed during such hospitalization. To the extent that our diagnostic tests will be performed in an outpatient setting, our products and product candidates may be eligible for separate payment, for example, under the Clinical Laboratory Fee Schedule using existing Current Procedural Terminology codes. Third-party payors may deny coverage, however, if they determine that the diagnostic tests using our products are not cost-effective compared to the use of alternative testing methods as determined by the payor, or is deemed by the third-party payor to be experimental or medically unnecessary. Even if third-party payors make coverage and reimbursement available, such reimbursement may not be adequate or these payors’ reimbursement policies may have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. In the United States, no uniform policy of coverage and reimbursement for products exists among third-party payors. Therefore, coverage and reimbursement for products can differ significantly from payor to payor. As a result, the coverage determination process is often a time-consuming and costly process that will require us to provide scientific and clinical support for the use of our product candidates to each payor separately, with no assurance that coverage and adequate reimbursement will be obtained.

Government authorities and other third-party payors are developing increasingly sophisticated methods of controlling healthcare costs, such as by limiting coverage and the amount of reimbursement for various products. Our customers’ access to adequate coverage and reimbursement for inpatient procedures using our products and product candidates by government and private insurance plans is central to the acceptance of our products. We cannot predict at this time the adequacy of payments, whether made separately in an outpatient setting or with a bundled payment amount in an inpatient setting. We may be unable to sell our products on a profitable basis if third-party payors deny coverage or reduce their current levels of payment, or if our costs of production increase faster than increases in reimbursement levels.

In many countries outside of the United States, various coverage, pricing and reimbursement approvals are required. We expect that it will take several years to establish broad coverage and reimbursement for testing services based on our products with payors in countries outside of the United States, and our efforts may not be successful.

We may be subject to federal and state healthcare fraud and abuse laws and other federal and state healthcare laws applicable to our business activities. If we are unable to comply, or have not complied, with such laws, we could face substantial penalties.

Our operations are, and will continue to be, directly or indirectly subject to various federal and state fraud and abuse laws, including, without limitation, the federal and state anti-kickback statutes, physician payment transparency laws and false claims laws. These laws impact, among other things, our sales and marketing and education programs and require us to implement additional internal systems for tracking certain marketing expenditures and reporting them to government authorities. In addition, we may be subject to patient data privacy and security regulation by both the federal government and the states in which we conduct our business. The healthcare laws and regulations that may affect our ability to operate include:

 

   

the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, persons or entities from knowingly or willfully soliciting, receiving, offering or paying any remuneration, directly or indirectly, overtly or covertly, in cash or in kind, in return for or to induce either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, lease, order or recommendation of, any good, facility, item or services for which payment may be made, in whole or in part, under a federal healthcare program such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs;

 

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federal false claims laws, including the federal civil False Claims Act, which prohibit, among other things, individuals or entities from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, claims for payment from or approval by a governmental payor program that are false or fraudulent;

 

   

the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, which established additional federal crimes for, among other things, knowingly and willfully executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or making materially false statements in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services;

 

   

HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, which governs the conduct of certain electronic healthcare transactions and imposes obligations, including mandatory contractual terms, on certain types of people and entities regarding the security and privacy of protected health information;

 

   

the Physician Payments Sunshine Act under the Affordable Care Act, which requires manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologicals, and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid, or the Children’s Health Insurance Program, with specific exceptions, to report annually to the CMS information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians, as defined by such law, and teaching hospitals, and ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members; and

 

   

state or foreign law equivalents of each of the above federal laws, such as anti-kickback and false claims laws, which may apply to items or services reimbursed by any third-party payor, including commercial insurers; state laws that require device companies to comply with the industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the applicable compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government, or otherwise restrict payments that may be made to healthcare providers and other potential referral sources; state laws that require manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians, hospitals and other healthcare providers, marketing expenditures, or pricing; and state laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways, thus complicating compliance efforts.

Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of the statutory exceptions and safe harbors available, it is possible that some of our business activities could be subject to challenge under one or more of such laws. In addition, recent healthcare reforms have strengthened these laws. For example, the Affordable Care Act, among other things, amends the intent requirement of the federal anti-kickback statute. A person or entity no longer needs to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to commit a violation. The Affordable Care Act also codified case law by amending the False Claims Act, such that violations of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute are now deemed violations of the False Claims Act.

If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws described above or any other governmental regulations that apply to us, we may be subject to penalties, including significant administrative, civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, contractual damages, reputational harm, the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, integrity reporting obligations, the exclusion from participation in federal and state healthcare programs and imprisonment, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations.

Healthcare policy changes, including legislation reforming the United States healthcare system, may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

The Affordable Care Act, enacted in March 2010, made changes that significantly impacted the pharmaceutical and medical device industries and clinical laboratories.

The Affordable Care Act also mandated a reduction in payments for clinical laboratory services paid under the Medicare Clinical Laboratory Fee Schedule, or CLFS, of 1.75% for the years 2011 through 2015 and a

 

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productivity adjustment to the CLFS, further reducing payment rates. Some commercial payors are guided by the CLFS in establishing their reimbursement rates. Clinicians may decide not to order clinical diagnostic tests if third-party payments are inadequate, and we cannot predict whether third-party payors will offer adequate reimbursement for procedures utilizing our products and product candidates to make them commercially attractive. To the extent that the diagnostic tests using our products and product candidates are performed on an outpatient basis, these or any future proposed or mandated reductions in payments under the CLFS may apply to some or all of the clinical laboratory tests that our diagnostics customers may use our technology to deliver to Medicare beneficiaries and may indirectly reduce demand for our diagnostic products and product candidates.

Other significant measures for our industry contained in the Affordable Care Act included coordination and promotion of research on comparative clinical effectiveness of different technologies and procedures; initiatives to revise Medicare payment methodologies, such as bundling of payments across the continuum of care by providers and physicians; and initiatives to promote quality indicators in payment methodologies. The Affordable Care Act also includes significant fraud and abuse measures, including required disclosures of certain financial arrangements with physician customers, lower thresholds for violations and increasing potential penalties for such violations. To the extent that the reimbursement amounts for sepsis decrease, it could adversely affect the market acceptance and hospital adoption of our technologies.

In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted in the United States since the Affordable Care Act was enacted. On August 2, 2011, the Budget Control Act of 2011, among other things, created measures for spending reductions by Congress. A Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction, tasked with recommending a targeted deficit reduction of at least $1.2 trillion for the years 2013 through 2021, was unable to reach required goals, thereby triggering the legislation’s automatic reduction to several government programs, including reductions of Medicare payments to providers of up to 2% per fiscal year effective April 1, 2013. Due to subsequent legislative amendments, these reductions will stay in effect through 2029 unless additional congressional action is taken. Further, on January 2, 2013, the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 was signed into law, which, among other things, further reduced Medicare payments to several providers, including hospitals, imaging centers and cancer treatment centers, and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years.

The current presidential administration and U.S. Congress has sought to modify, repeal, or otherwise invalidate all, or certain provisions of, the Affordable Care Act. Since taking office, President Trump has continued to support the repeal of all or portions of the Affordable Care Act. For example, the 2020 federal spending package permanently eliminated, effective January 1, 2020, the Affordable Care Act-mandated “Cadillac” tax on high-cost employer-sponsored health coverage and medical device tax and, effective January 1, 2021, also eliminates the health insurer tax. On December 14, 2018, a Texas U.S. District Court Judge ruled that the Affordable Care Act is unconstitutional in its entirety because the “individual mandate” was repealed by Congress as part of the Tax Act. Additionally, on December 18, 2019, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 5th Circuit upheld the District Court ruling that the individual mandate was unconstitutional and remanded the case back to the District Court to determine whether the remaining provisions of the Affordable Care Act are invalid as well. It is unclear how this decision, future decisions, subsequent appeals, and other efforts to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act will impact the Affordable Care Act or our business.

We cannot predict whether future healthcare initiatives will be implemented at the federal or state level or in countries outside of the United States in which we may do business, or the effect any future legislation or regulation will have on us. The taxes imposed by the new federal legislation and the expansion in government’s effect on the United States healthcare industry may result in decreased profits to us, lower reimbursements by payors for our products and product candidates or reduced medical procedure volumes, any of which may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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Risks Related to Intellectual Property

If we are unable to protect our intellectual property effectively, our business would be harmed.

We rely on patent protection as well as trademark, copyright, trade secret protection and confidentiality agreements to protect the intellectual property rights related to our proprietary technologies. The strength of patents in our field involves complex legal and scientific questions. Uncertainty created by these questions means that our patents may provide only limited protection and may not adequately protect our rights or permit us to gain or keep any competitive advantage. We own or exclusively license over 35 issued U.S. patents and over 15 pending U.S. patent applications, including provisional and non-provisional filings. We also own or license over 50 pending or granted counterpart applications worldwide. If we fail to protect our intellectual property, third parties may be able to compete more effectively against us and we may incur substantial litigation costs in our attempts to recover or restrict use of our intellectual property.

We cannot assure you that any of our currently pending or future patent applications will result in issued patents with claims that cover our products and technologies in the United States or in other foreign countries, and we cannot predict how long it will take for such patents to be issued. Further, issuance of a patent is not conclusive as to its inventorship or scope, and there is no guarantee that our issued patents will include claims that are sufficiently broad to cover our technologies or to provide meaningful protection of our products from our competitors. Further, we cannot be certain that all relevant prior art relating to our patents and patent applications has been found. Accordingly, there may be prior art that can invalidate our issued patents or prevent a patent from issuing from a pending patent application, at all or with claims that have a scope broad enough to provide meaningful protection from our competitors.

Even if patents do successfully issue and even if such patents cover our products and technologies, we cannot assure you that other parties will not challenge the validity, enforceability or scope of such issued patents in the United States and in foreign countries, including by proceedings such as re-examination, inter-partes review, interference, opposition, or other patent office or court proceedings. Moreover, we cannot assure you that if such patents were challenged in court or before a regulatory agency that the patent claims will be held valid, enforceable, or be sufficiently broad to cover our technologies or to provide meaningful protection from our competitors. Nor can we assure you that the applicable court or agency will uphold our ownership rights in such patents. Accordingly, we cannot guarantee that we will be successful in defending challenges made against our patents and patent applications. Any successful third-party challenge to our patents could result in the unenforceability or invalidity of such patents, or narrowing of claim scope, such that we could be deprived of patent protection necessary for the successful commercialization of our products and technologies, which could adversely affect our business.

Furthermore, even if they are unchallenged, our patents and patent applications may not adequately protect our intellectual property, provide exclusivity for our products and technologies or prevent others from designing around our claims. Others may independently develop similar or alternative products and technologies or duplicate any of our products and technologies. These products and technologies may not be covered by claims of issued patents owned by our company. Any of these outcomes could impair our ability to prevent competition from third parties, which may have an adverse impact on our business. In addition, competitors could purchase our products and attempt to replicate some or all of the competitive advantages we derive from our development efforts, willfully infringe our intellectual property rights, design around our protected technology or develop their own competitive technologies that fall outside of the protections provided by our intellectual property rights. If our intellectual property, including licensed intellectual property, does not adequately protect our market position against competitors’ products and methods, our competitive position could be adversely affected, as could our business.

