As filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission on May 7, 2024

Registration No. 333-           

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, DC 20549

 

FORM F-3

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

Ostin Technology Group Co., Ltd.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Not Applicable

(Translation of registrant’s name into English)

 

Cayman Islands   Not Applicable
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

 

Building 2, 101

1 Kechuang Road

Qixia District, Nanjing

Jiangsu Province, China 210046

Tel: +86 (25) 58595234

(Address and telephone number of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

Cogency Global Inc.

122 East 42nd Street, 18th Floor

New York, NY 10168

(Name, address, and telephone number of agent for service)

 

Copies of Correspondence to:

 

William S. Rosenstadt, Esq.

Mengyi “Jason” Ye, Esq.

Ortoli Rosenstadt LLP

366 Madison Avenue, 3rd Floor

New York, NY 10017

+1-212-588-0022 – telephone

+1-212-826-9307 – facsimile

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after this registration statement becomes effective as determined by the registrant in light of market conditions.

 

If only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.

 

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box.

 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.

 

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.C. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.C. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933.

 

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.

 

† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

 

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until this registration statement shall become effective on such date as the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We cannot sell these securities until the registration statement that we have filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Preliminary Prospectus   

Subject to Completion, dated May 7, 2024 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

Ostin Technology Group Co., Ltd.

 

US$200,000,000 

 

Class A Ordinary Shares

Preference Shares

Debt Securities

Warrants

Rights

Units

 

We may offer, issue and sell, from time to time, class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 per share (“Class A Ordinary Shares”), preference shares, par value US$0.0001 per share (“Preference Shares”), debt securities, warrants, rights or units up to US$200,000,000 or its equivalent in any other currency, currency units, or composite currency or currencies in one or more issuances. We may sell any combination of these securities in one or more offerings.

 

This prospectus describes some of the general terms that may apply to these securities and the general manner in which they may be offered. The specific terms of any securities to be offered, and the specific manner in which they may be offered, will be described in a supplement to this prospectus or incorporated into this prospectus by reference. You should read this prospectus and any supplement carefully before you invest. Each prospectus supplement will indicate if the securities offered thereby will be listed or quoted on a securities exchange or quotation system.

 

The information contained or incorporated in this prospectus or in any prospectus supplement is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus, or such prospectus supplement, as applicable, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of Ostin Technology Group Co., Ltd. (“Ostin”)’s securities. 

 

Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares are listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “OST.” On May 6, 2024, the closing sale price of the Class A Ordinary Shares was US$0.423. As of May 6, 2024, the aggregate market value of Ostin’s outstanding Class A Ordinary Shares held by non-affiliates was approximately US$5,034,377.65 based on 14,806,250 issued and outstanding Class A Ordinary Shares, of which approximately 11,901,602 Class A Ordinary Shares were held by non-affiliates. We have not offered any securities pursuant to General Instruction I.B.5 of Form F-3 during the prior 12 calendar month period that ends on, and includes, the date of this prospectus. The highest closing sale price of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares as reported by the Nasdaq Capital Market within the 60 days prior to the date of this filing was US$0.52 per share on March 11, 2024, which would allow us to offer up to approximately $2,062,944.35 of securities pursuant to General Instruction I.B.5 of Form F-3 as of the date of this prospectus.

 

We received a written notification from the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (the “Nasdaq”) on January 19, 2024, notifying us that we are not in compliance with the minimum bid price requirement set forth in the Nasdaq rules for continued listing on the Nasdaq (the “Minimum Bid Price Requirement”). To regain compliance, Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares must have a closing bid price of at least US$1.00 for a minimum of 10 consecutive trading days by July 17, 2024. We are currently preparing to implement a reverse share split plan to regain compliance with the Minimum Bid Price Requirement by July 17, 2024. This reverse share split plan was considered and approved by our shareholders at our extraordinary general meeting held on March 28, 2024, and subject to the determination, confirmation and approval of our board of directors, the authorized share capital of the Company will be consolidated within a range of one-for-five (1:5) to one-for-thirty (1:30) on or prior to July 17, 2024. For more information, see “Item 3. Key Information-D. Risk Factors- Risks Related to Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares – The market price of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares has recently declined significantly, and Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares could be delisted from the Nasdaq or trading could be suspended.” in our annual report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023 (the “2023 Annual Report”), which is incorporated herein by reference, and on page 14 of this prospectus.

 

 

 

 

We may offer securities through underwriting syndicates managed or co-managed by one or more underwriters, through agents, or directly to purchasers. The prospectus supplement for each offering of securities will describe the plan of distribution for that offering. For general information about the distribution of securities offered, please see “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus.

 

The principal executive office of Ostin is located at Building 2, 101, 1 Kechuang Road, Qixia District, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China 210046, and its telephone number is +86 (25) 58595234. The registered address of Ostin is located at the offices of Maples Corporate Services Limited, PO Box 309, Ugland House, Grand Cayman, KY1-1104, Cayman Islands.

 

In this prospectus, “we,” “us,” “our,” “our company,” the “Company,” or similar terms refer to Ostin Technology Group Co., Ltd. and/or its consolidated subsidiaries. Investors are purchasing an interest in Ostin, the Cayman Islands holding company. Investing in Ostin’s securities is highly speculative and involves a significant degree of risk. The risks could result in a material change in the value of the securities we are registering for sale or could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors. Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares offered in this prospectus are shares of our Cayman Islands holding company, which has no material operations of its own, and conducts substantially all of its operations through the operating entities established in the People’s Republic of China, or the PRC, primarily Jiangsu Austin Optronics Technology Co., Ltd. (“Jiangsu Austin”), our majority owned subsidiary and its subsidiaries. For a description of our corporate structure, see “Corporate Structure” on page 2 of this prospectus. See also “Risk Factors” on page 15.

 

As a Cayman Islands holding company with operations primarily conducted by its subsidiaries based in China, Ostin and its subsidiaries are subject to complex and evolving PRC laws and regulations and face various legal and operational risks and uncertainties relating to doing business in China. For example, Ostin and its subsidiaries in the PRC face risks associated with regulatory approvals on offshore offerings, anti-monopoly regulatory actions, and oversight on cybersecurity and data privacy, as well as the lack of inspection on our auditors by the PCAOB, which may impact our ability to conduct certain businesses, accept foreign investments, or list and conduct offerings on a United States or other foreign exchange. These risks could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares, significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to continue to offer securities to investors, or cause the value of such securities to significantly decline. For a detailed description of risks relating to doing business in China, please refer to risks disclosed under “Risk Factors-Risks Relating to Doing Business in China” on page 13 of this prospectus.

 

PRC government’s significant authority in regulating our operations and its oversight and control over offerings conducted overseas by, and foreign investment in, China-based issuers could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors. Implementation of industry-wide regulations, including data security or anti-monopoly related regulations, in this nature may cause the value of such securities to significantly decline. We are not operating in an industry that prohibits or limits foreign investment. As a result, as advised by our PRC counsel, King & Wood Mallesons, other than those requisite for a domestic company in China to engage in the businesses similar to ours, we are not required to obtain any permission from Chinese authorities, including the CSRC, the Cyberspace Administration of China (the “CAC”) or any other governmental agency that is required to approve our operations. However, if we do not receive or maintain the approvals, or we inadvertently conclude that such approvals are not required, or applicable laws, regulations, or interpretations change such that we are required to obtain approval in the future, we may be subject to investigations by competent regulators, fines or penalties, ordered to suspend our relevant operations and rectify any non-compliance, prohibited from engaging in relevant business or conducting any offering, and these risks could result in a material adverse change in our operations, significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors, or cause such securities to significantly decline in value or become worthless. For more details, see “Risk Factors-Risks Relating to Doing Business in China- The PRC government exerts substantial influence over the manner in which we conduct our business activities. The PRC government may also intervene or influence our operations at any time, which could result in a material change in our operations and Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares could decline in value or become worthless.” on page 19.

 

 

 

 

Risks and uncertainties arising from the legal system in China, including risks and uncertainties regarding the enforcement of laws and quickly evolving rules and regulations in China, could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares. On February 17, 2023, the China Securities Regulatory Commission (the “CSRC”) promulgated Trial Administrative Measures of the Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies and relevant five guidelines (collectively, the “Overseas Listing Trial Measures”), which became effective on March 31, 2023. The Overseas Listing Trial Measures comprehensively improve and reform the existing regulatory regime for overseas offering and listing of mainland China domestic companies’ securities and regulates both direct and indirect overseas offering and listing of mainland China domestic companies’ securities by adopting a filing-based regulatory regime. According to the Overseas Listing Trial Measures, (i) mainland China domestic companies that seek to offer or list securities overseas, both directly and indirectly, should fulfill the filing procedure and report relevant information to the CSRC; if a mainland China domestic company fails to complete the filing procedure or conceals any material fact or falsifies any major content in its filing documents, such mainland China domestic company may be subject to administrative penalties, such as order to rectify, warnings, fines, and its controlling shareholders, actual controllers, the person directly in charge and other directly liable persons may also be subject to administrative penalties, such as warnings and fines; (ii) if the issuer meets both of the following conditions, the overseas offering and listing shall be determined as an indirect overseas offering and listing by a mainland China domestic company: (a) any of the total assets, net assets, revenues or profits of the domestic operating entities of the issuer in the most recent accounting year accounts for more than 50% of the corresponding figure in the issuer’s audited consolidated financial statements for the same period; (b) its major operational activities are carried out in mainland China or its main places of business are located in mainland China, or the senior managers in charge of operation and management of the issuer are mostly PRC citizens or have their usual place(s) of residence located in mainland China. The Overseas Listing Trial Measures require subsequent reports to be filed with the CSRC on material events, such as change of control or voluntary or forced delisting of the issuers who have completed overseas offerings and listings. In addition, an overseas-listed company must also submit the filing with respect to its follow-on offerings, issuance of convertible corporate bonds and exchangeable bonds, and other equivalent offering activities, within the time frame specified by the Overseas Listing Trial Measures. As a result, we will be required to file with the CSRC within three business days after the completion of the offerings in connection with this registration statement. We will begin the process of preparing a report and other required materials in connection with the CSRC filing, which will be submitted to the CSRC in due course. However, if we do not maintain the permissions and approvals of the filing procedure in a timely manner under PRC laws and regulations, we may be subject to investigations by competent regulators, fines or penalties, ordered to suspend our relevant operations and rectify any non-compliance, prohibited from engaging in relevant business or conducting any offering, and these risks could result in a material adverse change in our operations, limit our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors, or cause such securities to significantly decline in value or become worthless. As the Overseas Listing Trial Measures were newly published, there exists uncertainty with respect to the filing requirements and their implementation. Any failure or perceived failure of us to fully comply with such new regulatory requirements could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors, cause significant disruption to our business operations, and severely damage our reputation, which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations and could cause the value of Ostin’s securities to significantly decline or be worthless. For more details, see “Risk Factors-Risks Relating to Doing Business in China- There are uncertainties regarding the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws, rules and regulations.” on page 16.

 

 

 

 

Furthermore, as more stringent criteria have been imposed by the SEC and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (the “PCAOB”) recently, Ostin’s securities may be prohibited from trading if our auditor cannot be fully inspected. On December 16, 2021, the PCAOB issued its determination that the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely PCAOB-registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and in Hong Kong, because of positions taken by PRC authorities in those jurisdictions, and the PCAOB included in the report of its determination a list of the accounting firms that are headquartered in mainland China or Hong Kong. This list does not include our auditor, TPS Thayer, LLC. On August 26, 2022, the PCAOB announced that it had signed a Statement of Protocol (the “Statement of Protocol”) with the CSRC and the Ministry of Finance of China (“MOF”). The terms of the Statement of Protocol would grant the PCAOB complete access to audit work papers and other information so that it may inspect and investigate PCAOB-registered accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong. On December 15, 2022, the PCAOB announced that it has secured complete access to inspect and investigate registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong and voted to vacate the previous 2021 determination report to the contrary. On December 29, 2022, a legislation entitled “Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2023” (the “Consolidated Appropriations Act”) was signed into law by President Biden. The Consolidated Appropriations Act contained, among other things, an identical provision to the Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, which reduces the number of consecutive non-inspection years required for triggering the prohibitions under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act from three years to two. As a result of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act (the “HFCA Act”) now also applies if the PCAOB’s inability to inspect or investigate the relevant accounting firm is due to a position taken by an authority in any foreign jurisdiction. The denying jurisdiction does not need to be where the accounting firm is located. Our current auditor, TPS Thayer, LLC, as an auditor of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the PCAOB, is subject to laws in the United States pursuant to which the PCAOB conducts regular inspections to assess its compliance with the applicable professional standards. Notwithstanding the foregoing, in the future, if there is any regulatory change or step taken by PRC regulators that does not permit our auditor to provide audit documentations located in China to the PCAOB for inspection or investigation, investors may be deprived of the benefits of such inspection. Any audit reports not issued by auditors that are completely inspected by the PCAOB, or a lack of PCAOB inspections of audit work undertaken in China that prevents the PCAOB from regularly evaluating our auditors’ audits and their quality control procedures, could result in a lack of assurance that our financial statements and disclosures are adequate and accurate, then such lack of inspection could cause Ostin’s securities to be delisted from the stock exchange. See “Risk Factors-Risks Relating to Doing Business in China - Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares may be delisted under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act if the PCAOB is unable to inspect our auditors. The delisting of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares, or the threat of their being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment.” on page 28.

  

Ostin is a holding company with no operations of its own. We conduct substantially all of our operations through our subsidiaries in China. As a result, although other means are available for us to obtain financing at the holding company level, Ostin’s ability to pay dividends to its shareholders and to service any debt it may incur may depend upon dividends paid by our PRC subsidiaries. If any of our PRC subsidiaries incurs debt on its own behalf in the future, the instruments governing such debt may restrict our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends to Ostin. In addition, our PRC subsidiaries are permitted to pay dividends to Ostin only out of their retained earnings, if any, as determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. Further, our PRC subsidiaries are required to make appropriations to certain statutory reserve funds or may make appropriations to certain discretionary funds, which are not distributable as cash dividends except in the event of a solvent liquidation of the companies. For more details, see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects-B. Liquidity and Capital Resources-Holding Company Structure.” in our 2023 Annual Report, which is incorporated herein by reference.

 

Under PRC laws and regulations, our PRC subsidiaries are subject to certain restrictions with respect to paying dividends or otherwise transferring any of their net assets to us. Remittance of dividends by a wholly foreign-owned enterprise out of China is also subject to examination by the banks designated by the State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE. The amounts restricted include the paid-up capital and the statutory reserve funds of our PRC subsidiaries, totaling $24,753,990, $24,752,533 and $11,889,822 as of September 30, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.

 

 

 

 

Furthermore, cash transfers from our PRC subsidiaries to entities outside of China are subject to PRC government controls on currency conversion. To the extent cash in our business is in the PRC or a PRC entity, such cash may not be available to fund operations or for other use outside of the PRC due to restrictions and limitations imposed by the governmental authorities on the ability of us or our PRC subsidiaries to transfer cash outside of the PRC. Shortages in the availability of foreign currency may temporarily delay the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to remit sufficient foreign currency to pay dividends or other payments to us, or otherwise satisfy their foreign currency denominated obligations. In view of the foregoing, to the extent cash in our business is held in China or by a PRC entity, such cash may not be available to fund operations or for other use outside of the PRC. For risks relating to the fund flows of our operations in China, see “Risk Factors-Risks Relating to Doing Business in China-We rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our subsidiaries to fund offshore cash and financing requirements and any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to transfer cash out of China and/or make remittance to pay dividends to us could limit our ability to access cash generated by the operations of those entities” on page 25 and “- PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay us from using the proceeds of our initial public offering and future financings to make loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.” on page 24.

  

Under PRC law, Ostin may provide funding to our PRC subsidiaries only through capital contributions or loans, subject to satisfaction of applicable government registration and approval requirements. For the fiscal years ended September 30, 2023, 2022, and 2021, Ostin provided funding to our PRC subsidiaries of $0, $4,078,600 and $0, respectively.

 

In addition, funds are transferred among our PRC subsidiaries for working capital purposes, primarily between Jiangsu Austin, our main operating subsidiary and its subsidiaries. The following table provides a summary of the distributions and working capital funds transferred between Jiangsu Austin and its subsidiaries:

 

   Fiscal Years Ended
September 30,
 
   2023   2022   2021 
Cash transferred to its subsidiaries from Jiangsu Austin  $8,617,106   $9,096,665   $- 
Cash transferred to Jiangsu Austin from its subsidiaries  $-   $-   $7,640,965 

 

The transfer of funds among companies are subject to the Provisions of the Supreme People’s Court on Several Issues Concerning the Application of Law in the Trial of Private Lending Cases (2020 Second Amendment, the “Provisions on Private Lending Cases”), which was implemented on January 1, 2021 to regulate the financing activities between natural persons, legal persons and unincorporated organizations. The Provisions on Private Lending Cases set forth that private lending contracts will be upheld as invalid under the circumstance that (i) the lender swindles loans from financial institutions for relending; (ii) the lender relends the funds obtained by means of a loan from another profit-making legal person, raising funds from its employees, illegally taking deposits from the public; (iii) the lender who has not obtained the lending qualification according to the law lends money to any unspecified object of the society for the purpose of making profits; (iv) the lender lends funds to a borrower when the lender knows or should have known that the borrower intended to use the borrowed funds for illegal or criminal purposes; (v) the lending is violations of public orders or good morals; or (vi) the lending is in violations of mandatory provisions of laws or administrative regulations. As advised by our PRC counsel, King & Wood Mallesons, the Provisions on Private Lending Cases does not prohibit using cash generated from one subsidiary to fund another subsidiary’s operations. We have not been notified of any other restriction which could limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to transfer cash between subsidiaries. See “Item 4. Information on the Company - B. Business Overview - Regulation - Regulations Relating to Private Lending.” in our 2023 Annual Report, which is incorporated herein by reference.

 

 

 

 

Our majority owned subsidiary, Jiangsu Austin, has maintained cash management policies which dictate the purpose, amount and procedure of cash transfers between Jiangsu Austin and its subsidiaries. Cash transferred to Jiangsu Austin’s subsidiaries of less than RMB5 million (US$0.69 million) must be reported to and reviewed by Jiangsu Austin’s financial department and the relevant PRC subsidiary’s chief executive officer, and must be approved by the Chief Financial Officer and Chairman of Jiangsu Austin. Cash transfer in excess of RMB5 million (US$0.69 million) but less than RMB20 million (US$2.74 million), and less than 50% of Jiangsu Austin’s consolidated total assets must be approved by the board of directors of Jiangsu Austin. Cash transfer in excess of RMB20 million (US$2.74 million), or more than 50% of Jiangsu Austin’s consolidated total assets must be approved by shareholders of Jiangsu Austin. Jiangsu Austin conducts regular review and management of all its subsidiaries’ cash transfers and reports to its Risk Management Department and board of directors.

 

We are an “emerging growth company” as that term is used in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, as amended, or the “JOBS Act,” and, as such, we have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements. See “Prospectus Summary-Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company” on page 7 of this prospectus.

  

Investing in Ostin’s securities being offered pursuant to this prospectus involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risk factors beginning on page 15 of this prospectus, in any accompanying prospectus supplement and in any related free writing prospectus, and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus before making any decision to invest in Ostin’s securities. 

 

This prospectus may not be used to offer or sell any securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

 

Neither the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, the Cayman Islands Monetary Authority, nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

The date of this prospectus is            , 2024

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS   ii
     
CONVENTIONS THAT APPLY TO THIS PROSPECTUS   iii
     
PROSPECTUS SUMMARY   1
     
RISK FACTORS   15
     
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS   30
     
OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE   30
     
USE OF PROCEEDS   31
     
CAPITALIZATION   31
     
DILUTION   31
     
DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL   32
     
DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES   42
     
DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS   44
     
DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS   46
     
DESCRIPTION OF UNITS   47
     
ENFORCEABILITY OF CIVIL LIABILITIES   47
     
TAXATION   48
     
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION   48
     
EXPENSES OF ISSUANCE AND DISTRIBUTION   51
     
LEGAL MATTERS   51
     
EXPERTS   51
     
INDEMNIFICATION   51
     
MATERIAL CHANGES   51
     
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE   52
     
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION   53

 

You should rely only on the information provided by this prospectus, any prospectus supplement and any information incorporated by reference. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different or additional information or to make any representations other than those contained in or incorporated by reference to this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement. We have not taken any action to permit a public offering of the securities described in this prospectus outside the United States or to permit the possession or distribution of this prospectus outside the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must observe any restrictions relating to the offering of the securities described in this prospectus and the distribution of this prospectus outside of the United States. This prospectus is not an offer to sell, or solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities in any circumstances under which the offer of solicitation is unlawful. The information contained in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or any documents incorporated by reference herein or therein is accurate only as of the date hereof or thereof or such other date expressly stated herein or therein, and our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects may have changed since those dates.

 

i

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form F-3 that we filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf registration” process. Under this shelf registration process, we may, from time to time, sell any combination of the securities of Ostin described in this prospectus in one or more offerings up to a total dollar amount of up to US$200,000,000 (or its equivalent in foreign or composite currencies).

 

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities that may be offered. Each time we offer Ostin’s securities, we will provide you with a supplement to this prospectus that will describe the specific amounts, prices and terms of the securities we offer. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. This prospectus, together with applicable prospectus supplements and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any prospectus supplements, includes all material information relating to an offering pursuant to this prospectus. Please read carefully both this prospectus and any prospectus supplement together with additional information described below under “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different or additional information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of securities described in this prospectus. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement is accurate on any date subsequent to the date set forth on the front of the document or that any information that we have incorporated by reference is correct on any date subsequent to the date of the document incorporated by reference. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. 

 

ii

 

 

CONVENTIONS THAT APPLY TO THIS PROSPECTUS

 

Unless we indicate otherwise, all information in this prospectus reflects the following:

  

“AMOLED” refers to active-matrix organic light emitting diode, which is an organic light emitting diode display technology;

 

“CAC” refers to the Cyberspace Administration of China;

 

“China” or the “PRC”, in each case, refers to the People’s Republic of China, including Hong Kong and Macau. The term “Chinese” has a correlative meaning for the purpose of this prospectus;

 

“Class A Ordinary Shares” refers to Ostin’s class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 per share, each with one vote per share;

  

“Class B Ordinary Shares” refers to Ostin’s class B ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 per share, each with 20 vote per share;

 

“CSRC” refers to the China Securities Regulatory Commission;

 

“Exchange Act” refers to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended;

  

“FINRA” refers to the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.;

  

“HK$,” “HKD,” or “Hong Kong dollars” refers to the legal currency of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region;

 

  “Hong Kong” refers to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region;

 

  “IoT” refers to Internet of Things;
     
  “Jiangsu Austin” refers to Jiangsu Austin Optronics Technology Co., Ltd., our majority owned subsidiary, which is a company limited by shares incorporated in China;

 

iii

 

 

  “JOBS Act” refers to the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act, enacted in April 2012;
     
  “MOFCOM” refers to China’s Ministry of Commerce;
     
  “Nasdaq” refers to Nasdaq Stock Market LLC;
     
  “OLED” refers to organic light emitting diode, a light emitting display technology;

 

  ●  “Ostin” refers to Ostin Technology Group Co., Ltd., a Cayman Islands exempted company, and “we,” “us,” “our company,” the “Company,” “our,” or similar terms used in this prospectus refer to Ostin Technology Group Co., Ltd. and/or its consolidated subsidiaries, unless the context otherwise indicates; 

 

  “PCAOB” refers to the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board of the United States;
     
  “polarizer” refers to polarizing film, a composite optical film used in LCD/OLED/AMOLED displays

 

  “RMB” or “Renminbi” refer to the legal currency of the People’s Republic of China;

 

  “SAFE” refers to China’s State Administration of Foreign Exchange;

 

  “SAT” refers to China’s State Administration of Taxation;

 

  “SEC” refers to the United States Securities and Exchange Commission;

 

  “Securities Act” refers to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended;

  

  ●  “share capital” or similar expressions include a reference to shares in a company that does not have a share capital under its governing law, but which is authorized to issue a maximum or unlimited number of shares; 

 

  “TFT-LCD” refers to Thin-film transistor liquid crystal display, a display technology;

 

  ●  “US$,” “$,” “dollars,” “USD” or “U.S. dollars” refer to the legal currency of the United States; and

 

  ●  “U.S. GAAP” refers to the generally accepted accounting principles in the United States.  

 

This prospectus contains information and statistics relating to China’s economy and the industries in which Ostin operates through its operating entities in China derived from various publications issued by market research companies and PRC governmental entities, which have not been independently verified by us. The information in such sources may not be consistent with other information compiled in or outside of China.

 

Unless otherwise noted, all other financial and other data related to the Company in this prospectus is presented in U.S. dollars. We present our financial results in RMB. We make no representation that any RMB or U.S. dollar amounts could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollars or RMB, as the case may be, at any particular rate, or at all. The PRC government imposes control over its foreign currency reserves in part through direct regulation of the conversion of RMB into foreign exchange and through restrictions on foreign trade. This prospectus contains translations of certain foreign currency amounts into U.S. dollars for the convenience of the reader. Unless otherwise stated, all translations of Renminbi into U.S. dollars in this prospectus were made at the rate at RMB7.2960 to US $1.00, the rate published by the Federal Reserve Board on September 29, 2023.

 

Our fiscal year end is September 30. References to a particular “fiscal year” are to our fiscal year ended September 30 of that calendar year. Our audited consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the U.S. GAAP.

 

References in any prospectus supplement to “the accompanying prospectus” are to this prospectus and to “the prospectus” are to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement taken together.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

Investors in Ostin’s securities are not purchasing an equity interest in our operating entities in China but instead are purchasing an equity interest in a Cayman Islands holding company. 

 

This summary highlights selected information that is presented in greater detail elsewhere, or incorporated by reference, in this prospectus. It does not contain all of the information that may be important to you and your investment decision. Before investing in the securities that we are offering, you should carefully read this entire prospectus, including the matters set forth under the section of this prospectus captioned “Risk Factors,” “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and the financial statements and related notes and other information that we incorporate by reference herein, including, but not limited to, our 2023 Annual Report and other SEC reports.

 

Overview

 

Ostin is an exempted company incorporated in the Cayman Islands. As a holding company with no material operations of its own, Ostin conducts substantially all of its operations through its operating entities established in the PRC, primarily Jiangsu Austin and its subsidiaries. Ostin and its subsidiaries are subject to complex and evolving PRC laws and regulations and face various legal and operational risks and uncertainties relating to doing business in China. For example, Ostin and its subsidiaries in the PRC face risks associated with regulatory approvals on offshore offerings, anti-monopoly regulatory actions, and oversight on cybersecurity and data privacy, as well as the lack of inspection on our auditors by the PCAOB, which may impact our ability to conduct certain businesses, accept foreign investments, or list and conduct offerings on a United States or other foreign exchange. These risks could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares, significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to continue to offer securities to investors, or cause the value of such securities to significantly decline. For a detailed description of risks relating to doing business in China, please refer to risks disclosed under “Item 3. Key Information-D. Risk Factors-Risks Relating to Doing Business in China.” in our 2023 Annual Report, which is incorporated herein by reference.

 

PRC government’s significant authority in regulating our operations and its oversight and control over offerings conducted overseas by, and foreign investment in, China-based issuers could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors. Implementation of industry-wide regulations, including data security or anti-monopoly related regulations, in this nature may cause the value of such securities to significantly decline. For more details, see “Item 3. Key Information-D. Risk Factors-Risks Relating to Doing Business in China- The PRC government exerts substantial influence over the manner in which we conduct our business activities. The PRC government may also intervene or influence our operations at any time, which could result in a material change in our operations and Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares could decline in value or become worthless.” in our 2023 Annual Report, which is incorporated herein by reference.

 

Risks and uncertainties arising from the legal system in China, including risks and uncertainties regarding the enforcement of laws and quickly evolving rules and regulations in China, could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares. For more details, see “Item 3. Key Information-D. Risk Factors-Risks Relating to Doing Business in China- There are uncertainties regarding the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws, rules and regulations.” in our 2023 Annual Report, which is incorporated herein by reference.

 

We are a supplier of display modules and polarizers in China. We design, develop and manufacture TFT-LCD modules in a wide range of sizes and customized sizes according to the specifications of our customers. Our display modules are mainly used in consumer electronics, commercial LCD displays and automotive displays. We also manufacture polarizers used in the TFT-LCD display modules and are in the process of developing protective films for the OLED display panel. Furthermore, we are currently in the process of developing our new IoT display products, including our all-in-one intelligent conference system and Pintura wireless photo transmission system which was launched in China since September 2022.

 

We were formed in 2010 by a group of individuals with industry expertise and have been operating our business, primarily through Jiangsu Austin and its subsidiaries. We currently operate one headquarter and three manufacturing facilities in China with an aggregate of 50,335 square meters - the headquarter is located in Jiangsu Province, one factory is located in Jiangsu Province for the manufacture of display modules, one in Chengdu, Sichuan Province for the manufacture of TFT-LCD polarizers and one in Luzhou, Sichuan Province, for manufacture of display modules which are primarily used in display devices for education, healthcare, transportation, businesses and offices.

 

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We seek to improve our market position through our close collaborative customer relationships and a focus on the development of high-end display products and new display materials. Our customers include many of the leading manufacturers of computers, automotive electronics and LCD displays primarily in China. We have also successfully introduced our polarizers to many companies in China and have witnessed a significant revenue since we commenced the production and sales of polarizers in 2019, and expanded our product lines to include polarizers used for both vertical alignment (VA) panels and in-plane switching (IPS) panels in 2020.

 

Our dedication to technology and innovation has helped us win the high new-tech enterprise designation in Jiangsu Province, China, which entitles Jiangsu Austin, our main operating entity in China, to a preferential tax rate of 15% and numerous other recognitions, including but not limited to, Jiangsu Provincial Credit Enterprise and Key Optoelectronic Product Laboratory, which are endorsements to our credit and research and development capabilities. During the fiscal years ended September 30, 2023, 2022 and 2021, our revenues were $57,525,700, $105,416,746, and $167,744,801, respectively, and net income/(loss) were $(10,787,269), $112,227 and $3,295,507, respectively.

 

Corporate Structure

 

Ostin is a Cayman Islands exempted company structured as a holding company and conducts its operations in China through Jiangsu Austin and its subsidiaries. We first started our business through Jiangsu Austin, which was formed in December 2010. With the growth of our business and in order to facilitate international capital investment in us, we started a reorganization as described below involving new offshore and onshore entities in the fourth quarter of 2019 and completed it in the first half of 2020.

 

On September 26, 2019, Ostin was incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands as an exempted company. Further, Ostin Technology Holdings Limited and Ostin Technology Limited, were established in the British Virgin Islands in October 2019 and in Hong Kong in October 2019, respectively, as intermediate holding companies.

 

In March 2020, Nanjing Aosa Technology Development Co., Ltd., our wholly owned subsidiary (“Nanjing Aosa”) was formed as a limited liability company in China and became a wholly owned subsidiary of Ostin Technology Limited in June 2020. Beijing Suhongyuanda Science and Technology Co., Ltd. (“Suhong Yuanda”) was formed as a limited liability company in September 2019 in China and became a wholly owned subsidiary of Nanjing Aosa in May 2020, holding 9.97% of the shares of Jiangsu Austin.

 

In June 2020, Nanjing Aosa entered into the variable interest entity arrangements (the “VIE Arrangements”) with shareholders of Jiangsu Austin who were directors, supervisors or senior management members of Jiangsu Austin, and other shareholders (excluding Suhong Yuanda and collectively, the “VIE Shareholders”) holding an aggregate of 87.88% of the shares of Jiangsu Austin, which, along with our company’s direct ownership of 9.97% of Jiangsu Austin, enables us to obtain control over Jiangsu Austin through Nanjing Aosa. As a result of the VIE Arrangements, before Jiangsu Austin became our majority owned subsidiary as described below, we were regarded as the primary beneficiary of Jiangsu Austin for accounting purposes, and we consolidated the financial results of Jiangsu Austin and its subsidiaries in our financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

 

In April 2021, Nanjing Aosa and Jiangsu Austin unwound part of the VIE Arrangements with the minority shareholders of Jiangsu Austin who were not directors, supervisors or senior management members of Austin (the “non-management VIE Shareholders”) and whose shares of Jiangsu Austin were no longer subject to the limitations as a result of Jiangsu Austin’s voluntary delisting from the NEEQ, through exercise of an exclusive option to purchase an aggregate of 17,869,615 shares of Jiangsu Austin from the non-management VIE Shareholders as well as certain VIE Shareholders who were directors, supervisors or senior management members of Jiangsu Austin. As a result, our company, through Nanjing Aosa, held an aggregate of 57.88% of the shares of Jiangsu Austin directly with the remaining 39.97% controlled through the VIE Arrangements. The remaining 2.15% of the shares of Jiangsu Austin were owned by two individual shareholders including Tao Ling, our Chief Executive Officer and Chairman who holds 1.54% of the shares.

 

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In August 2021, certain directors, supervisors and members of senior management team of Jiangsu Austin, who were also shareholders of Jiangsu Austin holding an aggregate of 39.97% of its outstanding shares, resigned all their positions with Jiangsu Austin and entered into shares transfer agreements, pursuant to which, they agreed to transfer an aggregate of 39.97% of shares of Jiangsu Austin after six months following the registration of their resignation with relevant government authorities, which resulted in Nanjing Aosa, our WFOE, holding an aggregate of 97.85% of the shares of Jiangsu Austin following the completion of the share transfers.

 

In February 2022, we fully terminated the VIE Arrangements and completed the reorganization of our corporate structure, as a result of which we held 97.85% of the issued and outstanding shares of Jiangsu Austin.

 

On April 29, 2022, we consummated our initial public offering of 3,881,250 ordinary shares at a price of $4.00 per share, generating gross proceeds of $15,525,000 before deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and offering expenses.

 

In June 2022, through Nanjing Aosa and its subsidiary Suhong Yuanda, we purchased the remaining shares of Jiangsu Austin from two individual shareholders, including Tao Ling, our Chief Executive Officer and Chairman, and Qingning Cao. As a result, Jiangsu Austin became our wholly owned subsidiary.

 

In January 2023, Nanjing Aosa increased its investment in Jiangsu Austin through capital contribution. As the result, Nanjing Aosa directly holds 92.56% of the issued and outstanding shares of Jiangsu Austin, and indirectly holds 7.44% of the issued and outstanding shares of Jiangsu Austin through Suhong Yuanda.

 

On March 8, 2023, Pintura.Life LLC, a limited liability company, was established in California, the United States. Austin Optronics Technology Co., Ltd. acquired a majority ownership of Pintura.Life LLC on June 18, 2023. We primarily promote and sell our independently developed Pintura products in the U.S. market through Pintura.

 

On July 24, 2023, to align with our strategic adjustments within our corporate structure and our future development strategy, Jiangsu Austin transferred its entire share ownership in Austin Optronics Technology Co., Ltd. to Ostin Technology Limited.

 

On November 20, 2023, Suhong Yuanda transferred 500,000 shares of Jiangsu Austin to Shenzhen Ouxun Electronic Co., Ltd., a PRC limited liability company. As a result, we currently hold 99% of the issued and outstanding shares of Jiangsu Austin. 

