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Filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)

Registration Statement No. 333-232569

Prospectus Supplement

(To Prospectus dated July 16, 2019)

 

LOGO

2,971,770 Ordinary Shares

 

 

We are offering 2,971,770 of our ordinary shares to certain institutional investors pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. In a concurrent private placement, we are selling to such investors warrants to purchase 50% of the number of ordinary shares purchased by such investors in this offering, or the Warrants. The Warrants and the ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of the Warrants are not being registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, are not being offered pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and are being offered pursuant to the exemption provided in Section 4(a)(2) under the Securities Act and Rule 506(b) promulgated thereunder.

Our ordinary shares are listed for trading on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “ITRM.” On June 2, 2020, the last reported sale price of our ordinary shares on the Nasdaq Global Market was $1.62 per share. There is no established trading market for the Warrants being sold in the concurrent private placement, and we do not expect a market to develop. We do not intend to apply for a listing for any of the Warrants on any securities exchange or other nationally recognized trading system.

As of June 2, 2020, the aggregate market value of our outstanding ordinary shares held by non-affiliates was $38,521,302.84, which was calculated based on 8,794,818 outstanding ordinary shares held by non-affiliates and a price per share of $4.38, which was the closing price of our ordinary shares on May 19, 2020. Pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3, in no event will we sell, pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement forms a part, securities in a public primary offering with a value exceeding one-third of the aggregate market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates in any 12-month period, so long as the aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates remains below $75 million. During the 12 calendar months prior to and including the date of this prospectus supplement, we have not offered and sold securities pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3.

 

 

We are an emerging growth company as that term is used in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 and a smaller reporting company as defined in Rule 12b-2 promulgated under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. As such, we have elected to rely on certain reduced public company disclosure requirements. See “Prospectus Supplement Summary—Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and a Smaller Reporting Company.”

 

 

Investing in our securities involves significant risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-5 of this prospectus supplement and in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission that are incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement to read about factors you should consider before buying our securities.

We have engaged H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC, or the placement agent, as our exclusive placement agent in connection with this offering. The placement agent has agreed to use its reasonable best efforts to arrange for the sale of the securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. The placement agent has no obligation to buy any securities from us or to arrange for the purchase or sale of any specific number or dollar amount of our securities. We have agreed to pay the placement agent the placement agent fees set forth in the table below. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in escrow, trust or similar arrangement. There is no minimum offering requirement. The placement agent may engage one or more sub-placement agents or selected dealers in connection with the offering. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page S-22 of this prospectus supplement for more information regarding this arrangement.

 

     Per Share      Total  

Offering price

   $ 1.6825      $ 5,000,003.03  

Placement agent fees(1)

   $ 0.1178      $ 350,000.21  

Proceeds, before expenses, to us(2)

   $ 1.5647      $ 4,650,002.82  

 

(1)

Represents cash fee. In addition, we have agreed to issue warrants to purchase ordinary shares to the placement agent and to reimburse the placement agent for certain offering-related expenses. See “Plan of Distribution” for additional information.

(2)

The amount of the offering proceeds to us presented in this table does not give effect to any exercise of the Warrants being issued in the concurrent private placement.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

Delivery of the ordinary shares offered hereby is expected to occur on or about June 5, 2020, subject to the satisfaction of certain closing conditions.

Pursuant to the terms of the investor rights agreement, or the 2020 Investor Right Agreement, that we entered into in connection with our January 2020 private placement of 6.500% exchangeable senior subordinated notes due 2025, or the Exchangeable Notes, and limited recourse royalty-linked subordinated notes, or the Royalty-Linked Subordinated Notes, or the Private Placement, we are required to provide Sarissa Capital Offshore Master Fund LP and certain of its affiliates, collectively Sarissa, the opportunity to purchase an aggregate of up to 829,688 ordinary shares and up to 414,844 Warrants on the terms provided for in the offering being made hereby and in the concurrent private placement, which we refer to as the Sarissa Right to Purchase. To the extent Sarissa elects to exercise the Sarissa Right to Purchase, any sale to Sarissa will be carried out in a separate transaction at a price per ordinary share equal to the public offering price and a price per Warrant equal to the price per Warrant in the concurrent private placement.

 

 

H.C. Wainwright & Co.

The date of this prospectus supplement is June 3, 2020


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Prospectus Supplement

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

     S-ii  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     S-iv  

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

     S-1  

RISK FACTORS

     S-5  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     S-9  

DIVIDEND POLICY

     S-10  

PRIVATE PLACEMENT OF WARRANTS

     S-11  

DILUTION

     S-13  

DESCRIPTION OF THE SECURITIES WE ARE OFFERING

     S-15  

MATERIAL TAX CONSEQUENCES

     S-16  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     S-24  

LEGAL MATTERS

     S-27  

EXPERTS

     S-27  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     S-28  

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     S-28  
Prospectus

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     2  

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     3  

THE COMPANY

     5  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     6  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     7  

DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL

     15  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     28  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     29  

FORMS OF SECURITIES

     30  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     32  

LEGAL MATTERS

     34  

EXPERTS

     34  

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

This document is in two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the specific terms of this offering and also adds to and updates information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein. The second part, the accompanying prospectus, provides more general information. Generally, when we refer to this prospectus, we are referring to both parts of this document combined. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus supplement and the information contained in the accompanying prospectus or any document incorporated by reference therein filed prior to the date of this prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in this prospectus supplement; provided that if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference in the accompanying prospectus—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference herein were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

We have not and the placement agent has not authorized anyone to provide any information other than that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, in the accompanying prospectus or in any free writing prospectus prepared by or on our behalf or to which we or the placement agent has referred you. We and the placement agent take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you.

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to purchase, the securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in any jurisdiction to or from any person to whom or from whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation of an offer in such jurisdiction. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. It is important for you to read and consider all information contained in this prospectus supplement and in the accompanying prospectus, including the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, in making your investment decision. You should also read and consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in the sections entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation by Reference” in this prospectus supplement and in the accompanying prospectus.

Other than in the United States, no action has been taken by us or the placement agent that would permit a public offering of the securities offered by this prospectus supplement in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required. The securities offered by this prospectus supplement may not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, nor may this prospectus supplement or any other offering material or advertisements in connection with the offer, issue and sale of any such securities be distributed or published in any jurisdiction, except under circumstances that will result in compliance with the applicable rules and regulations of that jurisdiction. Persons into whose possession this prospectus supplement comes are advised to inform themselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to the offering and the distribution of this prospectus supplement. This prospectus supplement does not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any securities offered by this prospectus in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or a solicitation is unlawful.

This prospectus supplement does not constitute a prospectus for the purposes of the Prospectus Regulation (Regulation (EU) 2017/1129), or the Prospectus Regulation, the EU (Prospectus) Regulations 2019 (SI No 380/2019), or the Irish Companies Act, and this prospectus supplement has not been approved by the Central Bank of Ireland, as competent authority under the Prospectus Regulation, or any equivalent authority in an European Economic Area member state. No offer of securities to the public is made, or will be made, that requires the publication of a prospectus pursuant to Irish or European prospectus law within the meaning of the above legislation.

 

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Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this prospectus supplement to “Iterum,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer, collectively, to Iterum Therapeutics plc, a public limited company incorporated in Ireland, and its consolidated subsidiaries. The trademarks, trade names and service marks appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein contain forward-looking statements that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would,” or the negative of these words or other comparable terminology. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

   

our use of cash reserves;

 

   

the initiation, timing, progress and results of our preclinical studies and clinical trials, and our research and development programs, including results from our ongoing Phase 3 clinical trial of sulopenem for uncomplicated urinary tract infections, or uUTI;

 

   

our ability to retain the continued service of our key professionals and to identify, hire and retain additional qualified professionals;

 

   

our ability to advance product candidates into, and successfully complete, clinical trials;

 

   

the potential advantages of our product candidates;

 

   

the timing or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals;

 

   

the commercialization of our product candidates, if approved;

 

   

our manufacturing plans;

 

   

our sales, marketing and distribution capabilities and strategy;

 

   

market acceptance of any product we successfully commercialize;

 

   

the pricing, coverage and reimbursement of our product candidates, if approved;

 

   

the implementation of our business model, strategic plans for our business and product candidates;

 

   

the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering our product candidates and our ability to defend and enforce any such intellectual property rights;

 

   

our ability to enter into strategic arrangements, collaborations and/or commercial partnerships in the United States and other territories and the potential benefits of such arrangements;

 

   

our estimates regarding expenses, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

 

   

our expectations regarding how far into the future our cash on hand will fund our ongoing operations;

 

   

the impact of COVID-19, including the responsive measures taken by governmental authorities and others, on our clinical trials, on future commercialization of, and future demand for, our products, available funding, our operations and the economy in general, which may precipitate or exacerbate other risks and/or uncertainties;

 

   

our financial performance;

 

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developments relating to our competitors and our industry;

 

   

our expected use of proceeds from this offering, the concurrent private placement and the sale of securities, if any, pursuant to the Sarissa Right to Purchase;

 

   

the outcome, impact, effects and results of our evaluation of corporate, strategic and financial alternatives, including the terms, timing, structure, value, benefits and costs of any corporate, strategic or financial alternative and our ability to complete one at all; and

 

   

other risks and uncertainties, including those described in the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus supplement and the “Risk Factors” sections of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2020.

We operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment, and new risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the forward-looking events and circumstances discussed in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein and therein may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements.

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee that the future results, levels of activity, performance or events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur. We undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements for any reason after the date of this prospectus supplement to conform these statements to new information, actual results or to changes in our expectations, except as required by law.

You should read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein and therein with the understanding that our actual future results, levels of activity, performance, and events and circumstances may be materially different from what we expect.

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein and therein include statistical and other industry and market data that we obtained from industry publications and research, surveys and studies conducted by third parties. Industry publications and third-party research, surveys and studies generally indicate that their information has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, although they do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of such information.

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein and therein and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

 

 

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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and in the documents we incorporate by reference herein and therein. This summary does not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our ordinary shares. You should read this entire prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus carefully, especially the risks of investing in our ordinary shares discussed under “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement and under “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2020, along with our consolidated financial statements and notes to those consolidated financial statements and the other information incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, before deciding to invest in our ordinary shares.

Overview of Iterum Therapeutics plc

We are a pharmaceutical company dedicated to developing and commercializing sulopenem to be potentially the first and only oral and intravenous (IV) branded penem available globally. Penems, including thiopenems and carbapenems, belong to a class of antibiotics more broadly defined as ß-lactam antibiotics, the original example of which was penicillin, but which now also includes cephalosporins. Sulopenem is a potent, thiopenem antibiotic delivered intravenously which is active against bacteria that belong to the group of organisms known as gram-negatives and cause urinary tract and intra-abdominal infections. We have also successfully developed sulopenem in an oral tablet formulation, sulopenem etzadroxil-probenecid. We believe that both sulopenem product candidates have the potential to be important new treatment alternatives to address growing concerns related to antibacterial resistance without the known toxicities of some of the most widely used antibiotics, specifically fluoroquinolones.

Sarissa Right to Purchase

Pursuant to the terms of the 2020 Investor Rights Agreement that we entered into in connection with the Private Placement, we are required to provide Sarissa the opportunity to purchase an aggregate of up to 829,688 ordinary shares and up to 414,844 Warrants on the terms provided for in the offering being made hereby and in the concurrent private placement. To the extent Sarissa elects to purchase these securities, any sale to Sarissa will be carried out in a separate transaction at a price per ordinary share equal to the public offering price and a price per Warrant equal to the price per Warrant in the concurrent private placement.

Our Corporate Information

We were incorporated under the laws of Ireland in June 2015 as a limited liability company and re-registered as a public limited company in March 2018. Our principal executive offices are located at Block 2 Floor 3, Harcourt Centre, Harcourt Street, Dublin 2, Ireland and our telephone number is +353 1 9038920. Our U.S. headquarters are located at 200 South Wacker Drive, Suite 2550, Chicago, Illinois 60606, and our telephone number is (312) 778-6070.

Our website address is www.iterumtx.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and a Smaller Reporting Company

We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other burdens that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include:



 

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an exemption from compliance with the auditor attestation requirement of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 on the design and effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting;

 

   

an exemption from compliance with any requirement that the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board may adopt regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements;

 

   

reduced disclosure about the company’s executive compensation arrangements; and

 

   

exemptions from the requirements to obtain a non-binding advisory vote on executive compensation or a shareholder approval of any golden parachute arrangements.

We may take advantage of these provisions until December 31, 2023 or such earlier time that we are no longer an emerging growth company. We would cease to be an emerging growth company upon the earlier to occur of: the last day of the fiscal year in which we have more than $1.07 billion in annual revenues; the date we qualify as a “large accelerated filer,” with a non-affiliate public float in excess of $700 million; or the issuance by us of more than $1 billion of non-convertible debt over a three-year period. We may choose to take advantage of some, but not all, of the available benefits under the JOBS Act. We have taken advantage of some reduced reporting burdens in this prospectus supplement. Accordingly, the information contained herein may be different than the information you receive from other public companies in which you hold stock.

In addition, the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. This provision allows an emerging growth company to delay the adoption of some accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have irrevocably elected not to avail ourselves of delayed adoption of new or revised accounting standards and, therefore, we will adopt new or revised generally accepted accounting principles in the United States on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.

We are also a “smaller reporting company” as defined in Rule 12b-2 promulgated under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. We may remain a smaller reporting company until we have a non-affiliate public float in excess of $250 million and annual revenues in excess of $100 million, or a non-affiliate public float in excess of $700 million, each as determined on an annual basis. Even after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, we may still qualify as a smaller reporting company, which would allow us to take advantage of many of the same exemptions from disclosure requirements.



 

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THE OFFERING

 

Ordinary shares offered by us    2,971,770 ordinary shares.
Offering price    $1.6825 per ordinary share.

Ordinary shares to be outstanding immediately following this offering

   17,840,743 ordinary shares.
Use of proceeds    We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering and the concurrent private placement to fund the continued clinical development of sulopenem, including our ongoing Phase 3 clinical trial of sulopenem for uUTI, the management of potential regulatory filings and for working capital and general corporate purposes. See the “Use of Proceeds” section in this prospectus supplement for more information.
Risk Factors    Investing in our ordinary shares involves a high degree of risk. You should read the “Risk Factors” section in this prospectus supplement and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019 and in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2020 and the other information included in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus for a discussion of certain factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in our securities.
Nasdaq Global Market symbol    Our ordinary shares are listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “ITRM.”
Concurrent private placement    In a concurrent private placement, we are selling to the purchasers of our ordinary shares in this offering Warrants to purchase 50% of the number of our ordinary shares purchased by such investors in this offering, or Warrants to purchase up to 1,485,885 ordinary shares. We will receive proceeds from the concurrent private placement transaction of Warrants to be purchased by any investor in the concurrent private placement of Warrants solely to the extent such Warrants are exercised for cash. The Warrants will be immediately exercisable at an exercise price of $1.62 per share and will expire on December 5, 2025. The Warrants and ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of the Warrants are not being offered pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and are being offered pursuant to the exemption provided in Section 4(a)(2) under the Securities Act and Rule 506(b) promulgated thereunder. There is no established public trading market for the Warrants being issued in the concurrent private placement, and we do not expect a market to develop. We do not intend to apply for listing of the Warrants on any securities exchange or other nationally recognized trading system. Without an active trading market, the liquidity of the Warrants will be limited. See “Private Placement of Warrants.”

The number of ordinary shares to be issued and outstanding after this offering is based on 14,868,973 ordinary shares issued and outstanding as of May 31, 2020. The number of ordinary shares to be issued and outstanding after this offering excludes:

 

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1,119,363 ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of share options to purchase ordinary shares outstanding as of May 31, 2020, at a weighted average exercise price of $7.85 per share;

 

   

25,664 ordinary shares issuable upon the vesting of outstanding restricted stock units as of May 31, 2020;

 

   

1,105,000 ordinary shares issuable upon the vesting of outstanding performance restricted stock units as of May 31, 2020;

 

   

19,890 ordinary shares issuable upon exercise of outstanding warrants as of May 31, 2020, at a weighted average exercise price of 18.85 per share;

 

   

111,632 additional ordinary shares available for future issuance as of May 31, 2020 under our 2018 Equity Incentive Plan; and

 

   

829,688 ordinary shares and 414,844 warrants that may be sold to Sarissa pursuant to the Sarissa Right to Purchase.