Further, if we encounter delays in regulatory approvals, the period of time during which we could market a product or product candidate under patent protection could be reduced. Since patent applications in the United States and most other countries are confidential for a period of time after filing, and some remain so until issued,

 

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we cannot be certain that we were the first to make the inventions covered by our pending patent applications, or that we were the first to file any patent application related to a product or product candidate. Furthermore, if third parties have filed such patent applications, an interference proceeding in the United States can be initiated by a third party to determine who was the first to invent any of the subject matter covered by the patent claims of our applications. In addition, patents have a limited lifespan. In the United States, the natural expiration of a patent is generally 20 years after it is filed. Various extensions may be available; however the life of a patent, and the protection it affords, is limited.

Further, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect proprietary rights to the same extent or in the same manner as the laws of the United States. As a result, we may encounter significant problems in protecting and defending our intellectual property both in the United States and abroad. If we are unable to prevent material disclosure of the non-patented intellectual property related to our technologies to third parties, and there is no guarantee that we will have any such enforceable trade secret protection, we may not be able to establish or maintain a competitive advantage in our market, which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We depend on certain technologies that are licensed to us. We do not control the intellectual property rights covering these technologies and any loss of our rights to these technologies or the rights licensed to us could prevent us from selling our products.

We are a party to a number of license agreements under which we are granted rights to intellectual property that is important to our business and we expect that we may need to enter into additional license agreements in the future. We rely on these licenses in order to be able to use various proprietary technologies that are material to our business, including an exclusive license to patents and patent applications from Massachusetts General Hospital, or MGH, and non-exclusive licenses from other third parties related to materials used currently in our research and development activities, and which we use in our commercial activities. Our rights to use these technologies and employ the inventions claimed in the licensed patents are subject to the continuation of and our compliance with the terms of those licenses. Our existing license agreements impose, and we expect that future license agreements will impose on us, various diligence obligations, payment of milestones or royalties and other obligations. If we fail to comply with our obligations under these agreements, or we are subject to a bankruptcy, the licensor may have the right to terminate the license, in which event we would not be able to market products covered by the license.

As we have done previously, we may need to obtain licenses from third parties to advance our research or allow commercialization of our products and technologies, and we cannot provide any assurances that third-party patents do not exist which might be enforced against our current products and technologies or future products in the absence of such a license. We may fail to obtain any of these licenses on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. Even if we are able to obtain a license, it may be non-exclusive, thereby giving our competitors access to the same technologies licensed to us. In that event, we may be required to expend significant time and resources to develop or license replacement technology. If we are unable to do so, we may be unable to develop or commercialize the affected products and technologies, which could materially harm our business and the third parties owning such intellectual property rights could seek either an injunction prohibiting our sales, or, with respect to our sales, an obligation on our part to pay royalties or other forms of compensation.

In some cases, we do not control the prosecution, maintenance, or filing of the patents that are licensed to us, or the enforcement of these patents against infringement by third parties. Some of our patents and patent applications were not filed by us, but were either acquired by us or are licensed from third parties. Thus, these patents and patent applications were not drafted by us or our attorneys, and we did not control or have any input into the prosecution of these patents and patent applications either prior to our acquisition of, or entry into a license with respect to, such patents and patent applications. With respect to the patents we license from MGH, although we have rights under our agreement to provide input into prosecution and maintenance activities, and are actively involved in such ongoing prosecution, MGH retains ultimate control over such prosecution and

 

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maintenance. We therefore cannot be certain that the same attention was given, or will continue to be given, to the drafting and prosecution of these patents and patent applications as we may have exercised if we had control over the drafting and prosecution of such patents and patent applications, or that we will agree with decisions taken by MGH in relation to ongoing prosecution activities. We also cannot be certain that drafting or prosecution of the patents and patent applications licensed to us have been or will be conducted in compliance with applicable laws and regulations or will result in valid and enforceable patents. Further, as MGH retains the right to enforce these patents against third-party infringement, we cannot be certain that MGH will elect to enforce these patents to the extent that we would choose to do so, or in a way that will ensure that we retain the rights we currently have under our license with MGH. If MGH fails to properly enforce the patents subject to our license in the event of third-party infringement, our ability to retain our competitive advantage with respect to our products and product candidates may be materially affected.

In addition, certain of the patents we have licensed relate to technology that was developed with U.S. government grants. Federal regulations impose certain domestic manufacturing requirements and other obligations with respect to some of our products embodying these patents.

Licensing of intellectual property is of critical importance to our business and involves complex legal, business and scientific issues. Disputes may arise between us and our licensors regarding intellectual property subject to a license agreement, including:

 

   

the scope of rights granted under the license agreement and other interpretation-related issues;

 

   

whether and the extent to which our technology and processes infringe on intellectual property of the licensor that is not subject to the licensing agreement;

 

   

our right to sublicense patent and other rights to third parties under collaborative development relationships;

 

   

our diligence obligations with respect to the use of the licensed technology in relation to our development and commercialization of our products and technologies, and what activities satisfy those diligence obligations; and

 

   

the ownership of inventions and know-how resulting from the joint creation or use of intellectual property by our licensors and us and our partners.

If disputes over intellectual property that we have licensed prevent or impair our ability to maintain our current licensing arrangements on acceptable terms, we may be unable to successfully develop and commercialize the affected products and technologies.

We may be involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce our patents and proprietary rights, to determine the scope, enforceability and validity of others’ proprietary rights, or to defend against third-party claims of intellectual property infringement, any of which could be time-intensive and costly and may adversely impact our business or stock price.

Our commercial success depends in part on our avoiding infringement of the patents and proprietary rights of third parties. There is a substantial amount of litigation, both within and outside the United States, involving patent and other intellectual property rights in the medical device and diagnostics industries, including patent infringement lawsuits, interferences, oppositions and inter partes review proceedings before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, or U.S. PTO, and corresponding foreign patent offices. We have received notice from a third party asserting that we are infringing certain patents that are owned by the third party. As of March 5, 2020, we and the third party have not arrived at license terms that we consider reasonable, and we may not be able to arrive at such terms at all. While it is possible the third party will assert the patents against us in court, we believe that most of the claims are not relevant to our products, and the remaining claims are not likely to be found valid by a court no relevant claim in the patents is valid. Nevertheless, if the third party files a law suit against us, we will

 

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be forced to defend against the suit, which may incur substantial costs and be a distraction to our management and employees, even if we ultimately prevail. Further costs and distractions may be incurred if we are forced to appeal a loss in district court. If we do not prevail, we may be forced to pay financial damages and/or a royalty, or be forced to design around the patents. If we are unable to design around the patents we may be forced to stop commercializing our products, which may have a materially adverse effect on our business.

We have received a notice of claims of infringement or misappropriation or misuse of other parties’ proprietary rights in the past, and we may from time to time receive such additional notices in the future. Some of these claims may lead to litigation. Third parties may assert that we are employing their proprietary technology without authorization. There may be third-party patents or patent applications with claims to materials, methods of manufacture or methods of use of our products and technologies. Because patent applications can take many years to issue, third parties may have currently pending patent applications which may later result in issued patents that our products and technologies may infringe, or which such third parties claim are infringed by the use of our technologies. We cannot assure you that we will prevail in such actions, or that other actions alleging misappropriation or misuse by us of third-party trade secrets or infringement by us of third-party patents, trademarks or other rights, or challenging the validity of our patents, trademarks or other rights, will not be asserted against us.

Litigation may be necessary for us to enforce our patent and proprietary rights or to determine the scope, enforceability or validity of the proprietary rights of others. There has been substantial litigation and other proceedings regarding patent and other intellectual property rights in the medical diagnostics industry. Third parties may assert that we are employing their proprietary technology without authorization. Many of our competitors have significantly larger and more mature patent portfolios than we currently have. In addition, future litigation may involve patent holding companies or other adverse patent owners who have no relevant product revenue and against whom our own patents may provide little or no deterrence or protection. Parties making claims against us for infringement of their intellectual property rights may obtain injunctive or other equitable relief, which could effectively block our ability to further develop and commercialize one or more of our products and technologies. Further, defense of such claims in litigation, regardless of merit, could result in substantial legal fees and could adversely affect the scope of our patent protection, and would be a substantial diversion of employee, management and technical personnel resources from our business. The outcome of any litigation or other proceeding is inherently uncertain and might not be favorable to us. In the event of a successful claim of infringement against us, we could be required to redesign our infringing products or obtain a license from such third party to continue developing and commercializing our products and technology. However, we may not be able to obtain any required license on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Even if we are able to obtain a license, it may be non-exclusive, thereby giving our competitors access to the same technologies licensed to us. We could therefore incur substantial costs for licenses obtained from third parties, if such licenses were available at all, which could negatively affect our gross margins, or prevent us from commercializing our products and technologies. Further, we could encounter delays in product introductions, or interruptions in product sales, as we develop alternative methods or products to avoid infringing third-party rights. In addition, if we resort to legal proceedings to enforce our intellectual property rights or to determine the validity, enforceability or scope of the intellectual property or other proprietary rights of others, the proceedings could be burdensome and expensive, even if we were to prevail. Any litigation that may be necessary in the future could result in substantial costs and the diversion of our resources and could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results or financial condition. Further, if the scope of protection provided by our patents or patent applications is threatened or reduced as a result of litigation, it could discourage third parties from entering into collaborations with us that are important to the commercialization of our products.

We cannot guarantee that we have identified all relevant third-party intellectual property rights that may be infringed by our technology, nor is there any assurance that patents will not issue in the future from currently pending applications that may be infringed by our technology or products or product candidates. We are aware of third parties that have issued patents and pending patent applications in the United States, Europe, Canada, and other jurisdictions in the field of magnetic resonance devices and methods for analyte detection, including the

 

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preparation and use of reagents. While we continue to evaluate third-party patents in this area on an ongoing basis, we cannot guarantee that patents we currently are aware of will be found invalid or not infringed if we are accused of infringing them, or if our products are found to infringe, that we will be able to modify our products to cause them to be non-infringing on a timely or cost-effective basis, or at all. We currently monitor the intellectual property positions of some companies in this field that are potential competitors or are conducting research and development in areas that relate to our business, and will continue to do so as we progress the development and commercialization of our products or product candidates. While we continue to evaluate third-party patents in this area on an ongoing basis, we cannot assure you that third parties do not currently have or will not in the future have issued patents or other intellectual property rights that may be infringed by the practice of our technology or the commercialization of our products or product candidates.

Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation. In addition, during the course of this kind of litigation, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments. If securities analysts or you perceive these results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of our common stock.

In addition, certain of our agreements with suppliers, distributors, customers and other entities with whom we do business require us to defend or indemnify these parties to the extent they become involved in infringement claims relating to our technologies or products, or rights licensed to them by us. We could also voluntarily agree to defend or indemnify third parties in instances where we are not obligated to do so if we determine it would be important to our business relationships. If we are required or agree to defend or indemnify any of these third parties in connection with any infringement claims, we could incur significant costs and expenses that could adversely affect our business, operating results, or financial condition.

If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets, our business and competitive position would be harmed.