 

On January 3, 2024, Sichuan Ausheet Electronic Materials Co., Ltd. (“Sichuan Ausheet”) transferred 71.43% of equity interest in Sichuan Auniu New Materials Co., Ltd. to Nanjing Oni Investment Management Partnership Enterprise (Limited Partnership) (“Nanjing Oni”). As a result, Sichuan Ausheet and Nanjing Oni held 28.57% and 71.43% of shares of Sichuan Auniu, respectively.

 

On January 23, 2024, Sichuan Auniu New Materials Co., Ltd., together with Nanjing Oni entered into a capital injection agreement with certain new investors. As a result, Sichuan Ausheet and Nanjing Oni hold 20% and 52% of shares of Sichuan Auniu, respectively.

 

On March 28, 2024, the Company convened its extraordinary general meeting of shareholders, during which the shareholders of the Company adopted resolutions approving all of the proposals considered at the meeting. As a result, the Company’s authorized share capital was increased from US$50,000 divided into 499,000,000 ordinary shares of a par value of US$0.0001 each and 1,000,000 preference shares of a par value of US$0.0001 each, to US$500,000 divided into 4,999,000,000 Class A Ordinary Shares of a par value of US$0.0001 each, 8,000,000 Class B Ordinary Shares of a par value of US$0.0001 each and 1,000,000 preference shares of a par value of US$0.0001 each by (i) re-designation of all ordinary shares issued and outstanding as a consequence of the resolutions above, into Class A Ordinary Shares with a par value of US$0.0001 each with one (1) vote per share and with other rights attached to it in the Second Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association; (ii) re-designation of 4,974,193,750 unissued ordinary shares of a par value of US$0.0001 each into 4,974,193,750 Class A Ordinary Shares of a par value of US$0.0001; and (iii) re-designation of 8,000,000 unissued ordinary shares into 8,000,000 Class B Ordinary Shares with a par value of US$0.0001 each with 20 votes per share and with other rights attached to it in the Second Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association. The Company shall, at the time of the above resolutions, have not less than 8,000,000 authorized but unissued ordinary shares.

 

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On the same date, the shareholders approved for the Company to repurchase 2,000,000 Class A Ordinary Shares registered in the name of SHYD Investment Management Limited at an amount equal to the aggregate par value of US$200 (the “Repurchase Price”) and the Repurchase Price out of the proceeds from a fresh issue of 2,000,000 Class B Ordinary Shares to SHYD Investment Management Limited. Following the repurchase and issue of Class B Ordinary Shares, the Company’s issued share capital remained unchanged, and SHYD Investment Management Limited owns 1,908,612 Class A Ordinary Shares and 2,000,000 Class B Ordinary Shares of the Company, respectively, representing approximately 76.5% of our outstanding voting power. Tao Ling, Ostin’s Chief Executive Officer and Chairman is the sole shareholder and director of SHYD Investment Management Limited. Consequently, he may be deemed the beneficial owner of the securities held by SHYD Investment Management Limited and exercises voting and dispositive power over such securities.

 

The chart below summarizes our corporate structure as of the date of this prospectus:

 

 

Cash and Asset Flows through our Organization 

 

Ostin is a holding company with no operations of its own. We conduct our operations through our subsidiaries in China. As a result, although other means are available for us to obtain financing at the holding company level, Ostin’s ability to pay dividends to its shareholders and to service any debt it may incur may depend upon dividends paid by our PRC subsidiaries. If any of our PRC subsidiaries incurs debt on its own behalf in the future, the instruments governing such debt may restrict our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends to Ostin. In addition, our PRC subsidiaries are permitted to pay dividends to Ostin only out of their retained earnings, if any, as determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. Further, our PRC subsidiaries are required to make appropriations to certain statutory reserve funds or may make appropriations to certain discretionary funds, which are not distributable as cash dividends except in the event of a solvent liquidation of the companies. For more details, see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects-B. Liquidity and Capital Resources-Holding Company Structure.” in our 2023 Annual Report, which is incorporated herein by reference.

 

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Under PRC laws and regulations, our PRC subsidiaries are subject to certain restrictions with respect to paying dividends or otherwise transferring any of their net assets to us. Remittance of dividends by a wholly foreign-owned enterprise out of China is also subject to examination by the banks designated by the SAFE. The amounts restricted include the paid-up capital and the statutory reserve funds of our PRC subsidiaries, totaling $24,753,990, $24,752,533 and $11,889,822 as of September 30, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.

 

Furthermore, cash transfers from our PRC subsidiaries to entities outside of China are subject to PRC government controls on currency conversion. To the extent cash in our business is in the PRC or a PRC entity, such cash may not be available to fund operations or for other use outside of the PRC due to restrictions and limitations imposed by the governmental authorities on the ability of us or our PRC subsidiaries to transfer cash outside of the PRC. Shortages in the availability of foreign currency may temporarily delay the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to remit sufficient foreign currency to pay dividends or other payments to us, or otherwise satisfy their foreign currency denominated obligations. In view of the foregoing, to the extent cash in our business is held in China or by a PRC entity, such cash may not be available to fund operations or for other use outside of the PRC. For risks relating to the fund flows of our operations in China, see “Risk Factors-Risks Relating to Doing Business in China-We rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our subsidiaries to fund offshore cash and financing requirements and any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to transfer cash out of China and/or make remittance to pay dividends to us could limit our ability to access cash generated by the operations of those entities” on page 25 and “- PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay us from using the proceeds of our initial public offering and future financings to make loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.” on page 24.

 

Under PRC law, Ostin may provide funding to our PRC subsidiaries only through capital contributions or loans, subject to satisfaction of applicable government registration and approval requirements. For the fiscal years ended September 30, 2023, 2022, and 2021, Ostin provided funding to our PRC subsidiaries of $0, $4,078,600 and $0, respectively.

 

In addition, funds are transferred among our PRC subsidiaries for working capital purposes, primarily between Jiangsu Austin, our main operating subsidiary and its subsidiaries. The following table provides a summary of the distributions and working capital funds transferred between Jiangsu Austin and its subsidiaries:

 

   Fiscal Years Ended
September 30,
 
   2023   2022   2021 
Cash transferred to its subsidiaries from Jiangsu Austin  $8,617,106   $9,096,665   $- 
Cash transferred to Jiangsu Austin from its subsidiaries  $-   $-   $7,640,965 

 

The transfer of funds among companies are subject to the Provisions of the Supreme People’s Court on Several Issues Concerning the Application of Law in the Trial of Private Lending Cases (2020 Second Amendment, the “Provisions on Private Lending Cases”), which was implemented on January 1, 2021 to regulate the financing activities between natural persons, legal persons and unincorporated organizations. The Provisions on Private Lending Cases set forth that private lending contracts will be upheld as invalid under the circumstance that (i) the lender swindles loans from financial institutions for relending; (ii) the lender relends the funds obtained by means of a loan from another profit-making legal person, raising funds from its employees, illegally taking deposits from the public; (iii) the lender who has not obtained the lending qualification according to the law lends money to any unspecified object of the society for the purpose of making profits; (iv) the lender lends funds to a borrower when the lender knows or should have known that the borrower intended to use the borrowed funds for illegal or criminal purposes; (v) the lending is violations of public orders or good morals; or (vi) the lending is in violations of mandatory provisions of laws or administrative regulations. As advised by our PRC counsel, King & Wood Mallesons, the Provisions on Private Lending Cases does not prohibit using cash generated from one subsidiary to fund another subsidiary’s operations. We have not been notified of any other restriction which could limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to transfer cash between subsidiaries. See “Item 4. Information on the Company - B. Business Overview - Regulation - Regulations Relating to Private Lending.” in our 2023 Annual Report, which is incorporated herein by reference.

 

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Our majority owned subsidiary, Jiangsu Austin, has maintained cash management policies which dictate the purpose, amount and procedure of cash transfers between Jiangsu Austin and its subsidiaries. Cash transferred to Jiangsu Austin’s subsidiaries of less than RMB5 million (US$0.69 million) must be reported to and reviewed by Jiangsu Austin’s financial department and the relevant PRC subsidiary’s chief executive officer, and must be approved by the Chief Financial Officer and Chairman of Jiangsu Austin. Cash transfer in excess of RMB5 million (US$0.69 million) but less than RMB20 million (US$2.74 million), and less than 50% of Jiangsu Austin’s consolidated total assets must be approved by the board of directors of Jiangsu Austin. Cash transfer in excess of RMB20 million (US$2.74 million), or more than 50% of Jiangsu Austin’s consolidated total assets must be approved by shareholders of Jiangsu Austin. Jiangsu Austin conducts regular review and management of all its subsidiaries’ cash transfers and reports to its Risk Management Department and board of directors.

 

Dividends and Other Distributions 

 

Ostin is a holding company with no material operations of its own and does not generate any revenue. We currently conduct substantially all of our operations in the PRC, primarily through Jiangsu Austin, our majority owned subsidiary and its subsidiaries. As a result, our ability to pay dividends and to finance any debt we may incur depends upon dividends paid by our subsidiaries. Our PRC subsidiaries may purchase foreign exchange from relevant banks and make distributions to offshore companies after completing relevant foreign exchange registration with the SAFE. Our offshore companies may inject capital into or provide loans to our PRC subsidiaries through capital contributions or foreign debts, subject to applicable PRC regulations. If our subsidiaries or any newly formed subsidiaries incur debt on their own behalf in the future, the instruments governing their debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends to us. In addition, our PRC subsidiaries are permitted to pay dividends to us only out of their retained earnings, if any, as determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations.

 

Our PRC subsidiaries are permitted to pay dividends only out of their retained earnings. However, each of our PRC subsidiaries is required to set aside at least 10% of its after-tax profits each year, after making up for previous year’s accumulated losses, if any, to fund certain statutory reserves, until the aggregate amount of such funds reaches 50% of its registered capital. This portion of our PRC subsidiaries’ respective net assets are prohibited from being distributed to their shareholders as dividends. Although the statutory reserves can be used, among other ways, to increase the registered capital and eliminate future losses in excess of retained earnings of the respective companies, the reserve funds are not distributable as cash dividends except in the event of liquidation of the companies. The reserved amounts as determined pursuant to PRC statutory laws totaled $1,497,771, $1,496,314 and $1,033,653 as of and September 30, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—4B. Business Overview—Regulation - Regulations on Dividend Distributions”. in our 2023 Annual Report, which is incorporated herein by reference and “Risk Factors– Risks Related to Doing Business in China - We rely to a significant extent on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our subsidiaries to fund offshore cash and financing requirements and any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to make remittance to pay dividends to us could limit our ability to access cash generated by the operations of those entities” on page 25.

 

We intend to retain all of our available funds and any future earnings and cash proceeds from overseas financing activities, including this offering, to fund the development and growth of our business. As a result, we do not expect to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. 

 

In addition, the PRC government imposes controls on the convertibility of the Renminbi into foreign currencies and, in certain cases, the remittance of currency out of China. If the foreign exchange control system prevents us from obtaining sufficient foreign currencies to satisfy our foreign currency demands, we may not be able to transfer cash out of China, and pay dividends in foreign currencies to our shareholders. There can be no assurance that the PRC government will not intervene or impose restrictions on our ability to transfer or distribute cash within our organization or to foreign investors, which could result in an inability or prohibition on making transfers or distributions outside of China and may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. See “Risks Related to Doing Business in China - Restrictions on currency exchange may limit our ability to utilize our revenues effectively” on page 27.

 

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A 10% PRC withholding tax is applicable to dividends payable to investors that are non-resident enterprises. Any gain realized on the transfer of ordinary shares by such investors is also subject to PRC tax at a current rate of 10% which in the case of dividends will be withheld at source if such gain is regarded as income derived from sources within the PRC. See also “Risks Related to Doing Business in China - Dividends payable to our foreign investors and gains on the sale of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares by our foreign investors may be subject to PRC tax” on page 26.

 

Foreign Private Issuer Status

 

We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act. As such, we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to United States domestic public companies. For example:

 

  we are not required to provide as many Exchange Act reports, or as frequently, as a domestic public company;
     
  for interim reporting, we are permitted to comply solely with our home country requirements, which are less rigorous than the rules that apply to domestic public companies;
     
  we are not required to provide the same level of disclosure on certain issues, such as executive compensation;
     
  we are exempt from provisions of Regulation FD aimed at preventing issuers from making selective disclosures of material information;
     
  we are not required to comply with the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act; and
     
  we are not required to comply with Section 16 of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their share ownership and trading activities and establishing insider liability for profits realized from any “short-swing” trading transaction.

 

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company

 

As a company with less than US$1.235 billion in revenue for the last fiscal year, we qualify as an “emerging growth company” pursuant to the JOBS Act. An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other requirements that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include exemption from the auditor attestation requirement under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or Section 404, in the assessment of the emerging growth company’s internal control over financial reporting. The JOBS Act also provides that an emerging growth company does not need to comply with any new or revised financial accounting standards until such date that a private company is otherwise required to comply with such new or revised accounting standards.

 

We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (i) the last day of our fiscal year during which we have total annual gross revenues of at least US$1.235 billion; (ii) the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the completion of our initial public offering; (iii) the date on which we have, during the previous three year period, issued more than US$1.0 billion in non-convertible debt; or (iv) the date on which we are deemed to be a “large accelerated filer” under the Exchange Act, which would occur if the market value of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares that are held by non-affiliates exceeds US$700 million as of the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter and we have been publicly reporting for at least 12 months. Once we cease to be an emerging growth company, we will not be entitled to the exemptions provided in the JOBS Act discussed above.

 

Implications of Being a Controlled Company

 

Mr. Tao Ling, Ostin’s Chief Executive Officer and Chairman, currently controls a majority of the voting power of our outstanding share capital. As a result, we are a “controlled company” within the meaning of applicable Nasdaq listing rules. Under these rules, a company of which more than 50% of the voting power for the election of directors is held by an individual, group or another company is a “controlled company.” For so long as we remain a “controlled company,” we may elect not to comply with certain corporate governance requirements, including the requirements:

 

that a majority of the board of directors consists of independent directors;

 

for an annual performance evaluation of the nominating and corporate governance and compensation committees;

 

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that we have a nominating and corporate governance committee that is composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities; and

 

that we have a compensation committee that is composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibility.

 

We currently do not intend to use these exemptions but may use some or all of these exemptions in the future. As a result, you may not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all of the Nasdaq corporate governance requirements. 

 

Recent Developments

 

On January 19, 2024, the Company entered into certain securities purchase agreement with an accredited investor pursuant to which the Company sold a senior unsecured convertible note in the original principal amount of $550,000, at a purchase price of $500,000. Subject to certain sales limitation, the note is convertible into Class A Ordinary Shares of the Company beginning on the date that is six months from the closing date. On January 22, 2024, the Company completed its issuance and sale of the note pursuant to the securities purchase agreement. The issuance of the note was made pursuant to the exemption from registration contained in Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act and Regulation D promulgated thereunder. The gross proceeds from the sale of the note were $500,000, prior to deducting transaction fees and estimated expenses. The Company intends to use the proceeds for working capital and general corporate purposes.

 

On January 31, 2024, the Company entered into certain subscription agreement and registration rights agreement with a “non-U.S. Person” investor as defined in Regulation S of the Securities Act for a private placement. Pursuant to the subscription agreement, the Company agreed to issue and sell to the investor 2,800,000 ordinary shares of the Company at a purchase price equivalent to US$0.35 per share. The Company received US$980,000 in gross proceeds from the private placement of ordinary shares. The private placement was closed on February 7, 2024, subject to the customary closing conditions. The issuance of ordinary shares in the private placement is exempt from the registration requirements of the Securities Act, pursuant to Regulation S promulgated thereunder. 

 

Recent Regulatory Developments in China 

 

Recently, the PRC government initiated a series of regulatory actions and made a number of public statements on the regulation of business operations in China with little advance notice, including cracking down on illegal activities in the securities market, enhancing supervision over China-based companies listed overseas, adopting new measures to extend the scope of cybersecurity reviews, and expanding efforts in anti-monopoly enforcement.

 

On February 17, 2023, the CSRC promulgated the Overseas Listing Trial Measures, which became effective on March 31, 2023. The Overseas Listing Trial Measures comprehensively improve and reform the existing regulatory regime for overseas offering and listing of mainland China domestic companies’ securities and regulates both direct and indirect overseas offering and listing of mainland China domestic companies’ securities by adopting a filing-based regulatory regime.

 

According to the Overseas Listing Trial Measures, (i) mainland China domestic companies that seek to offer or list securities overseas, both directly and indirectly, should fulfill the filing procedure and report relevant information to the CSRC; if a mainland China domestic company fails to complete the filing procedure or conceals any material fact or falsifies any major content in its filing documents, such mainland China domestic company may be subject to administrative penalties, such as order to rectify, warnings, fines, and its controlling shareholders, actual controllers, the person directly in charge and other directly liable persons may also be subject to administrative penalties, such as warnings and fines; (ii) if the issuer meets both of the following conditions, the overseas offering and listing shall be determined as an indirect overseas offering and listing by a mainland China domestic company: (a) any of the total assets, net assets, revenues or profits of the domestic operating entities of the issuer in the most recent accounting year accounts for more than 50% of the corresponding figure in the issuer’s audited consolidated financial statements for the same period; (b) its major operational activities are carried out in mainland China or its main places of business are located in mainland China, or the senior managers in charge of operation and management of the issuer are mostly PRC citizens or have their usual place(s) of residence located in mainland China. The Overseas Listing Trial Measures require subsequent reports to be filed with the CSRC on material events, such as change of control or voluntary or forced delisting of the issuers who have completed overseas offerings and listings.

 

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On the same day, the CSRC also held a press conference for the release of the Overseas Listing Trial Measures and issued the Notice on Administration for the Filing of Overseas Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies, which, among others, clarifies that (i) prior to the effective date of the Overseas Listing Trial Measures, mainland China domestic companies that have already completed overseas listing shall be regarded as “existing companies”, which are not required to fulfill filing procedure immediately but shall be required to complete the filing if such existing companies conduct refinancing in the future; and (ii) the CSRC will solicit opinions from relevant regulatory authorities and complete the filing of the overseas listing of companies with contractual arrangements which duly meet the compliance requirements, and support the development and growth of these companies by enabling them to utilize two markets and two kinds of resources. However, since the Overseas Listing Trial Measures was newly promulgated, the interpretation, application and enforcement of Overseas Listing Trial Measures remain unclear.

 

On February 24, 2023, the CSRC released the Provisions on Strengthening the Confidentiality and Archives Administration Related to the Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Enterprises, or the Confidentiality and Archives Administration Provisions, which took effect on March 31, 2023. The Confidentiality and Archives Administration Provisions require, among others, that PRC domestic enterprises that seek to offer and list securities in overseas markets, either directly or indirectly, complete approval and filing procedures to competent authorities, if such PRC domestic enterprises or its overseas listing entities provide or publicly disclose documents or materials involving state secrets and work secrets of PRC government agencies to relevant securities companies, securities service institutions, overseas regulatory agencies and other entities and individuals. It further stipulates that providing or publicly disclosing documents and materials which may adversely affect national security or public interests, and accounting files or copies shall be subject to corresponding procedures in accordance with relevant laws and regulations.

 

In addition, an overseas-listed company must also submit the filing with respect to its follow-on offerings, issuance of convertible corporate bonds and exchangeable bonds, and other equivalent offering activities, within the time frame specified by the Overseas Listing Trial Measures. As a result, we will be required to file with the CSRC within three business days after the completion of the offerings in connection with this registration statement. We will begin the process of preparing a report and other required materials in connection with the CSRC filing, which will be submitted to the CSRC in due course. However, if we do not maintain the permissions and approvals of the filing procedure in a timely manner under PRC laws and regulations, we may be subject to investigations by competent regulators, fines or penalties, ordered to suspend our relevant operations and rectify any non-compliance, prohibited from engaging in relevant business or conducting any offering, and these risks could result in a material adverse change in our operations, limit our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors, or cause such securities to significantly decline in value or become worthless. As the Overseas Listing Trial Measures were newly published, there exists uncertainty with respect to the filing requirements and their implementation.

 

We are not operating in an industry that prohibits or limits foreign investment. As a result, as advised by our PRC counsel, King & Wood Mallesons, other than those requisite for a domestic company in China to engage in the businesses similar to ours, we are not required to obtain any permission from Chinese authorities, including the CSRC, CAC or any other governmental agency that is required to approve our operations. However, if we do not receive or maintain the approvals, or we inadvertently conclude that such approvals are not required, or applicable laws, regulations, or interpretations change such that we are required to obtain approval in the future, we may be subject to investigations by competent regulators, fines or penalties, ordered to suspend our relevant operations and rectify any non-compliance, prohibited from engaging in relevant business or conducting any offering, and these risks could result in a material adverse change in our operations, significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors, or cause such securities to significantly decline in value or become worthless.

 

As of the date of this prospectus, Ostin and its PRC subsidiaries have received from PRC authorities all requisite licenses, permissions or approvals needed to engage in the businesses currently conducted in China, and no permission or approval has been denied. Such licenses and permissions include Business License, Record Registration Form for Foreign Trade Business Operators, Application Letter for the Registration of Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Report by Proxy, Certificate of Safety Production Standardization and Certificate of the Customs of the People’s Republic of China on Registration of A Customs Declaration Entity. The following table provides details on the licenses and permissions held by our PRC subsidiaries.

 

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Company  License/Permission Issuing Authority Validity 
Jiangsu Austin Optronics Technology Co., Ltd. Business License Jiangsu Provincial Administration for Market Regulation Long-term
Certificate of the Customs of the People’s Republic of China on Registration of A Customs Declaration Entity Jinling Customs, People’s Republic of China Long-term
Record Registration Form for Foreign Trade Business Operators Eligible local foreign trade authorities appointed by the Ministry of Commerce Long-term
Sichuan Ausheet Electronic Materials Co., Ltd. Business License Shuangliu District Administrative Approval Bureau, Chengdu City Long-term
Certificate of the Customs of the People’s Republic of China on Registration of A Customs Declaration Entity Chengdu Customs, People’s Republic of China Long-term
Record Registration Form for Foreign Trade Business Operators Eligible local foreign trade authorities appointed by the Ministry of Commerce Long-term
Certificate of Safety Production Standardization Chengdu Bureau of Emergency Management Until July 4, 2024
Nanjing Aoting Technology Development Co., Ltd. Business License Nanjing Municipal Administration for Market Supervision Until May 12, 2045
Record Registration Form for Foreign Trade Business Operators Eligible local foreign trade authorities appointed by the Ministry of Commerce Long-term
Certificate of Safety Production Standardization Emergency Management Bureau of Nanjing Jiangbei New Area Management Committee Until January 2, 2027
Luzhou Aozhi Optronics Technology Co., Ltd. Business License Market Supervision Bureau of Naxi District, Luzhou City Long-term
Record Registration Form for Foreign Trade Business Operators Eligible local foreign trade authorities appointed by the Ministry of Commerce Long-term
Sichuan Auniu New Materials Co., Ltd. Business License Shuangliu District Administrative Approval Bureau, Chengdu City Long-term
Jiangsu Huiyin Optronics Co., Ltd. Business License Nanjing Municipal Administration for Industry and Commerce Until May 1, 2043
Nanjing Zhancheng Photoelectron Co., Ltd. Business License Market Supervision Bureau of Xuanwu District, Nanjing City Until December 14, 2031
Austin Optronics Technology Co., Ltd. Business License The Companies Registry (Hong Kong) Long-term
Nanjing Aosa Technology Development Co., Ltd. Business License Nanjing Municipal Administration for Market Supervision Long-term
Beijing Suhongyuanda Science and Technology Co., Ltd. Business License Beijing Municipal Administration for Market Supervision Until September 23, 2049

 

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Effect of Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act 

 

The Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCA Act, was enacted on December 18, 2020. The HFCA Act states that if the SEC determines that we have filed audit reports issued by a registered public accounting firm that has not been subject to inspection by the PCAOB for three consecutive years beginning in 2021, the SEC will prohibit Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares from being traded on a national securities exchange or in the over-the-counter trading market in the United States.

 

On December 2, 2021, the SEC adopted final amendments to its rules implementing the HFCA Act. Such final rules establish procedures that the SEC will follow in (i) determining whether a registrant is a “Commission-Identified Issuer” (a registrant identified by the SEC as having filed an annual report with an audit report issued by a registered public accounting firm that is located in a foreign jurisdiction and that the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely because of a position taken by an authority in that jurisdiction) and (ii) prohibiting the trading of an issuer that is a Commission-Identified Issuer for three consecutive years under the HFCA Act. The SEC began identifying Commission-Identified Issuers for the fiscal years beginning after December 18, 2020. A Commission-Identified Issuer is required to comply with the submission and disclosure requirements in the annual report for each year in which it was identified.

 

As of the date of this prospectus, we have not been, and do not expect to be identified by the SEC under the HFCA Act. However, whether the PCAOB will continue to conduct inspections and investigations completely to its satisfaction of PCAOB-registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong is subject to uncertainty and depends on a number of factors out of our, and our auditor’s control including positions taken by authorities of the PRC.

 

On December 16, 2021, the PCAOB issued its determination that the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely PCAOB-registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and in Hong Kong, because of positions taken by PRC authorities in those jurisdictions, and the PCAOB included in the report of its determination a list of the accounting firms that are headquartered in mainland China or Hong Kong. This list does not include our auditor, TPS Thayer, LLC.

 

On August 26, 2022, the PCAOB announced that it had signed the Statement of Protocol with the CSRC and the MOF. The terms of the Statement of Protocol would grant the PCAOB complete access to audit work papers and other information so that it may inspect and investigate PCAOB-registered accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong.

 

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On December 16, 2021, the PCAOB issued its determination that the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely PCAOB-registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and in Hong Kong, because of positions taken by PRC authorities in those jurisdictions, and the PCAOB included in the report of its determination a list of the accounting firms that are headquartered in mainland China or Hong Kong. This list does not include our auditor, TPS Thayer, LLC.

 

On August 26, 2022, the PCAOB announced that it had signed the Statement of Protocol with the CSRC and the MOF. The terms of the Statement of Protocol would grant the PCAOB complete access to audit work papers and other information so that it may inspect and investigate PCAOB-registered accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong.

 

On December 15, 2022, the PCAOB announced that it has secured complete access to inspect and investigate registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong and voted to vacate the previous 2021 determination report to the contrary. On December 29, 2022, a legislation entitled “Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2023” (the “Consolidated Appropriations Act”) was signed into law by President Biden. The Consolidated Appropriations Act contained, among other things, an identical provision to the Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, which reduces the number of consecutive non-inspection years required for triggering the prohibitions under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act from three years to two. As a result of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, the HFCA Act now also applies if the PCAOB’s inability to inspect or investigate the relevant accounting firm is due to a position taken by an authority in any foreign jurisdiction. The denying jurisdiction does not need to be where the accounting firm is located. Our current auditor, TPS Thayer, LLC, as an auditor of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the PCAOB, is subject to laws in the United States pursuant to which the PCAOB conducts regular inspections to assess its compliance with the applicable professional standards. Notwithstanding the foregoing, in the future, if there is any regulatory change or step taken by PRC regulators that does not permit our auditor to provide audit documentations located in China to the PCAOB for inspection or investigation, investors may be deprived of the benefits of such inspection. Any audit reports not issued by auditors that are completely inspected by the PCAOB, or a lack of PCAOB inspections of audit work undertaken in China that prevents the PCAOB from regularly evaluating our auditors’ audits and their quality control procedures, could result in a lack of assurance that our financial statements and disclosures are adequate and accurate, then such lack of inspection could cause Ostin’s securities to be delisted from the stock exchange. See “Item 3. Key Information-D. Risk Factors-Risks Relating to Doing Business in China - Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares may be delisted under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act if the PCAOB is unable to inspect our auditors. The delisting of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares, or the threat of their being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment.”,

 

The PCAOB is required under the HFCA Act to make its determination on an annual basis with regards to its ability to inspect and investigate completely accounting firms based in the mainland China and Hong Kong, among other jurisdictions. The possibility of being a “Commission-Identified Issuer” and risk of delisting could continue to adversely affect the trading price of Ostin’s securities. Should the PCAOB again encounter impediments to inspections and investigations in mainland China or Hong Kong as a result of positions taken by any authority in either jurisdiction, the PCAOB will make determinations under the HFCA Act as and when appropriate.

 

For details on the effects of HFCA Act on us, see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors— Risks Related to Doing Business in China - Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares may be delisted under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act if the PCAOB is unable to inspect our auditors. The delisting of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares, or the threat of their being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment.” in our 2023 Annual Report, which is incorporated herein by reference.

 

Corporate Information

 

Our principal executive offices are located at Building 2, 101, 1 Kechuang Road, Qixia District, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China 210046 and our telephone number is +86 (25) 58595234. Our registered office in the Cayman Islands is located at the offices of Maples Corporate Services Limited, PO Box 309, Ugland House, Grand Cayman, KY1-1104, Cayman Islands. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Cogency Global Inc., 122 East 42nd Street, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10168. Investors should submit any inquiries to the address and telephone number of our principal executive offices.

 

Our website is http://ostin-technology.com/. The information contained on this website is not a part of this prospectus.

 

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Summary of Risk Factors 

 

Below please find a summary of the principal risks we face. For a detailed description of the risk factors we may face, see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors” in our 2023 Annual Report, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus and “Risk Factors” in this prospectus.

  

Risks Related to Doing Business in China 

  

We are also subject to risks and uncertainties relating to doing business in China in general, including, but are not limited to, the following:

 

Changes in the political and economic policies of the PRC government or in relations between China and the United States may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and may result in our inability to sustain our growth and expansion strategies.

 

There are uncertainties regarding the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws, rules and regulations.

 

The PRC government exerts substantial influence over the manner in which we conduct our business activities. The PRC government may also intervene or influence our operations at any time, which could result in a material change in our operations and Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares could decline in value or become worthless.

 

The approval of and filing with the CSRC, CAC or other PRC government authorities may be required in connection with our offshore offerings under PRC law, and, if required, we cannot predict whether or for how long we will be able to obtain such approval or complete such filing.

 

You may experience difficulties in effecting service of legal process, enforcing foreign judgments or bringing actions in China against us or our management named in the annual report based on foreign laws.

 

PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay us from using the proceeds of our initial public offering or future financings to make loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

 

We rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our subsidiaries to fund offshore cash and financing requirements and any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to transfer cash out of China and/or make remittance to pay dividends to us could limit our ability to access cash generated by the operations of those entities.

 

Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares may be delisted under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act if the PCAOB is unable to inspect our auditors. The delisting of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares, or the threat of their being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment.

 

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry:

 

Risks and uncertainties related to our business and industry include, but are not limited to, the following:

 

We depend on a few major customers with whom we do not enter into long-term contracts, the loss of any of which could cause a significant decline in our revenues.

 

Our industry is cyclical, with recurring periods of capacity increases. As a result, price fluctuations in response to supply and demand imbalances could harm our results of operations.

 

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We may need to raise additional capital or obtain loans from financial institutions from time to time and our operations could be curtailed if we are unable to obtain the required additional funding when needed. We may not be able to do so when necessary, and/or the terms of any financings may not be advantageous to us.

 

We may experience declines in the selling prices of our products irrespective of cyclical fluctuations in the industry.

 

Our debt may restrict our operations, and cash flows and capital resources may be insufficient to make required payments on our substantial indebtedness and future indebtedness.

 

We depend on a key equipment supplier for the manufacture of polarizers, the loss of which could hurt our business.

 

We depend on the supply of raw materials and key component parts, and any adverse changes in such supply or the costs of raw materials may adversely affect our operations.

 

We are still in the process of obtaining certificates for our manufacturing facilities in Chengdu, China. If we fail to obtain any of them, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

 

We operate in a highly competitive environment and we may not be able to sustain our current market position if we fail to compete successfully.

 

Other flat panel display technologies or alternative display technologies could render our products uncompetitive or obsolete.

 

Any lack of requisite approvals, licenses or permits applicable to our business or any failure to comply with applicable laws or regulations may have a material and adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Risks Related to Ownership of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares

 

In addition to the risks and uncertainties described above, we are subject to risks relating to Class A Ordinary Shares, including, but not limited to, the following:

 

An active trading market for Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares or Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares may not continue and the trading price for Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares may fluctuate significantly.

 

The trading price of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares may be volatile, which could result in substantial losses to investors.

 

The market price of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares has recently declined significantly, and Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares could be delisted from Nasdaq or trading could be suspended.

 

In the event that Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares are delisted from Nasdaq, U.S. broker-dealers may be discouraged from effecting transactions in Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares because they may be considered penny stocks and thus be subject to the penny stock rules.

 

Because we are a foreign private issuer and are exempt from certain Nasdaq corporate governance standards applicable to U.S. issuers, you will have less protection than you would have if we were a domestic issuer.

 

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RISK FACTORS

 

An investment in the securities that we are offering involves a high degree of risk. We operate, primarily through our subsidiaries in China, in a highly competitive environment in which there are numerous factors that can influence its business, financial position or results of operations and that can also cause the market value of the Class A Ordinary Shares to decline. Many of these factors are beyond our control and therefore, are difficult to predict. Prior to making a decision about investing in the securities, you should carefully consider the risk factors discussed in the sections entitled “Risk Factors” contained in our 2023 Annual Report filed with the SEC, and in any applicable prospectus supplement and our other filings with the SEC and incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement, together with all of the other information contained in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement or related free writing prospectus. If any of the risks or uncertainties described in our SEC filings or any prospectus supplement or any additional risks and uncertainties actually occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. In that case, the trading price of the securities could decline and you might lose all or part of your investment.

  

The following disclosure is intended to highlight, update or supplement previously disclosed risk factors facing the Company set forth in the Company’s public filings. These risk factors should be carefully considered along with any other risk factors identified in the Company’s other filings with the SEC.

 

Such risks are not exhaustive. We may face additional risks that are presently unknown to us or that we believe to be immaterial as of the date of this prospectus. Known and unknown risks and uncertainties may significantly impact and impair our business operations primarily through our subsidiaries in China. 

  

Risks Related to Doing Business in China 

 

Changes in the political and economic policies of the PRC government or in relations between China and the United States may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and may result in our inability to sustain our growth and expansion strategies.

 

Substantially all of our operations are conducted in the PRC and a majority of our revenues are sourced from the PRC. Accordingly, our financial condition and results of operations are affected to a significant extent by economic, political and legal developments in the PRC or changes in government relations between China and the United States or other governments. There is significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the United States and China with respect to trade policies, treaties, government regulations and tariffs.

 

The PRC economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including the extent of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange and allocation of resources. Although the PRC government has implemented measures emphasizing the utilization of market forces for economic reform, the reduction of state ownership of productive assets, and the establishment of improved corporate governance in business enterprises, a substantial portion of productive assets in China is still owned by the government. In addition, the PRC government continues to play a significant role in regulating industry development by imposing industrial policies. The PRC government also exercises significant control over China’s economic growth by allocating resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy, regulating financial services and institutions and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies.

 

While the PRC economy has experienced significant growth in the past four decades, growth has been uneven, both geographically and among various sectors of the economy. The PRC government has implemented various measures to encourage economic growth and guide the allocation of resources. Some of these measures may benefit the overall PRC economy, but may also have a negative effect on us. Our financial condition and results of operation could be materially and adversely affected by government control over capital investments or changes in tax regulations that are applicable to us. In addition, the PRC government has implemented in the past certain measures, including interest rate increases, to control the pace of economic growth. These measures may cause decreased economic activity.