Unless otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus supplement assumes no exercise of the outstanding options or warrants described above, no exercise of the Warrants or the warrants to purchase ordinary shares issued to the placement agent or its designees, or the Placement Agent Warrants, no conversion of the Exchangeable Notes, and no sale of securities to Sarissa pursuant to the Sarissa Right to Purchase.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our ordinary shares involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the following risks and the risks described in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019 and in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2020, together with all of the other information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, that we have incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition could suffer materially. In such event, the trading price of our ordinary shares could decline and you might lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to this Offering

The price of our ordinary shares has been volatile and could be subject to volatility related or unrelated to our operations and our shareholders’ investment in us could suffer a decline in value.

Our share price has been and may continue to be volatile. The stock market in general and the market for biopharmaceutical companies in particular have experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. As a result of this volatility, investors may not be able to sell their ordinary shares at or above the price paid for the shares. The trading price of our ordinary shares could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. The market price for our ordinary shares may be influenced by those factors discussed elsewhere in this “Risk Factors” section of this document and others, such as:

 

   

results from, and any delays in, our current and future clinical trials, in particular our ongoing Phase 3 clinical trial in uUTI;

 

   

announcements of regulatory approval or disapproval of oral sulopenem and sulopenem or future product candidates;

 

   

delays in the commercialization of oral sulopenem and sulopenem or any future product candidates;

 

   

manufacturing and supply issues related to our development programs and commercialization of oral sulopenem and sulopenem or any of our future product candidates;

 

   

quarterly variations in our results of operations or those of our competitors;

 

   

changes in our earnings estimates or recommendations by securities analysts;

 

   

announcements by us or our competitors of new product candidates, significant contracts, commercial relationships, acquisitions or capital commitments;

 

   

announcements relating to future development or license agreements including termination of such agreements;

 

   

adverse developments with respect to our intellectual property rights or those of our principal collaborators;

 

   

commencement of litigation involving us or our competitors;

 

   

changes in our board of directors or management;

 

   

new legislation in the United States relating to the prescription, sale, distribution or pricing of drugs;

 

   

product liability claims, other litigation or public concern about the safety of oral sulopenem or sulopenem or future products;

 

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market conditions in the healthcare market in general, or in the antibiotics segment in particular, including performance of our competitors;

 

   

general economic conditions in the United States and abroad, including resulting from geo-political actions, including war and terrorism, natural disasters, including earthquakes, hurricanes, typhoons, floods and fires, public health crises, or pandemics, like COVID-19;

 

   

risks and uncertainties concerning the outcome, impact, effects and results of our evaluation of corporate, strategic and financial alternatives, including the terms, timing, structure, value, benefits and costs of any corporate strategic or financial alternative and our ability to complete one at all; and

 

   

the other factors described in this “Risk Factors” section and the “Risk Factors” sections of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2020, which are incorporated by reference herein.

In addition, the stock market in general, or the market for equity securities in our industry or industries related to our industry, may experience extreme volatility unrelated to our operating performance. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect the trading price or liquidity of our ordinary shares. Any sudden decline in the market price of our ordinary shares could trigger securities class-action lawsuits against us. If any of our shareholders were to bring such a lawsuit against us, we could incur substantial costs defending the lawsuit and the time and attention of our management would be diverted from our business and operations. We also could be subject to damages claims if we are found to be at fault in connection with a decline in our share price.

Sales of a substantial number of our ordinary shares in the public market, or the perception that these sales could occur, could cause our share price to fall.

A portion of our outstanding ordinary shares can be traded without restriction at any time. If our current shareholders sell, or indicate an intention to sell, substantial amounts of our ordinary shares in the public market, the trading price of our ordinary shares could decline.

A substantial portion of our outstanding ordinary shares is currently restricted as a result of federal securities laws but can be sold at any time subject to applicable volume limitations.

In addition, the Exchangeable Notes that we issued in the Private Placement and the further Exchangeable Notes that we may issue in an offering of subscription rights to purchase additional Exchangeable Notes together with Limited Recourse Royalty-Linked Subordinated Notes, or the Rights Offering, are, or may become, exchangeable for our ordinary shares upon the terms and conditions specified therein, and, as set forth in the 2020 Investor Rights Agreement, we have agreed to file a registration statement covering the ordinary shares issuable in connection with the exchange of the Exchangeable Notes purchased in the Private Placement, among other securities. In addition, pursuant to the securities purchase agreement, we have agreed to file a registration statement as soon as practicable (and in any event within 90 calendar days of the date of the securities purchase agreement), providing for the resale by the purchasers of the Warrants in the concurrent private placement of ordinary shares issued and issuable upon exercise of the Warrants. Upon the effectiveness of such resale registration statements, the shares will be able to be sold by the holders thereof without restrictions, subject to compliance with securities laws.

 

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Pursuant to the terms of the 2020 Investor Rights Agreement that we entered into in connection with the Private Placement, we are required to provide Sarissa the opportunity to purchase an aggregate of up to 829,688 ordinary shares and up to 414,844 Warrants on the terms provided for in the offering being made hereby and in the concurrent private placement. To the extent Sarissa elects to purchase these securities, any sale to Sarissa will be carried out in a separate transaction at a price per ordinary share equal to the public offering price and a price per Warrant equal to the price per Warrant in the concurrent private placement. In addition, we have agreed to grant the placement agent or its designees warrants to purchase a number of ordinary shares equal to 7.0% of the aggregate number of ordinary shares sold to the investors in this offering.

After this offering, we will have 17,840,743 ordinary shares issued and outstanding, based on 14,868,973 ordinary shares issued and outstanding as of May 31, 2020. Any of our outstanding shares that are not restricted as a result of securities laws may be resold in the public market without restriction unless purchased by our affiliates.

Furthermore, ordinary shares that are issuable upon exercise of outstanding options, or reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plans will become eligible for sale in the public market to the extent permitted by the provisions of various vesting schedules and Rule 144 and Rule 701 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. If any of these additional ordinary shares are sold, or if it is perceived that they will be sold, in the public market, the trading price of our ordinary shares could decline.

We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may not use them effectively.

Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering and could spend the proceeds in ways that do not improve our results of operations or enhance the value of our ordinary shares. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could result in financial losses that could cause the price of our ordinary shares to decline. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in a manner that does not produce income or that loses value.

We have never paid cash dividends, do not anticipate paying any cash dividends and our ability to pay dividends, or repurchase or redeem our ordinary shares, is limited by law.

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our ordinary shares and do not anticipate paying any dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future. Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the sole discretion of our board of directors after considering our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, contractual restrictions, general business conditions and other factors our board of directors deems relevant, and subject to compliance with applicable laws, including the Irish Companies Act which requires Irish companies to have distributable reserves available for distribution equal to or greater than the amount of the proposed dividend. Distributable reserves are the accumulated realized profits of the company that have not previously been utilized in a distribution or capitalization less accumulated realized losses that have not previously been written off in a reduction or reorganization of capital. Unless the company creates sufficient distributable reserves from its business activities, the creation of such distributable reserves would involve a reduction of the company’s share premium account, which would require the approval of (i) 75% of our shareholders present and voting at a shareholder meeting, and (ii) the Irish High Court. In the event that we do not undertake a reduction of capital to create distributable reserves, no distributions by way of dividends, share repurchases or otherwise will be permitted under Irish law until such time as the company has created sufficient distributable reserves from its business activities. In addition, our ability to pay cash dividends is currently prohibited by the terms of our credit facility with Silicon Valley Bank, or SVB.

Accordingly, the only opportunity for a shareholder to achieve a return on their investment in our company is expected to be if the market price of our ordinary shares appreciates and they sell their ordinary shares at a profit.

If you purchase ordinary shares in this offering, you will suffer immediate dilution of your investment.

The offering price of the ordinary shares offered hereby is higher than the as adjusted net tangible book value per ordinary share. Therefore, if you purchase ordinary shares in this offering, you will experience immediate dilution of $3.78 per ordinary share, representing the difference between our as adjusted net tangible book value per ordinary share after giving effect to this offering and the offering price per ordinary share. For a further description of the dilution you will experience immediately after this offering, see “Dilution” in this prospectus supplement.

 

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If we fail to meet the requirements for continued listing on the Nasdaq Global Market, we may be delisted and the price of our ordinary shares, our ability to access the capital markets and our financial condition could be negatively impacted.

Our ordinary shares are currently listed for quotation on the Nasdaq Global Market. To maintain the listing of our ordinary shares on the Nasdaq Global Market, we are required to meet certain listing requirements, including, among others, a minimum closing bid price of $1.00 per share, a market value of publicly held shares (excluding shares held by our officers, directors and 10% or more stockholders) of at least $15 million and a total market value of listed securities of at least $50.0 million.

On March 4, 2020, we received a letter from the Listing Qualifications Department of The Nasdaq Stock Market, LLC notifying us that the listing of our ordinary shares was not in compliance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5450(b)(2)(A), (MVLS Rule) for continued listing on the Nasdaq Global Market, as the market value of our listed securities was less than $50.0 million for the previous 30 consecutive business days. Under Nasdaq Listing Rule 5810(c)(3)(C), we had a period of 180 calendar days, or until August 31, 2020, to regain compliance with the MVLS Rule. To regain compliance, the market value of our listed securities needed to be at least $50.0 million or more (measured based on closing prices) for a minimum of 10 consecutive business days.

On May 13, 2020, we received notification from the Listing Qualifications Department of The Nasdaq Stock Market, LLC that, for 10 consecutive business days from April 29, 2020 to May 12, 2020, the market value of our listed securities had been greater than $50.0 million, confirming that we had regained compliance with the MVLS Rule.

Although we currently comply with the MVLS Rule, the market value of our listed securities could fall below $50.0 million for 30 consecutive days again in the future, in which event we would receive another deficiency notice from Nasdaq advising us that we have 180 days to regain compliance by maintaining a market value of our listed securities of at least $50.0 million or more (measured based on closing prices) for a minimum of 10 consecutive business days. In addition, we could receive a deficiency notice from Nasdaq advising us that we are not in compliance with other continued listing requirements. If we do not regain compliance with respect to any future deficiency within the applicable compliance period, we may transfer the listing of our ordinary shares to the Nasdaq Capital Market, provided that we then meet the applicable requirements for continued listing on the Nasdaq Capital Market.

There can be no assurance that we will be successful in maintaining the listing of our ordinary shares on the Nasdaq Global Market. This could impair the liquidity and market price of our ordinary shares. In addition, the delisting of our ordinary shares from a national exchange could have a material adverse effect on our access to capital markets, and any limitation on market liquidity or reduction in the price of our ordinary shares as a result of that delisting could adversely affect our ability to raise capital on terms acceptable to us, or at all. The delisting of our ordinary shares from the Nasdaq Global Market could also negatively impact our financial condition as it would constitute (i) an event of default under our credit facility with SVB, which could lead to an acceleration of amounts due under the credit facility and foreclosure upon and/or sale or other liquidation of all of our and our subsidiaries’ assets, including intellectual property; and (ii) a fundamental change under the indenture governing the Exchangeable Notes, which could trigger an obligation for us to repurchase the Exchangeable Notes at a repurchase price of 300% of the principal amount of the outstanding Exchangeable Notes.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We estimate that the net proceeds from this offering and the concurrent private placement will be approximately $4.3 million, after deducting the placement agent fees and estimated offering expenses payable by us. This estimate excludes the proceeds, if any, from the exercise of the Warrants sold in the concurrent private placement and the exercise of Placement Agent Warrants as well as any potential proceeds from the sale of ordinary shares and Warrants pursuant to the Sarissa Right to Purchase. If all of the Warrants sold in the concurrent private placement were to be exercised in cash at the exercise price, we could receive additional proceeds of approximately $2.4 million.

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering and the concurrent private placement to fund the continued clinical development of sulopenem, including our ongoing Phase 3 clinical trial of sulopenem for uUTI, the management of potential regulatory filings and for working capital and general corporate purposes.

The expected use of net proceeds from this offering represents our intentions based upon our current plans and business conditions, which could change in the future as our plans and business conditions evolve. The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures may vary significantly depending on numerous factors, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business operations, the progress of our commercialization and development efforts, the outcome of regulatory review of our product candidates, the status of and results from clinical trials, as well as any collaborations that we may enter into with third parties for our product candidates, and any unforeseen cash needs. As a result, our management retains broad discretion over the allocation of the net proceeds from this offering. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to invest in, acquire or in-license products, businesses or technologies that we believe are complementary to our own, although we have no current agreements or commitments for any material acquisitions or licenses of any products, businesses or technologies.

We expect that the net proceeds of this offering and the concurrent private placement, together with our existing cash and cash equivalents, will be sufficient to enable us to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements into the fourth quarter of 2020. However, we have based this estimate on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and our operating plans may change as a result of many factors and various risks and uncertainties. For example, this estimate assumes, among other things, the continuation of regular monthly amortization payments of the principal amount outstanding under our credit facility with SVB and that the balance of the principal amount does not become due and payable until the maturity date of March 1, 2022. We could deplete our capital resources sooner than we currently expect.

Pending our use of the net proceeds from this offering, the concurrent private placement and the sale of any securities pursuant to the Sarissa Right to Purchase we may invest the net proceeds in a variety of capital preservation investments, including term deposits, short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments and U.S. government securities.

 

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DIVIDEND POLICY

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our ordinary shares. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to support operations and to finance the growth and development of our business. In addition, our ability to pay dividends is currently restricted by the terms of our credit facility with SVB. We do not intend to declare or pay cash dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to pay dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors subject to applicable laws (including the Irish Companies Act 2014, which requires, among other things, Irish companies to have profits available for distribution (known as distributable reserves) equal to or greater than the amount of the proposed dividend), and will depend upon, among other factors, our results of operations, financial condition, contractual restrictions and capital requirements. Unless we create sufficient distributable reserves from our business activities, the creation of such distributable reserves would involve a reduction of our share premium account, which would require the approval of 75% of our shareholders present and voting at a shareholder meeting, and of the Irish High Court. Our future ability to pay cash dividends on our shares may also be limited by the terms of any future debt or preferred securities.

 

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PRIVATE PLACEMENT OF WARRANTS

Concurrently with the closing of the sale of ordinary shares in this offering, we also expect to issue and sell to the investors Warrants to purchase an aggregate of up to 1,485,885 ordinary shares at an initial exercise price equal to $1.62 per share.

The Warrants and the ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of the Warrants are not being registered under the Securities Act, are not being offered pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and are being offered pursuant to the exemption provided in Section 4(a)(2) under the Securities Act and Rule 506(b) promulgated thereunder. Accordingly, the purchaser may only sell ordinary shares issued upon exercise of the Warrants pursuant to an effective registration statement under the Securities Act covering the resale of those shares, an exemption under Rule 144 under the Securities Act or another applicable exemption under the Securities Act.

Duration and Exercise Price

The Warrants will have an exercise price of $1.62 per share. The Warrants will be immediately exercisable following the date of issuance and will expire on the date that is five years and six months after the date of issuance. The exercise prices and numbers of ordinary shares issuable upon exercise are subject to appropriate adjustment in the event of share dividends, share splits, reorganizations or similar events affecting our ordinary shares. The warrants will also provide for certain adjustments in connection with rights offerings and distributions of assets, including cash, stock or other property to our shareholders.

Exercisability

The Warrants will be exercisable, at the option of each holder, in whole or in part, by delivering to us a duly executed exercise notice accompanied by payment in full for the number of ordinary shares purchased upon such exercise (except in the case of a cashless exercise as discussed below). A holder (together with its affiliates) may not exercise any portion of such holder’s Warrants to the extent that the holder would own more than 4.99% of our outstanding ordinary shares immediately after exercise, except that upon notice from the holder to us, the holder may increase the amount of ownership of outstanding ordinary shares after exercising the holder’s Warrants up to 9.99% of the number of our ordinary shares outstanding immediately after giving effect to the exercise, as such percentage ownership is determined in accordance with the terms of the Warrants, provided that any increase in the beneficial ownership limitation shall not be effective until 61 days following notice to us. Purchasers in this offering may also elect prior to the issuance of Warrants to have the initial exercise limitation set at 9.99% of our outstanding ordinary shares.

Cashless Exercise

If, after the six-month anniversary of the closing date of the concurrent private placement, and at the time a holder exercises its Warrants, a registration statement registering the issuance of the ordinary shares underlying the Warrants under the Securities Act is not then effective or available for the issuance of such shares, then in lieu of making the cash payment otherwise contemplated to be made to us upon such exercise in payment of the aggregate exercise price, the holder may elect instead to receive upon such exercise (either in whole or in part) the net number of ordinary shares determined according to a formula and terms set forth in the Warrant.