In addition to pursuing patents on our technology, we also rely on trade secret protection and confidentiality agreements to protect proprietary know-how that is not patentable or that we elect not to patent, processes for which patents are difficult to enforce and any other elements of our products and technologies and discovery and development processes that involve proprietary know-how, information or technology that is not covered by patents, in order to maintain our competitive position. We take steps to protect our intellectual property, proprietary technologies and trade secrets, in part, by entering into confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, corporate partners, advisors and other third parties. We also enter into confidentiality and invention or patent assignment agreements with our employees and consultants that obligate them to assign to us any inventions developed in the course of their work for us. We also seek to preserve the integrity and confidentiality of our data and trade secrets by maintaining physical security of our premises and physical and electronic security of our information technology systems. While we have confidence in these individuals, organizations and systems, agreements or security measures may be breached, and we may not have adequate remedies for any breach. In addition, our trade secrets may otherwise become known or be independently discovered by competitors. Our agreements may not be enforceable or may not provide meaningful protection for our trade secrets or other proprietary information in the event of unauthorized use or disclosure or other breaches of the agreements, and we may not be able to prevent such unauthorized disclosure. Monitoring unauthorized disclosure is difficult, and we do not know whether the steps we have taken to prevent such disclosure are, or will be, adequate. If we were to enforce a claim that a third party had illegally obtained and was using our trade secrets, it would be expensive and time consuming, and the outcome would be unpredictable. Enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated a trade secret is difficult, expensive and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. In addition, courts outside the United States may be less willing to protect trade secrets. If any of the technology or information that we protect as trade secrets were to be lawfully obtained or independently developed by a competitor, we would have no right to prevent them from using that technology or

 

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information to compete with us. Misappropriation or unauthorized disclosure of our trade secrets could impair our competitive position and may have a material adverse effect on our business. Additionally, if the steps taken to maintain our trade secrets are deemed inadequate, we may have insufficient recourse against third parties for misappropriating the trade secret. In addition, others may independently discover our trade secrets and proprietary information. For example, the FDA, as part of its Transparency Initiative, is currently considering whether to make additional information publicly available on a routine basis, including information that we may consider to be trade secrets or other proprietary information, and it is not clear at the present time how the FDA’s disclosure policies may change in the future, if at all.

We may be subject to damages resulting from claims that we or our employees, consultants or independent contractors have wrongfully used or disclosed confidential information of third parties or that our employees have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of their former employers.

Many of our employees were previously employed at universities or other medical device companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Although we seek to protect our ownership of intellectual property rights by ensuring that our agreements with our employees, collaborators and other third parties with whom we do business include provisions requiring such parties to assign rights in inventions to us, we may also be subject to claims that former employees, collaborators or other third parties have an ownership interest in our patents or other intellectual property. Although no claims against us are currently pending, we may be subject to claims that these employees or we have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed trade secrets or other proprietary information of our employees’ former employers, or we may be subject to ownership disputes in the future arising, for example, from conflicting obligations of consultants or others who are involved in developing our products and technologies. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel, which could hamper our ability to commercialize certain potential products, which could severely harm our business. Even if we are successful in defending against these claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management.

We may be subject to claims challenging the inventorship or ownership of our patents and other intellectual property.

We may also be subject to claims that former employees, collaborators or other third parties have an ownership interest in our patents or other intellectual property. We may be subject to ownership disputes in the future arising, for example, from conflicting obligations of consultants or others who are involved in developing our products and technologies. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these and other claims challenging inventorship or ownership. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights, such as exclusive ownership of, or right to use, valuable intellectual property. Such an outcome could have a material adverse effect on our business. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management and other employees.

Recent patent reform legislation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our issued patents.

On September 16, 2011, the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, or the Leahy-Smith Act, was signed into law. The Leahy-Smith Act includes a number of significant changes to U.S. patent law, including provisions that affect the way patent applications will be prosecuted and may also affect patent litigation. The U.S. PTO is currently developing regulations and procedures to govern administration of the Leahy-Smith Act, and many of the substantive changes to patent law associated with the Leahy-Smith Act, and in particular, the first to file provisions, were enacted March 16, 2013. However, it is not clear what, if any, impact the Leahy-Smith Act will have on the operation of our business. However, the Leahy-Smith Act and its implementation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our issued patents, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

 

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Obtaining and maintaining our patent protection depends on compliance with various procedural, document submission, fee payment and other requirements imposed by governmental patent agencies, and our patent protection could be reduced or eliminated for non-compliance with these requirements.

Periodic maintenance fees, renewal fees, annuity fees and various other governmental fees on patents and applications will be due to be paid to the U.S. PTO and various governmental patent agencies outside of the United States in several stages over the lifetime of the patents and applications. We have systems in place to remind us to pay these fees, and we employ an outside firm and rely on our outside counsel to pay these fees due to non-U.S. patent agencies. The U.S. PTO and various foreign governmental patent agencies require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment and other provisions during the patent process. We employ reputable law firms and other professionals to help us comply, and in many cases, an inadvertent lapse can be cured by payment of a late fee or by other means in accordance with the applicable rules, however there are situations in which noncompliance can result in abandonment or lapse of a patent or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. In such an event, competitors might be able to enter the market earlier than would otherwise have been the case.

If our trademarks and trade names are not adequately protected, we may not be able to build name recognition in our markets of interest, and our business may be adversely affected.

We have not yet registered certain of our trademarks in all of our potential markets, including in international markets. If we apply to register these trademarks, our applications may not be allowed for registration, and our registered trademarks may not be maintained or enforced. In addition, opposition or cancellation proceedings may be filed against our trademark applications and registrations, and our trademarks may not survive such proceedings. If we do not secure registrations for our trademarks, we may encounter more difficulty in enforcing them against third parties than we otherwise would. Our registered or unregistered trademarks or trade names may be challenged, infringed, circumvented or declared generic or determined to be infringing on other marks. We may not be able to protect our rights to these trademarks and trade names, which we need to build name recognition by potential partners or customers in our markets of interest. Over the long term, if we are unable to establish name recognition based on our trademarks and trade names, then we may not be able to compete effectively and our business may be adversely affected.

We may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights throughout the world.

The laws of some non-U.S. countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States, and many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending such rights in foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, do not favor the enforcement of patents and other intellectual property protection, particularly those relating to technologies relating to biotechnology, which could make it difficult for us to stop the infringement of our patents. Proceedings to enforce our patent rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial cost and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business. Also, because we have not pursued patents in all countries, there exist jurisdictions where we are not protected against third parties using our proprietary technologies. Further, compulsory licensing laws or limited enforceability of patents against government agencies or contractors in certain countries may limit our remedies or reduce the value of our patents in those countries.

We use third-party software that may be difficult to replace or cause errors or failures of our products that could lead to lost customers or harm to our reputation.

We use software licensed from third parties in our products. In the future, this software may not be available to us on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Any loss of the right to use any of this software could result in delays in the production of our products until equivalent technology is either developed by us, or, if available, is identified, obtained and integrated with our technologies and products, which could harm our business. In

 

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addition, any errors or defects in, or failures of, such third-party software could result in errors or defects in the operation of our products or cause our products to fail, which could harm our business and reputation and be costly to correct. Many of the licensors of the software we use in our products attempt to impose limitations on their liability for such errors, defects or failures. If enforceable, such limitations would require us to bear the liability for such errors, defects or failures, which could harm our reputation and increase our operating costs.

Intellectual property rights do not necessarily address all potential threats to our competitive advantage.

The degree of future protection afforded by our intellectual property rights is uncertain because intellectual property rights have limitations, and may not adequately protect our business, or permit us to maintain our competitive advantage. The following examples are illustrative:

 

   

others may be able to make diagnostic products and technologies that are similar to our products or product candidates but that are not covered by the claims of the patents that we own or have exclusively licensed;

 

   

we or our licensors or future collaborators might not have been the first to make the inventions covered by the issued patent or pending patent application that we own or have exclusively licensed;

 

   

we or our licensors or future collaborators might not have been the first to file patent applications covering certain of our inventions;

 

   

others may independently develop similar or alternative technologies or duplicate any of our technologies without infringing our intellectual property rights;

 

   

it is possible that our pending patent applications will not lead to issued patents;

 

   

issued patents that we own or have exclusively licensed may be held invalid or unenforceable, as a result of legal challenges by our competitors;

 

   

our competitors might conduct research and development activities in countries where we do not have patent rights and then use the information learned from such activities to develop competitive products for sale in our major commercial markets;

 

   

we may not develop additional proprietary technologies that are patentable; and

 

   

the patents of others may have an adverse effect on our business.

Should any of these events occur, they could significantly harm our business, results of operations and prospects.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock

We may fail to maintain the continued listing requirements of The Nasdaq Capital Market, which could result in a delisting of our common stock.

Our common stock is currently listed on The Nasdaq Global Market. To maintain the listing of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Market, we are required to meet certain listing requirements, including maintaining a minimum bid price of $1.00. If we fail to satisfy the continued listing requirements of The Nasdaq Global Market, The Nasdaq Global Market may take steps to delist our common stock, which could have a materially adverse effect on our ability to raise additional funds as well as the price and liquidity of our common stock. Such a delisting would likely have a negative effect on the price of our common stock and would impair our stockholders’ ability to sell or purchase our common stock when they wish to do so. In the event of a delisting, we can provide no assurance that any action taken by us to restore compliance with listing requirements would allow our common stock to become listed again, stabilize the market price or improve the liquidity of our common stock, prevent our common stock from dropping below the Nasdaq minimum bid price requirement, or prevent future non-compliance with The Nasdaq Global Market’s listing requirements.

 

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There can be no assurance that we will be successful in maintaining the listing of our common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market. This could impair the liquidity and market price of our common stock. In addition, the delisting of our common stock from a national exchange could have a material adverse effect on our access to capital markets, and any limitation on market liquidity or reduction in the price of our common stock as a result of that delisting could adversely affect our ability to raise capital on terms acceptable to us, or at all.

Our executive officers, directors and principal stockholders, if they choose to act together, have the ability to control all matters submitted to stockholders for approval.

Our executive officers, directors and stockholders who own more than 5% of our outstanding common stock and their respective affiliates, in the aggregate, hold shares representing a significant amount of our outstanding voting stock. As a result, if these stockholders were to choose to act together, they would be able significantly influence all matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, as well as our management and affairs. For example, these persons, if they choose to act together, would significantly influence the election of directors and approval of any merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets. This concentration of ownership control may:

 

   

delay, defer or prevent a change in control;

 

   

entrench our management and the board of directors; or

 

   

impede a merger, consolidation, takeover or other business combination involving us that other stockholders may desire.

An active trading market for our common stock may not continue to develop or be sustained.

Since our initial listing on The Nasdaq Global Market in August 2014, the trading market in our common stock has been extremely limited. The listing of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Market does not assure that a meaningful, consistent and liquid trading market currently exists. We cannot predict whether a more active market for our common stock will develop or be sustained in the future.