 

In July 2021, the Chinese government provided new guidance on China-based companies raising capital outside of China, including through VIE arrangements. In light of such developments, the SEC has imposed enhanced disclosure requirements on China-based companies seeking to register securities with the SEC. In February 2023, the CSRC promulgated the Trial Administrative Measures of the Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies and five supporting guidelines, which took effect on March 31, 2023. As substantially all of our operations are based in China, any future Chinese, U.S. or other rules and regulations that place restrictions on capital raising or other activities by China based companies could adversely affect our business and results of operations. If the business environment in China deteriorates from the perspective of domestic or international investment, or if relations between China and the United States or other governments deteriorate, the Chinese government may intervene with our operations and our business in China and United States, as well as the market price of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares, may also be adversely affected.

 

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There are uncertainties regarding the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws, rules and regulations.

 

Substantially all of our operations are conducted in the PRC, and are governed by PRC laws, rules and regulations. Our PRC subsidiaries are subject to laws, rules and regulations applicable to foreign investment in China. The PRC legal system is a civil law system based on written statutes. Unlike the common law system, prior court decisions may be cited for reference but have limited precedential value.

 

In 1979, the PRC government began to promulgate a comprehensive system of laws, rules and regulations governing economic matters in general. The overall effect of legislation over the past four decades has significantly enhanced the protections afforded to various forms of foreign investment in China. However, China has not developed a fully integrated legal system, and recently enacted laws, rules and regulations may not sufficiently cover all aspects of economic activities in China or may be subject to significant degrees of interpretation by PRC regulatory agencies. In particular, because these laws, rules and regulations are relatively new, and because of the limited number of published decisions and the nonbinding nature of such decisions, and because the laws, rules and regulations often give the relevant regulator significant discretion in how to enforce them, the interpretation and enforcement of these laws, rules and regulations involve uncertainties and can be inconsistent and unpredictable. In addition, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules, some of which are not published on a timely basis or at all, and which may have a retroactive effect. As a result, we may not be aware of our violation of these policies and rules until after the occurrence of the violation.

 

Administrative and court proceedings in China may be protracted, resulting in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management attention. Since PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy than in more developed legal systems. These uncertainties may impede our ability to enforce the contracts we have entered into and could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

On July 6, 2021, the General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the General Office of the State Council jointly issued the “Opinions on Severely Cracking Down on Illegal Securities Activities According to Law,” or the Opinions. The Opinions emphasized the need to strengthen the administration over illegal securities activities, and the need to strengthen the supervision over overseas listings by Chinese companies. Effective measures, such as promoting the construction of relevant regulatory systems will be taken to deal with the risks and incidents of China-concept overseas listed companies, and cybersecurity and data privacy protection requirements and similar matters. The Opinions remain unclear on how the law will be interpreted, amended and implemented by the relevant PRC governmental authorities, but the Opinions and any related implementing rules to be enacted may subject us to compliance requirements in the future.

 

In June 2021, the SCNPC promulgated the PRC Data Security Law, which took effect in September 2021. The PRC Data Security Law, among other things, provides for security review procedure for data-related activities that may affect national security. In November 2021, the CAC released the Administrative Regulations on Internet Data Security (Draft for Comments), or the Draft Data Security Regulations, which provides that data processors refer to individuals or organizations that, during their data processing activities such as data collection, storage, utilization, transmission, publication and deletion, have autonomy over the purpose and the manner of data processing. In accordance with the Draft Data Security Regulations, data processors shall apply for a cybersecurity review for certain activities, including, among other things, (i) the listing abroad of data processors that process the personal information of more than one million individuals and (ii) any data processing activity that affects or may affect national security. However, there have been no clarifications from the relevant authorities as of the date of this prospectus as to the standards for determining whether an activity is one that “affects or may affect national security.” In addition, the Draft Data Security Regulations requires that data processors that process “important data” or are listed overseas must conduct an annual data security assessment by itself or commission a data security service provider to do so, and submit the assessment report of the preceding year to the municipal cybersecurity department by the end of January each year. As of the date of this prospectus, the Draft Data Security Regulations was released for public comment only, and their respective provisions and anticipated adoption or effective date may be subject to change with substantial uncertainty.

 

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On December 28, 2021, the Measures for Cybersecurity Review (2021 version) was promulgated and took effect on February 15, 2022, which iterates that any “online platform operators” controlling personal information of more than one million users which seeks to list in a foreign stock exchange should also be subject to cybersecurity review. On September 14, 2022, the CAC published the Decision of Amending PRC Cybersecurity Law (Draft for Comments), or the Draft Amendment to PRC Cybersecurity Law, which, among other things, aggravated legal liabilities for violations of cybersecurity obligations and critical information infrastructure operators’ obligations. As of the date of this prospectus, the Draft Amendment to PRC Cybersecurity Law was released for public comment only, and its respective provisions and anticipated adoption or effective date may be subject to change with substantial uncertainty.

 

On August 20, 2021, the SCNPC promulgated the Personal Information Protection Law, which took effect on November 1, 2021. The Personal Information Protection Law aims at protecting the personal information rights and interests, regulating the processing of personal information, ensuring the orderly and free flow of personal information in accordance with the law, and promoting the reasonable use of personal information. According to the Personal Information Protection Law, personal information includes all kinds of identified or identifiable information related to natural persons recorded by electronic or other means, but excludes de-identified information. The Personal Information Protection Law also specified the rules for handling sensitive personal information, which includes biometrics, religious beliefs, specific identities, medical health, financial accounts, trails and locations, and personal information of teenagers under fourteen years old and other personal information, which, upon leakage or illegal usage, may easily infringe the personal dignity or harm of safety of livelihood and property. Personal information handlers shall bear responsibility for their personal information handling activities, and adopt necessary measures to safeguard the security of the personal information they handle. Otherwise, the personal information handlers will be ordered for rectification or suspension or termination of provision of services, confiscation of illegal income, subject to fines or other penalties.

 

On July 7, 2022, the CAC issued the Measures on Security Assessment of the Cross-border Transfer of Data, effective from September 1, 2022. The measures provide that four types of cross-border transfers of critical data or personal data generated from or collected in the PRC should be subject to a security assessment, which include: (i) a data processor to transfer important data overseas; (ii) either a critical information infrastructure operator, or a data processor processing personal information of more than 1 million individuals, transfers personal information overseas; (iii) a data processor who has, since January 1 of the previous year, transferred personal information of more than 100,000 individuals overseas cumulatively, or transferred sensitive personal information of more than 10,000 individuals overseas cumulatively; or (iv) other circumstances under which security assessment of data cross-border transfer is required as prescribed by the national cyberspace administration. We have applied for a security assessment by the CAC regarding the cross-border transfer of certain data in our business operations in accordance with the Measures on Security Assessment of the Cross-border Transfer of Data. However, since these measures are relatively new, the interpretation and implementation of these measures in practice are subject to changes, including the assessment result by the CAC.

 

As advised by our PRC counsel, King & Wood Mallesons, we are not among “data processor” as mentioned above. The Company, through Jiangsu Austin and its subsidiaries, is a supplier of display modules and polarizers in China, and designs, develops and manufactures TFT-LCD modules, and neither the Company nor its subsidiaries is engaged in data activities as defined under the Personal Information Protection Law, which includes, without limitation, collection, storage, use, processing, transmission, provision, publication and deletion of data. In addition, neither the Company nor its subsidiaries is an operator of any “critical information infrastructure” as defined under the PRC Cybersecurity Law and the Security Protection Measures on Critical Information Infrastructure. However, Measures for Cybersecurity Review (2021 version) was recently adopted and the Opinions remain unclear on how it will be interpreted, amended and implemented by the relevant PRC governmental authorities.

 

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There remains uncertainties as to when the final measures will be issued and take effect, how they will be enacted, interpreted or implemented, and whether they will affect us. If we inadvertently conclude that the Measures for Cybersecurity Review (2021 version) do not apply to us, or applicable laws, regulations, or interpretations change and it is determined in the future that the Measures for Cybersecurity Review (2021 version) become applicable to us, we may be subject to review when conducting data processing activities, and may face challenges in addressing its requirements and make necessary changes to our internal policies and practices. We may incur substantial costs in complying with the Measures for Cybersecurity Review (2021 version), which could result in material adverse changes in our business operations and financial position. If we are not able to fully comply with the Measures for Cybersecurity Review (2021 version), our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors may be significantly limited or completely hindered, and Ostin’s securities may significantly decline in value or become worthless.

 

On December 24, 2021, the State Council issued a draft of the Provisions of the State Council on the Administration of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies, or the Draft Provisions, and the CSRC issued a draft of Administration Measures for the Filing of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies, or the Draft Administration Measures, for public comments., and if enacted, they may subject us to additional compliance requirement in the future.

 

On February 17, 2023, the CSRC promulgated the Circular of the People’s Republic of China on Administrative Arrangements for Filing of Overseas Offering and Listing of Domestic Enterprises, or the Circular of Overseas Listing and Offering, and the Trial Administrative Measures of the Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies and five relevant guidelines, or the Overseas Listing Trial Measures. The Overseas Listing Trial Measures became effective on March 31, 2023. Pursuant to the Overseas Listing Trial Measures, PRC domestic companies that seek to offer and list securities in overseas markets, either in direct or indirect means, are required to fulfill the filing procedure with the CSRC and report relevant information. According to the Circular of Overseas Listing and Offering, issuers that have already been listed in an overseas market by March 31, 2023, such as our company, are not required to make any immediate filing. In addition, an overseas-listed company must also submit the filing with respect to its follow-on offerings, issuance of convertible corporate bonds and exchangeable bonds, and other equivalent offering activities, within the time frame specified by the Overseas Listing Trial Measures. As a result, we will be required to file with the CSRC within three business days after the completion of the offerings in connection with this registration statement. We will begin the process of preparing a report and other required materials in connection with the CSRC filing, which will be submitted to the CSRC in due course. However, if we do not maintain the permissions and approvals of the filing procedure in a timely manner under PRC laws and regulations, we may be subject to investigations by competent regulators, fines or penalties, ordered to suspend our relevant operations and rectify any non-compliance, prohibited from engaging in relevant business or conducting any offering, and these risks could result in a material adverse change in our operations, limit our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors, or cause such securities to significantly decline in value or become worthless. As the Overseas Listing Trial Measures were newly published, there exists uncertainty with respect to the filing requirements and their implementation. Any failure or perceived failure of us to fully comply with such new regulatory requirements could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors, cause significant disruption to our business operations, and severely damage our reputation, which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations and could cause the value of Ostin’s securities to significantly decline or be worthless. See ” - The approval of and filing with the CSRC, CAC or other PRC government authorities may be required in connection with our offshore offerings under PRC law, and, if required, we cannot predict whether or for how long we will be able to obtain such approval or complete such filing.

 

Thus, it is still uncertain how PRC governmental authorities will regulate overseas listing in general and whether we are required to obtain any specific regulatory approvals. Furthermore, if the CSRC or other regulatory agencies later promulgate new rules or explanations requiring that we obtain their approvals for any follow-on offering, we may be unable to obtain such approvals which could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to our investors.

 

Furthermore, the PRC government authorities may strengthen oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers like us. Such actions taken by the PRC government authorities may intervene or influence our operations at any time, which are beyond our control. Therefore, any such action may adversely affect our operations and significantly limit or hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to you and reduce the value of such securities.

 

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Uncertainties regarding the enforcement of laws and the fact that rules and regulations in China can change quickly with little advance notice, along with the risk that the Chinese government may intervene or influence our operations at any time, or may exert more control over offerings conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers could result in a material change in our operations, financial performance and/or the value of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares or impair our ability to raise money.

 

The PRC government exerts substantial influence over the manner in which we conduct our business activities. The PRC government may also intervene or influence our operations at any time, which could result in a material change in our operations and Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares could decline in value or become worthless.

 

The Chinese government has exercised and continues to exercise substantial control over virtually every sector of the Chinese economy through regulation and state ownership. Our ability to operate in China may be harmed by changes in its laws and regulations, including those relating to taxation, environmental regulations, land use rights, property and other matters. The central or local governments of these jurisdictions may impose new, stricter regulations or interpretations of existing regulations that would require additional expenditures and efforts on our part to ensure our compliance with such regulations or interpretations. Accordingly, government actions in the future, including any decision not to continue to support recent economic reforms and to return to a more centrally planned economy or regional or local variations in the implementation of economic policies, could have a significant effect on economic conditions in China or particular regions thereof, and could require us to divest ourselves of any interest we then hold in our operations in China.

 

For example, the Chinese cybersecurity regulator announced on July 2, 2021, that it had begun an investigation of Didi Global Inc. (NYSE: DIDI) and two days later ordered that the company’s app be removed from smartphone app stores. Similarly, our business segments may be subject to various government and regulatory interference in the regions in which we operate. We could be subject to regulation by various political and regulatory entities, including various local and municipal agencies and government sub-divisions. We may incur increased costs necessary to comply with existing and newly adopted laws and regulations or penalties for any failure to comply.

 

Furthermore, it is uncertain when and whether we will be required to obtain permission from the PRC government to continue listing on U.S. exchanges in the future, and even when such permission is obtained, whether it will be denied or rescinded. Although we are currently not required to obtain permission from any of the PRC central or local government to obtain such permission and has not received any denial to list on the U.S. exchange, our operations could be adversely affected, directly or indirectly, by existing or future laws and regulations relating to our business or industry. If our holding company or any of our PRC subsidiaries were required to obtain approval in the future and were denied permission from Chinese authorities to continue listing on U.S. exchanges, we will not be able to continue listing on U.S. exchange, continue to offer securities to investors, or materially affect the interest of the investors and cause significantly depreciation of the price of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares. Recent statements by the Chinese government indicating an intent, and the PRC government may take actions to exert more oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers, which could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of Ostin’s securities to significantly decline or become worthless.

 

The approval of and filing with the CSRC, CAC or other PRC government authorities may be required in connection with our offshore offerings under PRC law, and, if required, we cannot predict whether or for how long we will be able to obtain such approval or complete such filing.

 

The Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, adopted by six PRC regulatory agencies in 2006 and amended in 2009, requires an overseas special purpose vehicle formed for listing purposes through acquisitions of PRC domestic companies and controlled by PRC persons or entities to obtain the approval of the CSRC prior to the listing and trading of such special purpose vehicle’s securities on an overseas stock exchange. The interpretation and application of the regulations remain unclear, and our offshore offerings may ultimately require approval of the CSRC. If the CSRC approval is required, it is uncertain whether we can or how long it will take us to obtain the approval and, even if we obtain such CSRC approval, the approval could be rescinded. Any failure to obtain or delay in obtaining the CSRC approval for any of our offshore offerings, or a rescission of such approval is obtained by us, would subject us to sanctions imposed by the CSRC, CAC or other PRC regulatory authorities, which could include fines and penalties on our operations in China, restrictions or limitations on our ability to pay dividends outside of China, and other forms of sanctions that may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

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On July 6, 2021, the relevant PRC government authorities issued the Opinions on Strictly Scrutinizing Illegal Securities Activities in Accordance with the Law. These opinions emphasized the need to strengthen the administration over illegal securities activities and the supervision on overseas listings by China-based companies, to improve relevant laws and regulations on data security, cross-border data transmission, and confidential information management, and provided that efforts will be made to revise the regulations on strengthening the confidentiality and file management relating to the offering and listing of securities overseas, and proposed to take effective measures, such as promoting the construction of relevant regulatory systems to deal with the risks and incidents faced by China-based overseas-listed companies. As a follow-up, on December 24, 2021, the State Council issued a draft of the Draft Provisions, and the CSRC issued a draft of the Draft Administration Measures, for public comments.

 

On February 17, 2023, the CSRC promulgated the Overseas Listing Trial Measures, which became effective on March 31, 2023. The Overseas Listing Trial Measures comprehensively improve and reform the existing regulatory regime for overseas offering and listing of mainland China domestic companies’ securities and regulates both direct and indirect overseas offering and listing of mainland China domestic companies’ securities by adopting a filing-based regulatory regime.

 

According to the Overseas Listing Trial Measures, (i) mainland China domestic companies that seek to offer or list securities overseas, both directly and indirectly, should fulfill the filing procedure and report relevant information to the CSRC; if a mainland China domestic company fails to complete the filing procedure or conceals any material fact or falsifies any major content in its filing documents, such mainland China domestic company may be subject to administrative penalties, such as order to rectify, warnings, fines, and its controlling shareholders, actual controllers, the person directly in charge and other directly liable persons may also be subject to administrative penalties, such as warnings and fines; (ii) if the issuer meets both of the following conditions, the overseas offering and listing shall be determined as an indirect overseas offering and listing by a mainland China domestic company: (a) any of the total assets, net assets, revenues or profits of the domestic operating entities of the issuer in the most recent accounting year accounts for more than 50% of the corresponding figure in the issuer’s audited consolidated financial statements for the same period; (b) its major operational activities are carried out in mainland China or its main places of business are located in mainland China, or the senior managers in charge of operation and management of the issuer are mostly PRC citizens or have their usual place(s) of residence located in mainland China. The Overseas Listing Trial Measures require subsequent reports to be filed with the CSRC on material events, such as change of control or voluntary or forced delisting of the issuers who have completed overseas offerings and listings.

 

On the same day, the CSRC also held a press conference for the release of the Overseas Listing Trial Measures and issued the Notice on Administration for the Filing of Overseas Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies, which, among others, clarifies that (i) prior to the effective date of the Overseas Listing Trial Measures, mainland China domestic companies that have already completed overseas listing shall be regarded as “existing companies”, which are not required to fulfill filing procedure immediately but shall be required to complete the filing if such existing companies conduct refinancing in the future; and (ii) the CSRC will solicit opinions from relevant regulatory authorities and complete the filing of the overseas listing of companies with contractual arrangements which duly meet the compliance requirements, and support the development and growth of these companies by enabling them to utilize two markets and two kinds of resources. However, since the Overseas Listing Trial Measures was newly promulgated, the interpretation, application and enforcement of Overseas Listing Trial Measures remain unclear.

 

In addition, an overseas-listed company must also submit the filing with respect to its follow-on offerings, issuance of convertible corporate bonds and exchangeable bonds, and other equivalent offering activities, within the time frame specified by the Overseas Listing Trial Measures. As a result, we will be required to file with the CSRC within three business days after the completion of the offerings in connection with this registration statement. We will begin the process of preparing a report and other required materials in connection with the CSRC filing, which will be submitted to the CSRC in due course. However, if we do not maintain the permissions and approvals of the filing procedure in a timely manner under PRC laws and regulations, we may be subject to investigations by competent regulators, fines or penalties, ordered to suspend our relevant operations and rectify any non-compliance, prohibited from engaging in relevant business or conducting any offering, and these risks could result in a material adverse change in our operations, limit our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors, or cause such securities to significantly decline in value or become worthless. As the Overseas Listing Trial Measures were newly published, there exists uncertainty with respect to the filing requirements and their implementation. Any failure or perceived failure of us to fully comply with such new regulatory requirements could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors, cause significant disruption to our business operations, and severely damage our reputation, which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations and could cause the value of Ostin’s securities to significantly decline or be worthless.

 

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Given the substantial uncertainties surrounding the latest CSRC filing requirements at this stage, we cannot assure you that we will be able to complete the filings and fully comply with the relevant new rules on a timely basis, if at all.

 

Relatedly, on December 27, 2021, the NDRC and the MOF jointly issued the Special Administrative Measures (Negative List) for Foreign Investment Access (2021 Version), or the 2021 Negative List, which will become effective on January 1, 2022. Pursuant to such Special Administrative Measures, if a domestic company engaging in the prohibited business stipulated in the 2021 Negative List seeks an overseas offering and listing, it shall obtain the approval from the competent government authorities. Besides, the foreign investors of the company shall not be involved in the company’s operation and management, and their shareholding percentage shall be subject, mutatis mutandis, to the relevant regulations on the domestic securities investments by foreign investors. As the 2021 Negative List is relatively new, there remain substantial uncertainties as to the interpretation and implementation of these new requirements, and it is unclear as to whether and to what extent listed companies like us will be subject to these new requirements. If we are required to comply with these requirements and fail to do so on a timely basis, if at all, our business operation, financial conditions and business prospect may be adversely and materially affected.

 

On February 24, 2023, the CSRC released the Provisions on Strengthening the Confidentiality and Archives Administration Related to the Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Enterprises, or the Confidentiality and Archives Administration Provisions, which took effect on March 31, 2023. The Confidentiality and Archives Administration Provisions require, among others, that PRC domestic enterprises that seek to offer and list securities in overseas markets, either directly or indirectly, complete approval and filing procedures to competent authorities, if such PRC domestic enterprises or its overseas listing entities provide or publicly disclose documents or materials involving state secrets and work secrets of PRC government agencies to relevant securities companies, securities service institutions, overseas regulatory agencies and other entities and individuals. It further stipulates that providing or publicly disclosing documents and materials which may adversely affect national security or public interests, and accounting files or copies shall be subject to corresponding procedures in accordance with relevant laws and regulations. Under the Confidentiality and Archives Administration Provisions, we may be required to complete relevant approval or filing procedures, or expend additional resources to comply with the Confidentiality and Archives Administration Provisions if we are recognized to fall within any of the foregoing circumstances. In addition, if the CSRC or other regulatory authorities later promulgate new rules or explanations requiring that we obtain their approvals or accomplish the required filing or other regulatory procedures for future capital-raising activities, we may be unable to obtain a waiver of such approval requirements, if and when procedures are established to obtain such a waiver.

 

In addition, we cannot assure you that any new rules or regulations promulgated in the future will not impose additional requirements on us. If it is determined in the future that approval and filing from the CSRC, CAC or other regulatory authorities or other procedures, including the cybersecurity review under the enacted version of the revised Measures for Cybersecurity Review, are required for our offshore offerings, it is uncertain whether we can or how long it will take us to obtain such approval or complete such filing procedures and any such approval or filing could be rescinded or rejected. Any failure to obtain or delay in obtaining such approval or completing such filing procedures for our offshore offerings, or a rescission of any such approval or filing if obtained by us, would subject us to sanctions by the CSRC, CAC or other PRC regulatory authorities for failure to seek CSRC approval or filing or other government authorization for our offshore offerings. These regulatory authorities may impose fines and penalties on our operations in China, limit our ability to pay dividends outside of China, limit our operating privileges in China, delay or restrict the repatriation of the proceeds from our offshore offerings into China or take other actions that could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects, as well as the trading price of our listed securities. The CSRC, CAC or other PRC regulatory authorities also may take actions requiring us, or making it advisable for us, to halt our offshore offerings before settlement and delivery of the shares offered. Consequently, if investors engage in market trading or other activities in anticipation of and prior to settlement and delivery, they do so at the risk that settlement and delivery may not occur. In addition, if the CSRC or other regulatory authorities later promulgate new rules or explanations requiring that we obtain their approvals or accomplish the required filing or other regulatory procedures for our prior offshore offerings, we may be unable to obtain a waiver of such approval requirements, if and when procedures are established to obtain such a waiver. Any uncertainties or negative publicity regarding such approval requirement could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, reputation, and the trading price of our listed securities.

 

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You may experience difficulties in effecting service of legal process, enforcing foreign judgments or bringing actions in China against us or our management named in the annual report based on foreign laws.

 

We are an exempted company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands, we conduct substantially all of our operations in China, and substantially all of our assets are located in China. In addition, all our senior executive officers reside within China for a significant portion of the time and are PRC nationals. As a result, it may be difficult for our shareholders to effect service of process upon us or those persons inside China. In addition, China does not have treaties providing for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments of courts with the Cayman Islands and many other countries and regions. Therefore, recognition and enforcement in China of judgments of a court in any of these non-PRC jurisdictions in relation to any matter not subject to a binding arbitration provision may be difficult or impossible.

 

Shareholder claims that are common in the United States, including securities law class actions and fraud claims, generally are difficult to pursue as a matter of law or practicality in China. For example, in China, there are significant legal and other obstacles to obtaining information needed for shareholder investigations or litigation outside China or otherwise with respect to foreign entities. Although the local authorities in China may establish a regulatory cooperation mechanism with the securities regulatory authorities of another country or region to implement cross-border supervision and administration, such regulatory cooperation with the securities regulatory authorities in the Unities States have not been efficient in the absence of mutual and practical cooperation mechanism. According to Article 177 of the PRC Securities Law which took effect in March 2020, no overseas securities regulator is allowed to directly conduct investigation or evidence collection activities within the territory of the PRC. Accordingly, without the consent of the competent PRC securities regulators and relevant authorities, no organization or individual may provide the documents and materials relating to securities business activities to overseas parties. See also “Item 3. Key Information-D. Risk Factors-Risks Relating to Ownership of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares-You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through U.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law” in our 2023 Annual Report, which is incorporated herein by reference for risks associated with investing in us as a Cayman Islands company.

 

PRC regulations regarding acquisitions impose significant regulatory approval and review requirements, which could make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions.

 

Under the PRC Anti-Monopoly Law, companies undertaking acquisitions relating to businesses in China must notify the State Administration for Market Regulation, or the SAMR, in advance of any transaction where the parties’ revenues in the China market exceed certain thresholds and the buyer would obtain control of, or decisive influence over, the target, while under the M&A Rules, the approval of MOFCOM must be obtained in circumstances where overseas companies established or controlled by PRC enterprises or residents acquire domestic companies affiliated with such PRC enterprises or residents. Applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations also require certain merger and acquisition transactions to be subject to security review. Due to the level of our revenues, our proposed acquisition of control of, or decisive influence over, any company with revenues within China of more than RMB400 million in the year prior to any proposed acquisition would be subject to SAMR merger control review. As a result, many of the transactions we may undertake could be subject to SAMR merger review. Complying with the requirements of the relevant regulations to complete such transactions could be time-consuming, and any required approval processes, including approval from SAMR, may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions, which could affect our ability to expand our business or maintain our market share. If the practice of SAMR and MOFCOM remains unchanged, our ability to carry out our investment and acquisition strategy may be materially and adversely affected and there may be significant uncertainty as to whether we will be able to complete large acquisitions in the future in a timely manner or at all.

 

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PRC regulations relating to investments in offshore companies by PRC residents may subject our PRC-resident beneficial owners or our PRC subsidiaries to liability or penalties, limit our ability to inject capital into our PRC subsidiaries or limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to increase their registered capital or distribute profits.

 

SAFE promulgated the Circular on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Control on Domestic Residents’ Offshore Investment and Financing and Roundtrip Investment through Special Purpose Vehicles, or the SAFE Circular 37, on July 4, 2014, which replaced the former circular commonly known as “SAFE Circular 75” promulgated by SAFE on October 21, 2005. SAFE Circular 37 requires PRC residents to register with local branches of SAFE in connection with their direct establishment or indirect control of an offshore entity, for the purpose of overseas investment and financing, with such PRC residents’ legally owned assets or equity interests in domestic enterprises or offshore assets or interests, referred to in SAFE Circular 37 as a “special purpose vehicle”. SAFE Circular 37 further requires amendment to the registration in the event of any significant changes with respect to the special purpose vehicle, such as increase or decrease of capital contributed by PRC individuals, share transfer or exchange, merger, division or other material event. In the event that a PRC shareholder holding interests in a special purpose vehicle fails to fulfill the required SAFE registration, the PRC subsidiaries of that special purpose vehicle may be prohibited from making profit distributions to the offshore parent and from carrying out subsequent cross-border foreign exchange activities, and the special purpose vehicle may be restricted in its ability to contribute additional capital into its PRC subsidiary. Moreover, failure to comply with the various SAFE registration requirements described above could result in liability under PRC law for evasion of foreign exchange controls.

 

We have notified substantial beneficial owners of Class A Ordinary Shares who we know are PRC residents of their filing obligation, and are aware that all substantial beneficial owners have completed the necessary registration with the local SAFE branch or qualified banks as required by SAFE Circular 37. However, we may not at all times be aware of the identities of all of our beneficial owners who are PRC residents. We do not have control over our beneficial owners and cannot assure you that all of our PRC-resident beneficial owners will comply with SAFE Circular 37 and subsequent implementation rules. The failure of our beneficial owners who are PRC residents to register or amend their SAFE registrations in a timely manner pursuant to SAFE Circular 37 and subsequent implementation rules, or the failure of future beneficial owners of our company who are PRC residents to comply with the registration procedures set forth in SAFE Circular 37 and subsequent implementation rules, may subject such beneficial owners or our PRC subsidiaries to fines and legal sanctions. Furthermore, since SAFE Circular 37 was recently promulgated and it is unclear how this regulation, and any future regulation concerning offshore or cross-border transactions, will be interpreted, amended and implemented by the relevant PRC government authorities, we cannot predict how these regulations will affect our business operations or future strategy. Failure to register or comply with relevant requirements may also limit our ability to contribute additional capital to our PRC subsidiaries and limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to distribute dividends to our company. These risks may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Any failure to comply with PRC regulations regarding the registration requirements for employee share incentive plans may subject the PRC plan participants or us to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions.

 

In February 2012, SAFE promulgated the Notices on Issues Concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plans of Overseas Publicly-Listed Companies, replacing earlier rules promulgated in March 2007. Pursuant to these rules, PRC citizens and non-PRC citizens who reside in China for a continuous period of not less than one year who participate in any share incentive plan of an overseas publicly listed company, subject to a few exceptions, are required to register with SAFE through a domestic qualified agent, which could be the PRC subsidiary of such overseas listed company, and complete certain other procedures. In addition, an overseas entrusted institution must be retained to handle matters in connection with the exercise or sale of share options and the purchase or sale of shares and interests. In the event we adopt an equity incentive plan, our executive officers and other employees who are PRC citizens or who have resided in the PRC for a continuous period of not less than one year and who are granted options or other awards under the equity incentive plan will be subject to these regulations. Failure to complete the SAFE registrations may subject them to fines and legal sanctions and may also limit our ability to contribute additional capital into our PRC subsidiaries and limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to distribute dividends to us. We also face regulatory uncertainties that could restrict our ability to adopt additional incentive plans for our directors, executive officers and employees under PRC law.

 

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PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay us from using the proceeds of our initial offering or future financings to make loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

 

Ostin is an offshore holding company conducting our operations in China through our PRC subsidiaries. We may make loans to our PRC subsidiaries subject to the approval from governmental authorities and limitation of amount, or we may make additional capital contributions to our subsidiaries in China.

 

Any loans to our WFOE in China, which is treated as a foreign-invested enterprise under PRC law, are subject to PRC regulations and foreign exchange loan registrations. For example, loans by us to our WFOE in China to finance its activities cannot exceed statutory limits and must be registered with the local counterpart of SAFE. In addition, a foreign invested enterprise shall use its capital pursuant to the principle of authenticity and self-use within its business scope. The capital of a foreign invested enterprise shall not be used for the following purposes: (i) directly or indirectly used for payment beyond the business scope of the enterprise or the payment prohibited by relevant laws and regulations; (ii) directly or indirectly used for investment in securities investments other than banks’ principal-secured products unless otherwise provided by relevant laws and regulations; (iii) the granting of loans to non-affiliated enterprises, except where it is expressly permitted in the business license; and (iv) paying the expenses related to the purchase of real estate that is not for self-use (except for the foreign-invested real estate enterprises).

 

SAFE promulgated the Notice of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming the Administration of Foreign Exchange Settlement of Capital of Foreign-invested Enterprises, or SAFE Circular 19, effective June 2015, in replacement of the Circular on the Relevant Operating Issues Concerning the Improvement of the Administration of the Payment and Settlement of Foreign Currency Capital of Foreign-Invested Enterprises, the Notice from the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Relevant Issues Concerning Strengthening the Administration of Foreign Exchange Businesses, and the Circular on Further Clarification and Regulation of the Issues Concerning the Administration of Certain Capital Account Foreign Exchange Businesses. Although SAFE Circular 19 allows RMB capital converted from foreign currency-denominated registered capital of a foreign-invested enterprise to be used for equity investments within China, it also reiterates the principle that RMB converted from the foreign currency-denominated capital of a foreign-invested company may not be directly or indirectly used for purposes beyond its business scope. Thus, it is unclear whether SAFE will permit such capital to be used for equity investments in China in actual practice. SAFE promulgated the Notice of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming and Standardizing the Foreign Exchange Settlement Management Policy of Capital Account, or SAFE Circular 16, effective on June 9, 2016, which reiterates some of the rules set forth in SAFE Circular 19, but changes the prohibition against using RMB capital converted from foreign currency-denominated registered capital of a foreign-invested company to issue RMB entrusted loans to a prohibition against using such capital to issue loans to non-associated enterprises. Violations of SAFE Circular 19 and SAFE Circular 16 could result in administrative penalties. SAFE Circular 19 and SAFE Circular 16 may significantly limit our ability to transfer any foreign currency we hold, including the net proceeds from our initial public offering or future financings, to our WFOE, which may adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business in China.

 

On October 23, 2019, SAFE issued the Circular on Further Promoting Cross-border Trade and Investment Facilitation, or SAFE Circular 28, which took effect on the same day. SAFE Circular 28, subject to certain conditions, allows foreign-invested enterprises whose business scope does not include investment, or non-investment foreign-invested enterprises, to use their capital funds to make equity investments in China. Since SAFE Circular 28 was issued only recently, its interpretation and implementation in practice are still subject to substantial uncertainties.

 

In light of the various requirements imposed by PRC regulations on loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies, and the fact that the PRC government may at its discretion restrict access to foreign currencies for current account transactions in the future, we cannot assure you that we will be able to complete the necessary government registrations or obtain the necessary government approvals on a timely basis, if at all, with respect to future loans to PRC subsidiaries in or future capital contributions by us to our WFOE in China. As a result, uncertainties exist as to our ability to provide prompt financial support to our PRC subsidiaries when needed. If we fail to complete such registrations or obtain such approvals, our ability to use the proceeds we received from our initial public offering or expect to receive from future financings and to capitalize or otherwise fund our PRC operations may be negatively affected, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

 

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We rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our subsidiaries to fund offshore cash and financing requirements and any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to transfer cash out of China and/or make remittance to pay dividends to us could limit our ability to access cash generated by the operations of those entities.

 

We are a holding company and rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our subsidiaries for our offshore cash and financing requirements, including the funds necessary to pay dividends and other cash distributions to our shareholders, fund inter-company loans, service any debt we may incur outside of China and pay our expenses. The laws, rules and regulations applicable to our PRC subsidiaries permit payments of dividends only out of their retained earnings, if any, determined in accordance with applicable accounting standards and regulations.

 

Under PRC laws, rules and regulations, each of our subsidiaries incorporated in China is required to set aside at least 10% of its after-tax profits each year, after making up for previous years’ accumulated losses, if any, to fund certain statutory reserves, until the aggregate amount of such fund reaches 50% of its registered capital. As a result of these laws, rules and regulations, our subsidiaries incorporated in China are restricted in their ability to transfer a portion of their respective net assets to their shareholders as dividends. As of September 30, 2023, 2022 and 2021, these restricted assets totaled $1,497,771, $1,496,314 and $1,033,653, respectively. However, there can be no assurance that the PRC government will not intervene or impose restrictions on our ability to transfer or distribute cash within our organization or to foreign investors, which could result in an inability or prohibition on making transfers or distributions outside of China and may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Limitations on the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to make remittance to pay dividends to us could limit our ability to access cash generated by the operations of those entities, including to make investments or acquisitions that could be beneficial to our businesses, pay dividends to our shareholders or otherwise fund and conduct our business.

 

We may be treated as a resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, and we may therefore be subject to PRC income tax on our global income.