Fundamental Transactions

In the event of any fundamental transaction, as described in the Warrants and generally including any merger with or into another entity, sale of all or substantially all of our assets, tender offer or exchange offer, or reclassification of our ordinary shares, then upon any subsequent exercise of a Warrant, the holder will have the right to receive as alternative consideration, for each ordinary share that would have been issuable upon such exercise immediately prior to the occurrence of such fundamental transaction, the number of ordinary shares of the successor or acquiring corporation or of our company, if it is the surviving corporation, and any additional consideration receivable upon or as a result of such transaction by a holder of the number of ordinary shares for

 

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which the Warrant is exercisable immediately prior to such event. In addition, in the event of a fundamental transaction, the holders of the Warrants will have the right to require us or a successor entity to redeem the Warrant for cash in the amount of the Black-Scholes value of the unexercised portion of the Warrant on the date of the consummation of the fundamental transaction; provided, however, that if the fundamental transaction is not approved by our Board or is otherwise not within our control, the holders of the Warrants instead will have the right to require us or a successor entity to redeem the Warrant for the consideration paid in the fundamental transaction in the amount of the Black Scholes value of the unexercised portion of the Warrant on the date of the consummation of the fundamental transaction.

Transferability

In accordance with its terms and subject to applicable laws and a standard legend with regard to restriction on transfer only in compliance with a public offering or an available exemption therefrom, a Warrant may be transferred at the option of the holder upon surrender of the Warrant to us together with the appropriate instruments of transfer.

Fractional Shares

No fractional ordinary share will be issued upon the exercise of the Warrants. Rather, the number of ordinary shares to be issued will, at our election, either be rounded down to the nearest whole number or we will pay a cash adjustment in respect of such final fraction in an amount equal to such fraction multiplied by the exercise price.

Trading Market

There is no established trading market for any of the Warrants being issued in the concurrent private placement, and we do not expect a market to develop. We do not intend to apply for a listing for any of the Warrants on any securities exchange or other nationally recognized trading system. Without an active trading market, the liquidity of the Warrants will be limited.

Rights as a Shareholder

Except as otherwise provided in the Warrants or by virtue of the holders’ ownership of our ordinary shares, the holders of Warrants do not have the rights or privileges of holders of our ordinary shares, including any voting rights, until such Warrant holders exercise their Warrants.

Waivers and Amendments

No term of the Warrants may be amended or waived without the written consent of the holder of such Warrant.

Registration Rights

Pursuant to the securities purchase agreement, we have agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to file a registration statement as soon as practicable (and in any event within 90 calendar days of the date of the securities purchase agreement), providing for the resale by the purchasers of the Warrants in the concurrent private placement of ordinary shares issued and issuable upon exercise of the Warrants. We have agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to cause such registration statement to become effective within 181 days following the closing date of the concurrent private placement and to keep such registration statement effective at all times until no purchaser of the Warrants in the concurrent private placement owns any Warrants or ordinary shares issuable upon exercise thereof.

 

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DILUTION

If you invest in our securities in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted immediately to the extent of the difference between the offering price per ordinary share and the as adjusted net tangible book value per ordinary share immediately after this offering.

Our historical net tangible book value as of March 31, 2020 was $(41.7) million, or $(2.81) per share. Our historical net tangible book value is the amount of our total tangible assets less our total liabilities. Historical net tangible book value per share represents historical net tangible book value divided by the number of ordinary shares outstanding.

Without taking into account any other changes in our net tangible book value after March 31, 2020, other than to give effect to our issuance and sale of 2,971,770 ordinary shares in this offering, after deducting the placement agent fees and estimated offering expenses payable by us, and assuming no exercise of the Warrants offered in the concurrent private placement or of the Placement Agent Warrants, that no value is attributed to such Warrants and that such Warrants are classified and accounted for as equity, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of March 31, 2020 would have been $(37.4) million, or $(2.10) per share. This represents an immediate increase in as adjusted net tangible book value of $0.71 per share to existing shareholders and an immediate dilution in as adjusted net tangible book value of $3.78 per share to new investors purchasing ordinary shares in this offering. Dilution per share to new investors is determined by subtracting as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering from the offering price per share paid by new investors. The following table illustrates this dilution on a per share basis:

 

Offering price per ordinary share

      $ 1.6825  

Historical net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2020

   $ (2.81   

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to this offering

     0.71     
  

 

 

    

As adjusted net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2020 after giving effect to this offering

        (2.10
     

 

 

 

Dilution per share to new investors in this offering

      $ 3.78  
     

 

 

 

The total number of ordinary shares reflected in the discussion and the table above is based on 14,868,973 ordinary shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2020 and does not include:

 

   

1,133,208 ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of share options outstanding as of March 31, 2020, at a weighted average exercise price of $7.88 per share;

 

   

25,664 ordinary shares issuable upon the vesting of outstanding restricted stock units as of March 31, 2020;

 

   

1,127,000 ordinary shares issuable upon the vesting of outstanding performance restricted stock units as of March 31, 2020;

 

   

19,890 ordinary shares issuable upon exercise of outstanding warrants as of March 31, 2020, at a weighted average exercise price of $18.85 per shares;

 

   

75,529 additional ordinary shares available for future issuance as of March 31, 2020 under our 2018 Equity Incentive Plan; and

 

   

829,688 ordinary shares and 414,844 warrants that may be sold to Sarissa pursuant to the Sarissa Right to Purchase.

 

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For the avoidance of doubt, this discussion also assumes no exercise of the Warrants or the Placement Agent Warrants, no conversion of the Exchangeable Notes and no sale of securities to Sarissa pursuant to the Sarissa Right to Purchase Option.

If any ordinary shares are issued upon exercise of outstanding options or warrants at prices below the offering price, you will experience further dilution.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF THE SECURITIES WE ARE OFFERING

Ordinary Shares

The material terms and provisions of our ordinary shares are described under the heading “Description of Share Capital” in the accompanying prospectus.

 

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MATERIAL TAX CONSEQUENCES

Material Irish Tax Consequences

The following is a summary of the material Irish tax consequences for certain beneficial holders of our ordinary shares. The summary is based upon Irish tax laws and the practice of the Irish Revenue Commissioners in effect on the date of this prospectus supplement and correspondence with the Irish Revenue Commissioners. Changes in law and/or administrative practice may result in alteration of the tax considerations described below, possibly with retrospective effect.

The summary does not constitute tax advice and is intended only as a general guide. The summary is not exhaustive and holders of our ordinary shares should consult their own tax advisors about the Irish tax consequences (and the tax consequences under the laws of other relevant jurisdictions) of this offering, including the acquisition, ownership and disposal of our ordinary shares. The summary applies only to shareholders who will own our ordinary shares as capital assets and does not apply to other categories of shareholders, such as dealers in securities, trustees, insurance companies, collective investment schemes and shareholders who have, or who are deemed to have, acquired our ordinary shares by virtue of an Irish office or employment (performed or carried on in Ireland).

Tax on Chargeable Gains

The current rate of tax on chargeable gains (where applicable) in Ireland is 33%.

A disposal of our ordinary shares by a shareholder who is not resident or ordinarily resident for tax purposes in Ireland will not give rise to Irish tax on any chargeable gain realized on such disposal unless such shares are used, held or acquired for the purposes of a trade or business carried on by such shareholder through a branch or agency in Ireland.

A holder of our ordinary shares who is an individual and who is temporarily non-resident in Ireland may, under Irish anti-avoidance legislation, be liable to Irish tax on any chargeable gain realized on a disposal of our ordinary shares during the period in which such individual is non-resident.

Stamp Duty

The rate of stamp duty (where applicable) on transfers of shares of Irish incorporated companies is 1% of the price paid or the market value of the shares acquired, whichever is greater. Where Irish stamp duty arises, it is generally a liability of the transferee.

Shares Held Through DTC

A transfer of our ordinary shares effected by means of the transfer of book entry interests in DTC will not be subject to Irish stamp duty. On the basis that most of our ordinary shares are expected to be held through DTC, it is anticipated that most transfers of our ordinary shares will be exempt from Irish stamp duty.

Shares Held Outside of DTC or Transferred Into or Out of DTC

A transfer of our ordinary shares where any party to the transfer holds such shares outside of DTC may be subject to Irish stamp duty. Shareholders wishing to transfer their shares into (or out of) DTC may do so without giving rise to Irish stamp duty provided that:

 

   

there is no change in the beneficial ownership of such shares as a result of the transfer; and

 

   

the transfer into (or out of) DTC is not effected in contemplation of a sale of such shares by a beneficial owner to a third party.

 

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Withholding Tax on Dividends

As noted elsewhere in this prospectus supplement, we do not expect to pay dividends for the foreseeable future. To the extent that we do make dividend payments (or other returns to shareholders that are treated as “distributions” for Irish tax purposes), it should be noted that such distributions made by us will, in the absence of one of many exemptions, be subject to Irish dividend withholding tax, which is referred to in this prospectus supplement as DWT, currently at a rate of 25% (effective from January 1, 2020).

For DWT purposes, a distribution includes any distribution that may be made by us to our shareholders, including cash dividends, non-cash dividends and additional stock taken in lieu of a cash dividend. Where an exemption does not apply in respect of a distribution made to a particular shareholder, we are responsible for withholding DWT prior to making such distribution.

General Exemptions

The following is a general overview of the scenarios where it will be possible for us to make payments of dividends without deduction of DWT.

Irish domestic law provides that a non-Irish resident shareholder is not subject to DWT on dividends received from us if such shareholder is beneficially entitled to the dividend and is either:

 

   

a person (not being a company) resident for tax purposes in a Relevant Territory (including the United States) and is neither resident nor ordinarily resident in Ireland (Relevant Territories for DWT purposes include the following: Albania, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Botswana, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Kuwait, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malaysia, Malta, Mexico, Moldova, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, The Republic Of Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uzbekistan, Vietnam and Zambia);

 

   

a company resident for tax purposes in a Relevant Territory, provided such company is not under the control, whether directly or indirectly, of a person or persons who is or are resident in Ireland;

 

   

a company, wherever resident, that is controlled, directly or indirectly, by persons resident in a Relevant Territory and who is or are (as the case may be) not controlled by, directly or indirectly, persons who are not resident in a Relevant Territory;

 

   

a company, wherever resident, whose principal class of shares (or those of its 75% direct or indirect parent) is substantially and regularly traded on a stock exchange in Ireland, on a recognized stock exchange in a Relevant Territory or on such other stock exchange approved by the Irish Minister for Finance; or

 

   

a company, wherever resident, that is wholly owned, directly or indirectly, by two or more companies where the principal class of shares of each of such companies is substantially and regularly traded on a stock exchange in Ireland, on a recognized stock exchange in a Relevant Territory or on such other stock exchange approved by the Irish Minister for Finance, and provided, in all cases noted above, we have received from the shareholder, where required, the relevant DWT Form(s) prior to the payment of the dividend and such DWT Form(s) remain valid.

For non-Irish resident shareholders that cannot avail themselves of one of Ireland’s domestic law exemptions from DWT, it may be possible for such shareholders to rely on the provisions of a double tax treaty to which Ireland is party to reduce the rate of DWT.

 

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Our shareholders that do not fall within any of the categories specifically referred to above may nonetheless fall within other exemptions from DWT. If any shareholders are exempt from DWT, but receive dividends subject to DWT, such shareholders may apply for refunds of such DWT from the Irish Revenue Commissioners.

Income Tax on Dividends Paid on our Ordinary Shares

Irish income tax may arise for certain persons in respect of dividends received from Irish resident companies. A shareholder that is not resident or ordinarily resident in Ireland and that is entitled to an exemption from DWT generally has no liability to Irish income tax or the universal social charge on a dividend received from us. An exception to this position may apply where such shareholder holds our ordinary shares through a branch or agency in Ireland through which a trade is carried on.

A shareholder that is not resident or ordinarily resident in Ireland and that is not entitled to an exemption from DWT generally has no additional Irish income tax liability or a liability to the universal social charge. The DWT deducted by us discharges the liability to income tax. An exception to this position may apply where the shareholder holds our ordinary shares through a branch or agency in Ireland through which a trade is carried on.

Capital Acquisitions Tax

Irish capital acquisitions tax, or CAT, comprises principally gift tax and inheritance tax. CAT could apply to a gift or inheritance of our ordinary shares irrespective of the place of residence, ordinary residence or domicile of the parties. This is because our ordinary shares are regarded as property situated in Ireland for Irish CAT purposes as our share register must be held in Ireland. The person who receives the gift or inheritance has primary liability for CAT.

CAT is levied at a rate of 33% above certain tax-free thresholds. The appropriate tax free threshold is dependent upon (i) the relationship between the donor and the donee, and (ii) the aggregation of the values of previous gifts and inheritances received by the donee from persons within the same group threshold. Gifts and inheritances passing between spouses of the same marriage or civil partners of the same civil partnership are exempt from CAT. Children have a tax free threshold of €335,000 in respect of taxable gifts or inheritances received from their parents. Our shareholders should consult their own tax advisors as to whether CAT is creditable or deductible in computing any domestic tax liabilities.

There is also a “small gift exemption” from CAT whereby the first €3,000 of the taxable value of all taxable gifts taken by a donee from any one donor, in each calendar year, is exempt from CAT and is also excluded from any future aggregation. This exemption does not apply to an inheritance.

THE IRISH TAX CONSIDERATIONS SUMMARIZED ABOVE ARE FOR GENERAL INFORMATION ONLY. HOLDERS OF OUR ORDINARY SHARES SHOULD CONSULT WITH THEIR TAX ADVISORS REGARDING THE TAX CONSEQUENCES IN IRELAND, INCLUDING THE ACQUISITION, OWNERSHIP AND DISPOSAL OF OUR ORDINARY SHARES.

Material U.S. Tax Consequences

Introduction

This section describes the material U.S. federal income tax consequences of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our ordinary shares by U.S. holders (as defined below). It applies to you only if you acquire your ordinary shares in this offering and hold those ordinary shares as capital assets within the meaning of the U.S. federal tax laws (generally, property held for investment), and the discussion below assumes this to be the case. This section does not purport to be a comprehensive description of all tax considerations that may be relevant in light of a U.S. holder’s particular circumstances, including any state, foreign or local tax considerations, any U.S. federal gift, estate or generation skipping transfer tax considerations and tax consequences applicable to special classes of U.S. holders, including:

 

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financial institutions;

 

   

brokers or dealers in securities, or traders in securities who use a mark to market method of tax accounting;

 

   

real estate investment trusts or regulated investment companies;

 

   

tax-exempt entities including pension plans, “individual retirement accounts” or “Roth IRAs”;

 

   

life insurance companies;

 

   

partnerships or other “pass-through” entities or persons who hold our ordinary shares through partnerships or other “pass-through” entities;

 

   

persons liable for alternative minimum tax;

 

   

persons that hold our ordinary shares as part of a straddle, wash sale, notional principal contract, conversion transaction or integrated transaction;

 

   

persons that hold our ordinary shares in, through or for the account of a “qualified business unit,” “disregarded entity” or branch of those persons situated outside the United States;

 

   

corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid U.S. federal income tax;

 

   

persons that hold (directly, indirectly or constructively) in the aggregate 10% or more of our outstanding shares (measured by either voting power or value);

 

   

except as specifically described below, entities classified as partnerships or other pass-through entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes, including beneficial owners of such entities;

 

   

persons who acquired our ordinary shares pursuant to the exercise of an employee stock option or otherwise as compensation for services; or

 

   

U.S. holders whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar.

This section is based on the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, its legislative history, existing and proposed regulations, published rulings and court decisions, all as currently in effect. These laws are subject to change, possibly on a retroactive basis. No ruling has been or will be sought from the Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, with respect to the matters discussed below, and there can be no assurance the IRS will not take a contrary position regarding the tax consequences of the acquisition, ownership or disposition of our ordinary shares, or that any such contrary position would not be sustained by a court. You should consult a competent tax advisor with respect to the U.S. federal, state and local tax consequences to you of acquiring, holding and disposing of Units.

You are a U.S. holder if you are a beneficial owner of our ordinary shares and you are, for U.S. federal income tax purposes:

 

   

an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

   

a corporation, or other entity taxable as a corporation, (1) created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, any state therein or the District of Columbia, or (2) treated as such under the Code;

 

   

an estate whose income is subject to U.S. federal income tax regardless of its source; or

 

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a trust if (1) a U.S. court can exercise primary supervision over the trust’s administration and one or more U.S. persons are authorized to control all substantial decisions of the trust; or (2) the trust has a valid election in effect under applicable Treasury Regulations to be treated as a U.S. person.

If an entity classified as a partnership for U S. federal income tax purposes holds our ordinary shares, the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a partner in that partnership with respect to its holdings of our ordinary shares generally will depend upon the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership.