Our executive officers, directors and 5% stockholders and their respective affiliates in the aggregate own a significant percentage of our outstanding shares of common stock, which may adversely affect the liquidity of the trading market for our common stock. If these stockholders continue to hold their shares of common stock, there will be limited trading volume in our common stock, which may make it more difficult for investors to sell their shares and may increase the volatility of our stock price. The absence of an active trading market could adversely affect our stockholders’ ability to sell our common stock at current market prices in short time periods, or possibly at all. Additionally, market visibility for our common stock may be limited and such lack of visibility may have a depressive effect on the market price for our common stock.

The price of our common stock has been volatile and is likely to continue to be volatile, which could result in substantial losses for purchasers of our common stock.

Our stock price has been and is likely to continue be volatile. The stock market in general has experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. As a result of this volatility, you may not be able to sell your common stock at or above the current market price. The market price for our common stock may be influenced by many factors, including:

 

   

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our financial condition and operating results;

 

   

announcements by us relating to the timing of regulatory clearance for our product candidates;

 

   

actual or anticipated changes in our growth rate relative to our competitors;

 

   

competition from existing products or new products that may emerge;

 

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development of new technologies that may address our markets and may make our technology less attractive;

 

   

changes in physician, hospital or healthcare provider practices that may make our products or product candidates less useful;

 

   

announcements by us, our partners or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, collaborations or capital commitments;

 

   

developments or disputes concerning patent applications, issued patents or other proprietary rights;

 

   

the recruitment or departure of key personnel;

 

   

failure to meet or exceed financial estimates and projections of the investment community or that we provide to the public;

 

   

actual or anticipated changes in estimates as to financial results, development timelines or recommendations by securities analysts;

 

   

variations in our financial results or those of companies that are perceived to be similar to us;

 

   

changes to reimbursement levels by commercial third-party payors and government payors, including Medicare, and any announcements relating to reimbursement levels;

 

   

general economic, industry and market conditions; and

 

   

the other factors described in this “Risk Factors” section.

We will continue to incur significant costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management will continue to devote substantial time to compliance initiatives and corporate governance practices.

As a public company, we will incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the listing requirements of The Nasdaq Global Market and other applicable securities rules and regulations impose various requirements on public companies, including establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls and corporate governance practices. Our management and other personnel will need to continue to devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives. Moreover, these rules and regulations will continue to increase our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly.

We continue to be subject to applicable securities rules and regulations. These rules and regulations are often subject to varying interpretations, in many cases due to their lack of specificity, and, as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to disclosure and governance practices.

Pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or Section 404, we are required to furnish a report by our management on our internal control over financial reporting. To achieve compliance with Section 404 within the prescribed period, we are engaged in a process to document and evaluate our internal control over financial reporting, which is both costly and challenging. In this regard, we will need to continue to dedicate internal resources, engage outside consultants and adopt a detailed work plan to assess and document the adequacy of internal control over financial reporting, continue steps to improve control processes as appropriate, validate through testing that controls are functioning as documented and implement a continuous reporting and improvement process for internal control over financial reporting. If we identify one or more material weaknesses, such as the material weakness discussed in this section under the heading “—If we fail to maintain proper and effective internal controls, our ability to produce accurate and timely financial statements could be impaired, which could harm our operating results, our ability to operate our business and investors’ views of us.”, it could result in an adverse reaction in the financial markets due to a loss of confidence in the reliability of our financial statements.

 

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If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they issue an adverse or misleading opinion regarding our stock, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock is influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business. In the event any of the analysts who cover us, or any investors who have taken a short position in our stock, issue an adverse or misleading opinion regarding us, our business model, our intellectual property or our stock performance, or if our regulatory clearance timelines, clinical trial results or operating results fail to meet the expectations of analysts, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fail to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.

Provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws and under Delaware law could make an acquisition of our company, which may be beneficial to our stockholders, more difficult and may prevent attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management.

Provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws may discourage, delay or prevent a merger, acquisition or other change in control of our company that stockholders may consider favorable, including transactions in which you might otherwise receive a premium for your shares. These provisions could also limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock, thereby depressing the market price of our common stock. In addition, because our board of directors is responsible for appointing the members of our management team, these provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult for stockholders to replace members of our board of directors. Among other things, these provisions include those establishing:

 

   

a classified board of directors with three-year staggered terms, which may delay the ability of stockholders to change the membership of a majority of our board of directors;

 

   

no cumulative voting in the election of directors, which limits the ability of minority stockholders to elect director candidates;

 

   

the exclusive right of our board of directors to elect a director to fill a vacancy created by the expansion of the board of directors or the resignation, death or removal of a director, which prevents stockholders from filling vacancies on our board of directors;

 

   

the ability of our board of directors to authorize the issuance of shares of preferred stock and to determine the terms of those shares, including preferences and voting rights, without stockholder approval, which could be used to significantly dilute the ownership of a hostile acquirer;

 

   

the ability of our board of directors to alter our amended and restated bylaws without obtaining stockholder approval;

 

   

the required approval of the holders of at least two-thirds of the shares entitled to vote at an election of directors to adopt, amend or repeal our amended and restated bylaws or repeal the provisions of our restated certificate of incorporation regarding the election and removal of directors;

 

   

a prohibition on stockholder action by written consent, which forces stockholder action to be taken at an annual or special meeting of our stockholders;

 

   

the requirement that a special meeting of stockholders may be called only by the chief executive officer, the president or the board of directors, which may delay the ability of our stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or to take action, including the removal of directors; and

 

   

advance notice procedures that stockholders must comply with in order to nominate candidates to our board of directors or to propose matters to be acted upon at a stockholders’ meeting, which may discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us.

 

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Moreover, because we are incorporated in Delaware, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, which prohibits a person who owns in excess of 15% of our outstanding voting stock from merging or combining with us for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person acquired in excess of 15% of our outstanding voting stock, unless the merger or combination is approved in a prescribed manner.

Because we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our capital stock in the foreseeable future, capital appreciation, if any, will be your sole source of gain.

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain all of our future earnings, if any, to finance the growth and development of our business. Our ability to pay cash dividends is prohibited by the terms of our existing credit facility. Any future debt agreements may also preclude us from paying dividends. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock will be your sole source of gain for the foreseeable future.

We could be subject to securities class action litigation.

In the past, securities class action litigation has often been brought against a company following a decline in the market price of its securities. If we face such litigation, it could result in substantial costs and a diversion of management’s attention and resources, which could harm our business.

If we fail to maintain proper and effective internal controls, our ability to produce accurate and timely financial statements could be impaired, which could harm our operating results, our ability to operate our business and investors’ views of us.

We are required to comply with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, subject to certain exceptions. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires public companies to conduct an annual review and evaluation of their internal controls and to obtain attestations of the effectiveness of internal controls by independent auditors.

If we cannot favorably assess the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, or if we require an attestation report from our independent registered public accounting firm in the future and that firm is unable to provide an unqualified attestation report on the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting, investor confidence and, in turn, our stock price could be materially adversely affected.

Ensuring that we have adequate internal financial and accounting controls and procedures in place so that we can produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis is a costly and time-consuming effort that will need to be evaluated frequently. Our failure to remediate our material weakness in internal controls and thereafter to maintain the effectiveness of our internal controls in accordance with the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act could have a material adverse effect on the tradability of our common stock, which in turn would negatively impact our business. We could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, which could have an adverse effect on the price of our common stock. In addition, if our efforts to comply with new or changed laws, regulations, and standards differ from the activities intended by regulatory or governing bodies due to ambiguities related to practice, regulatory authorities may initiate legal proceedings against us and our business may be harmed.

Management of the Company, with the participation of the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer, evaluated the effectiveness of the design and operation of the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended) as of December 31, 2019. Our disclosure controls and procedures are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in the reports we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported on a timely basis and that such information is accumulated and communicated to management, including the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer, as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding disclosure.

 

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Based on the evaluation of our disclosure controls and procedures as of December 31, 2019, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that, as of such date, the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures were not effective due to a material weakness in our internal control over the quality, frequency and periodic testing of the backup of the Company’s Information Systems (“IT”) data.

We back up IT data monthly to a tape system and stores the tapes offsite in a secure location for use in data recovery such as in response to the cyber-attack described in our Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended September 30, 2019. However, Management determined that the frequency of the backup, monthly, presents a potential loss of data that takes an inordinate amount of time to recover, in this instance preventing us from timely filing our report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended September 30, 2019 without filing an extension. Furthermore, Management determined that semi-annual data recovery testing to a secure environment to insure the integrity and recoverability of the data, were not performed. Because these tests were not performed, we did not detect flaws in the backup data timely and this flawed data required a lengthy data recovery process which delayed our ability to prepare timely and accurate financial statements. Based upon this evaluation, the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer have concluded that the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures were not effective as of December 31, 2019.

We are developing and implementing new control processes and procedures to address this weakness. We have upgraded our tape backup system, we are implementing redundant cloud-based backup processes and we are increasing the frequency of backup to minimize data loss to shorter timeframes of days versus a month. We are implementing a semi-annual data recovery process to a secure environment to ensure data integrity.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $65.0 million from time to time. The amount of proceeds from this offering will depend upon the number of shares of our common stock sold and the market price at which they are sold. There can be no assurance that we will be able to sell any shares under or fully utilize the Equity Distribution Agreement with Canaccord as a source of financing. We intend to use the net proceeds, if any, from this offering for general corporate and working capital purposes, which may include funding commercialization efforts and research and development activities.

The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures will depend on numerous factors, including our commercial efforts, our research and development activities and other factors described under “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, as well as the amount of cash used in our operations. We therefore cannot estimate with certainty the amount of net proceeds to be used for the purposes described above. We may find it necessary or advisable to use the net proceeds for other purposes, and we will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds. Pending the uses described above, we plan to invest the net proceeds from this offering in short- and intermediate-term, interest-bearing obligations, investment-grade instruments, certificates of deposit or direct or guaranteed obligations of the U.S. government.

 

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DIVIDEND POLICY

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock. We intend to retain future earnings, if any, to finance the operation and expansion of our business, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. In addition, the terms of our credit facility limit our ability to pay cash dividends. Any future determination to pay dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on a number of factors, including our results of operations, capital requirements, financial condition, future prospects, contractual arrangements, restrictions imposed by applicable law, any limitations on payments of dividends present in our current and future debt arrangements and other factors the board of directors may deem relevant.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We entered into an equity distribution agreement with Canaccord on July 30, 2019, or the Original Agreement, as amended by Amendment No. 1 to the Equity Distribution Agreement on March 9, 2020, or the Amended Agreement, which we collectively refer to as the Equity Distribution Agreement. In accordance with the terms of the Equity Distribution Agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $65.0 million from time to time through Canaccord, acting as sales agent. We filed the Original Agreement as an exhibit to a Current Report on Form 8-K on July 30, 2019, and filed the Amended Agreement as an exhibit to a Current Report on Form 8-K on March 9, 2020. Both the Original Agreement and the Amended Agreement are incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement is a part. As of March 6, 2020, we have sold 35,360,311 shares of our common stock with an aggregate offering price of approximately $27.1 million, leaving an aggregate offering price of up to approximately $37.9 million remaining under the Equity Distribution Agreement.