 

Under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementing rules, both of which came into effect on January 1, 2008 and were last amended on December 29, 2018, enterprises established under the laws of jurisdictions outside of China with “de facto management bodies” located in China may be considered PRC tax resident enterprises for tax purposes and may be subject to the PRC enterprise income tax at the rate of 25% on their global income. “De facto management body” refers to a managing body that exercises substantive and overall management and control over the production and business, personnel, accounting books and assets of an enterprise. The SAT issued the Notice Regarding the Determination of Chinese-Controlled Offshore-Incorporated Enterprises as PRC Tax Resident Enterprises on the Basis of De Facto Management Bodies, or the SAT Circular 82, on April 22, 2009. SAT Circular 82 provides certain specific criteria for determining whether the “de facto management body” of a Chinese-controlled offshore-incorporated enterprise is located in China. Although Circular 82 only applies to offshore enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises, not those controlled by individuals or foreign enterprises, the determining criteria set forth in SAT Circular 82 may reflect the SAT’s general position on how the “de facto management body” test should be applied in determining the tax resident status of offshore enterprises, regardless of whether they are controlled by PRC enterprises. If we were to be considered a PRC resident enterprise, we would be subject to PRC enterprise income tax at the rate of 25% on our global income, and our profitability and cash flow may be materially reduced as a result of our global income being taxed under the Enterprise Income Tax Law. We believe that none of our entities outside of China is a PRC resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes. However, the tax resident status of an enterprise is subject to determination by the PRC tax authorities and uncertainties remain with respect to the interpretation of the term “de facto management body”.

 

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Dividends payable to our foreign investors and gains on the sale of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares by our foreign investors may be subject to PRC tax.

 

Under the Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation regulations issued by the State Council, a 10% PRC withholding tax is applicable to dividends payable to investors that are non-resident enterprises, which do not have an establishment or place of business in the PRC or which have such establishment or place of business but the dividends are not effectively connected with such establishment or place of business, to the extent such dividends are derived from sources within the PRC. Any gain realized on the transfer of Class A Ordinary Shares by such investors is also subject to PRC tax at a current rate of 10% which in the case of dividends will be withheld at source if such gain is regarded as income derived from sources within the PRC. If we are deemed a PRC resident enterprise, dividends paid on Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares, and any gain realized from the transfer of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares, may be treated as income derived from sources within the PRC and may as a result be subject to PRC taxation. See “Item 4. Information on the Company - Regulation - Regulations Relating to Taxation.” Furthermore, if we are deemed a PRC resident enterprise, dividends payable to individual investors who are non-PRC residents and any gain realized on the transfer of Class A Ordinary Shares by such investors may be subject to PRC tax at a current rate of 20%. Any PRC tax liability may be reduced under applicable tax treaties. However, it is unclear whether holders of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares would be able to claim the benefit of income tax treaties or agreements entered into between China and other countries or areas if we are considered a PRC resident enterprise. If dividends payable to our non-PRC investors, or gains from the transfer of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares by such investors are subject to PRC tax, the value of your investment in Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares may decline significantly.

 

We and our shareholders face uncertainties with respect to indirect transfers of equity interests in PRC resident enterprises by their non-PRC holding companies.

 

On February 3, 2015, the SAT issued the Announcement on Several Issues Concerning the Enterprise Income Tax on Indirect Transfer of Assets by Non-Resident Enterprises, or the SAT Circular 7. The SAT Circular 7 extends its tax jurisdiction to transactions involving the transfer of taxable assets through offshore transfer of a foreign intermediate holding company. In addition, SAT Circular 7 has introduced safe harbors for internal group restructurings and the purchase and sale of equity through a public securities market. SAT Circular 7 also brings challenges to both foreign transferor and transferee (or other person who is obligated to pay for the transfer) of taxable assets. On October 17, 2017, the SAT issued the Announcement on Issues Relating to Withholding at Source of Income Tax of Non-resident Enterprises, or the SAT Circular 37, which came into effect on December 1, 2017. The SAT Circular 37 further clarifies the practice and procedure of the withholding of non-resident enterprise income tax.

 

Where a non-resident enterprise transfers taxable assets indirectly by disposing of the equity interests of an overseas holding company, which is an Indirect Transfer, the non-resident enterprise as either transferor or transferee, or the PRC entity that directly owns the taxable assets, may report such Indirect Transfer to the relevant tax authority. Using a “substance over form” principle, the PRC tax authority may disregard the existence of the overseas holding company if it lacks a reasonable commercial purpose and was established for the purpose of reducing, avoiding or deferring PRC tax. As a result, gains derived from such Indirect Transfer may be subject to PRC enterprise income tax, and the transferee or other person who is obligated to pay for the transfer is obligated to withhold the applicable taxes, currently at a rate of 10% for the transfer of equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise. Both the transferor and the transferee may be subject to penalties under PRC tax laws if the transferee fails to withhold the taxes and the transferor fails to pay the taxes.

 

We face uncertainties as to the reporting and other implications of certain past and future transactions where PRC taxable assets are involved, such as offshore restructuring, sale of the shares in our offshore subsidiaries and investments. Our company may be subject to filing obligations or taxed if our company is transferor in such transactions, and may be subject to withholding obligations if our company is transferee in such transactions, under SAT Circular 7 and/or SAT Circular 37. For transfer of shares in our company that do not qualify for the public securities market safe harbor by investors who are non-PRC resident enterprises, our PRC subsidiaries may be requested to assist in the filing under SAT Circular 7 and/or SAT Circular 37. As a result, we may be required to expend valuable resources to comply with SAT Circular 7 and/or SAT Circular 37 or to request the relevant transferors from whom we purchase taxable assets to comply with these circulars, or to establish that our company should not be taxed under these circulars, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

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Restrictions on currency exchange may limit our ability to utilize our revenues effectively.

 

The financial records of our subsidiaries in mainland China are maintained in Renminbi. The Renminbi is currently convertible under the “current account,” which includes dividends, trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, but not under the “capital account,” which includes foreign direct investment and loans, including loans we may secure from our onshore subsidiaries. Currently, PRC subsidiaries may purchase foreign currency for settlement of “current account transactions,” including payment of dividends to us, without the approval of SAFE by complying with certain procedural requirements. However, the relevant PRC governmental authorities may limit or eliminate our ability to purchase foreign currencies in the future for current account transactions. Since we expect a significant portion of our future revenue will be denominated in Renminbi, any existing and future restrictions on currency exchange may limit our ability to utilize revenue generated in Renminbi to fund our business activities outside of the PRC and/or transfer cash out of China to pay dividends in foreign currencies to our shareholders. Foreign exchange transactions under the capital account remain subject to limitations and require approvals from, or registration with, SAFE and other relevant PRC governmental authorities. This could affect our ability to obtain foreign currency through debt or equity financing for our subsidiaries. In addition, there can be no assurance that the PRC government will not intervene or impose restrictions on our ability to transfer or distribute cash within our organization or to foreign investors, which could result in an inability or prohibition on making transfers or distributions outside of China and may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Fluctuations in exchange rates could result in foreign currency exchange losses to us and may reduce the value of, and amount in U.S. Dollars of dividends payable on, our shares in foreign currency terms.

 

The value of the RMB and the Hong Kong dollar against the U.S. dollar and other currencies may fluctuate and is affected by, among other things, changes in political and economic conditions and the foreign exchange policy adopted by the PRC government. In August 2015, the People’s Bank of China, or PBOC, changed the way it calculates the mid-point price of RMB against the U.S. dollar, requiring the market-makers who submit for reference rates to consider the previous day’s closing spot rate, foreign-exchange demand and supply as well as changes in major currency rates. It is difficult to predict how market forces or PRC or U.S. government policy, including any interest rate increases by the Federal Reserve, may impact the exchange rate between the RMB and the U.S. dollar in the future. There remains significant international pressure on the PRC government to adopt a more flexible currency policy, including from the U.S. government, which has threatened to label China as a “currency manipulator,” which could result in greater fluctuation of the RMB against the U.S. dollar. However, the PRC government may still at its discretion restrict access to foreign currencies for current account transactions in the future. Therefore, it is difficult to predict how market forces or government policies may impact the exchange rate between the RMB and the U.S. dollar or other currencies in the future. In addition, the PBOC regularly intervenes in the foreign exchange market to limit fluctuations in RMB exchange rates and achieve policy goals. If the exchange rate between RMB and U.S. dollar fluctuates in unanticipated manners, our results of operations and financial condition, and the value of, and dividends payable on, our shares in foreign currency terms may be adversely affected. We may not be able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to our shareholders. Appreciation of RMB to U.S dollar will result in exchange loss, while depreciation of RMB to U.S dollar will result in exchange gain.

 

Failure to make adequate contributions to various employee benefit plans and withhold individual income tax on employees’ salaries as required by PRC regulations may subject us to penalties.

 

Companies operating in China are required to participate in various government-mandated employee benefit contribution plans, including certain social insurance, housing funds and other welfare-oriented payment obligations, and contribute to the plans in amounts equal to certain percentages of salaries, including bonuses and allowances, of our employees up to a maximum amount specified by the local government from time to time at locations where we operate our businesses. The requirement of employee benefit contribution plans has not been implemented consistently by the local governments in China given the different levels of economic development in different locations. Companies operating in China are also required to withhold individual income tax on employees’ salaries based on the actual salary of each employee upon payment. We may be subject to late fees and fines in relation to the underpaid employee benefits and under-withheld individual income tax, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

 

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Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares may be delisted under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act if the PCAOB is unable to inspect our auditors. The delisting of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares, or the threat of their being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment.

 

Pursuant to the HFCA Act, as amended by the Consolidated Appropriations Act that was signed into law on December 29, 2022, if the SEC determines that we have filed audit reports issued by a registered public accounting firm that has not been subject to inspections by the PCAOB for two consecutive years, the SEC will prohibit our shares or ADSs from being traded on a national securities exchange or in the over-the-counter trading market in the United States.

 

On September 22, 2021, the PCAOB adopted a final rule implementing the HFCA Act, which provides a framework for the PCAOB to use when determining, as contemplated under the HFCA Act, whether the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms located in a foreign jurisdiction because of a position taken by one or more authorities in that jurisdiction. On December 2, 2021, the SEC issued amendments to finalize rules implementing the submission and disclosure requirements in the HFCA Act. The rules apply to registrants that the SEC identifies as having filed an annual report with an audit report issued by a registered public accounting firm that is located in a foreign jurisdiction and that PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely because of a position taken by an authority in foreign jurisdictions. On December 16, 2021, the PCAOB issued a Determination Report which found that the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms headquartered in: (i) China, and (ii) Hong Kong. Our auditor is not headquartered in China or Hong Kong and was not identified in this report as a firm subject to the PCAOB’s determination.

 

On August 26, 2022, the PCAOB announced that it had signed the Statement of Protocol with the CSRC and the MOF. The terms of the Statement of Protocol would grant the PCAOB complete access to audit work papers and other information so that it may inspect and investigate PCAOB-registered accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong. On December 15, 2022, the PCAOB announced that it has secured complete access to inspect and investigate registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong and voted to vacate the previous 2021 determination report to the contrary. On December 29, 2022, the Consolidated Appropriations Act was signed into law by President Biden. The Consolidated Appropriations Act contained, among other things, an identical provision to the Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, which reduces the number of consecutive non-inspection years required for triggering the prohibitions under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act from three years to two. As a result of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, the HFCA Act now also applies if the PCAOB’s inability to inspect or investigate the relevant accounting firm is due to a position taken by an authority in any foreign jurisdiction. The denying jurisdiction does not need to be where the accounting firm is located. We do not expect to be identified as a “Commission-Identified Issuer” under the HFCA Act for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2024 after we file our annual report on Form 20-F for such fiscal year. However, whether the PCAOB will continue to conduct inspections and investigations completely to its satisfaction of PCAOB-registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong is subject to uncertainty and depends on a number of factors out of our, and our auditor’s control including positions taken by authorities of the PRC. The PCAOB is required under the HFCA Act to make its determination on an annual basis with regards to its ability to inspect and investigate completely accounting firms based in the mainland China and Hong Kong, among other jurisdictions. The possibility of being a “Commission-Identified Issuer” and risk of delisting could continue to adversely affect the trading price of Ostin’s securities. Should the PCAOB again encounter impediments to inspections and investigations in mainland China or Hong Kong, among other jurisdictions, as a result of positions taken by any authority in either jurisdiction, the PCAOB will make determinations under the HFCA Act as and when appropriate.

 

Our auditor, the independent registered public accounting firm that issues the audit report included elsewhere in this prospectus, as an auditor of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the PCAOB, is subject to laws in the United States pursuant to which the PCAOB conducts regular inspections to assess its compliance with the applicable professional standards. Our auditor’s registration with the PCAOB took effect in September 2020 and it is currently subject to PCAOB inspections. The PCAOB currently has access to inspect the working papers of our auditor. However, we cannot assure you whether Nasdaq or regulatory authorities would apply additional and more stringent criteria to us after considering the effectiveness of our auditor’s audit procedures and quality control procedures, adequacy of personnel and training, or sufficiency of resources, geographic reach or experience as it relates to the audit of our financial statements.

 

Furthermore, various equity-based research organizations have recently published reports on China-based companies after examining their corporate governance practices, related party transactions, sales practices and financial statements, and these reports have led to special investigations and listing suspensions on U.S. national exchanges.

 

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Any similar scrutiny on us, regardless of its lack of merit, could cause the market price of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares to fall, divert management resources and energy, cause us to incur expenses in defending ourselves against rumors, and increase the premiums we pay for director and officer insurance.

 

The SEC may propose additional rules or guidance that could impact us if our auditor is not subject to PCAOB inspection. For example, on August 6, 2020, the President’s Working Group on Financial Markets, or the PWG, issued the Report on Protecting United States Investors from Significant Risks from Chinese Companies to the then President of the United States. This report recommended the SEC implement five recommendations to address companies from jurisdictions that do not provide the PCAOB with sufficient access to fulfil its statutory mandate. Some of the concepts of these recommendations were implemented with the enactment of the HFCA Act. However, some of the recommendations were more stringent than the HFCA Act. For example, if a company’s auditor was not subject to PCAOB inspection, the report recommended that the transition period before a company would be delisted would end on January 1, 2022.

 

The SEC has announced that the SEC staff is preparing a consolidated proposal for the rules regarding the implementation of the HFCA Act and to address the recommendations in the PWG report. The implications of possible additional regulation in addition to the requirements of the HFCA Act and what was adopted on December 2, 2021 are uncertain. While we understand that there has been dialogue among the CSRC, the SEC and the PCAOB regarding the inspection of PCAOB-registered accounting firms in China, there can be no assurance that we will be able to comply with requirements imposed by U.S. regulators. Such uncertainty could cause the market price of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares to be materially and adversely affected, and Ostin’s securities could be delisted and prohibited from being traded on the national securities exchange earlier than would be required by the HFCA Act. If Ostin’s securities are unable to be listed on another securities exchange by then, such a delisting would substantially impair your ability to sell or purchase Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares when you wish to do so, and the risk and uncertainty associated with a potential delisting would have a negative impact on the price of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares.

 

Should the PCAOB be unable to fully conduct inspections in China, among other jurisdictions, which prevents it from fully evaluating the audits and quality control procedures of our independent registered public accounting firm, we and investors in Ostin’s securities may be deprived of the benefits of such PCAOB inspections. Any inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of auditors could make it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our independent registered public accounting firm’s audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to auditors outside of China or other jurisdictions that are subject to the PCAOB inspections, which could cause investors and potential investors in our shares to lose confidence in our audit procedures and reported financial information and the quality of our financial statements, which could materially and adversely affect the value of in Ostin’s securities. Further, new laws and regulations or changes in laws and regulations in both the United States and China could affect our ability to continue to list on Nasdaq, which could materially impair the market for and market price of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares.

 

General Risk Factors

 

We are subject to changing law and regulations regarding regulatory matters, corporate governance and public disclosure that have increased both our costs and the risk of non-compliance.

 

We are subject to rules and regulations by various governing bodies, including, for example, the SEC, which are charged with the protection of investors and the oversight of companies whose securities are publicly traded, and to new and evolving regulatory measures under applicable law, including the laws of the Cayman Islands. Our efforts to comply with new and changing laws and regulations have resulted in and are likely to continue to result in, increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities.

 

Moreover, because these laws, regulations and standards are subject to varying interpretations, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance becomes available. This evolution may result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and additional costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to our disclosure and governance practices. If we fail to address and comply with these regulations and any subsequent changes, we may be subject to penalty and our business through our subsidiaries in China may be harmed.

 

Handling of mail

 

Mail addressed to the Company and received at its registered office will be forwarded unopened to the forwarding address supplied by Company to be dealt with. None of the Company, its directors, officers, advisors or service providers (including the organization which provides registered office services in the Cayman Islands) will bear any responsibility.

 

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus contains or incorporates forward-looking statements within the meaning of section 27A of the Securities Act and section 21E of the Exchange Act. Forward-looking statements may involve risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts are forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.

 

You can identify these forward-looking statements by words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “likely to” or other similar expressions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including the factors described under the section titled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference herein and under a similar heading in any applicable prospectus supplement.

 

You should read thoroughly this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference or otherwise referred to in this prospectus with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from and worse than what we expect. Other sections of this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference in to this prospectus include additional factors which could adversely impact our business operated primarily through our subsidiaries in China and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors and uncertainties emerge from time to time and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors and uncertainties, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business through our subsidiaries in China or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. Although we believe that our plans, objectives, expectations and intentions reflected in or suggested by the forward-looking statements we make in this prospectus are reasonable, we can give no assurance that these plans, objectives, expectations or intentions will be achieved. Important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from our expectations are disclosed and described under “Risk Factors” elsewhere in this prospectus, “Risk Factors” in Item 3.D. to our 2023 Annual Report and incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement, any free writing prospectus and in filings incorporated by reference, and the same may be amended, supplemented or superseded by the risks and uncertainties described under similar headings in the other documents that filed after the date hereof and incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

 

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date on which the statements are made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. You should read this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference or otherwise referred to in this prospectus, which we have filed as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part, completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect.

 

Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

 

We may sell from time to time pursuant to this prospectus (as may be detailed in one or more prospectus supplements) an indeterminate number of securities as shall have a maximum aggregate offering price of US$200,000,000. The actual price of the securities that we will offer pursuant hereto will depend on a number of factors that may be relevant as of the time of offer. Pursuant to General Instruction I.B.5 of Form F-3, in no event will we sell securities pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part with a value of more than one-third of the aggregate market value of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares held by non-affiliates in any 12 calendar month period, so long as the aggregate market value of Ostin’s Class A Ordinary Shares held by non-affiliates is less than US$75,000,000. In the event that subsequent to the effective date of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, the aggregate market value of our outstanding Class A Ordinary Shares held by non-affiliates equals or exceeds US$75,000,000, then the one-third limitation on sales shall not apply to additional sales made pursuant to this registration statement. We will state on the cover of each prospectus supplement the amount of our outstanding Class A Ordinary Shares held by non-affiliates, the amount of securities being offered and the amount of securities sold during the prior 12 calendar month period that ends on, and includes, the date of the prospectus supplement.

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USE OF PROCEEDS

 

Except as described in any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus in connection with a specific offering, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered by us under this prospectus to fund the growth of our business operated primarily through our subsidiaries in China, working capital, and for general corporate purposes.  

 

We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to acquire or invest in technologies, products and/or businesses that we believe will enhance the value of our company, although we do not currently have any agreements or understandings with third parties to make any material acquisitions of, or investment in, other businesses. Depending on future events and others changes in the business climate, we may determine at a later time to use the net proceeds for different purposes. As a result, our management will have broad discretion in the allocation of the net proceeds and investors will be relying on the judgment of our management regarding the application of the proceeds of any sale of the securities. Additional information on the use of net proceeds from the sale of securities covered by this prospectus may be set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the specific offering.

 

CAPITALIZATION

 

Our capitalization will be set forth in a prospectus supplement to this prospectus or in a report of foreign private issuer on Form 6-K subsequently furnished to the SEC and specifically incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

DILUTION

 

If required, we will set forth in a prospectus supplement the following information regarding any material dilution of the equity interests of investors purchasing securities in an offering under this prospectus:

 

the net tangible book value per share of our equity securities before and after the offering;

 

the amount of the increase in such net tangible book value per share attributable to the cash payments made by purchasers in the offering; and

 

the amount of the immediate dilution from the public offering price which will be absorbed by such purchasers.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL 

 

The following describes Ostin’s securities, summarizes the material provisions of its Second Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association, which is based upon, and is qualified by reference to, Ostin’s Second Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association (the “Articles”). This summary does not purport to be a summary of all of the provisions of the Articles. You should read the Articles which are filed as Exhibit 3.1 to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part for the provisions that are important to you.  

 

We are a Cayman Islands exempted company and our affairs are governed by our Articles and the Companies Act (As Revised) of the Cayman Islands, which we refer to as the Companies Act below (each as amended or restated from time to time). We had the following series of securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act:

 

Title of Each Class   Trading symbol   Name of Each Exchange On Which Registered
Class A Ordinary Shares, par value $0.0001 per share   OST   The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

 

As provided in the Articles, our authorized share capital is US$500,000 divided into (a) 4,991,000,000 Class A Ordinary Shares with a par value of US$0.0001 each with one (1) vote per share and with other rights attached to it in the Articles, (b) 8,000,000 Class B Ordinary Shares with a par value of US$0.0001 each with 20 votes per share and with other rights attached to it in the Articles, and (c) 1,000,000 Preference Shares of a par value of US$0.0001 each.

 

As of May 6, 2024, there were (a) 14,806,250 Class A Ordinary Shares outstanding, and 2,000,000 Class B Ordinary Shares outstanding, all of which were fully paid, and (b) no Preference Shares outstanding.

 

Ordinary Shares

 

The following are summaries of material provisions of the Articles, corporate governance policies and the Companies Act insofar as they relate to the material terms of Class A Ordinary Shares and Class B Ordinary Shares. Our corporate purposes are unrestricted and we have full power and authority to carry out any object not prohibited by the Companies Act or the laws of the Cayman Islands.

 

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Dividends. Subject to any rights and restrictions of any other class or series of shares, our board of directors may, from time to time, declare dividends on the shares issued and authorize payment of the dividends out of our lawfully available funds. No dividends shall be paid by the Ostin except out of the following:

 

  realized or unrealized profits; or
     
  “share premium account,” which represents the excess of the price paid to our company on the issue of its shares over the par or “nominal” value of those shares, which is similar to the U.S. concept of additional paid in capital.

 

However, no dividend shall bear interest against our company. No dividends or other distributions shall be payable on the Class B Ordinary Shares.

 

Voting Rights. Subject to any rights or restrictions attached to any Class A Ordinary Shares and Class B Ordinary Shares, except as may otherwise be required by law, the holder of:

 

(a)a Class A Ordinary Share shall (in respect of such Class A Ordinary Share) have one vote for every Class A Ordinary Share of which he is the holder; and

 

(b)a Class B Ordinary Share shall (in respect of such Class B Ordinary Share) have 20 votes for every Class B Ordinary Share of which he is the holder.

 

At any general meeting a resolution put to the vote of the meeting shall be decided by a poll.

 

As a matter of Cayman Islands law, (i) an ordinary resolution requires the affirmative vote of a majority of the shareholders who attend and vote at a general meeting of the company; and (ii) a special resolution requires the affirmative vote of a majority of at least two-thirds of the shareholders who attend and vote at a general meeting of the company.

 

Under Cayman Islands law, some matters, such as amending the memorandum and articles of association, changing the name or resolving to be registered by way of continuation in a jurisdiction outside the Cayman Islands, require the approval of shareholders by a special resolution.

 

There are no limitations on non-residents or foreign shareholders to hold or exercise voting rights on Class A Ordinary Shares and Class B Ordinary Shares imposed by foreign law or by the charter or other constituent documents of our company. However, no person will be entitled to vote at any general meeting or at any separate class meeting of the holders of Class A Ordinary Shares and Class B Ordinary Shares unless the person is a shareholder of either class of shares as of the record date for such meeting and unless all calls or other sums presently payable by the person in respect of Class A Ordinary Shares and Class B Ordinary Shares have been paid.

 

Winding Up; Liquidation. Upon the winding up of our company, after the full amount that holders of any issued shares ranking senior to Class A Ordinary Shares and Class B Ordinary Shares as to distribution on liquidation or winding up are entitled to receive has been paid or set aside for payment, the holders of Class A Ordinary Shares and Class B Ordinary Shares are entitled to receive any remaining assets of our company available for distribution as determined by the liquidator. The assets received by the holders of Class A Ordinary Shares and Class B Ordinary Shares in a liquidation may consist in whole or in part of a property, which is not required to be of the same kind for all shareholders.

 

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Calls on Ordinary Shares and Forfeiture of Ordinary Shares. Our board of directors may from time to time make calls upon shareholders for any amounts unpaid on their Class A Ordinary Shares and Class B Ordinary Shares in a notice served to such shareholders at least 14 clear days prior to the specified time and place of payment. Any Class A Ordinary Shares and Class B Ordinary Shares that have been called upon and remain unpaid are subject to forfeiture.

 

Redemption of Ordinary Shares. We may issue shares that are, or at our option or at the option of the holders are, subject to redemption on such terms and in such manner as it may, before the issue of the shares, determine. Under the Companies Act, shares of a Cayman Islands company may be redeemed or repurchased out of profits of the company, out of the proceeds of a fresh issue of shares made for that purpose or out of capital, provided the memorandum and articles of association authorize this and it has the ability to pay its debts as they come due in the ordinary course of business.

 

No Preemptive Rights. Holders of Class A Ordinary Shares and Class B Ordinary Shares will have no preemptive or preferential right to purchase any securities of our company.

 

Variation of Rights Attaching to Shares. If at any time the share capital is divided into different classes of shares, the rights attaching to any class (unless otherwise provided by the terms of issue of the shares of that class) may, subject to the memorandum and articles of association, be varied or abrogated with the consent in writing of the holders of three-fourths of the issued shares of that class or with the sanction of a special resolution passed at a general meeting of the holders of the shares of that class.

 

Anti-Takeover Provisions. Some provisions of the Articles may discourage, delay or prevent a change of control of our company or management that shareholders may consider favorable, including provisions that authorize our board of directors to issue preference shares in one or more series and to designate the price, rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of such preference shares without any further vote or action by our shareholders.

 

Special Considerations for Exempted Companies. We are an exempted company with limited liability under the Companies Act. The Companies Act distinguishes between ordinary resident companies and exempted companies. Any company that is registered in the Cayman Islands but conducts business mainly outside of the Cayman Islands may apply to be registered as an exempted company. The requirements for an exempted company are essentially the same as for an ordinary company except for the exemptions and privileges listed below:

 

an exempted company does not have to file an annual return of its shareholders with the Cayman Islands Registrar of Companies (the “Registrar”);

 

an exempted company’s register of members is not open to inspection;

 

an exempted company does not have to hold an annual general meeting;

 

an exempted company may issue shares with no par value;

 

an exempted company may obtain an undertaking against the imposition of any future taxation (such undertakings are usually given for 20 years in the first instance);

 

an exempted company may register by way of continuation in another jurisdiction and be deregistered in the Cayman Islands;

 

an exempted company may register as a limited duration company; and

 

an exempted company may register as a segregated portfolio company.

 

“Limited liability” means that the liability of each shareholder is limited to the amount unpaid by the shareholder on the shares of the company (except in exceptional circumstances, such as involving fraud, the establishment of an agency relationship or an illegal or improper purpose or other circumstances in which a court may be prepared to pierce or lift the corporate veil).

 

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Preference Shares

 

The board of directors is empowered to designate and issue from time to time one or more classes or series of preference shares and to fix and determine the relative rights, preferences, designations, qualifications, privileges, options, conversion rights, limitations and other special or relative rights of each such class or series so authorized. Such action could adversely affect the voting power and other rights of the holders of Class A Ordinary Shares and Class B Ordinary Shares or could have the effect of discouraging any attempt by a person or group to obtain control of us.

 

Comparison of Cayman Islands Corporate Law and U.S. Corporate Law

 

Cayman Islands companies are governed by the Companies Act. The Companies Act is modeled on English Law but does not follow recent English Law statutory enactments, and differs from laws applicable to United States corporations and their shareholders. Set forth below is a summary of the material differences between the provisions of the Companies Act applicable to us and the laws applicable to companies incorporated in the United States and their shareholders.

 

Mergers and Similar Arrangements

 

In certain circumstances the Cayman Islands Companies Act allows for mergers or consolidations between two Cayman Islands companies, or between a Cayman Islands company and a company incorporated in another jurisdiction (provided that is facilitated by the laws of that other jurisdiction).

 

Where the merger or consolidation is between two Cayman Islands companies, the directors of each company must approve a written plan of merger or consolidation containing certain prescribed information. That plan or merger or consolidation must then be authorized by either (a) a special resolution (usually a majority of 66 2/3 % in value) of the shareholders of each company; or (b) such other authorization, if any, as may be specified in such constituent company’s articles of association.

 

A shareholder has the right to vote on a merger or consolidation regardless of whether the shares that he holds otherwise give him voting rights. No shareholder resolution is required for a merger between a parent company (i.e., a company that owns at least 90% of the issued shares of each class in a subsidiary company) and its subsidiary company.

 

The consent of each holder of a fixed or floating security interest of a constituent company must be obtained, unless the court waives such requirement. If the Registrar is satisfied that the requirements of the Companies Act (which includes certain other formalities) have been complied with, the Registrar will register the plan of merger or consolidation.

 

Where the merger or consolidation involves a foreign company, the procedure is similar, save that with respect to the foreign company, the director of the Cayman Islands company is required to make a declaration to the effect that, having made due enquiry, he is of the opinion that the requirements set out below have been met: (i) that the merger or consolidation is permitted or not prohibited by the constitutional documents of the foreign company and by the laws of the jurisdiction in which the foreign company is incorporated, and that those laws and any requirements of those constitutional documents have been or will be complied with; (ii) that no petition or other similar proceeding has been filed and remains outstanding or order made or resolution adopted to wind up or liquidate the foreign company in any jurisdictions; (iii) that no receiver, trustee, administrator or other similar person has been appointed in any jurisdiction and is acting in respect of the foreign company, its affairs or its property or any part thereof; and (iv) that no scheme, order, compromise or other similar arrangement has been entered into or made in any jurisdiction whereby the rights of creditors of the foreign company are and continue to be suspended or restricted.

 

Where the surviving company is the Cayman Islands company, the director of the Cayman Islands company is further required to make a declaration to the effect that, having made due enquiry, he is of the opinion that the requirements set out below have been met: (i) that the foreign company is able to pay its debts as they fall due and that the merger is bona fide and not intended to defraud unsecured creditors of the constituent companies; (ii) that in respect of the transfer of any security interest granted by the foreign company to the surviving or consolidated company (a) consent or approval to the transfer has been obtained, released or waived; (b) the transfer is permitted by and has been approved in accordance with the constitutional documents of the foreign company; and (c) the laws of the jurisdiction of the foreign company with respect to the transfer have been or will be complied with; (iii) that the foreign company will, upon the merger or consolidation becoming effective, cease to be incorporated, registered or exist under the laws of the relevant foreign jurisdiction; and (iv) that there is no other reason why it would be against the public interest to permit the merger or consolidation.

 

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Where the above procedures are adopted, the Companies Act provides for a right of dissenting shareholders to be paid a payment of the fair value of his shares upon their dissenting to the merger or consolidation if they follow a prescribed procedure. In essence, that procedure is as follows (a) the shareholder must give his written objection to the merger or consolidation to the constituent company before the vote on the merger or consolidation, including a statement that the shareholder proposes to demand payment for his shares if the merger or consolidation is authorized by the vote; (b) within 20 days following the date on which the merger or consolidation is approved by the shareholders, the constituent company must give written notice to each shareholder who made a written objection; (c) a shareholder must within 20 days following receipt of such notice from the constituent company, give the constituent company a written notice of his intention to dissent including, among other details, a demand for payment of the fair value of his shares; (d) within seven days following the date of the expiration of the period set out in paragraph (b) above or seven days following the date on which the plan of merger or consolidation is filed, whichever is later, the constituent company, the surviving company or the consolidated company must make a written offer to each dissenting shareholder to purchase his shares at a price that the company determines is the fair value and if the company and the shareholder agree on the price within 30 days following the date on which the offer was made, the company must pay the shareholder such amount; (e) if the company and the shareholder fail to agree on a price within such 30 day period, within 20 days following the date on which such 30 day period expires, the company (and any dissenting shareholder) must file a petition with the Cayman Islands Grand Court to determine the fair value and such petition must be accompanied by a list of the names and addresses of the dissenting shareholders with whom agreements as to the fair value of their shares have not been reached by the company. At the hearing of that petition, the court has the power to determine the fair value of the shares together with a fair rate of interest, if any, to be paid by the company upon the amount determined to be the fair value. Any dissenting shareholder whose name appears on the list filed by the company may participate fully in all proceedings until the determination of fair value is reached. These rights of a dissenting shareholder are not be available in certain circumstances, for example, to dissenters holding shares of any class in respect of which an open market exists on a recognized stock exchange or recognized interdealer quotation system at the relevant date or where the consideration for such shares to be contributed are shares of any company listed on a national securities exchange or shares of the surviving or consolidated company.

 

Moreover, Cayman Islands law also has separate statutory provisions that facilitate the reconstruction or amalgamation of companies in certain circumstances, schemes of arrangement will generally be more suited for complex mergers or other transactions involving widely held companies, commonly referred to in the Cayman Islands as a “scheme of arrangement” which may be tantamount to a merger. In the event that a merger was sought pursuant to a scheme of arrangement (the procedure of which are more rigorous and take longer to complete than the procedures typically required to consummate a merger in the United States), the arrangement in question must be approved by a majority in number of each class of shareholders and creditors with whom the arrangement is to be made and who must in addition represent three-fourths in value of each such class of shareholders or creditors, as the case may be, that are present and voting either in person or by proxy at a meeting, or meeting summoned for that purpose. The convening of the meetings and subsequently the terms of the arrangement must be sanctioned by the Grand Court of the Cayman Islands. While a dissenting shareholder would have the right to express to the court the view that the transaction should not be approved, the court can be expected to approve the arrangement if it satisfies itself that:

 

  we are not proposing to act illegally or beyond the scope of our corporate authority and the statutory provisions as to majority vote have been complied with;
     
  the shareholders have been fairly represented at the meeting in question;
     
  the arrangement is such that a business person would reasonably approve; and
     
  the arrangement is not one that would more properly be sanctioned under some other provision of the Companies Act or that would amount to a “fraud on the minority.”

 

If a scheme of arrangement or takeover offer (as described below) is approved, any dissenting shareholder would have no rights comparable to appraisal rights, which would otherwise ordinarily be available to dissenting shareholders of United States corporations, providing rights to receive payment in cash for the judicially determined value of the shares.

 

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Squeeze-out Provisions

 

When a takeover offer is made and accepted by holders of 90% of the shares to whom the offer is made within four months, the offeror may, within a two-month period, require the holders of the remaining shares to transfer such shares on the terms of the offer. An objection can be made to the Grand Court of the Cayman Islands but this is unlikely to succeed unless there is evidence of fraud, bad faith, collusion or inequitable treatment of the shareholders.

 

Further, transactions similar to a merger, reconstruction and/or an amalgamation may in some circumstances be achieved through other means to these statutory provisions, such as a share capital exchange, asset acquisition or control, through contractual arrangements, of an operating business.