Ownership and Disposition of our Ordinary Shares

Taxation of Dividends

As described above, we have never paid and do not expect to pay cash dividends. If we were to make current distributions in respect of our ordinary shares, under the U.S. federal income tax laws, and subject to the passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, rules discussed below, if you are a U.S. holder, the gross amount of any dividend paid by us out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits (as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes) is subject to U.S. federal income taxation. However, because we do not expect to calculate our earnings and profits in accordance with U.S. federal income tax principles, the entire amount of any distribution may be treated as a dividend. If you are a non-corporate U.S. holder, with some exceptions dividends that constitute qualified dividend income will be taxable to you at the preferential rates applicable to long-term capital gains provided that you hold your ordinary shares for more than 60 days during the 121-day period beginning 60 days before the ex-dividend date and meet other holding period requirements. If we were determined to be a PFIC during either a given taxable year or the preceding taxable year, dividends paid by us during the later taxable year would not be qualified dividend income and, therefore, would be ineligible for the preferential rates described above; instead, any such dividend would be subject to tax at the rates applicable to ordinary income. The dividend is taxable to you when you receive the dividend, actually or constructively. The dividend will not be eligible for the dividends-received deduction generally allowed to U.S. corporations in respect of dividends received from other corporations.

The amount of the dividend distribution that you must include in your income as a U.S. holder will be the U.S. dollar value of the payments made, determined at the spot rate on the date the dividend distribution is includable in your income, regardless of whether the payment is in fact converted into U.S. dollars. You must include any Irish tax withheld from the dividend payment in this amount, even though you will not in fact receive the amount of that tax. Generally, any gain or loss resulting from currency exchange fluctuations during the period from the date you include the dividend payment in income to the date you convert the payment into U.S. dollars will be treated as ordinary income or loss and will not be eligible for the special tax rates applicable to qualified dividend income. The gain or loss generally will be income or loss from sources within the United States for foreign tax credit limitation purposes.

Distributions (or portions thereof) from corporations demonstrated to be in excess of current and accumulated earnings and profits, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, will be treated as a non-taxable return of capital to the extent of the receiving shareholder’s basis in its shares and thereafter as capital gain. However, as noted above, because we do not expect to calculate our earnings and profits in accordance with U.S. federal income tax principles, the entire amount of any distribution may be treated as a dividend.

Dividends generally will be income from sources outside the United States for foreign tax credit limitation purposes. Dividends will, depending on your circumstances, generally be either passive category income or general category income for purposes of computing the foreign tax credit allowable to you. Subject to certain limitations, any Irish tax withheld and paid over to Ireland will be creditable or deductible (at your option) against your U.S. federal income tax liability. However, no foreign tax credit would be allowed if you qualified for an exemption from Irish withholding tax, as described more fully above in “—Material Irish Tax Consequences—General Exemptions.”

Taxation of Capital Gains

Subject to the PFIC rules discussed below, if you are a U.S. holder and you sell or otherwise dispose of your ordinary shares, you will recognize capital gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes equal to the difference between the U.S. dollar value of the amount that you realize and your tax basis, determined in U.S. dollars, in your ordinary shares.

 

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Capital gains of a non-corporate U.S. holder generally are taxed at preferential rates where the property is held for more than one year. The gain or loss generally will be income or loss from sources within the United States for foreign tax credit limitation purposes.

PFIC Rules

Special rules apply to U.S. holders who hold shares in a foreign corporation that is treated as a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The determination of whether a foreign corporation is a PFIC is primarily factual and cannot be made definitively until after the close of the tax year. We do not believe we were a PFIC for any taxable year ending before January 1, 2020, but this conclusion is not free from doubt as described more fully in the “Risk Factors” section of our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2020 under the caption “We have been a passive foreign investment company for U.S. federal income tax purposes in the past and we could be a passive foreign investment company in the future, which could subject U.S. Holders to adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences.”

If we were to be treated as a PFIC for any taxable year, and you are a U.S. holder that did not make either election described below, you would be subject to special (default) rules with respect to: (1) any gain realized on the sale or other disposition of our ordinary shares and (2) any “excess distribution” that we make to you (generally, any distribution during a single taxable year that, when added to all other distributions made during that year, is greater than 125 percent of the average annual distribution received in respect of your ordinary shares during the three preceding taxable years or, if shorter, your holding period for the ordinary shares).

Under these default rules: (1) the gain or excess distribution will be allocated ratably over the applicable holding period for the ordinary shares, as the case may be, (2) the amount allocated to the taxable year in which you realize the gain or excess distribution will be taxed as ordinary income, (3) the amount allocated to each prior year, with certain exceptions, will be taxed at the highest tax rate in effect for that year, and (4) the interest charge generally applicable to underpayments of tax will be imposed in respect of the tax attributable to each such year. Special rules apply for calculating the amount of the foreign tax credit with respect to excess distributions by a PFIC.

Your ordinary shares will be treated as stock in a PFIC if we were a PFIC at any time during your holding period in the ordinary shares, even if we are not currently a PFIC.

If you own ordinary shares in a PFIC that are treated as “marketable stock,” you may make a mark-to-market election. If you make a valid and timely mark-to-market election, you will not be subject to the default PFIC rules described above. Instead, in general, you will include as ordinary income each year the excess, if any, of the fair market value of your ordinary shares at the end of the taxable year over your adjusted basis in your ordinary shares. These amounts of ordinary income will not be eligible for the favorable tax rates applicable to long-term capital gains. You will also be allowed to claim an ordinary loss in respect of the excess, if any, of the adjusted basis of your ordinary shares over their fair market value at the end of the taxable year (but only to the extent of the net amount of previously included income as a result of the mark-to-market election). Your basis in your ordinary shares will be adjusted to reflect any such income included or loss claimed.

Alternatively, if you own ordinary shares in a PFIC, you may make a “qualified electing fund,” or QEF, election. If you make a valid and timely QEF election and we provide certain required information to you, you will not be subject to the default PFIC rules described above with respect to those ordinary shares. Instead, for each taxable year to which such an election applies, you will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on your pro rata share of our net capital gain and ordinary earnings, regardless of whether such amounts are actually distributed to you in that year or any later year. We currently intend to make available the information necessary to permit you to make a valid QEF election, but there is no assurance that we will continue to do so in future years.

 

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In addition, notwithstanding any election you make with regard to the ordinary shares and as noted above, dividends that you receive from us would not constitute qualified dividend income to you if we were a PFIC either in the taxable year of the distribution or the preceding taxable year. Dividends that you receive that do not constitute qualified dividend income are not eligible for taxation at the preferential rates applicable to qualified dividend income; instead, such dividends are subject to tax at rates applicable to ordinary income. In addition, as noted above, because we do not expect to calculate earnings and profits in accordance with U.S. federal income tax principles, the entire amount of any distribution may be treated as a dividend.

If you own our ordinary shares during any year that we are a PFIC, you generally will be required to file an Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, Form 8621.

Medicare Tax

A U.S. holder that is an individual or estate, or a trust that does not fall into a special class of trusts that is exempt from such tax, will be subject to a 3.8 percent tax on the lesser of (1) the U.S. holder’s “net investment income” for the relevant taxable year and (2) the excess of the U.S. holder’s modified adjusted gross income for the taxable year over a certain threshold (which in the case of individuals will be between $125,000 and $250,000, depending on the individual’s circumstances). A holder’s net investment income will generally include its dividend income and its net gains from the disposition of shares, unless such dividend income or net gains are derived in the ordinary course of the conduct of a trade or business (other than a trade or business that consists of certain passive or trading activities).

Information with Respect to Foreign Financial Assets

Owners of “specified foreign financial assets” with an aggregate value in excess of $50,000 (and in some circumstances, a higher threshold) may be required to file an information report with respect to such assets with their tax returns. “Specified foreign financial assets” may include financial accounts maintained by foreign financial institutions, as well as the following, if they are not held in accounts maintained by financial institutions: (i) stocks and securities issued by non-U.S. persons, (ii) financial instruments and contracts held for investment that have non-U.S. issuers or counterparties, and (iii) interests in foreign entities.

Backup Withholding and Information Reporting

If you are a non-corporate U.S. holder, information reporting generally will apply to:

 

   

dividend payments or other taxable distributions made to you within the United States, and

 

   

the payment of proceeds to you from the sale of our ordinary shares effected at a U.S. office of a broker.

Additionally, backup withholding may apply to such payments if you are a non-corporate U.S. holder that:

 

   

fails to provide an accurate taxpayer identification number,

 

   

is notified by the IRS that you have failed to report all interest and dividends required to be shown on your federal income tax returns, or

 

   

in certain circumstances, fails to comply with applicable certification requirements.

Payment of the proceeds from the sale of our ordinary shares effected at a foreign office of a broker generally will not be subject to information reporting or backup withholding unless:

 

   

the proceeds are transferred to an account maintained by you in the United States,

 

   

the payment of proceeds or the confirmation of the sale is mailed to you at a U.S. address, or

 

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the sale has some other specified connection with the United States as provided in U.S. Treasury regulations,

except if the broker does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that you are a U.S. person and the documentation requirements described above are met or you otherwise establish an exemption.

In addition, a sale of our ordinary shares effected at a foreign office of a broker will be subject to information reporting if the broker is:

 

   

a U.S. person,

 

   

a controlled foreign corporation for U.S. tax purposes,

 

   

an individual or entity that is not a U.S. person and 50 percent or more of whose gross income is effectively connected with the conduct of a U.S. trade or business for a specified three-year period, or

 

   

a foreign partnership, if at any time during its tax year (1) one or more of its partners are “U.S. persons”, who in the aggregate hold more than 50 percent of the income or capital interest in the partnership, or (2) such foreign partnership is engaged in the conduct of a U.S. trade or business,

unless the broker does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that you are a U.S. person and the documentation requirements described above are met or you otherwise establish an exemption. Backup withholding will apply if the sale is subject to information reporting and the broker has actual knowledge that you are a U.S. person.

You generally may obtain a refund of any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules that exceed your income tax liability by timely filing a refund claim with the IRS.

THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS SUMMARIZED ABOVE ARE FOR GENERAL INFORMATION ONLY. HOLDERS OF OUR UNITS SHOULD CONSULT WITH THEIR TAX ADVISORS REGARDING THE U.S. FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL AND FOREIGN TAX CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACQUISITION, OWNERSHIP AND DISPOSAL OF OUR ORDINARY SHARES, INCLUDING THE EFFECT OF ANY APPLICABLE INCOME TAX TREATY, SUCH AS THE TAX TREATY BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND IRELAND.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We have engaged H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC (“Wainwright” or the “placement agent”), to act as our exclusive placement agent to solicit offers to purchase the securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Wainwright is not purchasing or selling any securities, nor is it required to arrange for the purchase and sale of any specific number or dollar amount of securities, but only to use its reasonable best efforts to arrange for the sale of the securities by us. Therefore, we may not sell the entire amount of the securities being offered hereby. There is no minimum amount of proceeds that is a condition to closing of this offering. We will enter into a securities purchase agreement directly with the institutional investors that purchase our securities in this offering. Wainwright may engage one or more sub-placement agents or selected dealers in connection with this offering.

Fees and Expenses

The following table shows the per share and total placement agent fees we will pay in connection with the sale of the securities in this offering, assuming the purchase of all of the securities we are offering.

 

Per share placement agent cash fee

   $ 0.1178  

Total placement agent cash fee

   $ 350,000.21  

We have agreed to pay the placement agent a total cash fee equal to 7.0% of the gross proceeds of this offering. We will also reimburse the placement agent’s reasonable and documented expenses in connection with this offering, including fees and expenses of outside counsel, in the amount of up to $90,000 and the placement agent’s clearing expenses in the amount of up to $12,900. We estimate the total offering expenses of this offering that will be payable by us, excluding the placement agent fees and expenses, will be approximately $247,100.

Placement Agent Warrants

We have agreed to grant Placement Agent Warrants to Wainwright, or its designees, to purchase a number of ordinary shares equal to 7.0% of the aggregate number of ordinary shares sold to the investors in this offering. The Placement Agent Warrants generally will have the same terms as the Warrants, except they will have an exercise price of $2.1031 and will expire on June 3, 2025. Pursuant to FINRA Rule 5110(g), the Placement Agent Warrants and any ordinary shares issued upon exercise of the Placement Agent Warrants will not be sold, transferred, assigned, pledged, or hypothecated, or be the subject of any hedging, short sale, derivative, put, or call transaction that would result in the effective economic disposition of the securities by any person for a period of 180 days immediately following the date of effectiveness or commencement of sales of this offering, except the transfer of any security:

 

   

by operation of law or by reason of our reorganization;

 

   

to any FINRA member firm participating in the offering and the officers or partners thereof, if all securities so transferred remain subject to the lock-up restriction set forth above for the remainder of the time period;

 

   

if the aggregate amount of our securities held by the placement agent or related persons do not exceed 1% of the securities being offered;

 

   

that is beneficially owned on a pro rata basis by all equity owners of an investment fund, provided that no participating member manages or otherwise directs investments by the fund and the participating members in the aggregate do not own more than 10% of the equity in the fund; or

 

   

the exercise or conversion of any security, if all securities received remain subject to the lock-up restrictions for the remainder of the time period;

 

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and the exercise or conversion of any security, if all securities remain subject to the lock-up restriction set forth above for the remainder of the time period.

Right of First Refusal

In addition, we have granted a right of first refusal to the placement agent pursuant to which it has the right to act as (i) the sole manager, underwriter or agent, as applicable, if we or our subsidiaries raise capital through a public or private offering or any other capital-raising financing of equity, equity-linked or debt securities using an underwriter or placement agent, each a Subsequent Financing, at any time prior to the 3-month anniversary of the date of the closing of the offering and (ii) the lead-left manager, underwriter or agent, as applicable, with at least 70% of the economics for any Subsequent Financing at any time after the 3-month anniversary and prior to the 12-month anniversary of the date of the closing of the offering.

Other Relationships

The placement agent may, from time to time, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of its business and may continue to receive compensation from us for such services.

Lock-up

Pursuant to the securities purchase agreement, subject to certain exceptions, we and our subsidiaries have agreed not to issue, enter into any agreement to issue or announce the issuance or proposed issuance of any ordinary shares or ordinary share equivalents for a period of 15 days following the consummation of this offering. Pursuant to the securities purchase agreement, we have also agreed not to enter into any “variable rate transactions” for a period of one year following the consummation of this offering, provided that we may issue and sell ordinary shares in an “at-the-market” offering facility with Wainwright beginning three months after the consummation of this offering.

Determination of Offering Price

The offering price of the securities we are offering was negotiated between us and the investors, in consultation with the placement agent based on the trading of our ordinary shares prior to the offering, among other things. Other factors considered in determining the offering price of the securities we are offering include the history and prospects of our company, the stage of development of our business, our business plans for the future and the extent to which they have been implemented, an assessment of our management, general conditions of the securities markets at the time of the offering and such other factors as were deemed relevant.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our ordinary shares is Computershare Trust Company, N.A.

Nasdaq Listing

Our ordinary shares are listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “ITRM.”

 

Indemnification

We have agreed to indemnify the placement agent against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments the placement agent may be required to make with respect to any of these liabilities.

 

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Regulation M

The placement agent may be deemed to be an underwriter within the meaning of Section 2(a)(11) of the Securities Act and any fees received by it and any profit realized on the sale of the securities by it while acting as principal might be deemed to be underwriting discounts or commissions under the Securities Act. The placement agent will be required to comply with the requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, including, without limitation, Rule 10b-5 and Regulation M under the Exchange Act. These rules and regulations may limit the timing of purchases and sales of our securities by the placement agent. Under these rules and regulations, the placement agent may not (i) engage in any stabilization activity in connection with our securities and (ii) bid for or purchase any of our securities or attempt to induce any person to purchase any of our securities, other than as permitted under the Exchange Act, until it has completed its participation in the distribution.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Legal matters of U.S. federal law and New York State law in connection with this offering will be passed upon for us by Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP, New York, New York. Certain legal matters with respect to Irish law in connection with the validity of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered and other legal matters will be passed upon for us by A&L Goodbody, Dublin, Ireland. Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP, New York, New York, has acted as counsel for the placement agent in connection with this offering.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Iterum Therapeutics plc as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, and for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2019, have been incorporated by reference herein in reliance upon the report of KPMG, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing. The audit report covering the December 31, 2019 consolidated financial statements contains an explanatory paragraph that states that the Company’s recurring losses from operations and net capital deficiency raise substantial doubt about the entity’s ability to continue as a going concern. The consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of that uncertainty. The audit report covering the December 31, 2019 financial statements refers to a change to the method of accounting for leases as of January 1, 2019 due to the adoption of ASC Topic 842, Leases.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We are subject to the information and periodic reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and, in accordance therewith, file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at https://www.sec.gov, which contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at http://www.iterumtx.com. Our website is not a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus omit some information contained in the registration statement in accordance with SEC rules and regulations. You should review the information and exhibits in the registration statement for further information about us and our consolidated subsidiaries and the securities we are offering. Statements in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus concerning any document we filed as an exhibit to the registration statement or that we otherwise filed with the SEC are not intended to be comprehensive and are qualified by reference to these filings. You should review the complete document to evaluate these statements.