Upon delivery of a placement notice and subject to the terms and conditions of the Equity Distribution Agreement, Canaccord may sell our common stock by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act, including sales made directly on The Nasdaq Global Market or any other existing trading market of our common stock. We may instruct Canaccord not to sell common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us from time to time. We or Canaccord may suspend the offering of common stock upon notice and subject to other conditions.

We will pay Canaccord commissions, in cash, for its services in acting as agent in the sale of our common stock. Canaccord will be entitled to compensation at a fixed commission rate equal to 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold pursuant to the Equity Distribution Agreement. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. We have also agreed to reimburse Canaccord for certain specified expenses, including the fees and disbursements of its legal counsel, in an amount up to $50,000 in connection with the Original Agreement and $25,000 in connection with the Amended Agreement, plus up to an additional $5,000 for each quarterly bring-down thereafter. We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding compensation and reimbursement payable to Canaccord under the terms of the Equity Distribution Agreement, will be approximately $275,000.

Settlement for sales of common stock will generally occur on the second business day following the date on which any sales are made, or on some other date that is agreed upon by us and Canaccord in connection with a particular transaction, in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. Sales of our common stock as contemplated in this prospectus supplement will be settled through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and Canaccord may agree upon. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

Canaccord will use its commercially reasonable efforts, consistent with its sales and trading practices, to solicit offers to purchase shares of our common stock under the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Equity Distribution Agreement. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, Canaccord will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Canaccord will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Canaccord against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

The offering of our common stock pursuant to the Equity Distribution Agreement will terminate upon the termination of the Equity Distribution Agreement or as otherwise permitted therein. We and Canaccord may each terminate the Equity Distribution Agreement at any time upon ten days’ prior notice.

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market and trades under the symbol “TTOO.” The transfer agent of our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.

 

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Canaccord and its affiliates have provided, and may in the future provide, various investment banking, commercial banking and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they have received, or may in the future receive, customary fees. To the extent required by Regulation M promulgated under the Exchange Act, Canaccord will not engage in any market making activities involving our common stock while the offering is ongoing under this prospectus supplement.

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus in electronic format may be made available on a website maintained by Canaccord and Canaccord may distribute this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus electronically.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Latham & Watkins LLP will pass upon the validity of the shares of our common stock offered hereby. Canaccord Genuity LLC is being represented in connection with this offering by Cooley LLP, New York, New York.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2018 and for the year ended December 31, 2018 incorporated by reference in this Prospectus have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of BDO USA, LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated herein by reference, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting. The report on the financial statements contains an explanatory paragraph regarding the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern.

Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements at December 31, 2017 and for the two years then ended included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 as set forth in their report thereon (which contains an explanatory paragraph describing conditions that raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern as described in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements) which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s report given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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PROSPECTUS

 

LOGO

$100,000,000

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Units

We may offer and sell up to $100,000,000 in the aggregate of the securities identified above from time to time in one or more offerings. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities.

Each time we offer and sell securities, we will provide a supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the offering and the amounts, prices and terms of the securities. The supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. You should carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement before you invest in any of our securities.

We may offer and sell the securities described in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers, or through a combination of these methods. If any underwriters, dealers or agents are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement between or among them will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. See the sections of this prospectus entitled “About this Prospectus” and “Plan of Distribution” for more information. No securities may be sold without delivery of this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such securities.

INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES RISKS. SEE THE “RISK FACTORS” ON PAGE 5 OF THIS PROSPECTUS AND ANY SIMILAR SECTION CONTAINED IN THE APPLICABLE PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT CONCERNING FACTORS YOU SHOULD CONSIDER BEFORE INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES.

Our common stock is listed on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “TTOO.” On October 12, 2018, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the NASDAQ Global Market was $5.14 per share.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is October 24, 2018.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     2  

THE COMPANY

     4  

RISK FACTORS

     5  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     6  

RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

     7  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     8  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     11  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     19  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     21  

GLOBAL SECURITIES

     22  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     26  

LEGAL MATTERS

     28  

EXPERTS

     28  


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. By using a shelf registration statement, we may sell securities from time to time and in one or more offerings up to a total dollar amount of $100,000,000 as described in this prospectus. Each time that we offer and sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the securities being offered and sold and the specific terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. If there is any inconsistency between the information in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, you should rely on the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, as applicable. Before purchasing any securities, you should carefully read both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement (and any applicable free writing prospectuses), together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.”

We have not authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectuses prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We will not make an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement to this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on its respective cover, that the information appearing in any applicable free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date of that free writing prospectus, and that any information incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, unless we indicate otherwise. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. This prospectus incorporates by reference, and any prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may contain and incorporate by reference, market data and industry statistics and forecasts that are based on independent industry publications and other publicly available information. Although we believe these sources are reliable, we do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this information and we have not independently verified this information. In addition, the market and industry data and forecasts that may be included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or any applicable free writing prospectus may involve estimates, assumptions and other risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Accordingly, investors should not place undue reliance on this information.

When we refer to “T2 Biosystems,” “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company” in this prospectus, we mean T2 Biosystems, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless otherwise specified. When we refer to “you,” we mean the potential holders of the applicable series of securities.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

Available Information

We file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Information filed with the SEC by us can be inspected and copied at the Public Reference Room maintained by the SEC at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may also obtain copies of this information by mail from the Public Reference Room of the SEC at prescribed rates. Further information on the operation of the SEC’s Public Reference Room in Washington, D.C. can be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC also maintains a web site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is http://www.sec.gov.

Our website address is www.t2biosystems.com. The information on our website, however, is not, and should not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus.

This prospectus and any prospectus supplement are part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and do not contain all of the information in the registration statement. The full registration statement may be obtained from the SEC or us, as provided below. Forms of the indenture and other documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are or may be filed as exhibits to the registration statement or documents incorporated by reference in the registration statement. Statements in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters. You may inspect a copy of the registration statement at the SEC’s Public Reference Room in Washington, D.C. or through the SEC’s website, as provided above.

Incorporation by Reference

The SEC’s rules allow us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus, and subsequent information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede that information. Any statement contained in this prospectus or a previously filed document incorporated by reference will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or a subsequently filed document incorporated by reference modifies or replaces that statement.

This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement incorporate by reference the documents set forth below that have previously been filed with the SEC:

 

   

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, filed with the SEC on March 19, 2018.

 

   

The information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K from our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on April 26, 2018.

 

   

Our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2018 and June 30, 2018, filed with the SEC on May 8, 2018 and August 2, 2018, respectively.

 

   

Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on February 5, 2018, March 7, 2018, March  9, 2018, May 17, 2018, May  30, 2018, June 4, 2018, June  12, 2018, June 13, 2018 and September 7, 2018.

 

   

The description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on July 25, 2014 and any amendment or report filed with the SEC for the purpose of updating such description.

 

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All reports and other documents we subsequently file pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, which we refer to as the “Exchange Act” in this prospectus, prior to the termination of this offering, including all such documents we may file with the SEC after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement, but excluding any information furnished to, rather than filed with, the SEC, will also be incorporated by reference into this prospectus and deemed to be part of this prospectus from the date of the filing of such reports and documents.

You may request a free copy of any of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus by writing or telephoning us at the following address:

T2 Biosystems, Inc.

101 Hartwell Avenue

Lexington, MA 02421

Attention: General Counsel

(781) 761-4646

Exhibits to the filings will not be sent, however, unless those exhibits have specifically been incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.

 

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THE COMPANY

We are an in vitro diagnostics company that has developed an innovative and proprietary technology platform that offers a rapid, sensitive and simple alternative to existing diagnostic methodologies. We are using our T2 Magnetic Resonance technology (“T2MR”) to develop a broad set of applications aimed at lowering mortality rates, improving patient outcomes and reducing the cost of healthcare by helping medical professionals make targeted treatment decisions earlier. T2MR enables rapid detection of pathogens, biomarkers and other abnormalities in a variety of unpurified patient sample types, including whole blood, plasma, serum, saliva, sputum and urine, and can detect cellular targets at limits of detection as low as one colony forming unit per milliliter (“CFU/mL”). Our initial development efforts target sepsis and Lyme disease, which are areas of significant unmet medical need in which existing therapies could be more effective with improved diagnostics. On September 22, 2014, we received market clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”) for our first two products, the T2Dx Instrument (the “T2Dx”) and the T2Candida Panel, which have the ability to rapidly identify the five clinically relevant species of Candida, a fungal pathogen known to cause sepsis. On May 24, 2018, we received market clearance from the FDA for our T2Bacteria Panel for the direct detection of bacterial species in human whole blood specimens from patients with suspected bloodstream infections. The T2Bacteria Panel runs on the T2Dx. The FDA-cleared T2Bacteria Panel identifies five of the most common and deadly sepsis-causing species of bacteria: Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. Two additional diagnostic applications in development are called T2Resistance and T2Lyme, which are focused on bacterial sepsis infections and Lyme disease, respectively.

In the United States, we have built a direct sales force that is primarily targeting the top 1,200 hospitals with the highest concentration of patients at risk for sepsis-related infections. Internationally, we have primarily partnered with distributors that target large hospitals in their respective international markets. We expect that existing reimbursement codes will support our sepsis and Lyme disease product candidates, and that the anticipated economic savings associated with our sepsis products will be realized directly by hospitals.

We own various U.S. federal trademark registrations and applications, and unregistered trademarks and service marks, including T2 Biosystems®, T2MR®, T2Dx®, T2Candida®, T2Bacteria™, and T2Lyme™.

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in 2006. Our principal executive offices are located at 101 Hartwell Ave., Lexington, MA 02421 and our telephone number is (781) 761-4646.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of (1) December 31, 2019, (2) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion, (3) the date, as of the end of the fiscal year, on which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates was at least $700 million as of the last business day of the prior quarter ended June 30th, and (4) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investment in any securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement involves risks. You should carefully consider the risk factors incorporated by reference to our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K we file after the date of this prospectus, and all other information contained or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act, and the risk factors and other information contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus before acquiring any of such securities. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES1

The following table sets forth (in thousands), for each of the periods presented, our ratio of earnings to fixed charges and our coverage deficiency. You should read this table in connection with the financial statements and notes incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

 

     Year Ended December 31,      Six Months
Ended
June 30,
 
     2017      2016      2015      2018  

Earnings

   $ (53,521    $ (50,706    $ (43,323    $ (23,270

Ratio of earnings to fixed charges (1)

     N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A  

Coverage deficiency

   $ 62,428      $ 54,804      $ 45,290      $ 25,237  

 

  (1)

Our earnings were insufficient to cover fixed charges for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2016 and 2017 and for the six months ended June 30, 2018. Accordingly, we are unable to disclose a ratio of earnings to fixed charges for such periods.

For purposes of calculating the ratios in the table above, earnings consist of net loss before income taxes plus fixed charges. “Fixed charges” include interest expense related to notes payable and capital lease obligations.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following description of our capital stock is not complete and may not contain all the information you should consider before investing in our capital stock. This description is summarized from, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, our certificate of incorporation, which has been publicly filed with the SEC. See “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.”