 

Shareholders’ Suits

 

Derivative actions have been brought in the Cayman Islands courts, and the Cayman Islands courts have confirmed the availability for such actions. In most cases, we will be the proper plaintiff in any claim based on a breach of duty owed to us, and a claim against (for example) our officers or directors usually may not be brought by a shareholder. However, based on English authorities, which would in all likelihood be of persuasive authority and be applied by a court in the Cayman Islands, exceptions to the foregoing principle apply in circumstances in which:

 

  a company is acting, or proposing to act, illegally or beyond the scope of its authority;
     
  the act complained of, although not beyond the scope of the authority, could be affected if duly authorized by more than the number of votes which have actually been obtained; or

 

  those who control the company are perpetrating a “fraud on the minority.”

 

A shareholder may have a direct right of action against us where the individual rights of that shareholder have been infringed or are about to be infringed.

 

Indemnification of Directors and Executive Officers and Limitation of Liability

 

Cayman Islands law does not limit the extent to which a company’s memorandum and articles of association may provide for indemnification of officers and directors, except to the extent any such provision may be held by the Cayman Islands courts to be contrary to public policy, such as to provide indemnification against civil fraud or the consequences of committing a crime.

 

The Articles permit indemnification of officers and directors for losses, damages, costs and expenses incurred in their capacities as such unless such losses or damages arise from dishonesty or fraud of such directors or officers.

 

This standard of conduct is generally the same as permitted under the Delaware General Corporation Law for a Delaware corporation. In addition, our offer letters to our independent directors and our employment agreements with our executive officers provide such persons with additional indemnification beyond that provided in the Articles.

 

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to our directors, officers or persons controlling us under the foregoing provisions, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

 

Directors’ Fiduciary Duties

 

Under Delaware General Corporation Law, a director of a Delaware corporation has a fiduciary duty to the corporation and its shareholders. This duty has two components: the duty of care and the duty of loyalty. The duty of care requires that a director act in good faith, with the care that an ordinarily prudent person would exercise under similar circumstances. Under this duty, a director must inform himself of, and disclose to shareholders, all material information reasonably available regarding a significant transaction. The duty of loyalty requires that a director acts in a manner he reasonably believes to be in the best interests of the corporation. He must not use his corporate position for personal gain or advantage. This duty prohibits self-dealing by a director and mandates that the best interest of the corporation and its shareholders take precedence over any interest possessed by a director, officer or controlling shareholder and not shared by the shareholders generally. In general, actions of a director are presumed to have been made on an informed basis, in good faith and in the honest belief that the action taken was in the best interests of the corporation. However, this presumption may be rebutted by evidence of a breach of one of the fiduciary duties. Should such evidence be presented concerning a transaction by a director, the director must prove the procedural fairness of the transaction, and that the transaction was of fair value to the corporation.

 

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Under Cayman Islands law, directors and officers owe the following fiduciary duties:

 

  duty to act in good faith in what the director or officer believes to be in the best interests of the company as a whole;
     
  duty to exercise powers for the purposes for which those powers were conferred and not for a collateral purpose;
     
  directors should not improperly fetter the exercise of future discretion;
     
  duty to exercise powers fairly as between different sections of shareholders;
     
  duty not to put themselves in a position in which there is a conflict between their duty to the company and their personal interests; and
     
  duty to exercise independent judgment.

 

In addition to the above, directors also owe a duty of care which is not fiduciary in nature. This duty has been defined as a requirement to act as a reasonably diligent person having both the general knowledge, skill and experience that may reasonably be expected of a person carrying out the same functions as are carried out by that director in relation to the company and the general knowledge skill and experience of that director.

 

As set out above, directors have a duty not to put themselves in a position of conflict and this includes a duty not to engage in self-dealing, or to otherwise benefit as a result of their position. However, in some instances what would otherwise be a breach of this duty can be forgiven and/or authorized in advance by the shareholders provided that there is full disclosure by the directors. This can be done by way of permission granted in the amended and restated memorandum and articles of association or alternatively by shareholder approval at general meetings.

 

Shareholder Action by Written Consent

 

Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a corporation may eliminate the right of shareholders to act by written consent in its certificate of incorporation. The Articles provide that shareholders may not approve corporate matters by way of a unanimous written resolution signed by or on behalf of each shareholder who would have been entitled to vote on such matter at a general meeting without a meeting being held.

 

Shareholder Proposals

 

Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a shareholder has the right to put any proposal before the annual general meeting, provided it complies with the notice provisions in the governing documents. An extraordinary general meeting may be called by the board of directors or any other person authorized to do so in the governing documents, but shareholders may be precluded from calling special meetings.

 

Cayman Islands law does not provide shareholders any right to put proposals before a general meeting or requisition a general meeting. However, these rights may be provided in articles of association. The Articles allow our shareholders holding not less than 10% in par value of our share capital in issue to requisition a general meeting. Other than this right to requisition a general meeting, the Articles do not provide our shareholders other rights to put a proposal before a meeting. As an exempted Cayman Islands company, we are not obliged by law to hold annual general meetings.

 

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Cumulative Voting

 

Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, cumulative voting for elections of directors is not permitted unless the corporation’s certificate of incorporation specifically provides for it. Cumulative voting potentially facilitates the representation of minority shareholders on a board of directors since it permits the minority shareholder to cast all the votes to which the shareholder is entitled on a single director, which increases the shareholder’s voting power with respect to electing such director. There are no prohibitions in relation to cumulative voting under the laws of the Cayman Islands but the Articles do not provide for cumulative voting. As a result, our shareholders are not afforded any fewer protections or rights on this issue than shareholders of a Delaware corporation.

 

Removal of Directors

 

Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a director of a corporation with a classified board may be removed only for cause with the approval of a majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote, unless the certificate of incorporation provides otherwise. Under the Articles, directors may be removed with or without cause, by an ordinary resolution as a matter of Cayman Islands law (which requires the affirmative vote of a majority of the shareholders who attend and vote at a general meeting of the company).

 

Transactions with Interested Shareholders

 

The Delaware General Corporation Law contains a business combination statute applicable to Delaware corporations whereby, unless the corporation has specifically elected not to be governed by such statute in its certificate of incorporation, it is prohibited from engaging in certain business combinations with an “interested shareholder” for three years following the date that such person becomes an interested shareholder. An interested shareholder generally is a person or a group who or which owns or owned 15% or more of the target’s outstanding voting share within the past three years. This has the effect of limiting the ability of a potential acquirer to make a two-tiered bid for the target in which all shareholders would not be treated equally. The statute does not apply if, among other things, prior to the date on which such shareholder becomes an interested shareholder, the board of directors approves either the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the person becoming an interested shareholder. This encourages any potential acquirer of a Delaware corporation to negotiate the terms of any acquisition transaction with the target’s board of directors.

 

Cayman Islands law has no comparable statute. As a result, we cannot avail ourselves of the types of protections afforded by the Delaware business combination statute. However, although Cayman Islands law does not regulate transactions between a company and its significant shareholders, it does provide that such transactions must be entered into bona fide in the best interests of the company and not with the effect of constituting a fraud on the minority shareholders.

 

Dissolution; Winding up

 

Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, unless the board of directors approves the proposal to dissolve, dissolution must be approved by shareholders holding 100% of the total voting power of the corporation. Only if the dissolution is initiated by the board of directors may it be approved by a simple majority of the corporation’s outstanding shares. Delaware law allows a Delaware corporation to include in its certificate of incorporation a supermajority voting requirement in connection with dissolutions initiated by the board.

 

Under Cayman Islands law, a company may be wound up by either an order of the courts of the Cayman Islands or by a special resolution of its members or, if the company is unable to pay its debts as they fall due, by an ordinary resolution of its members. The court has authority to order winding up in a number of specified circumstances including where it is, in the opinion of the court, just and equitable to do so. Under the Companies Act and the Articles, our company may be wound up, liquidated or dissolved by a special resolution of our shareholders.

 

Variation of Rights of Shares

 

Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a corporation may vary the rights of a class of shares with the approval of a majority of the outstanding shares of such class, unless the certificate of incorporation provides otherwise. Under Cayman Islands law and the Articles, if our share capital is divided into more than one class of shares, we may vary the rights attached to any class with the written consent of the holders of three-fourths of the issued shares of that class or with the sanction of a special resolution passed at a general meeting of the holders of the shares of that class.

 

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Amendment of Governing Documents

 

Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a corporation’s governing documents may be amended with the approval of a majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote, unless the certificate of incorporation provides otherwise. As permitted by Cayman Islands law, the Articles may only be amended with a special resolution of our shareholders.

 

Anti-Money Laundering — Cayman Islands

 

If any person in the Cayman Islands knows or suspects or has reasonable grounds for knowing or suspecting that another person is engaged in criminal conduct or money laundering or is involved with terrorism or terrorist financing and property and the information for that knowledge or suspicion came to their attention in the course of business in the regulated sector, or other trade, profession, business or employment, the person will be required to report such knowledge or suspicion to (i) the Financial Reporting Authority of the Cayman Islands, pursuant to the Proceeds of Crime Act (As Revised) of the Cayman Islands if the disclosure relates to criminal conduct or money laundering, or (ii) a police officer of the rank of constable or higher, or the Financial Reporting Authority, pursuant to the Terrorism Act (As Revised) of the Cayman Islands, if the disclosure relates to involvement with terrorism or terrorist financing and property. Such a report shall not be treated as a breach of confidence or of any restriction upon the disclosure of information imposed by any enactment or otherwise.

 

Data Protection — Cayman Islands

 

We have certain duties under the Data Protection Act (As Revised) of the Cayman Islands (the “Data Protection Act”) based on internationally accepted principles of data privacy.

 

Privacy Notice

 

Introduction

 

This privacy notice puts our shareholders on notice that through your investment in the Company you will provide us with certain personal information which constitutes personal data within the meaning of the Data Protection Act (“personal data”). In the following discussion, the “company” refers to us and our affiliates and/or delegates, except where the context requires otherwise.

 

Investor Data

 

We will collect, use, disclose, retain and secure personal data to the extent reasonably required only and within the parameters that could be reasonably expected during the normal course of business. We will only process, disclose, transfer or retain personal data to the extent legitimately required to conduct our activities of on an ongoing basis or to comply with legal and regulatory obligations to which we are subject. We will only transfer personal data in accordance with the requirements of the Data Protection Act, and will apply appropriate technical and organizational information security measures designed to protect against unauthorized or unlawful processing of the personal data and against the accidental loss, destruction or damage to the personal data.

 

In our use of this personal data, we will be characterized as a “data controller” for the purposes of the Data Protection Act, while our affiliates and service providers who may receive this personal data from us in the conduct of our activities may either act as our “data processors” for the purposes of the Data Protection Act or may process personal information for their own lawful purposes in connection with services provided to us.

 

We may also obtain personal data from other public sources. Personal data includes, without limitation, the following information relating to a shareholder and/or any individuals connected with a shareholder as an investor: name, residential address, email address, contact details, corporate contact information, signature, nationality, place of birth, date of birth, tax identification, credit history, correspondence records, passport number, bank account details, source of funds details and details relating to the shareholder’s investment activity.

 

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Who this Affects

 

If you are a natural person, this will affect you directly. If you are a corporate investor (including, for these purposes, legal arrangements such as trusts or exempted limited partnerships) that provides us with personal data on individuals connected to you for any reason in relation your investment in the company, this will be relevant for those individuals and you should transmit the content of this Privacy Notice to such individuals or otherwise advise them of its content.

 

How the Company May Use a Shareholder’s Personal Data

 

The company, as the data controller, may collect, store and use personal data for lawful purposes, including, in particular:

 

  a) where this is necessary for the performance of our rights and obligations under any purchase agreements;
     
  b) where this is necessary for compliance with a legal and regulatory obligation to which we are subject (such as compliance with anti-money laundering and FATCA/CRS requirements); and/or
     
  c) where this is necessary for the purposes of our legitimate interests and such interests are not overridden by your interests, fundamental rights or freedoms.

 

Should we wish to use personal data for other specific purposes (including, if applicable, any purpose that requires your consent), we will contact you.

 

Why We May Transfer Your Personal Data

 

In certain circumstances we may be legally obliged to share personal data and other information with respect to your shareholding with the relevant regulatory authorities such as the Cayman Islands Monetary Authority or the Tax Information Authority. They, in turn, may exchange this information with foreign authorities, including tax authorities.

 

We anticipate disclosing personal data to persons who provide services to us and their respective affiliates (which may include certain entities located outside the United States, the Cayman Islands or the European Economic Area), who will process your personal data on our behalf.

 

The Data Protection Measures We Take

 

Any transfer of personal data by us or our duly authorized affiliates and/or delegates outside of the Cayman Islands shall be in accordance with the requirements of the Data Protection Act.

 

We and our duly authorized affiliates and/or delegates shall apply appropriate technical and organizational information security measures designed to protect against unauthorized or unlawful processing of personal data, and against accidental loss or destruction of, or damage to, personal data.

 

We shall notify you of any personal data breach that is reasonably likely to result in a risk to your interests, fundamental rights or freedoms or those data subjects to whom the relevant personal data relates.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

 

We may issue series of debt securities, which may include debt securities exchangeable for or convertible into Class A Ordinary Shares or Preference Shares. When we offer to sell a particular series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of that series in a supplement to this prospectus. The following description of debt securities will apply to the debt securities offered by this prospectus unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement for a particular series of debt securities may specify different or additional terms.

 

The debt securities offered by this prospectus may be secured or unsecured, and may be senior debt securities, senior subordinated debt securities or subordinated debt securities. The debt securities offered by this prospectus may be issued under an indenture between us and the trustee under the indenture. The indenture may be qualified under, subject to, and governed by, the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended. We have summarized selected portions of the indenture below. The summary is not complete. The form of the indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement on Form F-3, of which this prospectus is a part, and you should read the indenture for provisions that may be important to you.

 

The terms of each series of debt securities will be established by or pursuant to a resolution of our board of directors and detailed or determined in the manner provided in a board of directors’ resolution, an officers’ certificate and by a supplemental indenture. The particular terms of each series of debt securities will be described in a prospectus supplement relating to the series, including any pricing supplement.

 

We may issue any amount of debt securities under the indenture, which may be in one or more series with the same or different maturities, at par, at a premium or at a discount. We will set forth in a prospectus supplement, including any related pricing supplement, relating to any series of debt securities being offered, the initial offering price, the aggregate principal amount offered and the terms of the debt securities, including, among other things, the following:

 

  the title of the debt securities;

 

  the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount) at which we will sell the debt securities;

 

  any limit on the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;

 

  the date or dates on which we will repay the principal on the debt securities and the right, if any, to extend the maturity of the debt securities;

 

  the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or the method used to determine the rate or rates (including any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the debt securities will bear interest, the date or dates from which interest will accrue, the date or dates on which interest will be payable and any regular record date for any interest payment date;

 

  the place or places where the principal of, premium, and interest on the debt securities will be payable, and where the debt securities of the series that are convertible or exchangeable may be surrendered for conversion or exchange;

 

  any obligation or right we have to redeem the debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of holders of the debt securities or at our option, and the terms and conditions upon which we are obligated to or may redeem the debt securities;

 

  any obligation we have to repurchase the debt securities at the option of the holders of debt securities, the dates on which and the price or prices at which we will repurchase the debt securities and other detailed terms and provisions of these repurchase obligations;

 

  the denominations in which the debt securities will be issued;

 

  whether the debt securities will be issued in the form of certificated debt securities or global debt securities;

 

  the portion of principal amount of the debt securities payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity date, if other than the principal amount;

 

  the currency of denomination of the debt securities;

 

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  the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of principal of, premium and interest on the debt securities will be made;

 

  if payments of principal of, premium or interest on, the debt securities will be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which the debt securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to these payments will be determined;

 

  the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, premium or interest on, the debt securities will be determined, if these amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies other than that in which the debt securities are denominated or designated to be payable or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

 

any provisions relating to any security provided for the debt securities;

 

any addition to or change in the events of default described in the indenture with respect to the debt securities and any change in the acceleration provisions described in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;

 

any addition to or change in the covenants described in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;

 

whether the debt securities will be senior or subordinated and any applicable subordination provisions;

 

a discussion of material income tax considerations applicable to the debt securities;

 

any other terms of the debt securities, which may modify any provisions of the indenture as it applies to that series; and

 

any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to the debt securities.

 

We may issue debt securities that are exchangeable for and/or convertible into Class A Ordinary Shares or Preference Shares. The terms, if any, on which the debt securities may be exchanged and/or converted will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Such terms may include provisions for exchange or conversion, which can be mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option, and the manner in which the number of Class A Ordinary Shares, Preference Shares or other securities to be received by the holders of debt securities would be calculated.

 

We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the U.S. federal income tax considerations, and other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we denominate the purchase price of any of the debt securities in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, or if the principal of and any premium and interest on any series of debt securities is payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, we will provide you with information on the restrictions, elections, specific terms and other information with respect to that issue of debt securities and such foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

We may issue debt securities of a series in whole or in part in the form of one or more global securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, a depositary identified in the prospectus supplement. Global securities will be issued in registered form and in either temporary or definitive form. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for the individual debt securities, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depositary for such global security to a nominee of such depositary or by a nominee of such depositary to such depositary or another nominee of such depositary or by such depositary or any such nominee to a successor of such depositary or a nominee of such successor. The specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any debt securities of a series and the rights of and limitations upon owners of beneficial interests in a global security will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

 

We may issue and offer warrants under the material terms and conditions described in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. The accompanying prospectus supplement may add, update or change the terms and conditions of the warrants as described in this prospectus.

 

General

 

We may issue warrants to purchase Class A Ordinary Shares, Preference Shares or debt securities. Warrants may be issued independently or together with any securities and may be attached to or separate from those securities. If applicable, the warrants will be issued under warrant agreements to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as warrant agent, all of which will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants we are offering. The warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants and will not have any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders or beneficial owners of warrants.

 

Equity Warrants

 

Each equity warrant issued by us will entitle its holder to purchase the equity securities designated at an exercise price set forth in, or to be determinable as set forth in, the related prospectus supplement. Equity warrants may be issued separately or together with equity securities.

 

If applicable, the equity warrants are to be issued under equity warrant agreements to be entered into between us and one or more banks or trust companies, as equity warrant agent, as will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement and this prospectus.

 

The particular terms of the equity warrants, the equity warrant agreements relating to the equity warrants, as applicable, and the equity warrant certificates representing the equity warrants will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, as applicable:

 

  the title of the equity warrants;
     
  the initial offering price;
     
  the aggregate amount of equity warrants and the aggregate amount of equity securities purchasable upon exercise of the equity warrants;
     
  the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;
     
  if applicable, the designation and terms of the equity securities with which the equity warrants are issued, and the amount of equity warrants issued with each equity security;
     
  the date, if any, on and after which the equity warrants and the related equity security will be separately transferable;
     
  if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the equity warrants that may be exercised at any one time;
     
  the date on which the right to exercise the equity warrants will commence and the date on which the right will expire;
     
  if applicable, a discussion of United States federal income tax, accounting or other considerations applicable to the equity warrants;
     
  anti-dilution provisions of the equity warrants, if any;
     
  redemption or call provisions, if any, applicable to the equity warrants; and
     
  any additional terms of the equity warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the equity warrants.

 

Holders of equity warrants will not be entitled, solely by virtue of being holders, to vote, to consent, to receive dividends, to receive notice as shareholders with respect to any meeting of shareholders for the appointment of directors or any other matters, or to exercise any rights whatsoever as a holder of the equity securities purchasable upon exercise of the equity warrants.

 

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Debt Warrants

 

Each debt warrant issued by us will entitle its holder to purchase the debt securities designated at an exercise price set forth in, or to be determinable as set forth in, the related prospectus supplement. Debt warrants may be issued separately or together with debt securities.

 

If applicable, the debt warrants are to be issued under debt warrant agreements to be entered into between us, and one or more banks or trust companies, as debt warrant agent, as will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement and this prospectus.

 

The particular terms of each issue of debt warrants, the debt warrant agreement relating to the debt warrants, if applicable, and the debt warrant certificates representing debt warrants will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, as applicable:

 

  the title of the debt warrants;
     
  the initial offering price;
     
  the title, aggregate principal amount and terms of the debt securities purchasable upon exercise of the debt warrants;
     
  the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;
     
  the title and terms of any related debt securities with which the debt warrants are issued and the amount of the debt warrants issued with each debt security;
     
  the date, if any, on and after which the debt warrants and the related debt securities will be separately transferable;
     
  the principal amount of debt securities purchasable upon exercise of each debt warrant and the price at which that principal amount of debt securities may be purchased upon exercise of each debt warrant;
     
  if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of warrants that may be exercised at any one time;
     
  the date on which the right to exercise the debt warrants will commence and the date on which the right will expire;
     
  if applicable, a discussion of United States federal income tax, accounting or other considerations applicable to the debt warrants;
     
  whether the debt warrants represented by the debt warrant certificates will be issued in registered or bearer form, and, if registered, where they may be transferred and registered;
     
  anti-dilution provisions of the debt warrants, if any;
     
  redemption or call provisions, if any, applicable to the debt warrants; and
     
  any additional terms of the debt warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the debt warrants.

 

Debt warrant certificates will be exchangeable for new debt warrant certificates of different denominations and, if in registered form, may be presented for registration of transfer, and debt warrants may be exercised at the corporate trust office of the debt warrant agent or any other office indicated in the related prospectus supplement. Before the exercise of debt warrants, holders of debt warrants will not be entitled to payments of principal of, premium, if any, or interest, if any, on the debt securities purchasable upon exercise of the debt warrants, or to enforce any of the covenants in the indentures governing such debt securities.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS

 

We may issue rights to purchase the Class A Ordinary Shares, Preference Shares, debt securities or other securities. Rights may be issued independently or together with any other offered security and may or may not be transferable by the person purchasing or receiving the rights. In connection with any rights offering, we may enter into a standby underwriting or other arrangement with one or more underwriters or other persons pursuant to which such underwriters or other persons would purchase any offered securities remaining unsubscribed for after such rights offering. Each series of rights will be issued under a separate rights agent agreement to be entered into between us and one or more banks, trust companies, or other financial institutions, as rights agent that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement. The rights agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the rights and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders of rights certificates or beneficial owners of rights.

 

The prospectus supplement relating to any rights that we offer will include specific terms relating to the offering, including, among other matters:

 

  the date of determining the security holders entitled to the rights distribution;  
     
  the aggregate number of rights issued and the aggregate amount of securities purchasable upon exercise of the rights;  
     
  the exercise price for the rights;  
     
  the conditions to the completion of the rights offering;  
     
  the date on which the right to exercise the rights will commence and the date on which the right will expire;
     
  the extent to which subscription rights are transferable;  
     
  if applicable, a discussion of the material Cayman Islands or United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the issuance or exercise of such subscription rights;  
     
  any other terms of the rights, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the rights;  
     
  the extent to which the rights include an over-subscription privilege with respect to unsubscribed securities; and

 

  the material terms of any standby underwriting agreement or other arrangement entered into by us in connection with the rights offering.

 

Each right would entitle the holder of the rights to purchase for cash the principal amount of securities at the exercise price set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Rights may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date for the rights provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, all unexercised rights will become void.

 

If less than all of the rights issued in any rights offering are exercised, we may offer any unsubscribed securities directly to persons other than our security holders, to or through agents, underwriters, or dealers, or through a combination of such methods, including pursuant to standby arrangements, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

 

We may issue units comprised of one or more of the other securities described in this prospectus in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement may describe:

 

  the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

 

  any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and 
     
  any additional terms of the governing unit agreement.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of any units. The preceding description and any description of units in the applicable prospectus supplement does not purport to be complete and is subject to and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the unit agreement and, if applicable, collateral arrangements and depositary arrangements relating to such units.

 

ENFORCEABILITY OF CIVIL LIABILITIES

 

We are incorporated in the Cayman Islands in order to enjoy the following benefits:

 

  political and economic stability;

 

  an effective judicial system;

 

  a favorable tax system; and

 

  the absence of exchange control or currency restrictions; and the availability of professional and support services.

 

However, certain disadvantages accompany incorporation in the Cayman Islands. These disadvantages include, but are not limited to, the following:

 

  the Cayman Islands has a less exhaustive body of securities laws as compared to the United States and these securities laws provide significantly less protection to investors; and

 

  Cayman Islands companies may not have standing to sue before the federal courts of the United States.

 

We have been advised by our Cayman Islands legal counsel, Maples and Calder (Cayman) LLP, that the courts of the Cayman Islands are unlikely (i) to recognize or enforce against us judgments of courts of the United States predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any State; and (ii) in original actions brought in the Cayman Islands, to impose liabilities against us predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any State, so far as the liabilities imposed by those provisions are penal in nature. In those circumstances, although there is no statutory enforcement in the Cayman Islands of judgments obtained in the United States, the courts of the Cayman Islands will recognize and enforce a foreign money judgment of a foreign court of competent jurisdiction without retrial on the merits based on the principle that a judgment of a competent foreign court imposes upon the judgment debtor an obligation to pay the sum for which judgment has been given provided certain conditions are met. For a foreign judgment to be enforced in the Cayman Islands, such judgment must be final and conclusive and for a liquidated sum, and must not be in respect of taxes or a fine or penalty, inconsistent with a Cayman Islands judgment in respect of the same matter, impeachable on the grounds of fraud or obtained in a manner, and or be of a kind the enforcement of which is, contrary to natural justice or the public policy of the Cayman Islands (awards of punitive or multiple damages may well be held to be contrary to public policy). The Cayman Islands courts may stay enforcement proceedings if concurrent proceedings are being brought elsewhere. There is recent Privy Council authority (which is binding on the Cayman Islands courts) in the context of a reorganization plan approved by the New York Bankruptcy Court which suggests that due to the universal nature of bankruptcy/insolvency proceedings, foreign money judgments obtained in foreign bankruptcy/insolvency proceedings may be enforced without applying the principles outlined above. However, a more recent English Supreme Court authority (which is highly persuasive but not binding on the Cayman Islands courts), has expressly rejected that approach in the context of a default judgment obtained in an adversary proceeding brought in the New York Bankruptcy Court by the receivers of the bankruptcy debtor against a third party, and which would not have been enforceable upon the application of the traditional common law principles summarized above and held that foreign money judgments obtained in bankruptcy/insolvency proceedings should be enforced by applying the principles set out above, and not by the simple exercise of the Courts’ discretion. Those cases have now been considered by the Cayman Islands courts. The Cayman Islands courts was not asked to consider the specific question of whether a judgment of a bankruptcy court in an adversary proceeding would be enforceable in the Cayman Islands, but it did endorse the need for active assistance of overseas bankruptcy proceedings. We understand that the Cayman Islands Court’s decision in that case has been appealed and it remains the case that the law regarding the enforcement of bankruptcy/insolvency related judgments is still in a state of uncertainty.

 

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Our constitutional documents do not contain provisions requiring that disputes, including those arising under the securities laws of the United States, between us, our officers, directors and shareholders, be arbitrated.

 

Substantially all of our current operations are conducted in the PRC through our subsidiaries, and substantially all of its assets are located in the PRC. A majority of our current directors and officers, including Mr. Tao Ling, Ms. Qiaoyun Xie, Mr. Xiaohong Yin, Mr. Xiaodong Zhai, and Mr. Heung Ming Wong are nationals and residents of the PRC, and a substantial portion of their assets are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for a shareholder to effect service of process within the United States upon these persons, or to enforce against us or them judgments obtained in United States courts, including judgments predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States. King & Wood Mallesons, our counsel as to PRC law, have advised us that there is uncertainty as to whether the courts of China would:

 

recognize or enforce judgments of United States courts obtained against us or our directors or officers predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States; or

 

entertain original actions brought in each respective jurisdiction against us or our directors or officers predicated upon the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States.

 

We have been advised by our PRC counsel, King & Wood Mallesons, that the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments are provided for under the PRC Civil Procedure Law. PRC courts may recognize and enforce foreign judgments in accordance with the requirements of the PRC Civil Procedure Law based either on treaties between China and the country where the judgment is made or on reciprocity between different jurisdictions, and PRC courts will not recognize or enforce these foreign judgments if PRC courts believe the foreign judgments violate the basic principles of PRC laws or national sovereignty, security or public interest after review. However, currently, China does not have treaties or reciprocity arrangement providing for recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments ruled by courts in the United States or the Cayman Islands. Thus, it is uncertain whether a PRC court would enforce a judgment ruled by a court in the United States or the Cayman Islands. 

 

TAXATION

 

Our 2023 Annual Report provides a discussion of certain tax considerations that may be relevant to prospective investors in Ostin’s securities. The applicable prospectus supplement may also contain information about certain material tax considerations relating to the securities covered by such prospectus supplement. You should consult your own tax advisors prior to acquiring any of Ostin’s securities.

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We may sell the securities offered by this prospectus in any one or more of the following ways (or in any combination) from time to time:

 

directly to investors, including through privately negotiated transactions, a specific bidding, auction or other process;

 

to investors through agents;

 

directly to agents;

 

to or through underwriters or dealers;

 

in “at the market” offerings, within the meaning of Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act, to or through a market or into an existing trading market on an exchange or otherwise;

 

through a combination of any such methods of sale; or

 

through any other method permitted by applicable law and described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

The prospectus supplement with respect to the securities may state or supplement the terms of the offering of the securities.

 

In addition, we may issue the securities as a dividend or distribution or in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders. In some cases, we or dealers acting for us or on our behalf may also repurchase securities and reoffer them to the public by one or more of the methods described above. This prospectus may be used in connection with any offering of Ostin’s securities through any of these methods or other methods described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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Ostin’s securities distributed by any of these methods may be sold to the public, in one or more transactions, either:

 

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

at prices related to prevailing market prices; or

 

at negotiated prices.

 

Sale through Underwriters or Dealers

 

If underwriters are used in the sale, the underwriters will acquire the securities for their own account, including through underwriting, purchase, security lending or repurchase agreements with us. The underwriters may resell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions. Underwriters may sell the securities in order to facilitate transactions in any of our other securities (described in this prospectus or otherwise), including other public or private transactions and short sales. Underwriters may offer the securities to the public either through underwriting syndicates represented by one or more managing underwriters or directly by one or more firms acting as underwriters. Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to certain conditions, and the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all the offered securities if they purchase any of them. The underwriters may change from time to time any initial public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers.

 

If dealers are used in the sale of securities offered through this prospectus, we will sell the securities to them as principals. They may then resell those securities to the public at varying prices determined by the dealers at the time of resale. The applicable prospectus supplement will include the names of the underwriters or dealers and the terms of the transaction, including compensation for the underwriters or dealers.

 

Direct Sales and Sales through Agents

 

We may sell the securities offered through this prospectus directly. In this case, no underwriters or agents would be involved. Such securities may also be sold through agents designated from time to time. The applicable prospectus supplement will name any agent involved in the offer or sale of the offered securities and will describe any commissions payable to the agent. Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, any agent will agree to use its commonly reasonable efforts to solicit purchases for the period of its appointment. We may sell the securities directly to institutional investors or others who may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act with respect to any sale of those shares. The terms of any such sales will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Offered securities may be sold at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed, or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. Any agent involved in the offer or sale of the offered securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered will be named, and any commissions payable by us to such agent will be set forth, in the supplement relating to that offering. Unless otherwise specified in connection with a particular offering of securities, any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment.

 

As one of the means of direct issuance of offered securities, we may utilize the services of an entity through which it may conduct an electronic “dutch auction” or similar offering of the offered securities among potential purchasers who are eligible to participate in the auction or offering of such offered securities, if so described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Delayed Delivery Contracts

 

If the applicable prospectus supplement indicates, we may authorize agents, underwriters or dealers to solicit offers from certain types of institutions to purchase securities at the public offering price under delayed delivery contracts. These contracts would provide for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. The contracts would be subject only to those conditions described in the prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the commission payable for solicitation of those contracts.

 

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Market Making, Stabilization and Other Transactions

 

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement states otherwise, each series of offered securities will be a new issue and will have no established trading market. We may elect to list any series of offered securities on an exchange. Any underwriters that we use in the sale of offered securities may make a market in such securities, but may discontinue such market making at any time without notice. Therefore, we cannot assure you that the securities will have a liquid trading market.

 

Any underwriter may also engage in stabilizing transactions, syndicate covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Rule 104 under the Exchange Act. Stabilizing transactions involve bids to purchase the underlying security in the open market for the purpose of pegging, fixing or maintaining the price of the securities. Syndicate covering transactions involve purchases of the securities in the open market after the distribution has been completed in order to cover syndicate short positions.

 

Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a syndicate member when the securities originally sold by the syndicate member are purchased in a syndicate covering transaction to cover syndicate short positions. Stabilizing transactions, syndicate covering transactions and penalty bids may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would be in the absence of the transactions. The underwriters may, if they commence these transactions, discontinue them at any time.

 

Derivative Transactions and Hedging

 

We and the underwriters may engage in derivative transactions involving the securities. These derivatives may consist of short sale transactions and other hedging activities. The underwriters may acquire a long or short position in the securities, hold or resell securities acquired and purchase options or futures on the securities and other derivative instruments with returns linked to or related to changes in the price of the securities. In order to facilitate these derivative transactions, we may enter into security lending or repurchase agreements with the underwriters. The underwriters may effect the derivative transactions through sales of the securities to the public, including short sales, or by lending the securities in order to facilitate short sale transactions by others. The underwriters may also use the securities purchased or borrowed from us or others (or, in the case of derivatives, securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives) to directly or indirectly settle sales of the securities or close out any related open borrowings of the securities.

 

Loans of Securities

 

We may loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or other third parties that in turn may sell the securities using this prospectus and an applicable prospectus supplement.

 

General Information

 

Agents, underwriters, and dealers may be entitled, under agreements entered into with us, to indemnification by us, against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. Our agents, underwriters, and dealers, or their affiliates, may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us or our affiliates, in the ordinary course of business for which they may receive customary compensation.

 

Conflicts of Interest

 

Underwriters, dealers and agents may be entitled, under agreements with us, to indemnification by us relating to material misstatements and omissions in our offering documents. Underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us in their ordinary course of business.

 

Except for securities issued upon a reopening of a previous series, each series of offered securities will be a new issue of securities and will have no established trading market. Any underwriters to whom offered securities are sold for public offering and sale may make a market in such offered securities, but such underwriters will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. The offered securities may or may not be listed on a securities exchange. No assurance can be given that there will be a market for the offered securities.

 

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EXPENSES OF ISSUANCE AND DISTRIBUTION

 

The following table sets forth the various expenses in connection with the sale and distribution of the securities being registered. We will bear all of the expenses shown below.

 

SEC Registration Fee  $29,520 
FINRA filing fee   30,500 
Printing and engraving expenses   * 
Legal fees and expenses   * 
Accounting fees and expenses   * 
Transfer agent fees and expenses   * 
Miscellaneous   * 
Total  $* 

 

*The amount of securities and number of offerings are indeterminable, and the expenses cannot be estimated at this time. To be provided by a prospectus supplement or as an exhibit to a report on Form 6-K that is incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

We are being represented by Ortoli Rosenstadt LLP with respect to certain legal matters as to United States federal securities and New York State law. The validity of the securities in this offering and certain other legal matters, to the extent governed by Cayman Islands law, are passed upon for us by Maples and Calder (Cayman) LLP, our special legal counsel as to Cayman Islands law. If legal matters in connection with offerings made pursuant to this prospectus are passed upon by counsel to underwriters, dealers or agents, such counsel will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to any such offering.