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference much of the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus supplement is considered to be part of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are continually updated and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference herein or therein have been modified or superseded. This prospectus supplement incorporates by reference the documents listed below and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed) until the offering of the securities offered hereby is terminated or completed:

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019;

 

   

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2020;

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on January 17, 2020, February 14, 2020, March  6, 2020, May 15, 2020 and June 3, 2020; and

 

   

the description of our ordinary shares contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed on May 22, 2018, including any amendments or supplements filed for the purpose of updating such description.

You may request a copy of these filings at no cost by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

Iterum Therapeutics plc

Attention: Investor Relations

200 South Wacker Drive, Suite 2550

Chicago, Illinois 60606

(312) 778-6070

 

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You also may access these filings on our website at www.iterumtx.com. Our website and the information contained on that site, or connected to that site, are not incorporated into this prospectus or the registration statement.

 

 

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PROSPECTUS

 

LOGO

ITERUM THERAPEUTICS PLC

$150,000,000

Debt Securities

Ordinary Shares

Preferred Shares

Units

Warrants

 

 

We may offer and sell securities from time to time in one or more offerings of up to $150,000,000 in aggregate offering price. This prospectus describes the general terms of these securities and the general manner in which these securities will be offered. We will provide the specific terms of these securities in supplements to this prospectus. The prospectus supplements will also describe the specific manner in which these securities will be offered and may also supplement, update or amend information contained in this document. You should read this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement before you invest.

Pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3, in no event will we sell, pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, securities in a public primary offering with a value exceeding one-third of the aggregate market value of our issued and outstanding ordinary shares held by non-affiliates, or our public float, in any 12-month period, so long as our public float remains below $75,000,000. Our public float, as of the filing date of this prospectus was $41,502,317, based on 5,468,026 ordinary shares issued and outstanding and held by non-affiliates, and a per share price of $7.59 based on the closing sale price of our ordinary shares on May 8, 2019. We have not offered any securities pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3 during the 12 calendar months prior to and including the date of this prospectus.

We may offer these securities in amounts, at prices and on terms determined at the time of offering. The securities may be sold directly to you, through agents, or through underwriters and dealers. If agents, underwriters or dealers are used to sell the securities, we will name them and describe their compensation in a prospectus supplement.

Our ordinary shares are listed on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “ITRM”.

 

 

Investing in these securities involves certain risks. See “Risk Factors” included in any accompanying prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus for a discussion of the factors you should carefully consider before deciding to purchase these securities.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

The date of this prospectus is July 16, 2019.


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     2  

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     3  

THE COMPANY

     5  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     6  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     7  

DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL

     15  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     28  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     29  

FORMS OF SECURITIES

     30  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     32  

LEGAL MATTERS

     34  

EXPERTS

     34  

 


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which we refer to as the “SEC,” utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings for an aggregate initial offering price of up to $150,000,000.

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities, we will provide one or more prospectus supplements that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” below.

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in this prospectus or such accompanying prospectus supplement or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.

When we refer to “Iterum”, “we”, “our”, “us” and the “Company” in this prospectus, we mean Iterum Therapeutics plc and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless otherwise specified.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

Available Information

We are subject to the information and periodic reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and, in accordance therewith, file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at https://www.sec.gov, which contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at http://www.iterumtx.com. Our website is not a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus omits some information contained in the registration statement in accordance with SEC rules and regulations. You should review the information and exhibits in the registration statement for further information about us and our consolidated subsidiaries and the securities we are offering. Statements in this prospectus concerning any document we filed as an exhibit to the registration statement or that we otherwise filed with the SEC are not intended to be comprehensive and are qualified by reference to these filings. You should review the complete document to evaluate these statements.

Incorporation by Reference

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference much of the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus is considered to be part of this prospectus. Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus is continually updated and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated in this prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents listed below (File No. 001-38503) that we previously filed with the SEC and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed) between the date of the initial registration statement and the effectiveness of the registration statement and following the effectiveness of the registration statement until the offering of the securities under the registration statement is terminated or completed:

 

 

our Annual Report on Form  10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018;

 

 

the information incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 from our definitive Proxy Statement for our 2019 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders, filed with the SEC on April 25, 2019;

 

 

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2019;

 

 

our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on June 17, 2019; and

 

 

the description of our ordinary shares included under the caption “Description of Share Capital” in the prospectus dated May 24, 2018, which was filed on May 25, 2018 and is part of the Registration Statement on Form S-1 originally filed with the Commission on May 1, 2018 (Registration No. 333-224582), including any amendments or supplements thereto.

You may request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

Iterum Therapeutics plc

Attention: Investor Relations

Block 2 Floor 3 Harcourt Centre,

Harcourt Street,

Dublin 2, Ireland

+353 1 9038920

 

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus include “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. All statements contained or incorporated by reference herein, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenue, projected costs, prospects, plans, objectives of management and expected market growth, other than statements of historical facts, are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would,” or the negative of these words or other comparable terminology and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. These forward looking-statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

 

our use of cash reserves;

 

 

the initiation, timing, progress and results of our preclinical studies and clinical trials, and our research and development programs;

 

 

our ability to retain the continued service of our key professionals and to identify, hire and retain additional qualified professionals;

 

 

our ability to advance product candidates into, and successfully complete, clinical trials;

 

 

the potential advantages of our product candidates;

 

 

the timing or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals;

 

 

the commercialization of our product candidates, if approved;

 

 

our ability to draw down our second term loan with Silicon Valley Bank;

 

 

our manufacturing plans;

 

 

our sales, marketing and distribution capabilities and strategy;

 

 

market acceptance of any product we successfully commercialize;

 

 

the pricing, coverage and reimbursement of our product candidates, if approved;

 

 

the implementation of our business model, strategic plans for our business and product candidates;

 

 

the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering our product candidates;

 

 

our ability to enter into strategic arrangements, collaborations and/or commercial partnerships in the United States and other territories and the potential benefits of such arrangements;

 

 

our estimates regarding expenses, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

 

 

our expectations regarding how far into the future our cash on hand will fund our ongoing operations;

 

 

our financial performance; and

 

 

developments relating to our competitors and our industry.

We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. You are cautioned that these forward-looking statements are only predictions and are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions that are referenced in the section of any accompanying prospectus supplement entitled “Risk Factors.” You should also carefully review the risk factors and cautionary statements described in the other documents we file from time to time with the SEC, specifically our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and our Current Reports on Form 8-K. We undertake no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements, except to the extent required by law. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment, and new risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the forward-looking events and circumstances contained or incorporated by reference herein may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements.

 

 

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In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements contained or incorporated by reference herein reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information that was available to us as of the date such statements were made, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

 

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THE COMPANY

We are a pharmaceutical company dedicated to developing and commercializing sulopenem to be potentially the first and only oral and intravenous (IV) branded penem available globally. Penems, including thiopenems and carbapenems, belong to a class of antibiotics more broadly defined as ß-lactam antibiotics, the original example of which was penicillin, but which now also includes cephalosporins. Sulopenem is a potent, thiopenem antibiotic delivered intravenously which is active against bacteria that belong to the group of organisms known as gram-negatives and cause urinary tract and intra-abdominal infections. We have also successfully developed sulopenem in an oral tablet formulation, sulopenem etzadroxil-probenecid. Both sulopenem product candidates have the potential to be important new treatment alternatives to address growing concerns related to antibacterial resistance without the known toxicities of some of the most widely used antibiotics, specifically fluoroquinolones. We see two distinct opportunities for our sulopenem program: patients at elevated risk for treatment failure in the community setting suffering from uncomplicated urinary tract infections and hospitalized patients suffering from complicated, antibiotic-resistant infections.

Our principal executive offices are located at Block 2 Floor 3 Harcourt Centre, Harcourt Street, Dublin 2, Ireland and our telephone number is +353 1 9038920. Our U.S. headquarters are located at 200 South Wacker Drive, Suite 2550, Chicago, IL 60606, and our telephone number is (312) 778-6070.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any securities offered under this prospectus for working capital and other general corporate purposes unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. Other general corporate purposes may include regulatory, commercial, manufacturing, research and development costs, the acquisition or licensing of other products, businesses or technologies and capital expenditures. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds in interest-bearing, investment-grade securities, certificate of deposit or government securities. We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for such purposes. As a result, management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of net proceeds.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

We may offer debt securities which may be senior or subordinated. We refer to the senior debt securities and the subordinated debt securities collectively as debt securities. The following description summarizes the general terms and provisions of the debt securities. We will describe the specific terms of the debt securities and the extent, if any, to which the general provisions summarized below apply to any series of debt securities in the prospectus supplement relating to the series and any applicable free writing prospectus that we authorize to be delivered.

We may issue senior debt securities from time to time, in one or more series under a senior indenture to be entered into between us and a senior trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the senior trustee. We may issue subordinated debt securities from time to time, in one or more series under a subordinated indenture to be entered into between us and a subordinated trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the subordinated trustee. The forms of senior indenture and subordinated indenture are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. The senior indenture and the subordinated indenture are referred to individually as an indenture and together as the indentures and the senior trustee and the subordinated trustee are referred to individually as a trustee and together as the trustees. This section summarizes some of the provisions of the indentures and is qualified in its entirety by the specific text of the indentures, including definitions of terms used in the indentures. Wherever we refer to particular sections of, or defined terms in, the indentures, those sections or defined terms are incorporated by reference in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement. You should review the indentures that are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part for additional information.

Neither indenture will limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. The applicable indenture will provide that debt securities may be issued up to an aggregate principal amount authorized from time to time by us and may be payable in any currency or currency unit designated by us or in amounts determined by reference to an index.

General

The senior debt securities will constitute our unsecured and unsubordinated general obligations and will rank equally in right of payment with our other unsecured and unsubordinated obligations. The subordinated debt securities will constitute our unsecured and subordinated general obligations and will be junior in right of payment to our senior indebtedness (including senior debt securities), as described under the heading “—Certain Terms of the Subordinated Debt Securities—Subordination.” The debt securities will be structurally subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities of our subsidiaries unless such subsidiaries expressly guarantee such debt securities.

The debt securities will be our unsecured obligations. Any secured debt or other secured obligations will be effectively senior to the debt securities to the extent of the value of the assets securing such debt or other obligations. Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not be guaranteed by any of our subsidiaries.

The applicable prospectus supplement and/or free writing prospectus will include any additional or different terms of the debt securities of any series being offered, including the following terms:

 

 

the title and type of the debt securities;

 

 

whether the debt securities will be senior or subordinated debt securities, and, with respect to any subordinated debt securities the terms on which they are subordinated;

 

 

the initial aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;

 

 

the price or prices at which we will sell the debt securities;

 

 

the maturity date or dates of the debt securities and the right, if any, to extend such date or dates;

 

 

the rate or rates, if any, at which the debt securities will bear interest, or the method of determining such rate or rates;

 

 

the date or dates from which such interest will accrue, the interest payment dates on which such interest will be payable or the method of determination of such dates;

 

 

the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of that extension;

 

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the manner of paying principal and interest and the place or places where principal and interest will be payable;

 

 

provisions for a sinking fund, purchase fund or other analogous fund, if any;

 

 

any redemption dates, prices, obligations and restrictions on the debt securities;

 

 

the currency, currencies or currency units in which the debt securities will be denominated and the currency, currencies or currency units in which principal and interest, if any, on the debt securities may be payable;

 

 

any conversion or exchange features of the debt securities;

 

 

whether the debt securities will be subject to the defeasance provisions in the indenture;

 

 

whether the debt securities will be issued in definitive or global form or in definitive form only upon satisfaction of certain conditions;

 

 

whether the debt securities will be guaranteed as to payment or performance;

 

 

any special tax implications of the debt securities;

 

 

any events of defaults or covenants in addition to or in lieu of those set forth in the indenture; and

 

 

any other material terms of the debt securities.

When we refer to “principal” in this section with reference to the debt securities, we are also referring to “premium, if any.”

We may from time to time, without notice to or the consent of the holders of any series of debt securities, create and issue further debt securities of any such series ranking equally with the debt securities of such series in all respects (or in all respects other than (1) the payment of interest accruing prior to the issue date of such further debt securities or (2) the first payment of interest following the issue date of such further debt securities). Such further debt securities may be consolidated and form a single series with the debt securities of such series and have the same terms as to status, redemption or otherwise as the debt securities of such series.

You may present debt securities for exchange and you may present debt securities for transfer in the manner, at the places and subject to the restrictions set forth in the debt securities and the applicable prospectus supplement. We will provide you those services without charge, although you may have to pay any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with any exchange or transfer, as set forth in the indenture.

Debt securities may bear interest at a fixed rate or a floating rate. Debt securities bearing no interest or interest at a rate that at the time of issuance is below the prevailing market rate (original issue discount securities) may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to any such discounted debt securities or to certain debt securities issued at par which are treated as having been issued at a discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

We may issue debt securities with the principal amount payable on any principal payment date, or the amount of interest payable on any interest payment date, to be determined by reference to one or more currency exchange rates, securities or baskets of securities, commodity prices or indices. You may receive a payment of principal on any principal payment date, or a payment of interest on any interest payment date, that is greater than or less than the amount of principal or interest otherwise payable on such dates, depending on the value on such dates of the applicable currency, security or basket of securities, commodity or index. Information as to the methods for determining the amount of principal or interest payable on any date, the currencies, securities or baskets of securities, commodities or indices to which the amount payable on such date is linked and certain related tax considerations will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Certain Terms of the Senior Debt Securities

Covenants. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the senior debt securities will not contain any financial or restrictive covenants, including covenants restricting either us or any of our subsidiaries from incurring, issuing, assuming or guaranteeing any indebtedness secured by a lien on any of our or our subsidiaries’ property or capital stock, or restricting either us or any of our subsidiaries from entering into sale and leaseback transactions.

 

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Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, we may not consolidate with or merge into any other person, in a transaction in which we are not the surviving corporation, or convey, transfer or lease our properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any person, in either case, unless:

 

   

the successor entity, if any, is a corporation, limited liability company, limited company, partnership, trust or similar entity in the United States, Ireland, Switzerland, the United Kingdom or any other member state of the European Union;

 

   

the successor entity assumes our obligations on the senior debt securities and under the senior indenture;

 

   

immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no default or event of default shall have occurred and be continuing; and

 

   

we have delivered to the senior trustee an officer’s certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that the consolidation, merger, conveyance, transfer or lease and, if a supplemental indenture is required in connection with such transaction, such supplemental indenture, comply with the senior indenture and all conditions precedent provided for in the senior indenture relating to such transaction have been complied with.

The restrictions described in the bullets above do not apply (1) to our consolidation with or merging into one of our affiliates, if our board of directors determines in good faith that the purpose of the consolidation or merger is principally to change our form of organization to another form or (2) if we merge with or into a single direct or indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of ours.

The surviving business entity will succeed to, and be substituted for, us under the senior indenture and the senior debt securities and, except in the case of a lease, we shall be released from all obligations under the senior indenture and the senior debt securities.

No Protection in the Event of a Change in Control. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the senior debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the senior debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control).

Events of Default. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the following are events of default under the senior indenture with respect to senior debt securities of each series:

 

 

failure to pay interest on any senior debt securities of such series when due and payable, if that default continues for a period of 30 days (or such other period as may be specified for such series);

 

 

failure to pay principal on the senior debt securities of such series when due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise (and, if specified for such series, the continuance of such failure for a specified period);

 

 

default in the performance of or breach of any of our covenants or agreements in the senior indenture applicable to senior debt securities of such series, other than a covenant breach which is specifically dealt with elsewhere in the senior indenture, and that default or breach continues for a period of 90 days after we receive written notice from the trustee or from the holders of 25% or more in aggregate principal amount of the senior debt securities of such series;

 

 

certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency, whether or not voluntary; and

 

 

any other event of default provided for in such series of senior debt securities as may be specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The default by us under any other debt, including any other series of debt securities, is not a default under the senior indenture.