Our authorized capital stock consists of:

 

   

200,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.001 par value; and

 

   

10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.001 par value.

Common Stock

Voting Rights and Election of Directors

Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters submitted to a vote of shareholders and do not have any cumulative voting rights. An election of directors by our stockholders is determined by a plurality of the votes cast by the stockholders entitled to vote in the election. Subject to the supermajority votes for some matters, other matters are decided by the affirmative vote of our stockholders having a majority in voting power of the votes cast by the stockholders present or represented and voting on such matter. Our directors may be removed only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds in voting power of the outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote thereon. In addition, the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds in voting power of the outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote thereon is required to amend or repeal, or to adopt any provision inconsistent with, several of the provisions of our restated certificate of incorporation.

Registration Rights

We have entered into a fourth amended and restated registration rights agreement, dated as of March 22, 2013, as amended on July 21, 2014, with certain of our stockholders. These holders have the right to require us to register under the Securities Act certain shares they acquired in private placements prior to our initial public offering, under specified circumstances as described below. After registration pursuant to these rights, these shares will become freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act.

Demand Registration Rights. If at any time the holders of at least 30% of the registrable securities request in writing that we effect a registration of an aggregate amount of at least $10,000,000 with respect to all or part of such registrable securities then outstanding, we may be required to register their shares. We are obligated to effect at most two registrations in response to these demand registration rights. If the holders requesting registration intend to distribute their shares by means of an underwriting, the managing underwriter of such offering will have the right to limit the numbers of shares to be underwritten for reasons related to the marketing of the shares.

Piggyback Registration Rights. If at any time we propose to register any shares of our common stock under the Securities Act, subject to certain exceptions, the holders of registrable securities will be entitled to notice of the registration and to include their shares of registrable securities in the registration. If our proposed registration involves an underwriting, the managing underwriter of such offering will have the right to limit the number of shares to be underwritten for reasons related to the marketing of the shares.

Form S-3 Registration Rights. If at any time the holders of registrable securities request in writing that we effect a registration on Form S-3 with respect to registrable securities at an aggregate price to the public in the offering of at least $3,000,000, we will be required to effect such registration; provided, however, that we will not be required to effect such a registration if, within a given six-month period, we have already effected one registration on Form S-3 for the holders of registrable securities.

 

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Expenses. Ordinarily, other than underwriting discounts and commissions, we will be required to pay all expenses incurred by us related to any registration effected pursuant to the exercise of these registration rights. These expenses may include all registration and filing fees, printing expenses, fees and disbursements of our counsel, reasonable fees and disbursements of a counsel for the selling security holders and blue sky fees and expenses.

Termination of Registration Rights. The registration rights terminate upon the earlier of August 6, 2019 or, with respect to the registration rights of an individual holder, when the holder can sell all of such holder’s registrable securities in a 90-day period without restriction under Rule 144 of the Securities Act.

Other Rights and Preferences

Our common stock has no preemptive, subscription, redemption or conversion rights or sinking fund provisions.

Liquidation

In the event of our liquidation or dissolution, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately our net assets available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any outstanding preferred stock.

Fully Paid and Non-Assessable

All outstanding shares of common stock are fully paid and non-assessable.

Listing

Our common stock is listed on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “TTOO.” On October 12, 2018, the closing price for our common stock, as reported on the NASDAQ Global Market, was $5.14 per share.

Transfer Agent

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.

Dividend

Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive proportionately any dividends as may be declared by the board of directors, subject to any preferential dividend rights of any outstanding preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future. The Company has not paid cash dividends on any of its shares of capital stock.

Preferred Stock

Our board of directors is authorized to direct us to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series without shareholder approval. Our board of directors has the discretion to determine the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions, including voting rights, dividend rights, conversion rights, redemption privileges and liquidation preferences, of each series of preferred stock.

The purpose of authorizing our board of directors to issue preferred stock and determine its rights and preferences is to eliminate delays associated with a stockholder vote on specific issuances. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions, future financings and other corporate purposes, could have the effect of making it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or could discourage a third party from seeking to acquire, a majority of our outstanding voting stock.

 

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Anti-Takeover Effects of Delaware Law

We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. Under Section 203, we would generally be prohibited from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years following the time that this stockholder became an interested stockholder unless:

 

   

prior to this time, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

 

   

upon consummation of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers, and by employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or

 

   

at or subsequent to such time, the business combination is approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.

Under Section 203, a “business combination” includes:

 

   

any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;

 

   

any sale, transfer, pledge or other disposition of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation involving the interested stockholder;

 

   

any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder, subject to limited exceptions;

 

   

any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock of any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; or

 

   

the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation.

In general, Section 203 defines an interested stockholder as an entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by such entity or person.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, summarizes certain general terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. When we offer to sell a particular series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of the series in a supplement to this prospectus. We will also indicate in the supplement to what extent the general terms and provisions described in this prospectus apply to a particular series of debt securities.

Subject to consents required from lenders and any other pertinent obligations and limitations under our existing debt facilities, we may issue debt securities either separately, or together with, or upon the conversion or exercise of or in exchange for, other securities described in this prospectus. Debt securities may be our senior, senior subordinated or subordinated obligations and, unless otherwise specified in a supplement to this prospectus, the debt securities will be our direct, unsecured obligations and may be issued in one or more series.

The debt securities will be issued under an indenture between us and a third-party trustee to be identified therein. We have summarized select portions of the indenture below. The summary is not complete. The form of the indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement and you should read the indenture for provisions that may be important to you. In the summary below, we have included references to the section numbers of the indenture so that you can easily locate these provisions. Capitalized terms used in the summary and not defined herein have the meanings specified in the indenture.

General

The terms of each series of debt securities will be established by or pursuant to a resolution of our board of directors and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a resolution of our board of directors, in an officer’s certificate or by a supplemental indenture. (Section 2.2) The particular terms of each series of debt securities will be described in a prospectus supplement relating to such series (including any pricing supplement or term sheet).

We can issue an unlimited amount of debt securities under the indenture that may be in one or more series with the same or various maturities, at par, at a premium, or at a discount. (Section 2.1) We will set forth in a prospectus supplement (including any pricing supplement or term sheet) relating to any series of debt securities being offered, the aggregate principal amount and the following terms of the debt securities, if applicable:

 

   

the title and ranking of the debt securities (including the terms of any subordination provisions);

 

   

the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount) at which we will sell the debt securities;

 

   

any limit on the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;

 

   

the date or dates on which the principal of the securities of the series is payable;

 

   

the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or the method used to determine the rate or rates (including any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the debt securities will bear interest, the date or dates from which interest will accrue, the date or dates on which interest will commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;

 

   

the place or places where principal of, and interest, if any, on the debt securities will be payable (and the method of such payment), where the securities of such series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange, and where notices and demands to us in respect of the debt securities may be delivered;

 

   

the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which we may redeem the debt securities;

 

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any obligation we have to redeem or purchase the debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a holder of debt securities and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and in the terms and conditions upon which securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

   

the dates on which and the price or prices at which we will repurchase debt securities at the option of the holders of debt securities and other detailed terms and provisions of these repurchase obligations;

 

   

the denominations in which the debt securities will be issued, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be issued in the form of certificated debt securities or global debt securities;

 

   

the portion of principal amount of the debt securities payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity date, if other than the principal amount;

 

   

the currency of denomination of the debt securities, which may be United States Dollars or any foreign currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

 

   

the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of principal of, premium and interest on the debt securities will be made;

 

   

if payments of principal of, premium or interest on the debt securities will be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which the debt securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to these payments will be determined;

 

   

the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities will be determined, if these amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

 

   

any provisions relating to any security provided for the debt securities;

 

   

any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities and any change in the acceleration provisions described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;

 

   

any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;

 

   

any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to the debt securities;

 

   

the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of such series, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price and period, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange;

 

   

any other terms of the debt securities, which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of the indenture as it applies to that series, including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of the securities; and

 

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whether any of our direct or indirect subsidiaries will guarantee the debt securities of that series, including the terms of subordination, if any, of such guarantees. (Section 2.2)

We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.

If we denominate the purchase price of any of the debt securities in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, or if the principal of and any premium and interest on any series of debt securities is payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, we will provide you with information on the restrictions, elections, general tax considerations, specific terms and other information with respect to that issue of debt securities and such foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Transfer and Exchange

Each debt security will be represented by either one or more global securities registered in the name of The Depository Trust Company, or the Depositary, or a nominee of the Depositary (we will refer to any debt security represented by a global debt security as a “book-entry debt security”), or a certificate issued in definitive registered form (we will refer to any debt security represented by a certificated security as a “certificated debt security”) as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Except as set forth under the heading “Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System” below, book-entry debt securities will not be issuable in certificated form.

Certificated Debt Securities. You may transfer or exchange certificated debt securities at any office we maintain for this purpose in accordance with the terms of the indenture. (Section 2.4) No service charge will be made for any transfer or exchange of certificated debt securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with a transfer or exchange. (Section 2.7)

You may effect the transfer of certificated debt securities and the right to receive the principal of, premium and interest on certificated debt securities only by surrendering the certificate representing those certificated debt securities and either reissuance by us or the trustee of the certificate to the new holder or the issuance by us or the trustee of a new certificate to the new holder.

Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System. Each global debt security representing book-entry debt securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, the Depositary, and registered in the name of the Depositary or a nominee of the Depositary. Please see “Global Securities.”

Covenants

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement any restrictive covenants applicable to any issue of debt securities. (Article IV)

No Protection in the Event of a Change of Control

Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions which may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control) which could adversely affect holders of debt securities.

 

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Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets

We may not consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of our properties and assets to any person (a “successor person”) unless:

 

   

we are the surviving corporation or the successor person (if other than T2 Biosystems) is a corporation organized and validly existing under the laws of any U.S. domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes our obligations on the debt securities and under the indenture; and

 

   

immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing.

Notwithstanding the above, any of our subsidiaries may consolidate with, merge into or transfer all or part of its properties to us. (Section 5.1)

Events of Default

“Event of Default” means with respect to any series of debt securities, any of the following:

 

   

default in the payment of any interest upon any debt security of that series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of the payment is deposited by us with the trustee or with a paying agent prior to the expiration of the 30-day period);

 

   

default in the payment of principal of any security of that series at its maturity;

 

   

default in the performance or breach of any other covenant or warranty by us in the indenture (other than a covenant or warranty that has been included in the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities other than that series), which default continues uncured for a period of 60 days after we receive written notice from the trustee or T2 Biosystems and the trustee receive written notice from the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series as provided in the indenture;

 

   

certain voluntary or involuntary events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of T2 Biosystems;

 

   

any other Event of Default provided with respect to debt securities of that series that is described in the applicable prospectus supplement. (Section 6.1)

No Event of Default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an Event of Default with respect to any other series of debt securities. (Section 6.1) The occurrence of certain Events of Default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain indebtedness of ours or our subsidiaries outstanding from time to time.