 

EXPERTS

 

The consolidated financial statements of the Company appearing in our 2023 Annual Report for the year ended September 30, 2023, 2022 and 2021 have been audited by TPS Thayer, LLC, an independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in the reports thereon included therein and incorporated herein by reference.

 

The office of TPS Thayer is located at 1600 Hwy 6 Suite 100, Sugar Land, TX 77478.

 

Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such reports given on the authority of such firms as experts in accounting and auditing. 

 

INDEMNIFICATION

 

Insofar as indemnification by us for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to our directors, officers or persons controlling the company pursuant to provisions of the Articles, or otherwise, we have been advised that in the opinion of the SEC, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification by such director, officer or controlling person of us in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being offered, we will, unless in the opinion of our counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by us is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

MATERIAL CHANGES

 

Except as otherwise disclosed in this prospectus, there have been no reportable material changes that have occurred since September 30, 2023, and that have not been described in a report on Form 6-K furnished under the Exchange Act and incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

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INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we file with it into this prospectus. This means that we can disclose important information about us and our financial condition to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC instead of having to repeat the information in this prospectus. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus and later information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We incorporate by reference into this prospectus the information contained in the documents listed below and any future filings made by us with the SEC under Section 13(a), 13(c) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, except for information “furnished” to the SEC which is not deemed filed and not incorporated by reference into this prospectus (unless otherwise indicated below), until the termination of the offering of securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement:

 

We incorporate by reference the documents listed below:

 

our annual report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023 filed with the SEC on January 31, 2024;

 

our current reports on Form 6-K furnished to the SEC on February 7, 2024, March 14, 2024 and April 2, 2024;

 

the description of the Company’s Class A Ordinary Shares contained in the Form 8-A12B, filed with the SEC on April 26, 2022, and any further amendment or report filed hereafter for the purpose of updating such description; and

 

with respect to each offering of the securities under this prospectus, all our subsequent annual reports on Form 20-F and any report on Form 6-K that indicates that it is being incorporated by reference that we file or furnish with the SEC on or after the date on which the registration statement is first filed with the SEC and until the termination or completion of the offering by means of this prospectus.

 

Our 2023 Annual Report contains a description of our business primarily through our subsidiaries in China and audited consolidated financial statements with reports by our independent auditors. The consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

 

Any reports filed by us with the SEC after the date of this prospectus and before the date that the offering of securities by means of this prospectus is terminated will automatically update and, where applicable, supersede any information contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus or in any documents incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded. Unless expressly incorporated by reference, nothing in this prospectus shall be deemed to incorporate by reference information furnished to, but not filed with, the SEC.

 

We will provide without charge to any person (including any beneficial owner) to whom this prospectus is delivered, upon oral or written request, a copy of any document incorporated by reference in this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus (except for exhibits to those documents unless a documents states that one of its exhibits is incorporated into the document itself). Such request should be directed to: Ostin Technology Group Co., Ltd., Building 2, 101, 1 Kechuang Road, Qixia District, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China 210046, telephone number: +86 (25) 58595234.

 

52

 

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form F-3 that we filed with the SEC registering the securities that may be offered and sold hereunder. This prospectus, which constitutes a part of the registration statement, does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement, the exhibits filed therewith or the documents incorporated by reference therein. For further information about us and the securities offered hereby, reference is made to the registration statement, the exhibits filed therewith and the documents incorporated by reference therein. Statements contained in this prospectus regarding the contents of any contract or any other document that is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement are not necessarily complete, and in each instance, we refer you to the copy of such contract or other document filed as an exhibit to the registration statement. We are required to file reports and other information with the SEC pursuant to the Exchange Act, including annual reports on Form 20-F and reports of foreign private issuer on Form 6-K.

 

The SEC maintains a website that contains reports and other information regarding issuers, like us, that file electronically with the SEC. The address of the website is www.sec.gov. The information on our website (http://ostin-technology.com/), other than our SEC filings, is not, and should not be, considered part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference into this document.

 

We are subject to periodic reporting and other informational requirements of the Exchange Act as applicable to foreign private issuers. Accordingly, we will be required to file reports, including annual reports on Form 20-F, and other information with the SEC. You can read our SEC filings, including the registration statement, over the Internet at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov, which contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. We also maintain a corporate website at http://ostin-technology.com/, at which you may access these materials free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. The information contained in, and that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated into and is not part of this prospectus.

 

53

 

 

 

Ostin Technology Group Co., Ltd.

 

US$200,000,000

 

Class A Ordinary Shares

Preference Shares

Debt Securities

Warrants

Rights

Units

 

PROSPECTUS

 

            , 2024

 

No dealer, salesperson or any other person is authorized to give any information or make any representations in connection with any offering pursuant to this prospectus other than those contained in this prospectus and, if given or made, the information or representations must not be relied upon as having been authorized by us. This prospectus does not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any security other than the securities offered by this prospectus, or an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any securities by anyone in any jurisdiction in which the offer or solicitation is not authorized or is unlawful.

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN THE PROSPECTUS

 

Item 8. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

 

Cayman Islands law does not limit the extent to which a company’s memorandum and articles of association may provide for indemnification of officers and directors, except to the extent any such provision may be held by the Cayman Islands courts to be contrary to public policy, such as to provide indemnification against civil fraud or the consequences of committing a crime.

 

Our Second Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association permit indemnification of officers and directors for losses, damages, costs and expenses incurred in their capacities as such unless such losses or damages arise from dishonesty or fraud of such directors or officers.

 

This standard of conduct is generally the same as permitted under the Delaware General Corporation Law for a Delaware corporation. In addition, our offer letters to our independent directors and our employment agreements with our executive officers provide such persons with additional indemnification beyond that provided in our Second Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association.

  

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to our directors, officers or persons controlling us under the foregoing provisions, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

 

Item 9. Exhibits.

 

The following exhibits are filed herewith or incorporated by reference:

 

Exhibit No.   Description
     
1.1+   Form of Underwriting Agreement
     
3.1*   Second Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association
     
4.1*    Form of Indenture relating to debt securities
     
4.2+   Form of Warrant Agreement (including form of Warrant Certificate)
     
4.3+   Form of Right Agreement (including form of Right Certificate)
     
4.4+   Form of Unit Agreement (including form of Unit Certificate)
     
5.1*    Opinion of Maples and Calder (Cayman) LLP
     
23.1*   Consent of TPS Thayer, LLC, Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm  
     
23.2*   Consent of Maples and Calder (Cayman) LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)
     
23.3*    Consent of King & Wood Mallesons 
     
24.1*   Power of Attorney (included on the signature page)
     
25.1**   Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 of the Trustee under the Indenture 
     
107*    Calculation of Filing Fee Tables

 

Filed herewith. 
   
**  The Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the Trustee under the Indenture will be incorporated herein by reference from a subsequent filing under the electronic form type “305B2” in accordance with Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939. 

 

+ To be filed as an exhibit to a post-effective amendment to this registration statement or as an exhibit to a report of the registrant filed pursuant to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, if applicable, and incorporated herein by reference.

 

II-1

 

 

Item 10. Undertakings.

 

(a) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

  (1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:
     
    to include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;
     
    to reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and
     
    to include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement,

 

 provided, however, that subsections (i), (ii) and (iii) above do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those subsections is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

 

  (2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (3)

To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

  (4) To file a post-effective amendment to the registration statement to include any financial statements required by Item 8.A. of Form 20-F at the start of any delayed offering or throughout a continuous offering. Financial statements and information otherwise required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933 need not be furnished, provided that the registrant includes in the prospectus, by means of a post-effective amendment, financial statements required pursuant to this paragraph (4) and other information necessary to ensure that all other information in the prospectus is at least as current as the date of those financial statements. Notwithstanding the foregoing, with respect to registration statements on Form F-3, a post-effective amendment need not be filed to include financial statements and information required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933 if such financial statements and information are contained in periodic reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the Form F-3.

 

  (5) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, to any purchaser:

 

  (i) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of this registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in this registration statement; and
     
  (ii) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii) or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, shall be deemed to be part of and included in this registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

II-2

 

 

  (6) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:
       
    (i) Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;
       
    (ii) Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;
       
    (iii) The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and
       
    (iv) Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

(b) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended), that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(c) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.
   
(d) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of this registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in a form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of this registration statement as of the time it was declared effective.
   
(e) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
   
(f) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act, or the Act, in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the SEC under section 305(b)(2) of the Act.

 

II-3

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form F-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in Changzhou, Jiangsu, China, on May 7, 2024.

 

Ostin Technology Group Co., Ltd.  
   
By: /s/ Tao Ling  
  Name: Tao Ling  
  Title: Chief Executive Officer and Chairman   

 

POWER OF ATTORNEY

 

KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Tao Ling his true and lawful attorney-in-fact, with full power of substitution and resubstitution for him and in his name, place and stead, in any and all capacities to sign any and all amendments including post-effective amendments to this registration statement, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorney-in-fact or his substitute, each acting alone, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue thereof.

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature     Title     Date  
         
/s/ Tao Ling    Chief Executive Officer and Chairman   

May 7, 2024

Tao Ling    (principal executive officer)     
         
/s/ Qiaoyun Xie    Chief Financial Officer   

May 7, 2024

Qiaoyun Xie    (principal financial and accounting officer)     
         
/s/ Xiaohong Yin    Director   

May 7, 2024

Xiaohong Yin         
         
/s/ Heung Ming Wong   Director    

May 7, 2024

Heung Ming Wong        
         
/s/ John Carl Mein   Director    

May 7, 2024

John Carl Mein        
         
/s/ Qiang He   Director    

May 7, 2024

Qiang He        

 

II-4

 

 

SIGNATURE OF AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE IN THE UNITED STATES

 

Pursuant to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the undersigned, the duly authorized representative of Ostin Technology Group Co., Ltd. in the United States has signed this registration statement on Form F-3 or amendment thereto in New York, New York on May 7, 2024.

 

  COGENCY GLOBAL INC.
     
  By: /s/ Colleen A. De Vries
    Name:   Colleen A. De Vries
    Title: Senior Vice-President on behalf of Cogency Global Inc.

 

II-5

 

Exhibit 3.1

 

THE COMPANIES ACT (AS REVISED)

OF THE CAYMAN ISLANDS

COMPANY LIMITED BY SHARES

 

 

SECOND AMENDED AND RESTATED

MEMORANDUM AND ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION

 

OF

 

OSTIN TECHNOLOGY GROUP CO., LTD. 

(ADOPTED BY SPECIAL RESOLUTION EFFECTIVE ON 28 MARCH 2024)

 

 

 

 
  Filed: 03-Apr-2024 09:42 EST
Auth Code: D40269537585
www.verify.gov.ky File#: 355717

 

 

 

THE COMPANIES ACT (AS REVISED)

OF THE CAYMAN ISLANDS

COMPANY LIMITED BY SHARES

 

 

SECOND AMENDED AND RESTATED

MEMORANDUM OF ASSOCIATION

 

OF

 

OSTIN TECHNOLOGY GROUP CO., LTD.

(ADOPTED BY SPECIAL RESOLUTION EFFECTIVE ON 28 MARCH 2024)

 

1The name of the Company is Ostin Technology Group Co., Ltd.

 

2The Registered Office of the Company shall be at the offices of Maples Corporate Services Limited, PO Box 309, Ugland House, Grand Cayman, KY1-1104, Cayman Islands, or at such other place within the Cayman Islands as the Directors may decide.

 

3The objects for which the Company is established are unrestricted and the Company shall have full power and authority to carry out any object not prohibited by the laws of the Cayman Islands.

 

4The liability of each Member is limited to the amount unpaid on such Member’s shares.

 

5The share capital of the Company is US$500,000 divided into 4,991,000,000 Class A ordinary shares of a par value of US$0.0001 each, 8,000,000 Class B ordinary shares of a par value of US$0.0001 each and 1,000,000 preference shares of a par value of US$0.0001 each.

 

6The Company has power to register by way of continuation as a body corporate limited by shares under the laws of any jurisdiction outside the Cayman Islands and to be deregistered in the Cayman Islands.

 

7Capitalised terms that are not defined in this Second Amended and Restated Memorandum of Association bear the respective meanings given to them in the Second Amended and Restated Articles of Association of the Company.

 

 
  Filed: 03-Apr-2024 09:42 EST
Auth Code: D40269537585
www.verify.gov.ky File#: 355717

 

2

 

THE COMPANIES ACT (AS REVISED)

OF THE CAYMAN ISLANDS

COMPANY LIMITED BY SHARES

 

 

SECOND AMENDED AND RESTATED

ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION

 

OF

 

OSTIN TECHNOLOGY GROUP CO., LTD.

(ADOPTED BY SPECIAL RESOLUTION EFFECTIVE ON 28 MARCH 2024)

 

1Interpretation

 

1.1In the Articles Table A in the First Schedule to the Statute does not apply and, unless there is something in the subject or context inconsistent therewith:

 

  “Applicable Law” means, with respect to any person, all provisions of laws, statutes, ordinances, rules, regulations, permits, certificates, judgments, decisions, decrees or orders of any governmental authority applicable to such person.
     
  “Articles” means these second amended and restated articles of association of the Company.
     
  “Audit Committee” means the audit committee of the board of directors of the Company established pursuant to the Articles, or any successor committee.
     
  “Auditor” means the person for the time being performing the duties of auditor of the Company (if any).
     
  “Class A Ordinary Share” means a Class A ordinary share of a par value of US$0.0001 in the share capital of the Company.
     
  “Class B Ordinary Share” means a Class B ordinary share of a par value of US$0.0001 in the share capital of the Company.
     
  “Clearing House” means a clearing house recognised by the laws of the jurisdiction in which the Shares (or depositary receipts therefor) are listed or quoted on a stock exchange or interdealer quotation system in such jurisdiction.
     
  “Company” means the above named company.
     
  “Company’s Website” means the website of the Company and/or its web-address or domain name (if any).
     
  “Compensation Committee” means the compensation committee of the board of directors of the Company established pursuant to the Articles, or any successor committee.

 

 
  Filed: 03-Apr-2024 09:42 EST
Auth Code: D40269537585
www.verify.gov.ky File#: 355717

 

3

 

  “Designated Stock Exchange” means any United States national securities exchange on which the securities of the Company are listed for trading, including the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC.
     
  “Directors” means the directors for the time being of the Company.
     
  “Dividend” means any dividend (whether interim or final) resolved to be paid on Shares pursuant to the Articles.
     
  “Electronic Communication” means a communication sent by electronic means, including electronic posting to the Company’s Website, transmission to any number, address or internet website (including the website of the Securities and Exchange Commission) or other electronic delivery methods as otherwise decided and approved by the Directors.
     
  “Electronic Record” has the same meaning as in the Electronic Transactions Act.
     
  “Electronic Transactions Act” means the Electronic Transactions Act (As Revised) of the Cayman Islands.
     
  “Exchange Act” means the United States Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended or any similar U.S. federal statute and the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission thereunder, all as the same shall be in effect at the time.
     
  “Independent Director” has the same meaning as in the rules and regulations of the Designated Stock Exchange or in Rule 10A-3 under the Exchange Act, as the case may be.
     
  “IPO” means the Company’s initial public offering of securities.
     
  “Member” has the same meaning as in the Statute.
     
  “Memorandum” means the second amended and restated memorandum of association of the Company.
     
  “Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee” means the nominating and corporate governance committee of the board of directors of the Company established pursuant to the Articles, or any successor committee.
     
  “Officer” means a person appointed to hold an office in the Company.

 

 
  Filed: 03-Apr-2024 09:42 EST
Auth Code: D40269537585
www.verify.gov.ky File#: 355717

 

4

 

  “Ordinary Resolution” means a resolution passed by a simple majority of the Members as, being entitled to do so, vote in person or, where proxies are allowed, by proxy at a general meeting. In computing the majority when a poll is demanded regard shall be had to the number of votes to which each Member is entitled by the Articles.
     
  “Preference Share” means a preference share of a par value of US$0.0001 in the share capital of the Company.
     
  “Register of Members” means the register of Members maintained in accordance with the Statute and includes (except where otherwise stated) any branch or duplicate register of Members.
     
  “Registered Office” means the registered office for the time being of the Company.
     
  “Seal” means the common seal of the Company and includes every duplicate seal.
     
  “Securities and Exchange Commission” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.
     
  “Securities Act” means the United States Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or any similar U.S. federal statute and the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission thereunder, all as the same shall be in effect at the time.
     
  “Share” means a Class A Ordinary Share, Class B Ordinary Share or a Preference Share and includes a fraction of a share in the Company.
     
  “Special Resolution” has the same meaning as in the Statute.
     
  “Statute” means the Companies Act (As Revised) of the Cayman Islands.
     
  “Treasury Share” means a Share held in the name of the Company as a treasury share in accordance with the Statute.

 

1.2In the Articles:

 

(a)words importing the singular number include the plural number and vice versa;

 

(b)words importing the masculine gender include the feminine gender;

 

(c)words importing persons include corporations as well as any other legal or natural person;

 

 
  Filed: 03-Apr-2024 09:42 EST
Auth Code: D40269537585
www.verify.gov.ky File#: 355717

 

5

 

(d)“written” and “in writing” include all modes of representing or reproducing words in visible form, including in the form of an Electronic Record;

 

(e)“shall” shall be construed as imperative and “may” shall be construed as permissive;

 

(f)references to provisions of any law or regulation shall be construed as references to those provisions as amended, modified, re-enacted or replaced;

 

(g)any phrase introduced by the terms “including”, “include”, “in particular” or any similar expression shall be construed as illustrative and shall not limit the sense of the words preceding those terms;

 

(h)the term “and/or” is used herein to mean both “and” as well as “or.” The use of “and/or” in certain contexts in no respects qualifies or modifies the use of the terms “and” or “or” in others. The term “or” shall not be interpreted to be exclusive and the term “and” shall not be interpreted to require the conjunctive (in each case, unless the context otherwise requires);

 

(i)headings are inserted for reference only and shall be ignored in construing the Articles;

 

(j)any requirements as to delivery under the Articles include delivery in the form of an Electronic Record;

 

(k)any requirements as to execution or signature under the Articles including the execution of the Articles themselves can be satisfied in the form of an electronic signature as defined in the Electronic Transactions Act;

 

(l)sections 8 and 19(3) of the Electronic Transactions Act shall not apply;

 

(m)the term “clear days” in relation to the period of a notice means that period excluding the day when the notice is received or deemed to be received and the day for which it is given or on which it is to take effect; and

 

(n)the term “holder” in relation to a Share means a person whose name is entered in the Register of Members as the holder of such Share.

 

2Commencement of Business

 

2.1The business of the Company may be commenced as soon after incorporation of the Company as the Directors shall see fit.

 

2.2The Directors may pay, out of the capital or any other monies of the Company, all expenses incurred in or about the formation and establishment of the Company, including the expenses of registration.

 

 
  Filed: 03-Apr-2024 09:42 EST
Auth Code: D40269537585
www.verify.gov.ky File#: 355717

 

6

 

3Issue of Shares

 

3.1Subject to the provisions, if any, in the Memorandum (and to any direction that may be given by the Company in general meeting) and, where applicable, the rules and regulations of the Designated Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and/or any other competent regulatory authority or otherwise under Applicable Law, and without prejudice to any rights attached to any existing Shares, the Directors may allot, issue, grant options over or otherwise dispose of Shares (including fractions of a Share) with or without preferred, deferred or other rights or restrictions, whether in regard to Dividends or other distributions, voting, return of capital or otherwise and to such persons, at such times and on such other terms as they think proper, and may also (subject to the Statute and the Articles) vary such rights.

 

3.2The Company may issue rights, options, warrants or convertible securities or securities of similar nature conferring the right upon the holders thereof to subscribe for, purchase or receive any class of Shares or other securities in the Company on such terms as the Directors may from time to time determine.

 

3.3The Company may issue securities in the Company, which may be comprised of whole or fractional Shares, rights, options, warrants or convertible securities or securities of similar nature conferring the right upon the holders thereof to subscribe for, purchase or receive any class of Shares or other securities in the Company, upon such terms as the Directors may from time to time determine.

 

3.4The Company shall not issue Shares to bearer.

 

4Register of Members

 

4.1The Company shall maintain or cause to be maintained the Register of Members in accordance with the Statute.

 

4.2The Directors may determine that the Company shall maintain one or more branch registers of Members in accordance with the Statute. The Directors may also determine which register of Members shall constitute the principal register and which shall constitute the branch register or registers, and to vary such determination from time to time.

 

5Closing Register of Members or Fixing Record Date

 

5.1For the purpose of determining Members entitled to notice of, or to vote at any meeting of Members or any adjournment thereof, or Members entitled to receive payment of any Dividend or other distribution, or in order to make a determination of Members for any other purpose, the Directors may, after notice has been given by advertisement in an appointed newspaper or any other newspaper or by any other means in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Designated Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and/or any other competent regulatory authority or otherwise under Applicable Law, provide that the Register of Members shall be closed for transfers for a stated period which shall not in any case exceed forty days.

 

5.2In lieu of, or apart from, closing the Register of Members, the Directors may fix in advance or arrears a date as the record date for any such determination of Members entitled to notice of, or to vote at any meeting of the Members or any adjournment thereof, or for the purpose of determining the Members entitled to receive payment of any Dividend or other distribution, or in order to make a determination of Members for any other purpose.

 

 
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5.3If the Register of Members is not so closed and no record date is fixed for the determination of Members entitled to notice of, or to vote at, a meeting of Members or Members entitled to receive payment of a Dividend or other distribution, the date on which notice of the meeting is sent or the date on which the resolution of the Directors resolving to pay such Dividend or other distribution is passed, as the case may be, shall be the record date for such determination of Members. When a determination of Members entitled to vote at any meeting of Members has been made as provided in this Article, such determination shall apply to any adjournment thereof.

 

6Certificates for Shares

 

6.1A Member shall only be entitled to a share certificate if the Directors resolve that share certificates shall be issued. Share certificates representing Shares, if any, shall be in such form as the Directors may determine. Share certificates shall be signed by one or more Directors or other person authorised by the Directors. The Directors may authorise certificates to be issued with the authorised signature(s) affixed by mechanical process. All certificates for Shares shall be consecutively numbered or otherwise identified and shall specify the Shares to which they relate. All certificates surrendered to the Company for transfer shall be cancelled and, subject to the Articles, no new certificate shall be issued until the former certificate representing a like number of relevant Shares shall have been surrendered and cancelled.

 

6.2The Company shall not be bound to issue more than one certificate for Shares held jointly by more than one person and delivery of a certificate to one joint holder shall be a sufficient delivery to all of them.

 

6.3If a share certificate is defaced, worn out, lost or destroyed, it may be renewed on such terms (if any) as to evidence and indemnity and on the payment of such expenses reasonably incurred by the Company in investigating evidence, as the Directors may prescribe, and (in the case of defacement or wearing out) upon delivery of the old certificate.

 

6.4Every share certificate sent in accordance with the Articles will be sent at the risk of the Member or other person entitled to the certificate. The Company will not be responsible for any share certificate lost or delayed in the course of delivery.

 

6.5Share certificates shall be issued within the relevant time limit as prescribed by the Statute, if applicable, or as the rules and regulations of the Designated Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and/or any other competent regulatory authority or otherwise under Applicable Law may from time to time determine, whichever is shorter, after the allotment or, except in the case of a Share transfer which the Company is for the time being entitled to refuse to register and does not register, after lodgement of a Share transfer with the Company.

 

 
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7Transfer of Shares

 

7.1Subject to the terms of the Articles, any Member may transfer all or any of his Shares by an instrument of transfer provided that such transfer complies with the rules and regulations of the Designated Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and/or any other competent regulatory authority or otherwise under Applicable Law. If the Shares in question were issued in conjunction with rights, options or warrants issued pursuant to the Articles on terms that one cannot be transferred without the other, the Directors shall refuse to register the transfer of any such Share without evidence satisfactory to them of the like transfer of such right, option or warrant.

 

7.2The instrument of transfer of any Share shall be in writing in the usual or common form or in a form prescribed by the rules and regulations of the Designated Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and/or any other competent regulatory authority or otherwise under Applicable Law or in any other form approved by the Directors and shall be executed by or on behalf of the transferor (and if the Directors so require, signed by or on behalf of the transferee) and may be under hand or, if the transferor or transferee is a Clearing House or its nominee(s), by hand or by machine imprinted signature or by such other manner of execution as the Directors may approve from time to time. The transferor shall be deemed to remain the holder of a Share until the name of the transferee is entered in the Register of Members.

 

8Redemption, Repurchase and Surrender of Shares

 

8.1Subject to the provisions of the Statute, and, where applicable, the rules and regulations of the Designated Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and/or any other competent regulatory authority or otherwise under Applicable Law, the Company may issue Shares that are to be redeemed or are liable to be redeemed at the option of the Member or the Company.

 

8.2Subject to the provisions of the Statute, and, where applicable, the rules and regulations of the Designated Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and/or any other competent regulatory authority or otherwise under Applicable Law, the Company may purchase its own Shares (including any redeemable Shares) in such manner and on such other terms as the Directors may agree with the relevant Member.

 

8.3The Company may make a payment in respect of the redemption or purchase of its own Shares in any manner permitted by the Statute, including out of capital.

 

8.4The Directors may accept the surrender for no consideration of any fully paid Share.

 

9Treasury Shares

 

9.1The Directors may, prior to the purchase, redemption or surrender of any Share, determine that such Share shall be held as a Treasury Share.

 

9.2The Directors may determine to cancel a Treasury Share or transfer a Treasury Share on such terms as they think proper (including, without limitation, for nil consideration).

 

 
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10Variation of Rights of Shares

 

10.1Subject to Article 3.1, if at any time the share capital of the Company is divided into different classes of Shares, all or any of the rights attached to any class (unless otherwise provided by the terms of issue of the Shares of that class) may, whether or not the Company is being wound up, be varied without the consent of the holders of the issued Shares of that class where such variation is considered by the Directors not to have a material adverse effect upon such rights; otherwise, any such variation shall be made only with the consent in writing of the holders of not less than three-fourths of the issued Shares of that class, or with the approval of a resolution passed by a majority of not less than three-fourths of the votes cast at a separate meeting of the holders of the Shares of that class. For the avoidance of doubt, the Directors reserve the right, notwithstanding that any such variation may not have a material adverse effect, to obtain consent from the holders of Shares of the relevant class. To any such meeting all the provisions of the Articles relating to general meetings shall apply mutatis mutandis, except that the necessary quorum shall be one person holding or representing by proxy at least one third of the issued Shares of the class and that any holder of Shares of the class present in person or by proxy may demand a poll.

 

10.2For the purposes of a separate class meeting, the Directors may treat two or more or all the classes of Shares as forming one class of Shares if the Directors consider that such class of Shares would be affected in the same way by the proposals under consideration, but in any other case shall treat them as separate classes of Shares.

 

10.3The rights conferred upon the holders of the Shares of any class issued with preferred or other rights shall not, unless otherwise expressly provided by the terms of issue of the Shares of that class, be deemed to be varied by the creation or issue of further Shares ranking pari passu therewith or Shares issued with preferred or other rights.

 

11Commission on Sale of Shares

 

The Company may, in so far as the Statute permits, pay a commission to any person in consideration of his subscribing or agreeing to subscribe (whether absolutely or conditionally) or procuring or agreeing to procure subscriptions (whether absolutely or conditionally) for any Shares. Such commissions may be satisfied by the payment of cash and/or the issue of fully or partly paid-up Shares. The Company may also on any issue of Shares pay such brokerage as may be lawful.

 

12Non Recognition of Trusts

 

The Company shall not be bound by or compelled to recognise in any way (even when notified) any equitable, contingent, future or partial interest in any Share, or (except only as is otherwise provided by the Articles or the Statute) any other rights in respect of any Share other than an absolute right to the entirety thereof in the holder.

 

13Lien on Shares

 

13.1The Company shall have a first and paramount lien on all Shares (whether fully paid-up or not) registered in the name of a Member (whether solely or jointly with others) for all debts, liabilities or engagements to or with the Company (whether presently payable or not) by such Member or his estate, either alone or jointly with any other person, whether a Member or not, but the Directors may at any time declare any Share to be wholly or in part exempt from the provisions of this Article. The registration of a transfer of any such Share shall operate as a waiver of the Company’s lien thereon. The Company’s lien on a Share shall also extend to any amount payable in respect of that Share.

 

 
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13.2The Company may sell, in such manner as the Directors think fit, any Shares on which the Company has a lien, if a sum in respect of which the lien exists is presently payable, and is not paid within fourteen clear days after notice has been received or deemed to have been received by the holder of the Shares, or to the person entitled to it in consequence of the death or bankruptcy of the holder, demanding payment and stating that if the notice is not complied with the Shares may be sold.

 

13.3To give effect to any such sale the Directors may authorise any person to execute an instrument of transfer of the Shares sold to, or in accordance with the directions of, the purchaser. The purchaser or his nominee shall be registered as the holder of the Shares comprised in any such transfer, and he shall not be bound to see to the application of the purchase money, nor shall his title to the Shares be affected by any irregularity or invalidity in the sale or the exercise of the Company’s power of sale under the Articles.

 

13.4The net proceeds of such sale after payment of costs, shall be applied in payment of such part of the amount in respect of which the lien exists as is presently payable and any balance shall (subject to a like lien for sums not presently payable as existed upon the Shares before the sale) be paid to the person entitled to the Shares at the date of the sale.

 

14Call on Shares

 

14.1Subject to the terms of the allotment and issue of any Shares, the Directors may make calls upon the Members in respect of any monies unpaid on their Shares (whether in respect of par value or premium), and each Member shall (subject to receiving at least fourteen clear days’ notice specifying the time or times of payment) pay to the Company at the time or times so specified the amount called on the Shares. A call may be revoked or postponed, in whole or in part, as the Directors may determine. A call may be required to be paid by instalments. A person upon whom a call is made shall remain liable for calls made upon him notwithstanding the subsequent transfer of the Shares in respect of which the call was made.

 

14.2A call shall be deemed to have been made at the time when the resolution of the Directors authorising such call was passed.

 

14.3The joint holders of a Share shall be jointly and severally liable to pay all calls in respect thereof.

 

14.4If a call remains unpaid after it has become due and payable, the person from whom it is due shall pay interest on the amount unpaid from the day it became due and payable until it is paid at such rate as the Directors may determine (and in addition all expenses that have been incurred by the Company by reason of such non-payment), but the Directors may waive payment of the interest or expenses wholly or in part.

 

 
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14.5An amount payable in respect of a Share on issue or allotment or at any fixed date, whether on account of the par value of the Share or premium or otherwise, shall be deemed to be a call and if it is not paid all the provisions of the Articles shall apply as if that amount had become due and payable by virtue of a call.

 

14.6The Directors may issue Shares with different terms as to the amount and times of payment of calls, or the interest to be paid.

 

14.7The Directors may, if they think fit, receive an amount from any Member willing to advance all or any part of the monies uncalled and unpaid upon any Shares held by him, and may (until the amount would otherwise become payable) pay interest at such rate as may be agreed upon between the Directors and the Member paying such amount in advance.

 

14.8No such amount paid in advance of calls shall entitle the Member paying such amount to any portion of a Dividend or other distribution payable in respect of any period prior to the date upon which such amount would, but for such payment, become payable.

 

15Forfeiture of Shares

 

15.1If a call or instalment of a call remains unpaid after it has become due and payable the Directors may give to the person from whom it is due not less than fourteen clear days’ notice requiring payment of the amount unpaid together with any interest which may have accrued and any expenses incurred by the Company by reason of such non-payment. The notice shall specify where payment is to be made and shall state that if the notice is not complied with the Shares in respect of which the call was made will be liable to be forfeited.

 

15.2If the notice is not complied with, any Share in respect of which it was given may, before the payment required by the notice has been made, be forfeited by a resolution of the Directors. Such forfeiture shall include all Dividends, other distributions or other monies payable in respect of the forfeited Share and not paid before the forfeiture.

 

15.3A forfeited Share may be sold, re-allotted or otherwise disposed of on such terms and in such manner as the Directors think fit and at any time before a sale, re-allotment or disposition the forfeiture may be cancelled on such terms as the Directors think fit. Where for the purposes of its disposal a forfeited Share is to be transferred to any person the Directors may authorise some person to execute an instrument of transfer of the Share in favour of that person.

 

15.4A person any of whose Shares have been forfeited shall cease to be a Member in respect of them and shall surrender to the Company for cancellation the certificate for the Shares forfeited and shall remain liable to pay to the Company all monies which at the date of forfeiture were payable by him to the Company in respect of those Shares together with interest at such rate as the Directors may determine, but his liability shall cease if and when the Company shall have received payment in full of all monies due and payable by him in respect of those Shares.

 

15.5A certificate in writing under the hand of one Director or Officer that a Share has been forfeited on a specified date shall be conclusive evidence of the facts stated in it as against all persons claiming to be entitled to the Share. The certificate shall (subject to the execution of an instrument of transfer) constitute a good title to the Share and the person to whom the Share is sold or otherwise disposed of shall not be bound to see to the application of the purchase money, if any, nor shall his title to the Share be affected by any irregularity or invalidity in the proceedings in reference to the forfeiture, sale or disposal of the Share.

 

 
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15.6The provisions of the Articles as to forfeiture shall apply in the case of non payment of any sum which, by the terms of issue of a Share, becomes payable at a fixed time, whether on account of the par value of the Share or by way of premium as if it had been payable by virtue of a call duly made and notified.

 

16Transmission of Shares

 

16.1If a Member dies, the survivor or survivors (where he was a joint holder), or his legal personal representatives (where he was a sole holder), shall be the only persons recognised by the Company as having any title to his Shares. The estate of a deceased Member is not thereby released from any liability in respect of any Share, for which he was a joint or sole holder.

 

16.2Any person becoming entitled to a Share in consequence of the death or bankruptcy or liquidation or dissolution of a Member (or in any other way than by transfer) may, upon such evidence being produced as may be required by the Directors, elect, by a notice in writing sent by him to the Company, either to become the holder of such Share or to have some person nominated by him registered as the holder of such Share. If he elects to have another person registered as the holder of such Share he shall sign an instrument of transfer of that Share to that person. The Directors shall, in either case, have the same right to decline or suspend registration as they would have had in the case of a transfer of the Share by the relevant Member before his death or bankruptcy or liquidation or dissolution, as the case may be.

 

16.3A person becoming entitled to a Share by reason of the death or bankruptcy or liquidation or dissolution of a Member (or in any other case than by transfer) shall be entitled to the same Dividends, other distributions and other advantages to which he would be entitled if he were the holder of such Share. However, he shall not, before becoming a Member in respect of a Share, be entitled in respect of it to exercise any right conferred by membership in relation to general meetings of the Company and the Directors may at any time give notice requiring any such person to elect either to be registered himself or to have some person nominated by him be registered as the holder of the Share (but the Directors shall, in either case, have the same right to decline or suspend registration as they would have had in the case of a transfer of the Share by the relevant Member before his death or bankruptcy or liquidation or dissolution or any other case than by transfer, as the case may be). If the notice is not complied with within ninety days of being received or deemed to be received (as determined pursuant to the Articles), the Directors may thereafter withhold payment of all Dividends, other distributions, bonuses or other monies payable in respect of the Share until the requirements of the notice have been complied with.