If an event of default other than an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above occurs with respect to a series of senior debt securities and is continuing under the senior indenture, then, and in each such case, either the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of such series then outstanding under the senior indenture (each such series voting as a

 

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separate class) by written notice to us and to the trustee, if such notice is given by the holders, may, and the trustee at the request of such holders shall, declare the principal amount of and accrued interest on such series of senior debt securities to be immediately due and payable, and upon this declaration, the same shall become immediately due and payable.

If an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above occurs and is continuing, the entire principal amount of and accrued interest on each series of senior debt securities then outstanding shall automatically become immediately due and payable.

Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement relating to a series of senior debt securities originally issued at a discount, the amount due upon acceleration shall include only the original issue price of the senior debt securities, the amount of original issue discount accrued to the date of acceleration and accrued interest, if any.

Upon certain conditions, declarations of acceleration may be rescinded and annulled and past defaults may be waived by the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of all the senior debt securities of such series affected by the default, each series voting as a separate class. Furthermore, subject to various provisions in the senior indenture, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of a series of senior debt securities, by notice to the trustee, may waive a continuing default or event of default with respect to such senior debt securities and its consequences, except a default in the payment of principal of or interest on such senior debt securities (other than any such default in payment resulting solely from an acceleration of the senior debt securities) or in respect of a covenant or provision of the senior indenture which cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holders of each such senior debt security. Upon any such waiver, such default shall cease to exist, and any event of default with respect to such senior debt securities shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of the senior indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or event of default or impair any right consequent thereto.

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of a series of senior debt securities may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to such senior debt securities. However, the trustee may refuse to follow any direction that conflicts with law or the senior indenture, that may involve the trustee in personal liability or that the trustee determines in good faith may be unduly prejudicial to the rights of holders of such series of senior debt securities not joining in the giving of such direction and may take any other action it deems proper that is not inconsistent with any such direction received from holders of such series of senior debt securities. A holder may not pursue any remedy with respect to the senior indenture or any series of senior debt securities unless:

 

 

the holder gives the trustee written notice of a continuing event of default;

 

 

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of such series of senior debt securities make a written request to the trustee to pursue the remedy in respect of such event of default;

 

 

the requesting holder or holders offer the trustee indemnity satisfactory to the trustee against any costs, liability or expense;

 

 

the trustee does not comply with the request within 60 days after receipt of the request and the offer of indemnity; and

 

 

during such 60-day period, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of such series of senior debt securities do not give the trustee a direction that is inconsistent with the request.

These limitations, however, do not apply to the right of any holder of a senior debt security of any affected series to receive payment of the principal of and interest on such senior debt security in accordance with the terms of such debt security, or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment in accordance with the terms of such debt security, on or after the due date for the senior debt securities, which right shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of the holder.

The senior indenture requires certain of our officers to certify, on or before a fixed date in each year in which any senior debt security is outstanding, as to their knowledge of our compliance with all covenants, agreements and conditions under the senior indenture.

Satisfaction and Discharge. We can satisfy and discharge our obligations to holders of any series of debt securities if:

 

 

we have paid or caused to be paid the principal of and interest on all senior debt securities of such series (with certain limited exceptions) when due and payable; or

 

 

we deliver to the senior trustee for cancellation all senior debt securities of such series theretofore authenticated under the senior indenture (with certain limited exceptions); or

 

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all senior debt securities of such series have become due and payable or will become due and payable within one year (or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the senior trustee) and we deposit in trust an amount of cash or a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations (or in the case of senior debt securities denominated in a foreign currency, foreign government securities or foreign government agency securities) sufficient to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates;

and if, in any such case, we also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable under the senior indenture, as and when the same shall be due and payable and we deliver to the senior trustee an officer’s certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that these conditions have been satisfied.

Under current U.S. federal income tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the debt securities would be treated as though we took back your debt securities and gave you your share of the cash and debt securities or bonds deposited in trust. In that event, you could recognize gain or loss on the debt securities you give back to us. Purchasers of the debt securities should consult their own advisers with respect to the tax consequences to them of such deposit and discharge, including the applicability and effect of tax laws other than the U.S. federal income tax law.

Defeasance. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, the following discussion of legal defeasance and covenant defeasance will apply to any series of debt securities issued under the indentures.

Legal Defeasance. We can legally release ourselves from any payment or other obligations on the debt securities of any series (called “legal defeasance”) if certain conditions are met, including the following:

 

 

We deposit in trust for your benefit and the benefit of all other direct holders of the debt securities of the same series cash or a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations (or, in the case of senior debt securities denominated in a foreign currency, foreign government or foreign government agency obligations) that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

 

There is a change in current U.S. federal income tax law or an IRS ruling that lets us make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the debt securities any differently than if we did not make the deposit and instead repaid the debt securities ourselves when due. Under current U.S. federal income tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the debt securities would be treated as though we took back your debt securities and gave you your share of the cash and debt securities or bonds deposited in trust. In that event, you could recognize gain or loss on the debt securities you give back to us.

 

 

We deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming the tax law change or ruling described above.

If we accomplish legal defeasance, as described above, you would have to rely solely on the trust deposit for repayment of the debt securities. You could not look to us for repayment in the event of any shortfall.

Covenant Defeasance. Without any change in current U.S. federal tax law, we can make the same type of deposit described above and be released from some of the covenants in the debt securities (called “covenant defeasance”). In that event, you would lose the protection of those covenants but would gain the protection of having money and securities set aside in trust to repay the debt securities. In order to achieve covenant defeasance, we must do the following (among other things):

 

 

We must deposit in trust for your benefit and the benefit of all other direct holders of the debt securities of the same series cash or a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations (or, in the case of senior debt securities denominated in a foreign currency, foreign government or foreign government agency obligations) that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

 

We must deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming that under current U.S. federal income tax law we may make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the debt securities any differently than if we did not make the deposit and instead repaid the debt securities ourselves when due.

 

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If we accomplish covenant defeasance, you could still look to us for repayment of the debt securities if there were a shortfall in the trust deposit. In fact, if one of the events of default occurred (such as our bankruptcy) and the debt securities become immediately due and payable, there may be such a shortfall. Depending on the events causing the default, you may not be able to obtain payment of the shortfall.

Modification and Waiver. We and the trustee may amend or supplement the senior indenture or the senior debt securities of any series without the consent of any holder:

 

 

to convey, transfer, assign, mortgage or pledge any assets as security for the senior debt securities of one or more series;

 

 

to evidence the succession of a corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust to us, and the assumption by such successor of our covenants, agreements and obligations under the senior indenture or to otherwise comply with the covenant relating to mergers, consolidations and sales of assets;

 

 

to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the senior indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “Trust Indenture Act”);

 

 

to add to our covenants such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the protection of the holders, and to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default;

 

 

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the senior indenture or in any supplemental indenture or to conform the senior indenture or the senior debt securities to the description of senior debt securities of such series set forth in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement;

 

 

to provide for or add guarantors with respect to the senior debt securities of any series;

 

 

to establish the form or forms or terms of the senior debt securities as permitted by the senior indenture;

 

 

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under the senior indenture by a successor trustee, or to make such changes as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts in the senior indenture by more than one trustee;

 

 

to add to, change or eliminate any of the provisions of the senior indenture in respect of one or more series of senior debt securities, provided that any such addition, change or elimination shall (a) neither (1) apply to any senior debt security of any series created prior to the execution of such supplemental indenture and entitled to the benefit of such provision nor (2) modify the rights of the holder of any such senior debt security with respect to such provision or (b) become effective only when there is no senior debt security described in clause (a)(1) outstanding;

 

 

to make any change to the senior debt securities of any series so long as no senior debt securities of such series are outstanding; or

 

 

to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder in any material respect.

Other amendments and modifications of the senior indenture or the senior debt securities issued may be made, and our compliance with any provision of the senior indenture with respect to any series of senior debt securities may be waived, with the consent of the holders of a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding senior debt securities of each series affected by the amendment or modification (voting as a separate series); provided, however, that each affected holder must consent to any modification, amendment or waiver that:

 

 

extends the final maturity of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

 

reduces the principal amount of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

 

reduces the rate, or extends the time for payment of, interest on any senior debt securities of such series;

 

 

reduces the amount payable upon the redemption of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

 

changes the currency of payment of principal of or interest on any senior debt securities of such series;

 

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reduces the principal amount of original issue discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity or the amount provable in bankruptcy;

 

 

waives a continuing default in the payment of principal of or interest on the senior debt securities other than any such default in payment resulting solely from an acceleration of the senior debt securities);

 

 

changes the provisions relating to the waiver of past defaults or impairs the right of holders to receive payment or to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment or conversion of any senior debt securities of such series on or after the due date therefor;

 

 

modifies any of the provisions of these restrictions on amendments and modifications, except to increase any required percentage or to provide that certain other provisions cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the holder of each senior debt security of such series affected by the modification;

 

 

adversely affects the right to convert or exchange senior debt securities into ordinary shares or other property in accordance with the terms of the senior debt securities; or

 

 

reduces the above-stated percentage of outstanding senior debt securities of such series whose holders must consent to a supplemental indenture or modifies or amends or waives certain provisions of or defaults under the senior indenture.

It shall not be necessary for the holders to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment, supplement or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if the holders’ consent approves the substance thereof. After an amendment, supplement or waiver of the senior indenture in accordance with the provisions described in this section becomes effective, the trustee must give to the holders affected thereby certain notice briefly describing the amendment, supplement or waiver. Any failure by the trustee to give such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such amendment, supplemental indenture or waiver.

No Personal Liability of Incorporators, Shareholders, Officers, Directors. The senior indenture provides that no recourse shall be had under any obligation, covenant or agreement of ours in the senior indenture or any supplemental indenture, or in any of the senior debt securities or because of the creation of any indebtedness represented thereby, against any of our incorporators, shareholders, officers or directors, past, present or future, or of any predecessor or successor entity thereof under any law, statute or constitutional provision or by the enforcement of any assessment or by any legal or equitable proceeding or otherwise. Each holder, by accepting the senior debt securities, waives and releases all such liability.

Concerning the Trustee. The senior indenture provides that, except during the continuance of an event of default, the trustee will not be liable except for the performance of such duties as are specifically set forth in the senior indenture. If an event of default has occurred and is continuing, the trustee will exercise such rights and powers vested in it under the senior indenture and will use the same degree of care and skill in its exercise as a prudent person would exercise under the circumstances in the conduct of such person’s own affairs.

The senior indenture and the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act incorporated by reference therein contain limitations on the rights of the trustee thereunder, should it become a creditor of ours or any of our subsidiaries, to obtain payment of claims in certain cases or to realize on certain property received by it in respect of any such claims, as security or otherwise. The trustee is permitted to engage in other transactions, provided that if it acquires any conflicting interest (as defined in the Trust Indenture Act), it must eliminate such conflict or resign.

We may have normal banking relationships with the senior trustee in the ordinary course of business.

Unclaimed Funds. All funds deposited with the trustee or any paying agent for the payment of principal, premium, interest or additional amounts in respect of the senior debt securities that remain unclaimed for two years after the date upon which such amounts became due and payable will be repaid to us. Thereafter, any right of any holder of senior debt securities to such funds shall be enforceable only against us, and the trustee and paying agents will have no liability therefor.

Governing Law. The senior indenture and the senior debt securities will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York.

 

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Certain Terms of the Subordinated Debt Securities

Other than the terms of the subordinated indenture and subordinated debt securities relating to subordination or otherwise as described in the prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of subordinated debt securities, the terms of the subordinated indenture and subordinated debt securities are identical in all material respects to the terms of the senior indenture and senior debt securities.

Additional or different subordination terms may be specified in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series.

Subordination. The indebtedness evidenced by the subordinated debt securities is subordinate to the prior payment in full of all of our senior indebtedness, as defined in the subordinated indenture. During the continuance beyond any applicable grace period of any default in the payment of principal, premium, interest or any other payment due on any of our senior indebtedness, we may not make any payment of principal of or interest on the subordinated debt securities (except for certain sinking fund payments). In addition, upon any payment or distribution of our assets upon any dissolution, winding-up, liquidation or reorganization, the payment of the principal of and interest on the subordinated debt securities will be subordinated to the extent provided in the subordinated indenture in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all our senior indebtedness. Because of this subordination, if we dissolve or otherwise liquidate, holders of our subordinated debt securities may receive less, ratably, than holders of our senior indebtedness. The subordination provisions do not prevent the occurrence of an event of default under the subordinated indenture.

The term “senior indebtedness” of a person means with respect to such person the principal of, premium, if any, interest on, and any other payment due pursuant to any of the following, whether outstanding on the date of the subordinated indenture or incurred by that person in the future:

 

 

all of the indebtedness of that person for money borrowed;

 

 

all of the indebtedness of that person evidenced by notes, debentures, bonds or other securities sold by that person for money;

 

 

all of the lease obligations that are capitalized on the books of that person in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;

 

 

all indebtedness of others of the kinds described in the first two bullet points above and all lease obligations of others of the kind described in the third bullet point above that the person, in any manner, assumes or guarantees or that the person in effect guarantees through an agreement to purchase, whether that agreement is contingent or otherwise; and

 

 

all renewals, extensions or refundings of indebtedness of the kinds described in the first, second or fourth bullet point above and all renewals or extensions of leases of the kinds described in the third or fourth bullet point above;

unless, in the case of any particular indebtedness, renewal, extension or refunding, the instrument creating or evidencing it or the assumption or guarantee relating to it expressly provides that such indebtedness, renewal, extension or refunding is not superior in right of payment to the subordinated debt securities. Our senior debt securities constitute senior indebtedness for purposes of the subordinated indenture.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL

The following description of our share capital is intended as a summary only and therefore is not a complete description of our share capital. This description is based upon, and is qualified by reference to, our Memorandum and Articles of Association, or our Constitution, and applicable provisions of the Irish Companies Act 2014, or the Irish Companies Act. You should read our Constitution including our Articles of Association, which are filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, for the provisions that are important to you.

Capital Structure - Authorized and Issued Share Capital

Our authorized share capital consists of 50,000,000 ordinary shares of $0.01 each and 100,000,000 undesignated preferred shares of $0.01 each.

We may issue shares subject to the maximum authorized share capital contained in our Constitution. The authorized share capital may be increased or reduced (but not below the number of issued ordinary shares or preferred shares, as applicable) by a resolution approved by a simple majority of the votes of our shareholders cast at a general meeting (referred to under Irish law as an “ordinary resolution”) (unless otherwise determined by the directors). The shares comprising our authorized share capital may be divided into shares of any nominal value.

The rights and restrictions to which the ordinary shares are subject are prescribed in our Articles of Association. Our Articles of Association entitle our board of directors, without shareholder approval, to determine the terms of our preferred shares. Preferred shares may be preferred as to dividends, rights upon liquidation or voting in such manner as our board of directors may resolve. The preferred shares may also be redeemable at the option of the holder of the preferred shares or at our option and may be convertible into or exchangeable for shares of any of our other class or classes, depending on the terms of such preferred shares. The specific terms of any series of preferred shares offered pursuant to this prospectus will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to that series of preferred shares.

Irish law does not recognize fractional shares held of record. Accordingly, our Articles of Association do not provide for the issuance of fractional shares, and our official Irish register will not reflect any fractional shares.

Whenever an alteration or reorganization of our share capital would result in any of our shareholders becoming entitled to fractions of a share, our board of directors may, on behalf of those shareholders that would become entitled to fractions of a share, arrange for the sale of the shares representing fractions and the distribution of the net proceeds of sale in due proportion among the shareholders who would have been entitled to the fractions.

Pre-emption Rights, Share Warrants and Share Options

Under Irish law certain statutory pre-emption rights apply automatically in favor of shareholders where shares are to be issued for cash. However, we have opted out of these pre-emption rights in our Articles of Association as permitted under Irish company law. Irish law requires this opt-out to be renewed every five years by a resolution approved by not less than 75% of the votes of our shareholders cast at a general meeting (referred to under Irish law as a “special resolution”). If the opt-out is not renewed, shares issued for cash must be offered to our existing shareholders on a pro rata basis to their existing shareholding before the shares can be issued to any new shareholders. The statutory pre-emption rights do not apply where shares are issued for non-cash consideration (such as in a share-for-share acquisition) and do not apply to the issue of non-equity shares (that is, shares that have the right to participate only up to a specified amount in any income or capital distribution) or where shares are issued pursuant to an employee share option or similar equity plan.