We will provide the trustee written notice of any Default or Event of Default within 30 days of becoming aware of the occurrence of such Default or Event of Default, which notice will describe in reasonable detail the status of such Default or Event of Default and what action we are taking or propose to take in respect thereof. (Section 6.1)

If an Event of Default with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may, by a notice in writing to us (and to the trustee if given by the holders), declare to be due and payable immediately the principal of (or, if the debt securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all debt securities of that series. In the case of an Event of Default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, the principal (or such specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all outstanding debt securities will become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the trustee or any holder of outstanding debt securities. At any time after a declaration of acceleration with respect to debt securities of any series has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may rescind and annul the acceleration if all Events of Default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the indenture. (Section 6.2) We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an Event of Default.

 

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The indenture provides that the trustee may refuse to perform any duty or exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture unless the trustee receives indemnity satisfactory to it against any cost, liability or expense which might be incurred by it in performing such duty or exercising such right or power. (Section 7.1(e)) Subject to certain rights of the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to the debt securities of that series. (Section 6.12)

No holder of any debt security of any series will have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any remedy under the indenture, unless:

 

   

that holder has previously given to the trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to debt securities of that series; and

 

   

the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and offered indemnity or security satisfactory to the trustee, to the trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee, and the trustee has not received from the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series a direction inconsistent with that request and has failed to institute the proceeding within 60 days. (Section 6.7)

Notwithstanding any other provision in the indenture, the holder of any debt security will have an absolute and unconditional right to receive payment of the principal of, premium and any interest on that debt security on or after the due dates expressed in that debt security and to institute suit for the enforcement of payment. (Section 6.8)

The indenture requires us, within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year, to furnish to the trustee a statement as to compliance with the indenture. (Section 4.3) If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the securities of any series and if it is known to a responsible officer of the trustee, the trustee shall mail to each security holder of the securities of that series notice of a Default or Event of Default within 90 days after it occurs or, if later, after a responsible officer of the trustee has knowledge of such Default or Event of Default. The indenture provides that the trustee may withhold notice to the holders of debt securities of any series of any Default or Event of Default (except in payment on any debt securities of that series) with respect to debt securities of that series if the trustee determines in good faith that withholding notice is in the interest of the holders of those debt securities. (Section 7.5)

Modification and Waiver

We and the trustee may modify, amend or supplement the indenture or the debt securities of any series without the consent of any holder of any debt security:

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency;

 

   

to comply with covenants in the indenture described above under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets”;

 

   

to provide for uncertificated securities in addition to or in place of certificated securities;

 

   

to add guarantees with respect to debt securities of any series or secure debt securities of any series;

 

   

to surrender any of our rights or powers under the indenture;

 

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to add covenants or events of default for the benefit of the holders of debt securities of any series;

 

   

to comply with the applicable procedures of the applicable depositary;

 

   

to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder of debt securities;

 

   

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of debt securities of any series as permitted by the indenture;

 

   

to effect the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the debt securities of any series and to add to or change any of the provisions of the indenture to provide for or facilitate administration by more than one trustee; or

 

   

to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act. (Section 9.1)

We may also modify and amend the indenture with the consent of the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series affected by the modifications or amendments. We may not make any modification or amendment without the consent of the holders of each affected debt security then outstanding if that amendment will:

 

   

reduce the amount of debt securities whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver;

 

   

reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any debt security;

 

   

reduce the principal of or premium on or change the fixed maturity of any debt security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation with respect to any series of debt securities;

 

   

reduce the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity;

 

   

waive a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or interest on any debt security (except a rescission of acceleration of the debt securities of any series by the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of that series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

 

   

make the principal of or premium or interest on any debt security payable in currency other than that stated in the debt security;

 

   

make any change to certain provisions of the indenture relating to, among other things, the right of holders of debt securities to receive payment of the principal of, premium and interest on those debt securities and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment and to waivers or amendments; or

 

   

waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt security. (Section 9.3)

Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture. (Section 9.2) The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or any interest on any debt security of that series; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration. (Section 6.13)

 

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Defeasance of Debt Securities and Certain Covenants in Certain Circumstances

Legal Defeasance. The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, we may be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of the debt securities of any series (subject to certain exceptions). We will be so discharged upon the irrevocable deposit with the trustee, in trust, of money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. Dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money or U.S. government obligations in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal, premium and interest on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities.

This discharge may occur only if, among other things, we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal Revenue Service a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable United States federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred. (Section 8.3)

Defeasance of Certain Covenants. The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, upon compliance with certain conditions:

 

   

we may omit to comply with the covenant described under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets” and certain other covenants set forth in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants which may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement; and

 

   

any omission to comply with those covenants will not constitute a Default or an Event of Default with respect to the debt securities of that series (“covenant defeasance”).

The conditions include:

 

   

depositing with the trustee money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. Dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of, premium and interest on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities; and

 

   

delivering to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and related covenant defeasance and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit and related covenant defeasance had not occurred. (Section 8.4)

No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees or Stockholders

None of our past, present or future directors, officers, employees or stockholders, as such, will have any liability for any of our obligations under the debt securities or the indenture or for any claim based on, or in respect or by reason of, such obligations or their creation. By accepting a debt security, each holder waives and releases all such liability. This waiver and release is part of the consideration for the issue of the debt securities. However, this waiver and release may not be effective to waive liabilities under U.S. federal securities laws, and it is the view of the SEC that such a waiver is against public policy.

 

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Governing Law

The indenture and the debt securities, including any claim or controversy arising out of or relating to the indenture or the securities, will be governed by the laws of the State of New York.

The indenture will provide that we, the trustee and the holders of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably waive, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, any and all right to trial by jury in any legal proceeding arising out of or relating to the indenture, the debt securities or the transactions contemplated thereby.

The indenture will provide that any legal suit, action or proceeding arising out of or based upon the indenture or the transactions contemplated thereby may be instituted in the federal courts of the United States of America located in the City of New York or the courts of the State of New York in each case located in the City of New York, and we, the trustee and the holder of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably submit to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of such courts in any such suit, action or proceeding. The indenture will further provide that service of any process, summons, notice or document by mail (to the extent allowed under any applicable statute or rule of court) to such party’s address set forth in the indenture will be effective service of process for any suit, action or other proceeding brought in any such court. The indenture will further provide that we, the trustee and the holders of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably and unconditionally waive any objection to the laying of venue of any suit, action or other proceeding in the courts specified above and irrevocably and unconditionally waive and agree not to plead or claim any such suit, action or other proceeding has been brought in an inconvenient forum. (Section 10.10)

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

We may issue warrants for the purchase of shares of our common stock or preferred stock or of debt securities. We may issue warrants independently or together with other securities, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from any offered securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and the investors or a warrant agent. The following summary of material provisions of the warrants and warrant agreements are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the warrant agreement and warrant certificate applicable to a particular series of warrants. The terms of any warrants offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants.

The particular terms of any issue of warrants will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to the issue. Those terms may include:

 

   

the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon the exercise of warrants to purchase such shares and the price at which such number of shares may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

   

the designation, stated value and terms (including, without limitation, liquidation, dividend, conversion and voting rights) of the series of preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of warrants to purchase preferred stock;

 

   

the principal amount of debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of a debt warrant and the exercise price for the warrants, which may be payable in cash, securities or other property;

 

   

the date, if any, on and after which the warrants and the related debt securities, preferred stock or common stock will be separately transferable;

 

   

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and the date on which the right will expire;

 

   

United States Federal income tax consequences applicable to the warrants; and

 

   

any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures, and limitations relating to the exchange, exercise and settlement of the warrants.

Holders of equity warrants will not be entitled:

 

   

to vote, consent or receive dividends;

 

   

to receive notice as stockholders with respect to any meeting of stockholders for the election of our directors or any other matter; or

 

   

to exercise any rights as stockholders of T2 Biosystems.

Each warrant will entitle its holder to purchase the principal amount of debt securities or the number of shares of preferred stock or common stock at the exercise price set forth in, or calculable as set forth in, the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.

 

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A holder of warrant certificates may exchange them for new warrant certificates of different denominations, present them for registration of transfer and exercise them at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. Until any warrants to purchase debt securities are exercised, the holder of the warrants will not have any rights of holders of the debt securities that can be purchased upon exercise, including any rights to receive payments of principal, premium or interest on the underlying debt securities or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture. Until any warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock are exercised, the holders of the warrants will not have any rights of holders of the underlying common stock or preferred stock, including any rights to receive dividends or payments upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding up on the common stock or preferred stock, if any.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units consisting of any combination of the other types of securities offered under this prospectus in one or more series. We may evidence each series of units by unit certificates that we will issue under a separate agreement. We may enter into unit agreements with a unit agent. Each unit agent will be a bank or trust company that we select. We will indicate the name and address of the unit agent in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of units.

The following description, together with the additional information included in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the general features of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. You should read any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you related to the series of units being offered, as well as the complete unit agreements that contain the terms of the units. Specific unit agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions and we will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from another report that we file with the SEC, the form of each unit agreement relating to units offered under this prospectus.

If we offer any units, certain terms of that series of units will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, without limitation, the following, as applicable:

 

   

the title of the series of units;

 

   

identification and description of the separate constituent securities comprising the units;

 

   

the price or prices at which the units will be issued;

 

   

the date, if any, on and after which the constituent securities comprising the units will be separately transferable;

 

   

a discussion of certain United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the units; and

 

   

any other terms of the units and their constituent securities.

 

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GLOBAL SECURITIES

Book-Entry, Delivery and Form

Unless we indicate differently in any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, the securities initially will be issued in book-entry form and represented by one or more global notes or global securities, or, collectively, global securities. The global securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, as depositary, or DTC, and registered in the name of Cede & Co., the nominee of DTC. Unless and until it is exchanged for individual certificates evidencing securities under the limited circumstances described below, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depositary to its nominee or by the nominee to the depositary, or by the depositary or its nominee to a successor depositary or to a nominee of the successor depositary.

DTC has advised us that it is:

 

   

a limited-purpose trust company organized under the New York Banking Law;

 

   

a “banking organization” within the meaning of the New York Banking Law;

 

   

a member of the Federal Reserve System;

 

   

a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the New York Uniform Commercial Code; and

 

   

a “clearing agency” registered pursuant to the provisions of Section 17A of the Exchange Act.

DTC holds securities that its participants deposit with DTC. DTC also facilitates the settlement among its participants of securities transactions, such as transfers and pledges, in deposited securities through electronic computerized book-entry changes in participants’ accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. “Direct participants” in DTC include securities brokers and dealers, including underwriters, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other organizations. DTC is a wholly owned subsidiary of The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation, or DTCC. DTCC is the holding company for DTC, National Securities Clearing Corporation and Fixed Income Clearing Corporation, all of which are registered clearing agencies. DTCC is owned by the users of its regulated subsidiaries. Access to the DTC system is also available to others, which we sometimes refer to as indirect participants, that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a direct participant, either directly or indirectly. The rules applicable to DTC and its participants are on file with the SEC.