 

17Amendments of Memorandum and Articles of Association and Alteration of Capital

 

17.1The Company may by Ordinary Resolution:

 

(a)increase its share capital by such sum as the Ordinary Resolution shall prescribe and with such rights, priorities and privileges annexed thereto, as the Company in general meeting may determine;

 

 
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(b)consolidate and divide all or any of its share capital into Shares of larger amount than its existing Shares;

 

(c)convert all or any of its paid-up Shares into stock, and reconvert that stock into paid-up Shares of any denomination;

 

(d)by subdivision of its existing Shares or any of them divide the whole or any part of its share capital into Shares of smaller amount than is fixed by the Memorandum or into Shares without par value; and

 

(e)cancel any Shares that at the date of the passing of the Ordinary Resolution have not been taken or agreed to be taken by any person and diminish the amount of its share capital by the amount of the Shares so cancelled.

 

17.2All new Shares created in accordance with the provisions of the preceding Article shall be subject to the same provisions of the Articles with reference to the payment of calls, liens, transfer, transmission, forfeiture and otherwise as the Shares in the original share capital.

 

17.3Subject to the provisions of the Statute and the provisions of the Articles as regards the matters to be dealt with by Ordinary Resolution, the Company may by Special Resolution:

 

(a)change its name;

 

(b)alter or add to the Articles;

 

(c)alter or add to the Memorandum with respect to any objects, powers or other matters specified therein; and

 

(d)reduce its share capital or any capital redemption reserve fund.

 

18Offices and Places of Business

 

Subject to the provisions of the Statute, the Company may by resolution of the Directors change the location of its Registered Office. The Company may, in addition to its Registered Office, maintain such other offices or places of business as the Directors determine.

 

19General Meetings

 

19.1All general meetings other than annual general meetings shall be called extraordinary general meetings.

 

19.2The Company may, but shall not (unless required by the Statute) be obliged to, in each year hold a general meeting as its annual general meeting, and shall specify the meeting as such in the notices calling it. Any annual general meeting shall be held at such time and place as the Directors shall appoint. At these meetings the report of the Directors (if any) shall be presented.

 

 
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19.3The Directors, the chief executive officer or the chairman of the board of Directors may call general meetings, and they shall on a Members’ requisition forthwith proceed to convene an extraordinary general meeting of the Company.

 

19.4A Members’ requisition is a requisition of Members holding at the date of deposit of the requisition not less than ten per cent in par value of the issued Shares which as at that date carry the right to vote at general meetings of the Company.

 

19.5The Members’ requisition must state the objects of the meeting and must be signed by the requisitionists and deposited at the Registered Office, and may consist of several documents in like form each signed by one or more requisitionists.

 

19.6If there are no Directors as at the date of the deposit of the Members’ requisition or if the Directors do not within twenty-one days from the date of the deposit of the Members’ requisition duly proceed to convene a general meeting to be held within a further twenty-one days, the requisitionists, or any of them representing more than one-half of the total voting rights of all of the requisitionists, may themselves convene a general meeting, but any meeting so convened shall be held no later than the day which falls three months after the expiration of the said twenty-one day period.

 

19.7A general meeting convened as aforesaid by requisitionists shall be convened in the same manner as nearly as possible as that in which general meetings are to be convened by Directors.

 

19.8Members seeking to bring business before the annual general meeting or to nominate candidates for appointment as Directors at the annual general meeting must deliver notice to the principal executive offices of the Company not less than 120 calendar days before the date of the Company’s proxy statement released to Members in connection with the previous year’s annual general meeting or, if the Company did not hold an annual general meeting the previous year, or if the date of the current year’s annual general meeting has been changed by more than 30 days from the date of the previous year’s annual general meeting, then the deadline shall be set by the board of Directors with such deadline being a reasonable time before the Company begins to print and send its related proxy materials.

 

20Notice of General Meetings

 

20.1At least five clear days’ notice shall be given of any general meeting. Every notice shall specify the place, the day and the hour of the meeting and the general nature of the business to be conducted at the general meeting and shall be given in the manner hereinafter mentioned or in such other manner if any as may be prescribed by the Company, provided that a general meeting of the Company shall, whether or not the notice specified in this Article has been given and whether or not the provisions of the Articles regarding general meetings have been complied with, be deemed to have been duly convened if it is so agreed:

 

(a)in the case of an annual general meeting, by all of the Members entitled to attend and vote thereat; and

 

 
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(b)in the case of an extraordinary general meeting, by a majority in number of the Members having a right to attend and vote at the meeting, together holding not less than ninety-five per cent in par value of the Shares giving that right.

 

20.2The accidental omission to give notice of a general meeting to, or the non receipt of notice of a general meeting by, any person entitled to receive such notice shall not invalidate the proceedings of that general meeting.

 

21Proceedings at General Meetings

 

21.1No business shall be transacted at any general meeting unless a quorum is present. The holders of one-third of the Shares being individuals present in person or by proxy or if a corporation or other non-natural person by its duly authorised representative or proxy shall be a quorum.

 

21.2A person may participate at a general meeting by conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all the persons participating in the meeting can communicate with each other. Participation by a person in a general meeting in this manner is treated as presence in person at that meeting.

 

21.3If a quorum is not present within half an hour from the time appointed for the meeting to commence or if during such a meeting a quorum ceases to be present, the meeting, if convened upon a Members’ requisition, shall be dissolved and in any other case it shall stand adjourned to the same day in the next week at the same time and/or place or to such other day, time and/or place as the Directors may determine, and if at the adjourned meeting a quorum is not present within half an hour from the time appointed for the meeting to commence, the Members present shall be a quorum.

 

21.4The Directors may, at any time prior to the time appointed for the meeting to commence, appoint any person to act as chairman of a general meeting of the Company or, if the Directors do not make any such appointment, the chairman, if any, of the board of Directors shall preside as chairman at such general meeting. If there is no such chairman, or if he shall not be present within fifteen minutes after the time appointed for the meeting to commence, or is unwilling to act, the Directors present shall elect one of their number to be chairman of the meeting.

 

21.5If no Director is willing to act as chairman or if no Director is present within fifteen minutes after the time appointed for the meeting to commence, the Members present shall choose one of their number to be chairman of the meeting.

 

21.6The chairman may, with the consent of a meeting at which a quorum is present (and shall if so directed by the meeting) adjourn the meeting from time to time and from place to place, but no business shall be transacted at any adjourned meeting other than the business left unfinished at the meeting from which the adjournment took place.

 

21.7When a general meeting is adjourned for thirty days or more, notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given as in the case of an original meeting. Otherwise it shall not be necessary to give any such notice of an adjourned meeting.

 

 
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21.8If a notice is issued in respect of a general meeting and the Directors, in their absolute discretion, consider that it is impractical or undesirable for any reason to hold that general meeting at the place, the day and the hour specified in the notice calling such general meeting, the Directors may postpone the general meeting to another place, day and/or hour provided that notice of the place, the day and the hour of the rearranged general meeting is promptly given to all Members. No business shall be transacted at any postponed meeting other than the business specified in the notice of the original meeting.

 

21.9When a general meeting is postponed for thirty days or more, notice of the postponed meeting shall be given as in the case of an original meeting. Otherwise it shall not be necessary to give any such notice of a postponed meeting. All proxy forms submitted for the original general meeting shall remain valid for the postponed meeting. The Directors may postpone a general meeting which has already been postponed.

 

21.10A resolution put to the vote of the meeting shall be decided on a poll.

 

21.11A poll shall be taken as the chairman directs, and the result of the poll shall be deemed to be the resolution of the general meeting at which the poll was demanded.

 

21.12A poll demanded on the election of a chairman or on a question of adjournment shall be taken forthwith. A poll demanded on any other question shall be taken at such date, time and place as the chairman of the general meeting directs, and any business other than that upon which a poll has been demanded or is contingent thereon may proceed pending the taking of the poll.

 

21.13In the case of an equality of votes the chairman shall be entitled to a second or casting vote.

 

22Votes of Members

 

22.1Subject to any rights or restrictions attached to any Shares, the holder of:

 

(a)a Class A Ordinary Share shall (in respect of such Class A Ordinary Share) have one vote for every Class A Ordinary Share of which he is the holder; and

 

(b)a Class B Ordinary Share shall (in respect of such Class B Ordinary Share) have 20 votes for every Class B Ordinary Share of which he is the holder.

 

22.2In the case of joint holders the vote of the senior holder who tenders a vote, whether in person or by proxy (or, in the case of a corporation or other non-natural person, by its duly authorised representative or proxy), shall be accepted to the exclusion of the votes of the other joint holders, and seniority shall be determined by the order in which the names of the holders stand in the Register of Members.

 

22.3A Member of unsound mind, or in respect of whom an order has been made by any court, having jurisdiction in lunacy, may vote by his committee, receiver, curator bonis, or other person on such Member’s behalf appointed by that court, and any such committee, receiver, curator bonis or other person may vote by proxy.

 

 
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22.4No person shall be entitled to vote at any general meeting unless he is registered as a Member on the record date for such meeting nor unless all calls or other monies then payable by him in respect of Shares have been paid.

 

22.5No objection shall be raised as to the qualification of any voter except at the general meeting or adjourned general meeting at which the vote objected to is given or tendered and every vote not disallowed at the meeting shall be valid. Any objection made in due time in accordance with this Article shall be referred to the chairman whose decision shall be final and conclusive.

 

22.6Votes may be cast either personally or by proxy (or in the case of a corporation or other non-natural person by its duly authorised representative or proxy). A Member may appoint more than one proxy or the same proxy under one or more instruments to attend and vote at a meeting. Where a Member appoints more than one proxy the instrument of proxy shall specify the number of Shares in respect of which each proxy is entitled to exercise the related votes.

 

22.7A Member holding more than one Share need not cast the votes in respect of his Shares in the same way on any resolution and therefore may vote a Share or some or all such Shares either for or against a resolution and/or abstain from voting a Share or some or all of the Shares and, subject to the terms of the instrument appointing him, a proxy appointed under one or more instruments may vote a Share or some or all of the Shares in respect of which he is appointed either for or against a resolution and/or abstain from voting a Share or some or all of the Shares in respect of which he is appointed.

 

23Proxies

 

23.1The instrument appointing a proxy shall be in writing and shall be executed under the hand of the appointor or of his attorney duly authorised in writing, or, if the appointor is a corporation or other non natural person, under the hand of its duly authorised representative. A proxy need not be a Member.

 

23.2The Directors may, in the notice convening any meeting or adjourned meeting, or in an instrument of proxy sent out by the Company, specify the manner by which the instrument appointing a proxy shall be deposited and the place and the time (being not later than the time appointed for the commencement of the meeting or adjourned meeting to which the proxy relates) at which the instrument appointing a proxy shall be deposited. In the absence of any such direction from the Directors in the notice convening any meeting or adjourned meeting or in an instrument of proxy sent out by the Company, the instrument appointing a proxy shall be deposited physically at the Registered Office not less than 48 hours before the time appointed for the meeting or adjourned meeting to commence at which the person named in the instrument proposes to vote.

 

23.3The chairman may in any event at his discretion declare that an instrument of proxy shall be deemed to have been duly deposited. An instrument of proxy that is not deposited in the manner permitted, or which has not been declared to have been duly deposited by the chairman, shall be invalid.

 

23.4The instrument appointing a proxy may be in any usual or common form (or such other form as the Directors may approve) and may be expressed to be for a particular meeting or any adjournment thereof or generally until revoked. An instrument appointing a proxy shall be deemed to include the power to demand or join or concur in demanding a poll.

 
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Auth Code: D40269537585
www.verify.gov.ky File#: 355717

 

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23.5Votes given in accordance with the terms of an instrument of proxy shall be valid notwithstanding the previous death or insanity of the principal or revocation of the proxy or of the authority under which the proxy was executed, or the transfer of the Share in respect of which the proxy is given unless notice in writing of such death, insanity, revocation or transfer was received by the Company at the Registered Office before the commencement of the general meeting, or adjourned meeting at which it is sought to use the proxy.

 

24Corporate Members

 

24.1Any corporation or other non-natural person which is a Member may in accordance with its constitutional documents, or in the absence of such provision by resolution of its directors or other governing body, authorise such person as it thinks fit to act as its representative at any meeting of the Company or of any class of Members, and the person so authorised shall be entitled to exercise the same powers on behalf of the corporation which he represents as the corporation could exercise if it were an individual Member.

 

24.2If a Clearing House (or its nominee(s)), being a corporation, is a Member, it may authorise such persons as it sees fit to act as its representative at any meeting of the Company or at any meeting of any class of Members provided that the authorisation shall specify the number and class of Shares in respect of which each such representative is so authorised. Each person so authorised under the provisions of this Article shall be deemed to have been duly authorised without further evidence of the facts and be entitled to exercise the same rights and powers on behalf of the Clearing House (or its nominee(s)) as if such person was the registered holder of such Shares held by the Clearing House (or its nominee(s)).

 

25Shares that May Not be Voted

 

Shares in the Company that are beneficially owned by the Company shall not be voted, directly or indirectly, at any meeting and shall not be counted in determining the total number of outstanding Shares at any given time.

 

26Directors

 

26.1There shall be a board of Directors consisting of not less than one person provided however that the Company may by Ordinary Resolution increase or reduce the limits in the number of Directors.

 

26.2Commencing at the Company’s first annual general meeting, and at each annual general meeting thereafter, Directors appointed to succeed those Directors whose terms expire shall be appointed for a term of office to expire at the next succeeding annual general meeting after their appointment. Except as the Statute or other Applicable Law may otherwise require, in the interim between annual general meetings or extraordinary general meetings called for the appointment of Directors and/or the removal of one or more Directors and the filling of any vacancy in that connection, additional Directors and any vacancies in the board of Directors, including unfilled vacancies resulting from the removal of Directors for cause, may be filled by the vote of a majority of the remaining Directors then in office, although less than a quorum (as defined in the Articles), or by the sole remaining Director. All Directors shall hold office until the expiration of their respective terms of office and until their successors shall have been appointed and qualified. A Director appointed to fill a vacancy resulting from the death, resignation or removal of a Director shall serve for the remainder of the full term of the Director whose death, resignation or removal shall have created such vacancy and until his successor shall have been appointed and qualified.

 

 
  Filed: 03-Apr-2024 09:42 EST
Auth Code: D40269537585
www.verify.gov.ky File#: 355717

 

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27Powers of Directors

 

27.1Subject to the provisions of the Statute, the Memorandum and the Articles and to any directions given by Special Resolution, the business of the Company shall be managed by the Directors who may exercise all the powers of the Company. No alteration of the Memorandum or Articles and no such direction shall invalidate any prior act of the Directors which would have been valid if that alteration had not been made or that direction had not been given. A duly convened meeting of Directors at which a quorum is present may exercise all powers exercisable by the Directors.

 

27.2All cheques, promissory notes, drafts, bills of exchange and other negotiable or transferable instruments and all receipts for monies paid to the Company shall be signed, drawn, accepted, endorsed or otherwise executed as the case may be in such manner as the Directors shall determine by resolution.

 

27.3The Directors on behalf of the Company may pay a gratuity or pension or allowance on retirement to any Director who has held any other salaried office or place of profit with the Company or to his widow or dependants and may make contributions to any fund and pay premiums for the purchase or provision of any such gratuity, pension or allowance.

 

27.4The Directors may exercise all the powers of the Company to borrow money and to mortgage or charge its undertaking, property and assets (present and future) and uncalled capital or any part thereof and to issue debentures, debenture stock, mortgages, bonds and other such securities whether outright or as security for any debt, liability or obligation of the Company or of any third party.

 

28Appointment and Removal of Directors

 

28.1The Company may by Ordinary Resolution appoint any person to be a Director or may by Ordinary Resolution remove any Director.

 

28.2The Directors may appoint any person to be a Director, either to fill a vacancy or as an additional Director provided that the appointment does not cause the number of Directors to exceed any number fixed by or in accordance with the Articles as the maximum number of Directors.

 

29Vacation of Office of Director

 

The office of a Director shall be vacated if:

 

(a)the Director gives notice in writing to the Company that he resigns the office of Director; or

 

(b)the Director absents himself (for the avoidance of doubt, without being represented by proxy) from three consecutive meetings of the board of Directors without special leave of absence from the Directors, and the Directors pass a resolution that he has by reason of such absence vacated office; or

 

 
  Filed: 03-Apr-2024 09:42 EST
Auth Code: D40269537585
www.verify.gov.ky File#: 355717

 

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(c)the Director dies, becomes bankrupt or makes any arrangement or composition with his creditors generally; or

 

(d)the Director is found to be or becomes of unsound mind; or

 

(e)all of the other Directors (being not less than two in number) determine that he should be removed as a Director, either by a resolution passed by all of the other Directors at a meeting of the Directors duly convened and held in accordance with the Articles or by a resolution in writing signed by all of the other Directors.

 

30Proceedings of Directors

 

30.1The quorum for the transaction of the business of the Directors may be fixed by the Directors, and unless so fixed shall be a majority of the Directors then in office.

 

30.2Subject to the provisions of the Articles, the Directors may regulate their proceedings as they think fit. Questions arising at any meeting shall be decided by a majority of votes. In the case of an equality of votes, the chairman shall have a second or casting vote.

 

30.3A person may participate in a meeting of the Directors or any committee of Directors by conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all the persons participating in the meeting can communicate with each other at the same time. Participation by a person in a meeting in this manner is treated as presence in person at that meeting. Unless otherwise determined by the Directors, the meeting shall be deemed to be held at the place where the chairman is located at the start of the meeting.

 

30.4A resolution in writing (in one or more counterparts) signed by all the Directors or all the members of a committee of the Directors or, in the case of a resolution in writing relating to the removal of any Director or the vacation of office by any Director, all of the Directors other than the Director who is the subject of such resolution shall be as valid and effectual as if it had been passed at a meeting of the Directors, or committee of Directors as the case may be, duly convened and held.

 

30.5A Director may, or other Officer on the direction of a Director shall, call a meeting of the Directors by at least two days’ notice in writing to every Director which notice shall set forth the general nature of the business to be considered unless notice is waived by all the Directors either at, before or after the meeting is held. To any such notice of a meeting of the Directors all the provisions of the Articles relating to the giving of notices by the Company to the Members shall apply mutatis mutandis.

 

30.6The continuing Directors (or a sole continuing Director, as the case may be) may act notwithstanding any vacancy in their body, but if and so long as their number is reduced below the number fixed by or pursuant to the Articles as the necessary quorum of Directors the continuing Directors or Director may act for the purpose of increasing the number of Directors to be equal to such fixed number, or of summoning a general meeting of the Company, but for no other purpose.

 

 
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Auth Code: D40269537585
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30.7The Directors may elect a chairman of their board and determine the period for which he is to hold office; but if no such chairman is elected, or if at any meeting the chairman is not present within five minutes after the time appointed for the meeting to commence, the Directors present may choose one of their number to be chairman of the meeting.

 

30.8All acts done by any meeting of the Directors or of a committee of the Directors shall, notwithstanding that it is afterwards discovered that there was some defect in the appointment of any Director, and/or that they or any of them were disqualified, and/or had vacated their office and/or were not entitled to vote, be as valid as if every such person had been duly appointed and/or not disqualified to be a Director and/or had not vacated their office and/or had been entitled to vote, as the case may be.

 

30.9A Director may be represented at any meetings of the board of Directors by a proxy appointed in writing by him. The proxy shall count towards the quorum and the vote of the proxy shall for all purposes be deemed to be that of the appointing Director.

 

31Presumption of Assent

 

A Director who is present at a meeting of the board of Directors at which action on any Company matter is taken shall be presumed to have assented to the action taken unless his dissent shall be entered in the minutes of the meeting or unless he shall file his written dissent from such action with the person acting as the chairman or secretary of the meeting before the adjournment thereof or shall forward such dissent by registered post to such person immediately after the adjournment of the meeting. Such right to dissent shall not apply to a Director who voted in favour of such action.

 

32Directors’ Interests

 

32.1A Director may hold any other office or place of profit under the Company (other than the office of Auditor) in conjunction with his office of Director for such period and on such terms as to remuneration and otherwise as the Directors may determine.

 

32.2A Director may act by himself or by, through or on behalf of his firm in a professional capacity for the Company and he or his firm shall be entitled to remuneration for professional services as if he were not a Director.

 

32.3A Director may be or become a director or other officer of or otherwise interested in any company promoted by the Company or in which the Company may be interested as a shareholder, a contracting party or otherwise, and no such Director shall be accountable to the Company for any remuneration or other benefits received by him as a director or officer of, or from his interest in, such other company.

 

32.4No person shall be disqualified from the office of Director or prevented by such office from contracting with the Company, either as vendor, purchaser or otherwise, nor shall any such contract or any contract or transaction entered into by or on behalf of the Company in which any Director shall be in any way interested be or be liable to be avoided, nor shall any Director so contracting or being so interested be liable to account to the Company for any profit realised by or arising in connection with any such contract or transaction by reason of such Director holding office or of the fiduciary relationship thereby established. A Director shall be at liberty to vote in respect of any contract or transaction in which he is interested provided that the nature of the interest of any Director in any such contract or transaction shall be disclosed by him at or prior to its consideration and any vote thereon.

 

 
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Auth Code: D40269537585
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32.5A general notice that a Director is a shareholder, director, officer or employee of any specified firm or company and is to be regarded as interested in any transaction with such firm or company shall be sufficient disclosure for the purposes of voting on a resolution in respect of a contract or transaction in which he has an interest, and after such general notice it shall not be necessary to give special notice relating to any particular transaction.

 

33Minutes

 

The Directors shall cause minutes to be made in books kept for the purpose of recording all appointments of Officers made by the Directors, all proceedings at meetings of the Company or the holders of any class of Shares and of the Directors, and of committees of the Directors, including the names of the Directors present at each meeting.

 

34Delegation of Directors’ Powers

 

34.1The Directors may delegate any of their powers, authorities and discretions, including the power to sub-delegate, to any committee consisting of one or more Directors (including, without limitation, the Audit Committee, the Compensation Committee and the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee). Any such delegation may be made subject to any conditions the Directors may impose and either collaterally with or to the exclusion of their own powers and any such delegation may be revoked or altered by the Directors. Subject to any such conditions, the proceedings of a committee of Directors shall be governed by the Articles regulating the proceedings of Directors, so far as they are capable of applying.

 

34.2The Directors may establish any committees, local boards or agencies or appoint any person to be a manager or agent for managing the affairs of the Company and may appoint any person to be a member of such committees, local boards or agencies. Any such appointment may be made subject to any conditions the Directors may impose, and either collaterally with or to the exclusion of their own powers and any such appointment may be revoked or altered by the Directors. Subject to any such conditions, the proceedings of any such committee, local board or agency shall be governed by the Articles regulating the proceedings of Directors, so far as they are capable of applying.

 

34.3The Directors may adopt formal written charters for committees and, if so adopted, shall review and assess the adequacy of such formal written charters on an annual basis. Each of these committees shall be empowered to do all things necessary to exercise the rights of such committee set forth in the Articles and shall have such powers as the Directors may delegate pursuant to the Articles and as required by the rules and regulations of the Designated Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and/or any other competent regulatory authority or otherwise under Applicable Law. Each of the Audit Committee, the Compensation Committee and the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, if established, shall consist of such number of Directors as the Directors shall from time to time determine (or such minimum number as may be required from time to time by the rules and regulations of the Designated Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and/or any other competent regulatory authority or otherwise under Applicable Law). For so long as any class of Shares is listed on the Designated Stock Exchange, the Audit Committee, the Compensation Committee and the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee shall be made up of such number of Independent Directors as is required from time to time by the rules and regulations of the Designated Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and/or any other competent regulatory authority or otherwise under Applicable Law.

 

 
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Auth Code: D40269537585
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34.4The Directors may by power of attorney or otherwise appoint any person to be the agent of the Company on such conditions as the Directors may determine, provided that the delegation is not to the exclusion of their own powers and may be revoked by the Directors at any time.

 

34.5The Directors may by power of attorney or otherwise appoint any company, firm, person or body of persons, whether nominated directly or indirectly by the Directors, to be the attorney or authorised signatory of the Company for such purpose and with such powers, authorities and discretions (not exceeding those vested in or exercisable by the Directors under the Articles) and for such period and subject to such conditions as they may think fit, and any such powers of attorney or other appointment may contain such provisions for the protection and convenience of persons dealing with any such attorneys or authorised signatories as the Directors may think fit and may also authorise any such attorney or authorised signatory to delegate all or any of the powers, authorities and discretions vested in him.

 

34.6The Directors may appoint such Officers as they consider necessary on such terms, at such remuneration and to perform such duties, and subject to such provisions as to disqualification and removal as the Directors may think fit. Unless otherwise specified in the terms of his appointment an Officer may be removed by resolution of the Directors or Members. An Officer may vacate his office at any time if he gives notice in writing to the Company that he resigns his office.

 

35No Minimum Shareholding

 

The Company in general meeting may fix a minimum shareholding required to be held by a Director, but unless and until such a shareholding qualification is fixed a Director is not required to hold Shares.

 

36Remuneration of Directors

 

36.1The remuneration to be paid to the Directors, if any, shall be such remuneration as the Directors shall determine. The Directors shall also be entitled to be paid all travelling, hotel and other expenses properly incurred by them in connection with their attendance at meetings of Directors or committees of Directors, or general meetings of the Company, or separate meetings of the holders of any class of Shares or debentures of the Company, or otherwise in connection with the business of the Company or the discharge of their duties as a Director, or to receive a fixed allowance in respect thereof as may be determined by the Directors, or a combination partly of one such method and partly the other.

 

36.2The Directors may by resolution approve additional remuneration to any Director for any services which in the opinion of the Directors go beyond his ordinary routine work as a Director. Any fees paid to a Director who is also counsel, attorney or solicitor to the Company, or otherwise serves it in a professional capacity shall be in addition to his remuneration as a Director.

 

 
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Auth Code: D40269537585
www.verify.gov.ky File#: 355717

 

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37Seal

 

37.1The Company may, if the Directors so determine, have a Seal. The Seal shall only be used by the authority of the Directors or of a committee of the Directors authorised by the Directors. Every instrument to which the Seal has been affixed shall be signed by at least one person who shall be either a Director or some Officer or other person appointed by the Directors for the purpose.

 

37.2The Company may have for use in any place or places outside the Cayman Islands a duplicate Seal or Seals each of which shall be a facsimile of the common Seal of the Company and, if the Directors so determine, with the addition on its face of the name of every place where it is to be used.

 

37.3A Director or Officer, representative or attorney of the Company may without further authority of the Directors affix the Seal over his signature alone to any document of the Company required to be authenticated by him under seal or to be filed with the Registrar of Companies in the Cayman Islands or elsewhere wheresoever.

 

38Dividends, Distributions and Reserve

 

38.1Subject to the Statute and this Article and except as otherwise provided by the rights attached to any Shares, the Directors may resolve to pay Dividends and other distributions on Shares in issue and authorise payment of the Dividends or other distributions out of the funds of the Company lawfully available therefor. A Dividend shall be deemed to be an interim Dividend unless the terms of the resolution pursuant to which the Directors resolve to pay such Dividend specifically state that such Dividend shall be a final Dividend. No Dividend or other distribution shall be paid except out of the realised or unrealised profits of the Company, out of the share premium account or as otherwise permitted by law.

 

38.2Except as otherwise provided by the rights attached to any Shares, all Dividends and other distributions shall be paid according to the par value of the Shares that a Member holds. If any Share is issued on terms providing that it shall rank for Dividend as from a particular date, that Share shall rank for Dividend accordingly.

 

38.3The Directors may deduct from any Dividend or other distribution payable to any Member all sums of money (if any) then payable by him to the Company on account of calls or otherwise.

 

38.4The Directors may resolve that any Dividend or other distribution be paid wholly or partly by the distribution of specific assets and in particular (but without limitation) by the distribution of shares, debentures, or securities of any other company or in any one or more of such ways and where any difficulty arises in regard to such distribution, the Directors may settle the same as they think expedient and in particular may issue fractional Shares and may fix the value for distribution of such specific assets or any part thereof and may determine that cash payments shall be made to any Members upon the basis of the value so fixed in order to adjust the rights of all Members and may vest any such specific assets in trustees in such manner as may seem expedient to the Directors.

 

 
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Auth Code: D40269537585
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38.5Except as otherwise provided by the rights attached to any Shares, Dividends and other distributions may be paid in any currency. The Directors may determine the basis of conversion for any currency conversions that may be required and how any costs involved are to be met.

 

38.6The Directors may, before resolving to pay any Dividend or other distribution, set aside such sums as they think proper as a reserve or reserves which shall, at the discretion of the Directors, be applicable for any purpose of the Company and pending such application may, at the discretion of the Directors, be employed in the business of the Company.

 

38.7Any Dividend, other distribution, interest or other monies payable in cash in respect of Shares may be paid by wire transfer to the holder or by cheque or warrant sent through the post directed to the registered address of the holder or, in the case of joint holders, to the registered address of the holder who is first named on the Register of Members or to such person and to such address as such holder or joint holders may in writing direct. Every such cheque or warrant shall be made payable to the order of the person to whom it is sent. Any one of two or more joint holders may give effectual receipts for any Dividends, other distributions, bonuses, or other monies payable in respect of the Share held by them as joint holders.

 

38.8No Dividend or other distribution shall bear interest against the Company.

 

38.9Any Dividend or other distribution which cannot be paid to a Member and/or which remains unclaimed after six months from the date on which such Dividend or other distribution becomes payable may, in the discretion of the Directors, be paid into a separate account in the Company’s name, provided that the Company shall not be constituted as a trustee in respect of that account and the Dividend or other distribution shall remain as a debt due to the Member. Any Dividend or other distribution which remains unclaimed after a period of six years from the date on which such Dividend or other distribution becomes payable shall be forfeited and shall revert to the Company.

 

38.10No Dividends or other distributions shall be payable on the Class B Ordinary Shares.

 

39Capitalisation

 

The Directors may at any time capitalise any sum standing to the credit of any of the Company’s reserve accounts or funds (including the share premium account and capital redemption reserve fund) or any sum standing to the credit of the profit and loss account or otherwise available for distribution; appropriate such sum to Members in the proportions in which such sum would have been divisible amongst such Members had the same been a distribution of profits by way of Dividend or other distribution; and apply such sum on their behalf in paying up in full unissued Shares for allotment and distribution credited as fully paid-up to and amongst them in the proportion aforesaid. In such event the Directors shall do all acts and things required to give effect to such capitalisation, with full power given to the Directors to make such provisions as they think fit in the case of Shares becoming distributable in fractions (including provisions whereby the benefit of fractional entitlements accrue to the Company rather than to the Members concerned). The Directors may authorise any person to enter on behalf of all of the Members interested into an agreement with the Company providing for such capitalisation and matters incidental or relating thereto and any agreement made under such authority shall be effective and binding on all such Members and the Company.

 

 
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Auth Code: D40269537585
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40Books of Account

 

40.1The Directors shall cause proper books of account (including, where applicable, material underlying documentation including contracts and invoices) to be kept with respect to all sums of money received and expended by the Company and the matters in respect of which the receipt or expenditure takes place, all sales and purchases of goods by the Company and the assets and liabilities of the Company. Such books of account must be retained for a minimum period of five years from the date on which they are prepared. Proper books shall not be deemed to be kept if there are not kept such books of account as are necessary to give a true and fair view of the state of the Company’s affairs and to explain its transactions.

 

40.2The Directors shall determine whether and to what extent and at what times and places and under what conditions or regulations the accounts and books of the Company or any of them shall be open to the inspection of Members not being Directors and no Member (not being a Director) shall have any right of inspecting any account or book or document of the Company except as conferred by Statute or authorised by the Directors or by the Company in general meeting.

 

40.3The Directors may cause to be prepared and to be laid before the Company in general meeting profit and loss accounts, balance sheets, group accounts (if any) and such other reports and accounts as may be required by law.

 

41Audit

 

41.1The Directors may appoint an Auditor of the Company who shall hold office on such terms as the Directors determine.

 

41.2Without prejudice to the freedom of the Directors to establish any other committee, if the Shares (or depositary receipts therefor) are listed or quoted on the Designated Stock Exchange, and if required by the rules and regulations of the Designated Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and/or any other competent regulatory authority or otherwise under Applicable Law, the Directors shall establish and maintain an Audit Committee as a committee of the Directors and shall adopt a formal written Audit Committee charter and review and assess the adequacy of the formal written charter on an annual basis. The composition and responsibilities of the Audit Committee shall comply with the rules and regulations of the Designated Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and/or any other competent regulatory authority or otherwise under Applicable Law. The Audit Committee shall meet at least once every financial quarter, or more frequently as circumstances dictate.

 

41.3If the Shares (or depositary receipts therefor) are listed or quoted on the Designated Stock Exchange, the Company shall conduct an appropriate review of all related party transactions on an ongoing basis and shall utilise the Audit Committee for the review and approval of potential conflicts of interest.

 

41.4The remuneration of the Auditor shall be fixed by the Audit Committee (if one exists).

 

 
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41.5If the office of Auditor becomes vacant by resignation or death of the Auditor, or by his becoming incapable of acting by reason of illness or other disability at a time when his services are required, the Directors shall fill the vacancy and determine the remuneration of such Auditor.

 

41.6Every Auditor of the Company shall have a right of access at all times to the books and accounts and vouchers of the Company and shall be entitled to require from the Directors and Officers such information and explanation as may be necessary for the performance of the duties of the Auditor.

 

41.7Auditors shall, if so required by the Directors, make a report on the accounts of the Company during their tenure of office at the next annual general meeting following their appointment in the case of a company which is registered with the Registrar of Companies as an ordinary company, and at the next extraordinary general meeting following their appointment in the case of a company which is registered with the Registrar of Companies as an exempted company, and at any other time during their term of office, upon request of the Directors or any general meeting of the Members.

 

42Notices

 

42.1Notices shall be in writing and may be given by the Company to any Member either personally or by sending it by courier, post, cable, telex, fax or e-mail to him or to his address as shown in the Register of Members (or where the notice is given by e-mail by sending it to the e-mail address provided by such Member). Notice may also be served by Electronic Communication in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Designated Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and/or any other competent regulatory authority or by placing it on the Company’s Website.

 

42.2Where a notice is sent by:

 

(a)courier; service of the notice shall be deemed to be effected by delivery of the notice to a courier company, and shall be deemed to have been received on the third day (not including Saturdays or Sundays or public holidays) following the day on which the notice was delivered to the courier;

 

(b)post; service of the notice shall be deemed to be effected by properly addressing, pre paying and posting a letter containing the notice, and shall be deemed to have been received on the fifth day (not including Saturdays or Sundays or public holidays in the Cayman Islands) following the day on which the notice was posted;

 

(c)cable, telex or fax; service of the notice shall be deemed to be effected by properly addressing and sending such notice and shall be deemed to have been received on the same day that it was transmitted;

 

(d)e-mail or other Electronic Communication; service of the notice shall be deemed to be effected by transmitting the e-mail to the e-mail address provided by the intended recipient and shall be deemed to have been received on the same day that it was sent, and it shall not be necessary for the receipt of the e-mail to be acknowledged by the recipient; and

 

(e)placing it on the Company’s Website; service of the notice shall be deemed to have been effected one hour after the notice or document was placed on the Company’s Website.

 

 
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42.3A notice may be given by the Company to the person or persons which the Company has been advised are entitled to a Share or Shares in consequence of the death or bankruptcy of a Member in the same manner as other notices which are required to be given under the Articles and shall be addressed to them by name, or by the title of representatives of the deceased, or trustee of the bankrupt, or by any like description at the address supplied for that purpose by the persons claiming to be so entitled, or at the option of the Company by giving the notice in any manner in which the same might have been given if the death or bankruptcy had not occurred.