Our Articles of Association provide that, subject to any shareholder approval requirement under any laws, regulations or the rules of any stock exchange to which we are subject, the board of directors is authorized, from time to time, in its discretion, to grant such persons, for such periods and upon such terms as the board of directors deems advisable, options to purchase such number of shares of any class or classes or of any series of any class as the board of directors may deem advisable, and to cause warrants or other appropriate instruments evidencing such options to be issued. The Irish Companies Act provides that directors may issue share warrants or options without shareholder approval once authorized to do so by the Articles of Association. We are subject to the rules of the Nasdaq Global Market that require shareholder approval of certain equity plans and share issuances. Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of shares upon exercise of warrants or options without shareholder approval or authorization (up to the relevant authorized share capital limit).

 

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Under Irish law, we are prohibited from allotting shares without consideration. Accordingly, at least the nominal value of the shares issued underlying any restricted share award, restricted share unit, performance share award, bonus share or any other share based grant must be paid pursuant to the Irish Companies Act.

Dividends

Under Irish law, dividends and distributions may only be made from distributable reserves. Distributable reserves, broadly, means the accumulated realized profits of a company, so far as not previously utilized by distribution or capitalization, less accumulated realized losses of a company, so far as not previously written off in a reduction or reorganization of capital, and includes reserves created by way of capital reduction, on a standalone basis. In addition, no distribution or dividend may be made unless our net assets are equal to, or in excess of, the aggregate of our called up share capital plus undistributable reserves and the distribution does not reduce our net assets below such aggregate. Undistributable reserves include the undenominated capital, the amount by which our accumulated unrealized profits, so far as not previously utilized by any capitalization, exceed our accumulated unrealized losses, so far as not previously written off in a reduction or reorganization of capital and any other reserve that we are prohibited from distributing by applicable law.

The determination as to whether or not we have sufficient distributable reserves to fund a dividend must be made by reference to the “relevant financial statements” of the company. The “relevant financial statements” are either the last set of unconsolidated annual audited financial statements or unaudited financial statements properly prepared in accordance with the Irish Companies Act, which give a “true and fair view” of the company’s unconsolidated financial position in accordance with accepted accounting practice in Ireland. The “relevant financial statements” must be filed in the Companies Registration Office (the official public registry for companies in Ireland) prior to the making of the distribution.

Consistent with Irish law, our Articles of Association authorize the directors to declare interim dividends without shareholder approval out of funds lawfully available for the purpose, to the extent they appear justified by profits and subject always to the requirement to have distributable reserves at least equal to the amount of the proposed dividend. The board of directors may also recommend a dividend to be approved and declared by our shareholders at a general meeting. The board of directors may direct that the payment be made by distribution of assets, shares or cash and no dividend declared or paid may exceed the amount recommended by the directors. Dividends may be paid in U.S. dollars or any other currency.

Our directors may deduct from any dividend payable to any shareholder any amounts payable by such shareholder to us in relation to our shares.

Our directors may also authorize the issuance of shares with preferred rights to participate in our declared dividends. The holders of preferred shares may, depending on their terms, rank senior to our ordinary shares in terms of dividend rights and/or be entitled to claim arrears of a declared dividend out of subsequently declared dividends in priority to ordinary shareholders.

Share Repurchases, Redemptions and Conversions

Overview

Our Articles of Association provide that, in general, any ordinary share which we have agreed to acquire shall be deemed to be a redeemable share. Accordingly, for Irish company law purposes, the repurchase of ordinary shares by us may technically be effected as a redemption of those shares as described below under “Repurchases and Redemptions”. If our Articles of Association did not contain such provisions, all repurchases by us would be subject to many of the same rules that apply to purchases of our shares by subsidiaries described below under “—Purchases by Subsidiaries” including the shareholder approval requirements described below. Except where otherwise noted, when we refer elsewhere in this prospectus to repurchasing or buying back our ordinary shares, we are referring to the redemption of ordinary shares by us pursuant to the Articles of Association or the purchase of our ordinary shares by a subsidiary of the Company, in each case in accordance with our Articles of Association and Irish law as described below.

Repurchases and Redemptions

Under Irish law, a company may issue redeemable shares and redeem them out of distributable reserves (which are described above under “Dividends”) or, if the company proposes to cancel the shares on redemption, the proceeds of a new issue of shares for that purpose. The redemption of redeemable shares may only be made by us where the nominal value of the issued share capital that is not redeemable is not less than 10% of the nominal value of the total issued share capital of the company. All redeemable shares must also be fully-paid and the terms of redemption of the shares must provide for payment on redemption. Redeemable shares may, upon

 

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redemption, be cancelled or held in treasury. Based on the provisions of our articles described above, shareholder approval will not be required to redeem our shares.

We may also be given an additional general authority by our shareholders to purchase our own shares on-market, which would take effect on the same terms and be subject to the same conditions as applicable to purchases by our subsidiaries as described below.

Our board of directors may also issue preferred shares or other classes or series of shares which may be redeemed at either our option or the option of the shareholder, depending on the terms of such preferred shares. Please see “—Authorized Share Capital.”

Repurchased and redeemed shares may be cancelled or held as treasury shares. The nominal value of treasury shares held by us at any time must not exceed 10% of the nominal value of our issued share capital. We may not exercise any voting rights in respect of any shares held as treasury shares. Treasury shares may be cancelled by us or re-issued subject to certain conditions.

Purchases by Subsidiaries

Under Irish law, an Irish or non-Irish subsidiary of the Company may purchase our shares either as overseas market purchases on a recognized stock exchange such as the Nasdaq or off-market. For a subsidiary of ours to make market purchases of our shares, our shareholders must provide general authorization for such purchase by way of ordinary resolution. However, as long as this general authority has been granted, no specific shareholder authority for a particular market purchase by a subsidiary of our shares is required. We may elect to seek such general authority, which must expire no later than 18 months after the date on which it was granted, at our annual general meetings.

For an off-market purchase by a subsidiary of ours, the proposed purchase contract must be authorized by special resolution of the shareholders before the contract is entered into. The person whose shares are to be bought back cannot vote in favor of the special resolution and from the date of the notice of the meeting at which the resolution approving the contract is proposed, the purchase contract must be on display or must be available for inspection by shareholders at our registered office from the date of the notice of the meeting at which the resolution approving the contract is to be proposed.

In order for a subsidiary of ours to make an on-market purchase of our shares, such shares must be purchased on a “recognized stock exchange.” The Nasdaq Global Market, on which our ordinary shares are listed, is specified as a recognized stock exchange for this purpose by Irish company law.

The number of shares held by our subsidiaries at any time will count as treasury shares and will be included in any calculation of the permitted treasury share threshold of 10% of the nominal value of our issued share capital. While a subsidiary holds shares of ours, it cannot exercise any voting rights in respect of those shares. The acquisition of our shares by a subsidiary of ours must be funded out of distributable reserves of the subsidiary.

Lien on Shares, Calls on Shares and Forfeiture of Shares

Our Articles of Association provide that we will have a first and paramount lien on every share for all debts and liabilities of any shareholder to the company, whether presently due or not, payable in respect of such share. Subject to the terms of their allotment, directors may call for any unpaid amounts in respect of any shares to be paid, and if payment is not made within 14 days after notice demanding payment, we may sell the shares. These provisions are standard inclusions in the Articles of Association of an Irish company limited by shares and will only be applicable to our shares that have not been fully paid up. See “—Transfer and Registration of Shares”.

Consolidation and Division; Subdivision

Under our Articles of Association, we may, by ordinary resolution (unless the directors determine otherwise), divide all or any of our issued share capital into shares of smaller nominal value than our existing shares (often referred to as a share split) or consolidate all or any of our issued share capital into shares of larger nominal value than is fixed by our memorandum of association (often referred to as a reverse share split), provided that the proportion between the amount paid for such share and the amount, if any, unpaid on each reduced share after the subdivision remains the same.

 

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Reduction of Share Capital

We may, by ordinary resolution (unless the directors determine otherwise), reduce our authorized but unissued share capital in any way. We also may, by special resolution and subject to confirmation by the Irish High Court, reduce or cancel our issued share capital in any manner permitted by the Irish Companies Act.

Annual General Meetings of Shareholders

We are required to hold an annual general meeting within 18 months of incorporation and at intervals of no more than 15 months thereafter, provided that an annual general meeting is held in each calendar year following the first annual general meeting and no more than nine months after our fiscal year-end. Any annual general meeting may be held outside Ireland, provided that technological means are provided to enable shareholders to participate in the meeting without leaving Ireland.

Notice of an annual general meeting must be given to all of our shareholders and to our auditors. Our Articles of Association provide for a minimum notice period of 21 clear days (i.e. 21 days excluding the day when the notice is given or deemed to be given and the day of the event for which it is given or on which it is to take effect), which is the minimum permitted under Irish law.

The only matters which must, as a matter of Irish company law, be transacted at an annual general meeting are (i) the consideration of the statutory financial statements, report of the directors, report of the statutory auditors, (ii) review by the members of the company’s affairs and (iii) the appointment or re-appointment of the statutory auditors.

At any annual general meeting, only such business may be conducted as has been brought before the meeting:

 

 

in the notice of the meeting;

 

 

by or at the direction of the board of directors;

 

 

in certain circumstances, at the direction of the Irish High Court;

 

 

as required by law; or

 

 

that the chairman of the meeting determines is properly within the scope of the meeting.

In addition, and subject to compliance with our Articles of Association, shareholders entitled to vote at an annual general meeting may propose business in advance of the meeting to be considered thereat.

Extraordinary General Meetings of Shareholders

Our extraordinary general meetings may be convened by (i) the board of directors, (ii) on requisition of the shareholders holding not less than 10% of our paid up share capital carrying voting rights, (iii) in certain circumstances, on requisition of our auditors; or (iv) in exceptional cases, by order of the Irish High Court.

Extraordinary general meetings are generally held for the purpose of approving shareholder resolutions as may be required from time to time. At any extraordinary general meeting, only such business will be conducted as is set forth in the notice thereof or is proposed pursuant to and in accordance with the procedures and requirements set out in our Articles of Association.

Notice of an extraordinary general meeting must be given to all of our shareholders and to our auditors. Under Irish law and our Articles of Association, the minimum notice periods are 21 clear days’ notice in writing for an extraordinary general meeting to approve a special resolution and 14 clear days’ notice in writing for any other extraordinary general meeting.

In the case of an extraordinary general meeting convened by our shareholders, the proposed purpose of the meeting must be set out in the requisition notice. Upon receipt of any such valid requisition notice, our board of directors has 21 days to convene a meeting of our shareholders to vote on the matters set out in the requisition notice. This meeting must be held within two months of the receipt of the requisition notice. If the board of directors does not convene the meeting within such 21day period, the requisitioning shareholders, or any of them representing more than one half of the total voting rights of all of them, may themselves convene a meeting, which meeting must be held within three months of our receipt of the requisition notice.

If the board of directors becomes aware that our net assets are not greater than half of the amount of our called-up share capital, our directors must convene an extraordinary general meeting of our shareholders not later than 28 days from the date that the fact is known to a director to be held not later than 56 days from such date. This meeting must be convened for the purposes of considering whether any, and if so what, measures should be taken to address the situation.

 

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Quorum for General Meetings

Our Articles of Association provide that no business shall be transacted at any general meeting unless a quorum is present. One or more shareholders present in person or by proxy at any meeting of shareholders holding not less than a majority of the issued shares that carry the right to vote at the meeting constitutes a quorum for the conduct of any business at a general meeting.

Voting

Our Articles of Association provide that all votes at a general meeting will be decided on a poll and that the board or the chairman may determine the manner in which the poll is to be taken and the manner in which the votes are to be counted.

Every shareholder is entitled to one vote for each ordinary share that he or she holds as of the record date for the meeting. Voting rights may be exercised by shareholders registered in our share register as of the record date for the meeting or by a duly appointed proxy, which proxy need not be a shareholder. Where interests in shares are held by a nominee trust company, this company may exercise the rights of the beneficial holders on their behalf as their proxy. All proxies must be appointed in the manner prescribed by our Articles of Association, which provide that our board of directors may permit shareholders to notify us of their proxy appointments electronically.

In accordance with our Articles of Association, our directors may from time to time authorize the issuance of preferred shares or any other class or series of shares. These shares may have such voting rights as may be specified in the terms of such shares (e.g., they may carry more votes per share than ordinary shares or may entitle their holders to a class vote on such matters as may be satisfied in the terms of such shares). Treasury shares or shares of ours that are held by our subsidiaries will not be entitled to be voted at general meetings of shareholders.

Irish company law requires special resolutions of the shareholders at a general meeting to approve certain matters. Examples of matters requiring special resolutions include:

 

 

amending the objects as contained in our memorandum of association;

 

 

amending our Articles of Association;

 

 

approving a change of name;

 

 

authorizing the entering into of a guarantee or provision of security in connection with a loan, quasi-loan or credit; transaction to a director or connected person;

 

 

opting out of pre-emption rights on the issuance of new shares;

 

 

re-registration from a public limited company to a private company;

 

 

purchase of own shares off-market;

 

 

reduction of issued share capital;

 

 

sanctioning a compromise/scheme of arrangement;

 

 

resolving that the company be wound up by the Irish courts;

 

 

resolving in favor of a shareholders’ voluntary winding-up;

 

 

re-designation of shares into different share classes;

 

 

setting the re-issue price of treasury shares; and

 

 

variation of class rights attaching to classes of shares (where our Articles of Association do not provide otherwise).

Neither Irish law nor any of our constituent documents places limitations on the right of non-resident or foreign owners to vote or hold our shares.

Variation of Rights Attaching to a Class or Series of Shares

Under our Articles of Association and the Irish Companies Act, any variation of class rights attaching to our issued shares must be approved by an ordinary resolution passed at a general meeting of the shareholders of the affected class or with the consent in writing of the holders of a majority of the issued shares of that class of shares entitled to vote on such variation. The rights conferred upon the holder of any pre-existing issued shares shall not be deemed to be varied by the issuance of any preferred shares.

 

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The provisions of our Articles of Association relating to general meetings apply to general meetings of the holders of any class of shares except that the necessary quorum is determined in reference to the shares of the holders of the class. Accordingly, for general meetings of holders of a particular class of shares, a quorum consists of one or more shareholders present in person or by proxy holding not less than a majority of the issued and outstanding shares of the class entitled to vote at the meeting in question.

Record Date

Our Articles of Association provide that the board may fix in advance a date as the record date (i) for any such determination of members entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of the members, which record date shall not be more than 60 days before the date of such meeting, and (ii) for the purpose of determining the members entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution, or in order to make a determination of members for any other proper purpose, which record date shall not be more than 60 days prior to the date of payment of such dividend or other distribution or the taking of any action to which such determination of members is relevant.

If no record date is fixed for the determination of members entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of members, the date immediately preceding the date on which notice of the meeting is deemed given under our Articles of Association will be the record date for such determination of members.

Shareholder Proposals

Under Irish law, there is no general right for a shareholder to put items on the agenda of an annual general meeting of a U.S.-listed company, other than as set out in the Articles of Association of a company. Under our Articles of Association, in addition to any other applicable requirements, for business or nominations to be properly brought before an annual general meeting by a shareholder, such shareholder must have given timely notice thereof in proper written form to our corporate secretary.

To be timely for an annual general meeting, a shareholder’s notice to our secretary as to the business or nominations to be brought before the meeting must be delivered to or mailed and received at our registered office (i) with respect to our first annual general meeting as a public limited company, not later than the 10th day following the day on which public announcement of the date of such annual general meeting is made and (ii) with respect to all other annual general meetings not less than 90 days nor more than 120 days before the first anniversary of the notice convening our annual general meeting for the prior year. In the event that the date of the annual general meeting is changed by more than 30 days from the first anniversary date of the preceding year’s annual general meeting, notice by the member must be so delivered by close of business on the day that is not earlier than 120 days prior to such annual general meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of (a) 90 days prior to the day of the contemplated annual general meeting or (b) ten days after the day on which public announcement of the date of the contemplated annual general meeting is first made by us. In no event shall the public announcement of an adjournment or postponement of an annual general meeting commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a shareholder’s notice.

To be timely for business or nominations of a director at an extraordinary general meeting, notice must be delivered, or mailed and received not less than 90 days nor more than 120 days prior to the date of such extraordinary general meeting or, if the first public announcement of the date of the extraordinary general meeting is less than 100 days prior to the date of the meeting, by close of business 10 days after the day on which the public announcement of the date of the extraordinary general meeting is first made by us.