Purchases of securities under the DTC system must be made by or through direct participants, which will receive a credit for the securities on DTC’s records. The ownership interest of the actual purchaser of a security, which we sometimes refer to as a beneficial owner, is in turn recorded on the direct and indirect participants’ records. Beneficial owners of securities will not receive written confirmation from DTC of their purchases. However, beneficial owners are expected to receive written confirmations providing details of their transactions, as well as periodic statements of their holdings, from the direct or indirect participants through which they purchased securities. Transfers of ownership interests in global securities are to be accomplished by entries made on the books of participants acting on behalf of beneficial owners. Beneficial owners will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in the global securities, except under the limited circumstances described below.

To facilitate subsequent transfers, all global securities deposited by direct participants with DTC will be registered in the name of DTC’s partnership nominee, Cede & Co., or such other name as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. The deposit of securities with DTC and their registration in the name of Cede & Co. or such other nominee will not change the beneficial ownership of the securities. DTC has no knowledge of the actual beneficial owners of the securities. DTC’s records reflect only the identity of the direct participants to whose accounts the securities are credited, which may or may not be the beneficial owners. The participants are responsible for keeping account of their holdings on behalf of their customers.

So long as the securities are in book-entry form, you will receive payments and may transfer securities only through the facilities of the depositary and its direct and indirect participants. We will maintain an office or agency in the location specified in the prospectus supplement for the applicable securities, where notices and demands in respect of the securities and the indenture may be delivered to us and where certificated securities may be surrendered for payment, registration of transfer or exchange.

 

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Conveyance of notices and other communications by DTC to direct participants, by direct participants to indirect participants and by direct participants and indirect participants to beneficial owners will be governed by arrangements among them, subject to any legal requirements in effect from time to time.

Redemption notices will be sent to DTC. If less than all of the securities of a particular series are being redeemed, DTC’s practice is to determine by lot the amount of the interest of each direct participant in the securities of such series to be redeemed.

Neither DTC nor Cede & Co. (or such other DTC nominee) will consent or vote with respect to the securities. Under its usual procedures, DTC will mail an omnibus proxy to us as soon as possible after the record date. The omnibus proxy assigns the consenting or voting rights of Cede & Co. to those direct participants to whose accounts the securities of such series are credited on the record date, identified in a listing attached to the omnibus proxy.

So long as securities are in book-entry form, we will make payments on those securities to the depositary or its nominee, as the registered owner of such securities, by wire transfer of immediately available funds. If securities are issued in definitive certificated form under the limited circumstances described below and unless if otherwise provided in the description of the applicable securities herein or in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will have the option of making payments by check mailed to the addresses of the persons entitled to payment or by wire transfer to bank accounts in the United States designated in writing to the applicable trustee or other designated party at least 15 days before the applicable payment date by the persons entitled to payment, unless a shorter period is satisfactory to the applicable trustee or other designated party.

Redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments on the securities will be made to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. DTC’s practice is to credit direct participants’ accounts upon DTC’s receipt of funds and corresponding detail information from us on the payment date in accordance with their respective holdings shown on DTC records. Payments by participants to beneficial owners will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is the case with securities held for the account of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name.” Those payments will be the responsibility of participants and not of DTC or us, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements in effect from time to time. Payment of redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC, is our responsibility, disbursement of payments to direct participants is the responsibility of DTC, and disbursement of payments to the beneficial owners is the responsibility of direct and indirect participants.

Except under the limited circumstances described below, purchasers of securities will not be entitled to have securities registered in their names and will not receive physical delivery of securities. Accordingly, each beneficial owner must rely on the procedures of DTC and its participants to exercise any rights under the securities and the indenture.

The laws of some jurisdictions may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of securities in definitive form. Those laws may impair the ability to transfer or pledge beneficial interests in securities.

DTC may discontinue providing its services as securities depositary with respect to the securities at any time by giving reasonable notice to us. Under such circumstances, in the event that a successor depositary is not obtained, securities certificates are required to be printed and delivered.

As noted above, beneficial owners of a particular series of securities generally will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in those securities. However, if:

 

   

DTC notifies us that it is unwilling or unable to continue as a depositary for the global security or securities representing such series of securities or if DTC ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act at a time when it is required to be registered and a successor depositary is not appointed within 90 days of the notification to us or of our becoming aware of DTC’s ceasing to be so registered, as the case may be;

 

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we determine, in our sole discretion, not to have such securities represented by one or more global securities; or

 

   

an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing with respect to such series of securities,

we will prepare and deliver certificates for such securities in exchange for beneficial interests in the global securities. Any beneficial interest in a global security that is exchangeable under the circumstances described in the preceding sentence will be exchangeable for securities in definitive certificated form registered in the names that the depositary directs. It is expected that these directions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from its participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global securities.

Euroclear and Clearstream

If so provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, you may hold interests in a global security through Clearstream Banking S.A., which we refer to as “Clearstream,” or Euroclear Bank S.A./N.V., as operator of the Euroclear System, which we refer to as “Euroclear,” either directly if you are a participant in Clearstream or Euroclear or indirectly through organizations which are participants in Clearstream or Euroclear. Clearstream and Euroclear will hold interests on behalf of their respective participants through customers’ securities accounts in the names of Clearstream and Euroclear, respectively, on the books of their respective U.S. depositaries, which in turn will hold such interests in customers’ securities accounts in such depositaries’ names on DTC’s books.

Clearstream and Euroclear are securities clearance systems in Europe. Clearstream and Euroclear hold securities for their respective participating organizations and facilitate the clearance and settlement of securities transactions between those participants through electronic book-entry changes in their accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of certificates.

Payments, deliveries, transfers, exchanges, notices and other matters relating to beneficial interests in global securities owned through Euroclear or Clearstream must comply with the rules and procedures of those systems. Transactions between participants in Euroclear or Clearstream, on one hand, and other participants in DTC, on the other hand, are also subject to DTC’s rules and procedures.

Investors will be able to make and receive through Euroclear and Clearstream payments, deliveries, transfers and other transactions involving any beneficial interests in global securities held through those systems only on days when those systems are open for business. Those systems may not be open for business on days when banks, brokers and other institutions are open for business in the United States.

Cross-market transfers between participants in DTC, on the one hand, and participants in Euroclear or Clearstream, on the other hand, will be effected through DTC in accordance with the DTC’s rules on behalf of Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, by their respective U.S. depositaries; however, such cross-market transactions will require delivery of instructions to Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, by the counterparty in such system in accordance with the rules and procedures and within the established deadlines (European time) of such system. Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, will, if the transaction meets its settlement requirements, deliver instructions to its U.S. depositary to take action to effect final settlement on its behalf by delivering or receiving interests in the global securities through DTC, and making or receiving payment in accordance with normal procedures for same-day fund settlement. Participants in Euroclear or Clearstream may not deliver instructions directly to their respective U.S. depositaries.

Due to time zone differences, the securities accounts of a participant in Euroclear or Clearstream purchasing an interest in a global security from a direct participant in DTC will be credited, and any such crediting will be reported to the relevant participant in Euroclear or Clearstream, during the securities settlement processing day (which must be a business day for Euroclear or Clearstream) immediately following the settlement date of DTC. Cash received in Euroclear or Clearstream as a result of sales of interests in a global security by or through a participant in Euroclear or Clearstream to a direct participant in DTC will be received with value on the settlement date of DTC but will be available in the relevant Euroclear or Clearstream cash account only as of the business day for Euroclear or Clearstream following DTC’s settlement date.

 

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Other

The information in this section of this prospectus concerning DTC, Clearstream, Euroclear and their respective book-entry systems has been obtained from sources that we believe to be reliable, but we do not take responsibility for this information. This information has been provided solely as a matter of convenience. The rules and procedures of DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear are solely within the control of those organizations and could change at any time. Neither we nor the trustee nor any agent of ours or of the trustee has any control over those entities and none of us takes any responsibility for their activities. You are urged to contact DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear or their respective participants directly to discuss those matters. In addition, although we expect that DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear will perform the foregoing procedures, none of them is under any obligation to perform or continue to perform such procedures and such procedures may be discontinued at any time. Neither we nor any agent of ours will have any responsibility for the performance or nonperformance by DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear or their respective participants of these or any other rules or procedures governing their respective operations.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell the securities from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods or through underwriters or dealers, through agents and/or directly to one or more purchasers. The securities may be distributed from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

   

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

   

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

   

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

   

at negotiated prices.

Each time that we sell securities covered by this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement or supplements that will describe the method of distribution and set forth the terms and conditions of the offering of such securities, including the offering price of the securities and the proceeds to us, if applicable.

Offers to purchase the securities being offered by this prospectus may be solicited directly. Agents may also be designated to solicit offers to purchase the securities from time to time. Any agent involved in the offer or sale of our securities will be identified in a prospectus supplement.

If a dealer is utilized in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, the securities will be sold to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale.

If an underwriter is utilized in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, an underwriting agreement will be executed with the underwriter at the time of sale and the name of any underwriter will be provided in the prospectus supplement that the underwriter will use to make resales of the securities to the public. In connection with the sale of the securities, we or the purchasers of securities for whom the underwriter may act as agent, may compensate the underwriter in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions. The underwriter may sell the securities to or through dealers, and those dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters and/or commissions from the purchasers for which they may act as agent. Unless otherwise indicated in a prospectus supplement, an agent will be acting on a best efforts basis and a dealer will purchase securities as a principal, and may then resell the securities at varying prices to be determined by the dealer.

Any compensation paid to underwriters, dealers or agents in connection with the offering of the securities, and any discounts, concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers will be provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. Underwriters, dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions. We may enter into agreements to indemnify underwriters, dealers and agents against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments they may be required to make in respect thereof and to reimburse those persons for certain expenses.

Any common stock will be listed on the NASDAQ Global Market, but any other securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. To facilitate the offering of securities, certain persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities. This may include over-allotments or short sales of the securities, which involve the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than were sold to them. In these circumstances, these persons would cover such over-allotments or short positions by making purchases in the open market or by exercising their over-allotment option, if any. In addition, these persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing securities in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed if securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. These transactions may be discontinued at any time.

 

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We may engage in at the market offerings into an existing trading market in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. In addition, we may enter into derivative transactions with third parties, or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement so indicates, in connection with those derivatives, the third parties may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including in short sale transactions. If so, the third party may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of stock, and may use securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of stock. The third party in such sale transactions will be an underwriter and, if not identified in this prospectus, will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement (or a post-effective amendment). In addition, we may otherwise loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or other third party that in turn may sell the securities short using this prospectus and an applicable prospectus supplement. Such financial institution or other third party may transfer its economic short position to investors in our securities or in connection with a concurrent offering of other securities.

The specific terms of any lock-up provisions in respect of any given offering will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with us, or perform services for us, in the ordinary course of business for which they receive compensation.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Latham & Watkins LLP will pass upon certain legal matters relating to the issuance and sale of the securities offered hereby on behalf of T2 Biosystems. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us or any underwriters, dealers or agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.

EXPERTS

Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, as set forth in their report thereon (which contains an explanatory paragraph describing conditions that raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern as described in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements), which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

 

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LOGO

T2 Biosystems, Inc.

Up to $65,000,000

Common Stock

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

 

Canaccord Genuity

 

 

 

 

 

March 9, 2020

 

 

 

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