 

42.4Notice of every general meeting shall be given in any manner authorised by the Articles to every holder of Shares carrying an entitlement to receive such notice on the record date for such meeting except that in the case of joint holders the notice shall be sufficient if given to the joint holder first named in the Register of Members and every person upon whom the ownership of a Share devolves by reason of his being a legal personal representative or a trustee in bankruptcy of a Member where the Member but for his death or bankruptcy would be entitled to receive notice of the meeting, and no other person shall be entitled to receive notices of general meetings.

 

43Winding Up

 

43.1If the Company shall be wound up, the liquidator shall apply the assets of the Company in satisfaction of creditors’ claims in such manner and order as such liquidator thinks fit. Subject to the rights attaching to any Shares, in a winding up:

 

(a)if the assets available for distribution amongst the Members shall be insufficient to repay the whole of the Company’s issued share capital, such assets shall be distributed so that, as nearly as may be, the losses shall be borne by the Members in proportion to the par value of the Shares held by them; or

 

(b)if the assets available for distribution amongst the Members shall be more than sufficient to repay the whole of the Company’s issued share capital at the commencement of the winding up, the surplus shall be distributed amongst the Members in proportion to the par value of the Shares held by them at the commencement of the winding up subject to a deduction from those Shares in respect of which there are monies due, of all monies payable to the Company for unpaid calls or otherwise.

 

43.2If the Company shall be wound up the liquidator may, subject to the rights attaching to any Shares and with the approval of a Special Resolution of the Company and any other approval required by the Statute, divide amongst the Members in kind the whole or any part of the assets of the Company (whether such assets shall consist of property of the same kind or not) and may for that purpose value any assets and determine how the division shall be carried out as between the Members or different classes of Members. The liquidator may, with the like approval, vest the whole or any part of such assets in trustees upon such trusts for the benefit of the Members as the liquidator, with the like approval, shall think fit, but so that no Member shall be compelled to accept any asset upon which there is a liability.

 

 
  Filed: 03-Apr-2024 09:42 EST
Auth Code: D40269537585
www.verify.gov.ky File#: 355717

 

29

 

44Indemnity and Insurance

 

44.1Every Director and Officer (which for the avoidance of doubt, shall not include auditors of the Company), together with every former Director and former Officer (each an “Indemnified Person”) shall be indemnified out of the assets of the Company against any liability, action, proceeding, claim, demand, costs, damages or expenses, including legal expenses, whatsoever which they or any of them may incur as a result of any act or failure to act in carrying out their functions other than such liability (if any) that they may incur by reason of their own actual fraud, wilful neglect or wilful default. No Indemnified Person shall be liable to the Company for any loss or damage incurred by the Company as a result (whether direct or indirect) of the carrying out of their functions unless that liability arises through the actual fraud, wilful neglect or wilful default of such Indemnified Person. No person shall be found to have committed actual fraud, wilful neglect or wilful default under this Article unless or until a court of competent jurisdiction shall have made a finding to that effect.

 

44.2The Company shall advance to each Indemnified Person reasonable attorneys’ fees and other costs and expenses incurred in connection with the defence of any action, suit, proceeding or investigation involving such Indemnified Person for which indemnity will or could be sought. In connection with any advance of any expenses hereunder, the Indemnified Person shall execute an undertaking to repay the advanced amount to the Company if it shall be determined by final judgment or other final adjudication that such Indemnified Person was not entitled to indemnification pursuant to this Article. If it shall be determined by a final judgment or other final adjudication that such Indemnified Person was not entitled to indemnification with respect to such judgment, costs or expenses, then such party shall not be indemnified with respect to such judgment, costs or expenses and any advancement shall be returned to the Company (without interest) by the Indemnified Person.

 

44.3The Directors, on behalf of the Company, may purchase and maintain insurance for the benefit of any Director or Officer against any liability which, by virtue of any rule of law, would otherwise attach to such person in respect of any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust of which such person may be guilty in relation to the Company.

 

45Financial Year

 

Unless the Directors otherwise prescribe, the financial year of the Company shall end on 31st December in each year and, following the year of incorporation, shall begin on 1st January in each year.

 

46Transfer by Way of Continuation

 

If the Company is exempted as defined in the Statute, it shall, subject to the provisions of the Statute and with the approval of a Special Resolution, have the power to register by way of continuation as a body corporate under the laws of any jurisdiction outside the Cayman Islands and to be deregistered in the Cayman Islands.

 

47Mergers and Consolidations

 

The Company shall have the power to merge or consolidate with one or more other constituent companies (as defined in the Statute) upon such terms as the Directors may determine and (to the extent required by the Statute) with the approval of a Special Resolution.

 

 
  Filed: 03-Apr-2024 09:42 EST
Auth Code: D40269537585
www.verify.gov.ky File#: 355717

 

30

 

 

Exhibit 4.1

 

Ostin Technology Group Co., Ltd., as

ISSUER

 

and

 

[                  ], as

INDENTURE TRUSTEE

 

INDENTURE

 

Dated as of [                ]

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

  Page  
ARTICLE I DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE 1
       
Section 1.01   Definitions 1
Section 1.02   Other Definitions 4
Section 1.03   Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act 4
Section 1.04   Rules of Construction 4
   
ARTICLE II THE SECURITIES 5
   
Section 2.01   Issuable in Series 5
Section 2.02   Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities 5
Section 2.03   Execution and Authentication 6
Section 2.04   Registrar and Paying Agent 7
Section 2.05   Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust 7
Section 2.06   Holder Lists 7
Section 2.07   Transfer and Exchange 7
Section 2.08   Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities 8
Section 2.09   Outstanding Securities 8
Section 2.10   Treasury Securities 8
Section 2.11   Temporary Securities 8
Section 2.12   Cancellation 9
Section 2.13   Defaulted Interest 9
Section 2.14   Global Securities 9
Section 2.15   CUSIP Numbers 10
   
ARTICLE III REDEMPTION 10
   
Section 3.01   Notice to Trustee 10
Section 3.02   Selection of Securities to be Redeemed 10
Section 3.03   Notice of Redemption 10
Section 3.04   Effect of Notice of Redemption 11
Section 3.05   Deposit of Redemption Price 11
Section 3.06   Securities Redeemed in Part 11

 

i

 

 

ARTICLE IV COVENANTS

11
   
Section 4.01   Payment of Principal and Interest 11
Section 4.02   SEC Reports 11
Section 4.03   Compliance Certificate 11
Section 4.04   Stay, Extension and Usury Laws 12
   
ARTICLE V SUCCESSORS 12
   
Section 5.01   When Company May Merge, etc. 12
Section 5.02   Successor Corporation Substituted 12
   
ARTICLE VI DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES 12
   
Section 6.01   Events of Default 12
Section 6.02   Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment 13
Section 6.03   Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee 14
Section 6.04   Trustee May File Proofs of Claim 14
Section 6.05   Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities 14
Section 6.06   Application of Money Collected 15
Section 6.07   Limitation on Suits 15
Section 6.08   Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest 15
Section 6.09   Restoration of Rights and Remedies 15
Section 6.10   Rights and Remedies Cumulative 16
Section 6.11   Delay or Omission Not Waiver 16
Section 6.12   Control by Holders 16
Section 6.13   Waiver of Past Defaults 16
Section 6.14   Undertaking for Costs 16

 

ii

 

 

ARTICLE VII TRUSTEE

17
   
Section 7.01   Duties of Trustee 17
Section 7.02   Rights of Trustee 18
Section 7.03   Individual Rights of Trustee 19
Section 7.04   Trustee’s Disclaimer 19
Section 7.05   Notice of Defaults 19
Section 7.06   Reports by Trustee to Holders 19
Section 7.07   Compensation and Indemnity 19
Section 7.08   Replacement of Trustee 19
Section 7.09   Successor Trustee by Merger, etc. 20
Section 7.10   Eligibility; Disqualification 20
Section 7.11   Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company 20
   
ARTICLE VIII SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE 20
   
Section 8.01   Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture 20
Section 8.02   Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification 21
Section 8.03   Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series 21
Section 8.04   Covenant Defeasance 22
Section 8.05   Repayment to Company 23
Section 8.06   Reinstatement 23
   
ARTICLE IX AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS 23
   
Section 9.01   Without Consent of Holders 23
Section 9.02   With Consent of Holders 24
Section 9.03   Limitations 24
Section 9.04   Compliance with Trust Indenture Act 25
Section 9.05   Revocation and Effect of Consents 25
Section 9.06   Notation on or Exchange of Securities 25
Section 9.07   Trustee Protected 25

 

iii

 

 

ARTICLE X MISCELLANEOUS

26
   
Section 10.01   Trust Indenture Act Controls 26
Section 10.02   Notices 26
Section 10.03   Communication by Holders with Other Holders 26
Section 10.04   Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent 26
Section 10.05   Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion 27
Section 10.06   Rules by Trustee and Agents 27
Section 10.07   Legal Holidays 27
Section 10.08   No Recourse Against Others 27
Section 10.09   Counterparts 27
Section 10.10   Governing Laws 27
Section 10.11   No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements 27
Section 10.12   Successors 27
Section 10.13   Severability 27
Section 10.14   Table of Contents, Headings, etc. 27
Section 10.15   Securities in a Foreign Currency 28
Section 10.16   U.S.A. Patriot Act 28
Section 10.17   Waiver of Jury Trial 28
   
ARTICLE XI SINKING FUNDS 28
   
Section 11.01   Applicability of Article 28
Section 11.02   Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities 29
Section 11.03   Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund 29

 

iv

 

 

Ostin Technology Group Co., Ltd.

Reconciliation and tie between Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and

Indenture, dated as of [   ].

 

Section 310 (a)(1)   7.10
(a)(2)   7.10
(a)(3)   NOT APPLICABLE
(a)(4)   NOT APPLICABLE
(a)(5)   7.10
(b)   7.10
Section 311 (a)   7.11
(b)   7.11
(c)   NOT APPLICABLE
Section 312 (a)   2.06
(b)   10.03
(c)   10.03
Section 313 (a)   7.06
(b)(1)   7.06
(b)(2)   7.06
(c)(1)   7.06
(d)   7.06
Section 314 (a)   4.02, 10.05
(b)   NOT APPLICABLE
(c)(1)   10.04
(c)(2)   10.04
(c)(3)   NOT APPLICABLE
(d)   NOT APPLICABLE
(e)   10.05
(f)   NOT APPLICABLE
Section 315 (a)   7.01
(b)   7.05
(c)   7.01
(d)   7.01
(e)   6.14
Section 316 (a)   2.10
(a)(1)(a)   6.12
(a)(1)(b)   6.13
(b)   6.08
Section 317 (a)(1)   6.03
(a)(2)   6.04
(b)   2.05
Section 318 (a)   10.01

 

v

 

 

INDENTURE, dated as of [ ], between Ostin Technology Group Co., Ltd., a Cayman Islands exempted company (“Company”), and [ ], as trustee (“Trustee”).

 

Each party agrees as follows for the benefit of the other party and for the equal and ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities issued under this Indenture.

 

ARTICLE I

DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

 

Section 1.01 Definitions.

 

Additional Amounts” means any additional amounts which are required hereby or by any Security, under circumstances specified herein or therein, to be paid by the Company in respect of certain taxes imposed on Holders specified herein or therein and which are owing to such Holders, as calculated by the Company.

 

Affiliate” of any specified person means any other person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with such specified person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “controlled by” and “under common control with”), as used with respect to any person, shall mean the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such person, whether through the ownership of voting securities or by agreement or otherwise.

 

Agent” means any Registrar or Paying Agent.

 

Applicable Procedures” means, with respect to any transfer or transaction involving a Global Security or beneficial interest therein, the rules and procedures of DTC or any successor Depositary, in each case to the extent applicable to such transaction and as in effect from time to time.

 

Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee thereof.

 

Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by an authorized officer of the Company have been adopted by the Board of Directors or pursuant to authorization by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of the certificate and delivered to the Trustee.

 

Business Day” means any day other than Saturday, Sunday or other day on which commercial banks in The City of New York are authorized or required by law to remain closed; provided, however, for clarification, commercial banks shall not be deemed to be authorized or required by law to remain closed due to “stay at home”, “shelter-in-place”, “non-essential employee” or any other similar orders or restrictions or the closure of any physical branch locations at the direction of any governmental authority so long as the electronic funds transfer systems (including for wire transfers) of commercial banks in The City of New York generally are open for use by customers on such day.

 

Capital Interests” means any and all shares, interests, participations, rights or other equivalents (however designated) of capital stock, including, without limitation, with respect to partnerships, partnership interests (whether general or limited) and any other interest or participation that confers on a person the right to receive a share of the profits and losses of, or distributions of assets of, such partnership.

 

Company” means the party named as such above until a successor replaces it and thereafter means the successor.

 

Company Order” means a written order signed in the name of the Company by two Officers, one of whom must be the Company’s principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer.

 

Company Request” means a written request signed in the name of the Company by its Chief Executive Officer or Chief Financial Officer and delivered to the Trustee.

 

Corporate Trust Office” means the address of the Trustee specified in Section 10.02, or such other address as to which the Trustee may give notice to the Holders and the Company.

 

Default” means any event which is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.

 

1

 

 

Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any Series issuable or issued in whole or part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the person designated as Depositary for such Series by the Company, which Depositary shall be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act; and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Securities of such Series.

 

Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the stated principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.02.

 

Dollars” and “$” means the currency of The United States of America.

 

DTC” means the Depository Trust Company, a New York corporation.

 

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

Foreign Currency” means any currency or currency unit issued by a government other than the government of The United States of America.

 

Foreign Government Obligations” means, with respect to Securities of any Series that are denominated in a Foreign Currency, (i) direct obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a person controlled or supervised by or acting as an agency or instrumentality of such government the timely payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by such government, which, in either case under clauses (i) or (ii), are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.

 

GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles set forth in the opinions and pronouncements of the Accounting Principles Board of the American Standards Board or in such other statements by such other entity as have been approved by a significant segment of the accounting profession.

 

Global Security” or “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, in the form established pursuant to Section 2.02 evidencing all or part of a Series of Securities, issued to the Depositary for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depositary or nominee.

 

Holder” means a person in whose name a Security is registered.

 

Indenture” means this Indenture as amended or supplemented from time to time and shall include the form and terms of particular Series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.

 

interest” with respect to any Discount Security which by its terms bears interest only after Maturity means interest payable after Maturity.

 

Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security or installment of principal thereof, means the date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of principal becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption or otherwise.

 

Officer” means the Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer, President, any Vice-President, or any other officer of the Company designated by the Board of Directors, as the case may be.

 

Officers’ Certificate” means a certificate signed by two Officers, one of whom must be the Company’s principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer.

 

Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of legal counsel who is reasonably acceptable to the Trustee. The counsel may be an employee of or counsel to the Company.

 

2

 

 

person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, association, limited liability company, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

 

principal” of a Security means the principal of the Security plus, when appropriate, the premium, if any, on, and any Additional Amounts in respect of, the Security.

 

Responsible Officer” means any officer of the Trustee in its Corporate Trust Office with direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with a particular subject.

 

SEC” means the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

Securities” means the debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company of any Series authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

Series” or “Series of Securities” means each series of debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company created pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.02 hereof.

 

Stated Maturity” means when used with respect to any Security or any installment of principal thereof or interest thereon, the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of principal or interest is due and payable.

 

Subsidiary” means, with respect to any person, any corporation, association or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of Capital Interests entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers or trustees thereof or, in the case of a partnership, more than 50% of the partners’ Capital Interests (considering all partners’ Capital Interests as a single class), is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by such person or one or more of the other Subsidiaries of such person or combination thereof; or in the case of a partnership, joint venture, association or other business entity, with respect to which such person or any of its subsidiaries has the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of such entity by contract or otherwise, or if in accordance with GAAP such entity is consolidated with such person for financial statement purposes.

 

TIA” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S. Code Sections 77aaa-77bbbb) as in effect on the date of this Indenture and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder; provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is amended after such date, “TIA” means, to the extent required by any such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act as so amended.

 

Trustee” means the person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean each person who is then a Trustee hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that Series.

 

U.S. Government Obligations” means securities which are (i) direct obligations of The United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of The United States of America the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by The United States of America, and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depository receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depository receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depository receipt.

 

3

 

 

Section 1.02 Other Definitions.

 

TERM  Defined in
Section
 
Bankruptcy Law   6.01 
Custodian   6.01 
Event of Default   6.01 
Legal Holiday   10.07 
mandatory sinking fund payment   11.01 
Market Exchange Rate   10.15 
optional sinking fund payment   11.01 
Paying Agent   2.04 
Registrar   2.04 
Successor Person   5.01 

 

Section 1.03 Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act.

 

Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the provision is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:

 

Commission” means the SEC.

 

indenture securities” means the Securities.

 

indenture security holder” means a Holder.

 

indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture.

 

indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee.

 

obligor” on the indenture securities means the Company and any successor obligor upon the Securities.

 

All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined by TIA reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule under the TIA and not otherwise defined herein are used herein as so defined.

 

Section 1.04 Rules of Construction.

 

Unless the context otherwise requires:

 

(a) a term has the meaning assigned to it;

 

(b) an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;

 

(c) references to “generally accepted accounting principles” and “GAAP” shall mean generally accepted accounting principles in effect as of the time when and for the period as to which such accounting principles are to be applied;

 

(d) “or” is not exclusive;

 

(e) words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular; and

 

(f) provisions apply to successive events and transactions.

 

4

 

 

ARTICLE II

THE SECURITIES

 

Section 2.01 Issuable in Series. The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more Series. All Securities of a Series shall be identical except as may be set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution. In the case of Securities of a Series to be issued from time to time, the Board Resolution, Officers’ Certificate or supplemental indenture detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution may provide for the method by which specified terms (such as interest rate, maturity date, record date or date from which interest shall accrue) are to be determined. Securities may differ between Series in respect of any matters, provided that all Series of Securities shall be equally and ratably entitled to the benefits of the Indenture.

 

Section 2.02 Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities. At or prior to the issuance of any Securities within a Series, the following shall be established (as to the Series generally, in the case of Subsection 2.02(a) and either as to such Securities within the Series or as to the Series generally in the case of Subsections 2.02(b) through 2.02(s)) by or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate:

 

(a) the form and title of the Series (which shall distinguish the Securities of that particular Series from the Securities of any other Series);

 

(b) the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount thereof) at which the Securities of the Series will be issued;

 

(c) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the Series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the Series pursuant to Sections 2.07, 2.08, 2.11, 3.06 or 9.06);

 

(d) the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the Series is payable;

 

(e) the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates (including, but not limited to, any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the Securities of the Series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest, if any, shall accrue, the date or dates on which such interest, if any, shall commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;

 

(f) the place or places where the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series shall be payable, where the Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of such Series and this Indenture may be served, and the method of such payment, if by wire transfer, mail or other means;

 

(g) if applicable, the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the Securities of the Series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

 

(h) the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase the Securities of the Series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the Series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

(i) the dates, if any, on which and the price or prices at which the Securities of the Series will be repurchased by the Company at the option of the Holders thereof and other detailed terms and provisions of such repurchase obligations;

 

5

 

 

(j) if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the Series shall be issuable;

 

(k) if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities of the Series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.02;

 

(l) the currency of denomination of the Securities of the Series, which may be Dollars or any Foreign Currency, and the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

 

(m) the provisions, if any, relating to any security provided for the Securities of the Series;

 

(n) any addition to or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the Series and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.02;

 

(o) any addition to or change in the covenants set forth in Articles IV or V which applies to Securities of the Series;

 

(p) the provisions, if any, relating to conversion of any Securities of such Series, including, if applicable, the securities into which the Securities are convertible, the conversion price, the conversion period, provisions as to whether conversion will be mandatory, at the option of the Holders or at the option of the Company, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price and provisions affecting conversion if such Series of Securities are redeemed;

 

(q) whether the Securities of such Series will be senior debt securities or subordinated debt securities and, if applicable, a description of the subordination terms thereof;

 

(r) any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to Securities of such Series if other than those appointed herein; and

 

(s) any other terms of the Securities of the Series (which may modify or delete any provision of this Indenture insofar as it applies to such Series).

 

All Securities of any one Series need not be issued at the same time and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate referred to above, and, unless otherwise provided in such Board Resolution, a Series may be reopened, without the consent of the Holders, for increases in the aggregate principal amount of such Series and issuances of additional Securities of such Series.

 

Section 2.03 Execution and Authentication. At least one Officer shall sign the Securities for the Company by manual or facsimile signature. If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid. A Security shall not be valid until authenticated by the manual signature of the Trustee or an authenticating agent. The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture. The Trustee shall at any time, and from time to time, authenticate Securities for original issue in the principal amount provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate, upon receipt by the Trustee of a Company Order. Such Company Order may authorize authentication and delivery pursuant to electronic instructions in PDF from the Company or its duly authorized agent or agents. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication unless otherwise provided by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate. The aggregate principal amount of Securities of any Series outstanding at any time may not exceed any limit upon the maximum principal amount for such Series set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.02, except as provided in Section 2.02 or 2.08. Prior to the issuance of Securities of any Series, the Trustee shall have received and (subject to Section 7.02) shall be fully protected in relying on: (a) the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate establishing the form of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series and the terms of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series, (b) an Officers’ Certificate complying with Section 10.04 and (c)(1) an Opinion of Counsel complying with Section 10.04 or (2) an Opinion of Counsel (or reliance letter with respect to an Opinion of Counsel) that the Securities have been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and such Securities will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with its terms. The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Company to authenticate Securities. An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent. An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company.

 

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Section 2.04 Registrar and Paying Agent. The Company shall maintain, with respect to each Series of Securities, at the place or places specified with respect to such Series pursuant to Section 2.02, an office or agency where Securities of such Series may be presented or surrendered for payment (“Paying Agent”), and where Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange (“Registrar”). The Registrar shall keep a register with respect to each Series of Securities and of their transfer and exchange. The Company hereby appoints the Trustee as Paying Agent and Registrar. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the name and address, and any change in the name or address, of each Registrar or Paying Agent. The Company may also from time to time designate one or more co-registrars or additional paying agents and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligations to maintain a Registrar and a Paying Agent in each place so specified pursuant to Section 2.02 for Securities of any Series for such purposes. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the name or address of any such co-registrar or additional paying agent. The term “Registrar” includes any co-registrar; and the term “Paying Agent” includes any additional paying agent. The Company hereby appoints the Trustee as the initial Registrar and Paying Agent for each Series unless another Registrar or Paying Agent, as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that Series are first issued.

 

Section 2.05 Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust. The Company shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that the Paying Agent will hold in trust, for the benefit of Holders of any Series of Securities, or the Trustee, all money held by the Paying Agent for the payment of principal of or interest on the Series of Securities, and will notify the Trustee of any default by the Company in making any such payment. While any such default continues, the Trustee may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. Upon payment over to the Trustee, the Paying Agent (if other than the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company) shall have no further liability for the money. If the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company acts as Paying Agent, it shall segregate and hold in a separate trust fund for the benefit of Holders of any Series of Securities all money held by it as Paying Agent. Upon an Event of Default under Section 6.01(d) or (e), the Trustee shall be the Paying Agent.

 

Section 2.06 Holder Lists. The Trustee shall preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of Holders of each Series of Securities and shall otherwise comply with TIA Section 312(a). If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee at least ten (10) days before each interest payment date and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing a list, in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of Holders of each Series of Securities.

 

Section 2.07 Transfer and Exchange. Where Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar or a co-registrar with a request to register a transfer or to exchange them for an equal principal amount of Securities of the same Series, the Registrar shall register the transfer or make the exchange if its requirements for such transactions are met. To permit registrations of transfers and exchanges, the Trustee shall authenticate Securities at the Registrar’s request. No service charge shall be made for any registration of transfer or exchange (except as otherwise expressly permitted herein), but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable in connection therewith (other than any such transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable upon exchanges pursuant to Sections 2.11, 3.06 or 9.06). Neither the Company nor the Registrar shall be required (a) to issue, register the transfer of, or exchange Securities of any Series for the period beginning at the opening of business fifteen days immediately preceding the delivery of a notice of redemption of Securities of that Series selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of such delivery, or (b) to register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any Series selected, called or being called for redemption as a whole or the portion being redeemed of any such Securities selected, called or being called for redemption in part.

 

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Section 2.08 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.

 

(a) If any mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and make available for delivery in exchange therefor a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding. If there shall be delivered to the Company and the Trustee (i) evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of any Security and (ii) such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them and any agent of either of them harmless, then, in the absence of notice to the Company or the Trustee that such Security has been acquired by a protected purchaser, the Company shall execute and upon its request the Trustee shall authenticate and make available for delivery, in lieu of any such destroyed, lost or stolen Security, a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding. In case any such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security has become due and payable, the Company in its discretion may, instead of issuing a new Security, pay such Security.

 

(b) Upon the issuance of any new Security under this Section, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith. Every new Security of any Series issued pursuant to this Section in lieu of any destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall constitute an original additional contractual obligation of the Company, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that Series duly issued hereunder. The provisions of this Section are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) all other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities.

 

Section 2.09 Outstanding Securities. The Securities outstanding at any time are all the Securities authenticated by the Trustee except for those canceled by it, those delivered to it for cancellation, those reductions in the interest on a Global Security effected by the Trustee in accordance with the provisions hereof and those described in this Section as not outstanding. If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.08, it ceases to be outstanding until the Trustee receives proof satisfactory to it that the replaced Security is held by a protected purchaser. If the Paying Agent (other than the Company, a Subsidiary of the Company or an Affiliate of the Company) holds on the Maturity of Securities of a Series money sufficient to pay such Securities payable on that date, then on and after that date such Securities of the Series cease to be outstanding and interest on them ceases to accrue. A Security does not cease to be outstanding because the Company or an Affiliate of the Company holds the Security. In determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding Securities have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, the principal amount of a Discount Security that shall be deemed to be outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.02.

 

Section 2.10 Treasury Securities. In determining whether the Holders of the required principal amount of Securities of a Series have concurred in any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, Securities of a Series owned by the Company shall be disregarded, except that for the purposes of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, only Securities of a Series that a Responsible Officer of the Trustee knows are so owned shall be so disregarded.

 

Section 2.11 Temporary Securities. Until definitive Securities are ready for delivery, the Company may prepare and the Trustee shall authenticate temporary Securities upon a Company Order. Temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of definitive Securities but may have variations that the Company considers appropriate for temporary Securities. Without unreasonable delay, the Company shall prepare and the Trustee upon request shall authenticate definitive Securities of the same Series and date of maturity in exchange for temporary Securities. Until so exchanged, temporary securities shall have the same rights under this Indenture as the definitive Securities.

 

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Section 2.12 Cancellation. The Company at any time may deliver Securities to the Trustee for cancellation. The Registrar and the Paying Agent shall forward to the Trustee any Securities surrendered to them for registration of transfer, exchange or payment. The Trustee shall cancel all Securities surrendered for registration of transfer, exchange, payment, replacement or cancellation in accordance with its customary procedures. The Company may not issue new Securities to replace Securities that it has paid or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

 

Section 2.13 Defaulted Interest. If the Company defaults in a payment of interest on a Series of Securities, it shall pay the defaulted interest at the rate established for the particular Series, if any, plus, to the extent permitted by law, any interest payable on the defaulted interest, to the persons who are Holders of the Series on a subsequent special record date. The Company shall fix the special record date and payment date; provided that if no rate for defaulted interest is specified for any Series of Securities, then the defaulted interest rate shall be the interest rate specified for such Series of Securities. At least ten (10) days before the special record date, the Company shall deliver to the Trustee and to each Holder of the Series a notice that states the record date, the related payment date and the amount of interest to be paid. The Company may also pay defaulted interest in any other lawful manner.

 

Section 2.14 Global Securities.

 

(a) Terms of Securities. A Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate shall establish whether the Securities of a Series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities and the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities.

 

(b) Transfer and Exchange. Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary contained in Section 2.07 of the Indenture and in addition thereto, any Global Security shall be exchangeable pursuant to Section 2.07 of the Indenture for Securities registered in the names of Holders other than the Depositary for such Security or its nominee only if (i) such Depositary notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such Global Security or if at any time such Depositary ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and, in either case, the Company fails to appoint a successor Depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act within 90 days of such event, (ii) the Company executes and delivers to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate to the effect that such Global Security shall be so exchangeable or (iii) an Event of Default with respect to the Securities represented by such Global Security shall have happened and be continuing. Any Global Security that is exchangeable pursuant to the preceding sentence shall be exchangeable for Securities registered in such names as the Depositary shall direct in writing in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security with like tenor and terms.

 

(c) Except as provided in this Section 2.14(c), a Global Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary with respect to such Global Security to a nominee of such Depositary, by a nominee of such Depositary to such Depositary or another nominee of such Depositary or by the Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such a successor Depositary.

 

(d) Legend. Any Global Security issued hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

 

“This Security is a Global Security within the meaning of the Indenture hereinafter referred to and is registered in the name of the Depositary or a nominee of the Depositary. This Security is exchangeable for Securities registered in the name of a person other than the Depositary or its nominee only in the limited circumstances described in the Indenture, and may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary to a nominee of the Depositary, by a nominee of the Depositary to the Depositary or another nominee of the Depositary or by the Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such a successor Depositary.”

 

(e) Acts of Holders. The Depositary, as a Holder, may appoint agents and otherwise authorize participants to give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action which a Holder is entitled to give or take under the Indenture.

 

(f) Payments. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Indenture, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.02, payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on any Global Security shall be made to the Holder thereof.

 

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(g) Consents, Declaration and Directions. Except as provided in Section 2.14(g), the Company, the Trustee and any Agent shall treat a person as the Holder of such principal amount of outstanding Securities of such Series represented by a Global Security as shall be specified in a written statement of the Depositary with respect to such Global Security, for purposes of obtaining any consents, declarations, waivers or directions required to be given by the Holders pursuant to this Indenture.

 

(h) The Depositary or its nominee, as registered owner of a Global Security, shall be the Holder of such Global Security for all purposes under the Indenture and the Securities, and owners of beneficial interests in a Global Security shall hold such interests pursuant to the Applicable Procedures. Accordingly, any such owner’s beneficial interest in a Global Security will be shown only on, and the transfer of such interest shall be effected only through, records maintained by the Depositary or its nominee and such owners of beneficial interests in a Global Security will not be considered the owners or holders thereof. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture or any Security, where this Indenture or any Global Security provides for notice of any event (including any notice of redemption or repurchase) to a Holder of a Global Security (whether by mail or otherwise), such notice shall be sufficiently given if given to the Depositary (or its designee) pursuant to the standing instructions from the Depositary or its designee, including by electronic mail in accordance with applicable Depositary procedures.

 

Section 2.15 CUSIP Numbers. The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP” numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so, the Trustee shall use “CUSIP” numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Holders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other elements of identification printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers. The Company shall promptly notify the Trustee of any change in “CUSIP” numbers of which the Company becomes aware.

 

ARTICLE III

REDEMPTION

 

Section 3.01 Notice to Trustee. The Company may, with respect to any Series of Securities, reserve the right to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or may covenant to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or any part thereof prior to the Stated Maturity thereof at such time and on such terms as provided for in such Securities. If a Series of Securities is redeemable and the Company wants or is obligated to redeem prior to the Stated Maturity thereof all or part of the Series of Securities pursuant to the terms of such Securities, it shall notify the Trustee of the redemption date and the principal amount of the Series of Securities to be redeemed.

 

Section 3.02 Selection of Securities to be Redeemed. Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate, if less than all the Securities of a Series are to be redeemed, the Trustee shall select the Securities of the Series to be redeemed in any manner that the Trustee deems fair and appropriate. The Trustee shall make the selection from Securities of the Series outstanding not previously called for redemption. Securities of a Series and portions selected for redemption shall be in amounts of $1,000 or whole multiples of $1,000 or, with respect to Securities of any Series issuable in other denominations pursuant to Section 2.02(j), the minimum principal denomination for each Series and integral multiples thereof. Provisions of this Indenture that apply to Securities of a Series called for redemption also apply to portions of Securities of that Series called for redemption. The Trustee shall not be liable for the selection made in accordance with this Section 3.02.

 

Section 3.03 Notice of Redemption.

 

(a) Unless otherwise specified for a particular Series by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate, at least 30 days but not more than 60 days before a redemption date, the Company shall deliver notice of redemption to each Holder whose Securities are to be redeemed. The notice shall identify the Securities of the Series to be redeemed and shall state:

 

(i) the redemption date;

 

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(ii) the redemption price or the manner of the calculation of the redemption price;

 

(iii) the name and address of the Paying Agent;

 

(iv) that Securities of the Series called for redemption must be surrendered to the Paying Agent to collect the redemption price;

 

(v) that interest on Securities of the Series called for redemption ceases to accrue on and after the redemption date;

 

(vi) the CUSIP number, if any; and

 

(vii) any other information as may be required by the terms of the particular Series or the Securities of a Series being redeemed.

 

At the Company’s request, the Trustee shall give the notice of redemption in the Company’s name and at its expense; provided that the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee, at least five Business Days (or such shorter period as the Trustee may consent to in writing) before notice of redemption is required to be delivered or caused to be delivered to Holders pursuant to this Section 3.03, an Officers’ Certificate of the Company requesting that the Trustee give such notice and setting forth the information to be stated in such notice as provided in the preceding paragraph.

 

Section 3.04 Effect of Notice of Redemption. Once notice of redemption is delivered as provided in Section 3.03, Securities of a Series called for redemption become due and payable on the redemption date and at the redemption price. A notice of redemption may not be conditional. Upon surrender to the Paying Agent, such Securities shall be paid at the redemption price plus accrued interest to the redemption date; provided that installments of interest whose Stated Maturity is on or prior to the redemption date shall be payable to the Holders of such Securities (or one or more predecessor Securities) registered at the close of business on the relevant record date therefor according to their terms and the terms of this Indenture.

 

Section 3.05 Deposit of Redemption Price. Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate, on or before 11:00 a.m., New York City time, on the redemption date, the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the redemption price of and accrued interest, if any, on all Securities to be redeemed on that date.

 

Section 3.06 Securities Redeemed in Part. Upon surrender of a Security that is redeemed in part, the Company shall issue and the Trustee shall authenticate for the Holder a new Security of the same Series and the same maturity equal in principal amount to the unredeemed portion of the Security surrendered.

 

ARTICLE IV

COVENANTS

 

Section 4.01 Payment of Principal and Interest. The Company covenants and agrees for the benefit of the Holders of each Series of Securities that it will duly and punctually pay the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of that Series in accordance with the terms of such Securities and this Indenture.

 

Section 4.02 SEC Reports. Any information, documents or other reports that the Company shall file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act shall be filed with the Trustee within 15 days after the same is filed with the Commission; provided that any such information, documents or reports filed or furnished with the Commission pursuant to its Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval (or EDGAR) system shall be deemed filed with the Trustee as of the time such information, documents or reports are filed or furnished via EDGAR.

 

Section 4.03 Compliance Certificate. The Company shall, so long as any of the Securities are outstanding, deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Company, an Officers’ Certificate stating whether or not to the knowledge of the signers thereof the Company is in default in the performance and observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions hereof (without regard to any period of grace or requirement of notice provided hereunder), and if a Default or Event of Default shall have occurred, specifying all such Defaults or Events of Default and the nature and status thereof of which they may have knowledge.

 

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Section 4.04 Stay, Extension and Usury Laws. The Company covenants (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) that it wil