For nominations to the board, the notice must include all information about the director nominee that is required to be disclosed by SEC rules regarding the solicitation of proxies for the election of directors pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Exchange Act. For other business that a shareholder proposes to bring before the meeting, the notice must include a brief description of the business, the reasons for proposing the business at the meeting and a discussion of any material interest of the shareholder in the business. Whether the notice relates to a nomination to the board of directors or to other business to be proposed at the meeting, the notice also must include information about the shareholder and the shareholder’s holdings of our shares. The chairman of the meeting shall have the power and duty to determine whether any business proposed to be brought before the meeting was made or proposed in accordance with these procedures (as set out in our Articles of Association), and if any proposed business is not in compliance with these provisions, to declare that such defective proposal shall be disregarded.

 

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Shareholders’ Suits

In Ireland, the decision to institute proceedings on behalf of a company is generally taken by the company’s board of directors. In certain limited circumstances, a shareholder may be entitled to bring a derivative action on our behalf. The central question at issue in deciding whether a minority shareholder may be permitted to bring a derivative action is whether, unless the action is brought, a wrong committed against us would otherwise go unredressed. The cause of action may be against a director, another person or both.

A shareholder may also bring proceedings against us in his or her own name where the shareholder’s rights as such have been infringed or where our affairs are being conducted, or the powers of the board of directors are being exercised, in a manner oppressive to any shareholder or shareholders or in disregard of their interests as shareholders. Oppression connotes conduct that is burdensome, harsh or wrong. This is an Irish statutory remedy under Section 212 of the Irish Companies Act and the court can grant any order it sees fit, including providing for the purchase or transfer of the shares of any shareholder.

Inspection of Books and Records

Under Irish law, shareholders have the right to: (i) receive a copy of our Constitution; (ii) inspect and obtain copies of the minutes of general meetings and any resolutions; (iii) inspect and receive a copy of the register of shareholders, register of directors and secretaries, register of directors’ interests and other statutory registers maintained by us; (iv) inspect copies of directors’ service contracts; (v) inspect copies of instruments creating charges; (vi) receive copies of statutory financial statements and directors’ and auditors’ reports which have previously been sent to shareholders prior to an annual general meeting; and (vii) receive financial statements of a subsidiary company of ours which have previously been sent to shareholders prior to an annual general meeting for the preceding ten years. Our auditors will also have the right to inspect all of our books, records and vouchers. The auditors’ report must be circulated to the shareholders with our financial statements prepared in accordance with Irish law with the notice of annual general meeting and must be presented to our shareholders at our annual general meeting.

Acquisitions

There are a number of mechanisms for acquiring an Irish public limited, including:

 

   

a court-approved scheme of arrangement under the Irish Companies Act. A scheme of arrangement with one or more classes of shareholders requires a court order from the Irish High Court and the approval of (i) more than 50% in number of the shareholders of each participating class or series voting on the scheme of arrangement, and (ii) representing 75% in value of the shares of such participating class or series held by the shareholders voting on the scheme of arrangement, in each case at the relevant meeting or meetings. A scheme of arrangement, if authorized by the shareholder of each participating class or series and the court, is binding on all of the shareholders of each participating class or series;

 

   

through a tender or takeover offer by a third party, in accordance with the Irish Takeover Rules and the Irish Companies Act, for all of our shares. Where the holders of 80% or more of our shares (excluding any shares already beneficially owned by the bidder) have accepted an offer for their shares, the remaining shareholders may also be statutorily required to transfer their shares, unless, within one month, the non-tendering shareholders can obtain an Irish court order otherwise providing. If the offeror has acquired acceptances of 80% of all of our shares but does not exercise its “squeeze-out” right, then the non-accepting shareholders also have a statutory right to require the bidder to acquire their shares on the same terms as the original offer, or such other terms as the bidder and the non-tendering shareholders may agree or on such term as an Irish court, on application of the bidder or non-tendering shareholder, may order. If our shares were to be listed on the Irish Stock Exchange, or the ISE, or another regulated stock exchange in the European Union, the aforementioned 80% threshold would be increased to 90%;

 

   

by way of a transaction with a company incorporated in the European Economic Area which includes all member states of the European Union and Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein (EEA) under the European Communities (Cross-Border Mergers) Regulations 2008 (as amended). Such a transaction must be approved by a special resolution. If we are being merged with another EEA company under the EU Cross-Border Mergers Directive (EU) 2017/1132 and the consideration payable to our shareholders is not all in the form of cash, our shareholders may be entitled to require their shares to be acquired at fair value; and

 

   

by way of a merger with another Irish company under the Irish Companies Act which must be approved by a special resolution and by the Irish High Court.

Appraisal Rights

Generally, under Irish law, shareholders of an Irish company do not have statutory appraisal rights. If we are being merged as the transferor company with another EEA company under the European Communities (Cross-Border Merger) Regulations 2008 (as amended) or if we are being merged with another Irish company under the Irish Companies Act, (i) any of our shareholders who voted against the special resolution approving the merger or (ii) if 90% of our shares are held by the successor company, any other of our shareholders, may be entitled to require that the successor company acquire its shares for cash.

 

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Disclosure of Interests in Shares

Under the Irish Companies Act, there is a notification requirement for shareholders who acquire or cease to be interested in 3% of the shares of an Irish public limited company. Our shareholders must therefore make such a notification to us if, as a result of a transaction, the shareholder will become interested in 3% or more of our shares or if, as a result of a transaction, a shareholder who was interested in 3% or more of our shares ceases to be so interested. Where a shareholder is interested in 3% or more of our shares, the shareholder must notify us of any alteration of his or her interest that brings his or her total holding through the nearest whole percentage number, whether an increase or a reduction. The relevant percentage figure is calculated by reference to the aggregate nominal value of the shares in which the shareholder is interested as a proportion of the entire nominal value of our issued share capital (or any such class of share capital in issue). Where the percentage level of the shareholder’s interest does not amount to a whole percentage, this figure may be rounded down to the next whole number. All such disclosures should be notified to us within five business days of the transaction or alteration of the shareholder’s interests that gave rise to the notification requirement. If a shareholder fails to comply with these notification requirements, the shareholder’s rights in respect of any of our shares it holds will not be enforceable, either directly or indirectly. However, such person may apply to the court to have the rights attaching to such shares reinstated.

In addition to these disclosure requirements, under the Irish Companies Act, we may by notice in writing, require a person whom we know or have reasonable cause to believe to be, or at any time during the three years immediately preceding the date on which such notice is issued to have been, interested in shares comprised in our relevant share capital to: (i) indicate whether or not it is the case and (ii) where such person holds or has during that time held an interest in our ordinary shares, to provide additional information, including the person’s own past or present interests in our shares. If the recipient of the notice fails to respond within the reasonable time period specified in the notice, we may apply to court for an order directing that the affected shares be subject to certain restrictions, as prescribed by the Irish Companies Act, as follows:

 

   

any transfer of those shares, or in the case of unissued shares any transfer of the right to be issued with shares and any issue of shares, will be void;

 

   

no voting rights will be exercisable in respect of those shares;

 

   

no further shares will be issued in right of those shares or in pursuance of any offer made to the holder of those shares; and

 

   

no payment will be made of any sums due from us on those shares, whether in respect of capital or otherwise.

Where our shares are subject to these restrictions, the court may order the shares to be sold and may also direct that the shares shall cease to be subject to these restrictions.

In the event we are in an offer period pursuant to the Irish Takeover Rules, accelerated disclosure provisions apply for persons holding an interest in our securities of 1.0% or more.

Irish Takeover Rules

A transaction in which a third party seeks to acquire 30% or more of our voting rights will be governed by the Irish Takeover Panel Act 1997 and the Irish Takeover Rules made thereunder and will be regulated by the Irish Takeover Panel. The “General Principles” of the Irish Takeover Rules and certain important aspects of the Irish Takeover Rules are described below.

General Principles

The Irish Takeover Rules are built on the following General Principles, which will apply to any transaction regulated by the Irish Takeover Panel:

 

   

in the event of an offer, all holders of securities of the target company should be afforded equivalent treatment and, if a person acquires control of a company, the other holders of securities must be protected;

 

   

the holders of the securities in the target company must have sufficient time and information to enable them to reach a properly informed decision on the offer;

 

   

where it advises the holders of securities, the board of the target company must give its views on the effects of implementation of the offer on employment, conditions of employment and the locations of the target company’s places of business;

 

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the board of the target company must act in the interests of the company as a whole and must not deny the holders of securities the opportunity to decide on the merits of the offer;

 

   

false markets must not be created in the securities of the target company, the bidder or of any other company concerned by the offer in such a way that the rise or fall of the prices of the securities becomes artificial and the normal functioning of the markets is distorted;

 

   

a bidder must announce an offer only after ensuring that he or she can fulfil in full, any cash consideration, if such is offered, and after taking all reasonable measures to secure the implementation of any other type of consideration;

 

   

a target company must not be hindered in the conduct of its affairs for longer than is reasonable by an offer for its securities; and

 

   

a substantial acquisition of securities (whether such acquisition is to be effected by one transaction or a series of transactions) shall take place only at an acceptable speed and shall be subject to adequate and timely disclosure.

Mandatory Bid

Under certain circumstances, a person who acquires shares or other of our voting rights may be required under the Irish Takeover Rules to make a mandatory cash offer for our remaining outstanding shares at a price not less than the highest price paid for the shares by the acquirer (or any parties acting in concert with the acquirer) during the previous 12 months. This mandatory bid requirement is triggered if an acquisition of shares would (i) increase the aggregate holding of an acquirer (including the holdings of any parties acting in concert with the acquirer) to shares representing 30% or more of our voting rights, or (ii) in the case of a person holding (together with its concert parties) shares representing 30% or more of our voting rights, after giving effect to the acquisition, increase the percentage of the voting rights held by that person (together with its concert parties) by 0.05% within a 12-month period. Any person (excluding any parties acting in concert with the holder) holding shares representing more than 50% of the voting rights of a company is not subject to these mandatory offer requirements in purchasing additional securities.

Voluntary Bid; Requirements to Make a Cash Offer and Minimum Price Requirements

A voluntary offer is an offer that is not a mandatory offer. If a person makes a voluntary offer to acquire outstanding ordinary shares of ours, the offer price must be no less than the highest price paid for our shares by the bidder or its concert parties during the three-month period prior to the commencement of the offer period. The Irish Takeover Panel has the power to extend the “look back” period to 12 months if the Irish Takeover Panel, taking into account the General Principles, believes it is appropriate to do so.

If the bidder or any party acting in concert with it has acquired our ordinary shares (i) during the period of 12 months prior to the commencement of the offer period which represent more than 10% of our total ordinary shares or (ii) at any time after the commencement of the offer period, the offer must be in cash (or accompanied by a full cash alternative) and the price per ordinary share must not be less than the highest price paid by the bidder or any party acting in concert with it during, in the case of (i), the 12-month period prior to the commencement of the offer period and, in the case of (ii), the offer period. The Irish Takeover Panel may apply this rule to a bidder who, together with any party acting in concert with it, has acquired less than 10% of our total ordinary shares in the 12-month period prior to the commencement of the offer period if the Irish Takeover Panel, taking into account the General Principles, considers it just and proper to do so.

An offer period will generally commence from the date of the first announcement of the offer or proposed offer.

Substantial Acquisition Rules

The Irish Takeover Rules also contain rules governing substantial acquisitions of shares which restrict the speed at which a person may increase his or her holding of shares and rights over shares to an aggregate of between 15% and 30% of our voting rights. Except in certain circumstances, an acquisition or series of acquisitions of shares or rights over shares representing 10% or more of our voting rights is prohibited if such acquisition(s), when aggregated with shares or rights already held, would result in the acquirer holding 15% or more but less than 30% of our voting rights and such acquisitions are made within a period of seven days. These rules also require accelerated disclosure of acquisitions of shares or rights over shares relating to such holdings.

Anti-Takeover Provisions

Shareholder Rights Plan

Our Articles of Association expressly authorize our board of directors to adopt a shareholder rights plan, subject to applicable law.

 

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Frustrating Action

Under the Irish Takeover Rules, our board of directors is not permitted to take any action which might frustrate an offer for our shares once our board of directors has received an approach which may lead to an offer or has reason to believe an offer is imminent, subject to certain exceptions. Potentially frustrating actions such as (i) the issue of shares, options or convertible securities, (ii) material acquisitions or disposals, (iii) entering into contracts other than in the ordinary course of business or (iv) any action, other than seeking alternative offers, which may result in frustration of an offer, are prohibited during the course of an offer or at any time during which the board of directors has reason to believe an offer is imminent. Exceptions to this prohibition are available where:

 

   

the action is approved by our shareholders at a general meeting; or

 

   

the Irish Takeover Panel has given its consent, where:

 

   

it is satisfied the action would not constitute frustrating action;

 

   

our shareholders that hold 50% of the voting rights state in writing that they approve the proposed action and would vote in favor of it at a general meeting;

 

   

the action is taken in accordance with a contract entered into prior to the announcement of the offer; or

 

   

the decision to take such action was made before the announcement of the offer and either has been at least partially implemented or is in the ordinary course of business.

Business Combinations with Interested Shareholders

Our Articles of Association provide that, subject to certain exceptions, we may not engage in certain business combinations with any person that acquires beneficial ownership of 15% or more of our outstanding voting shares for a period of three years following the date on which the person became a 15% shareholder unless: (i) prior to the date on which the person becomes a 15% shareholder, a committee of our disinterested directors approved the business combination; and (ii) in certain circumstances, the business combination is authorized by a special resolution of disinterested shareholders.

Further Provisions

Certain other provisions of Irish law or our Constitution may be considered to have anti-takeover effects, including advance notice requirements for director nominations and other shareholder proposals, as well as those described under the headings “—Description of Share Capital—Capital Structure—Authorized and Issued Share Capital” (regarding issuance of preferred shares), “Description of Share Capital—Pre-emption Rights, Share Warrants and Share Options,” “—Description of Share Capital—Disclosure of Interests in Shares”, “—Description of Share Capital—Appointment of Directors”, “—Description of Share Capital—Removal of Directors”.

Insider Dealing

The Irish Takeover Rules also provide that no person, other than the bidder, who is privy to confidential price-sensitive information concerning an offer made in respect of the acquisition of a company (or a class of its securities) or a contemplated offer shall deal in relevant securities of the target during the period from the time at which such person first has reason to suppose that such an offer, or an approach with a view to such an offer being made, is contemplated to the time of (i) the announcement of such offer or approach or (ii) the termination of discussions relating to such offer, whichever is earlier.

Corporate Governance

Our Articles of Association allocate authority over the day-to-day management of the company to the board of directors. Our board of directors may then delegate management of the Company to committees of the board or such other persons as it thinks fit. Regardless of any delegation, the board of directors will remain responsible, as a matter of Irish law, for the proper management of the affairs of our Company. The board of directors may create new committees or change the responsibilities of existing committees from time to time. Committees may meet and adjourn as they determine proper. Unless otherwise determined by the board of directors, the quorum necessary for the transaction of business at any committee meeting shall be a majority of the members of the committee.

 

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Legal Name; Incorporation; Fiscal Year; Registered Office

Our legal and commercial name is Iterum Therapeutics plc. We were incorporated in Ireland in June 2015 and re-registered as a public limited company in March 2018. Our registered address is Block 2 Floor 3, Harcourt Centre, Harcourt Street, Dublin 2. As set forth in our memorandum of association, our purpose, among other things, is to carry on the business of a holding company and to coordinate the administration, finances and activities of any subsidiaries or associated companies.

Appointment of Directors

The Irish Companies Act provides for a minimum of two directors. Our Articles of Association provide that the number of directors will be not less than two and not more than 13. The authorized number of directors within the prescribed range will be determined solely by our board of directors and does not require approval or ratification by the shareholders in a general meeting. Our directors will be elected by way of an ordinary resolution at a general meeting save that directors in contested elections will be elected by a plurality of the votes of the shares present in person or represented by proxy at the relevant general meeting and entitled to vote on the election of directors. If the number of the directors is reduced below the fixed minimum number, the remaining director or directors may appoint an additional director or additional directors to make up such minimum or may convene a general meeting for the purpose of making such appointment. Casual vacancies may be filled by the board of directors.

Our Articles of Association provide that our board of directors is divided into three classes serving staggered three-year terms. Shareholders do not have cumulative voting rights. Accordingly, the holder of a majority of the voting rights attaching to our ordinary shares will, as a practical matter, be entitled to control the election of all directors. At each annual general meeting, directors will be elected for a full term of three years to succeed those directors of the relevant class whose terms are expiring.

Under our Articles of Association, our board of directors has the authority to appoint directors to the board either to fill a vacancy or as an additional director. A vacancy on the board of directors created by the removal of a director may be filled by an ordinary resolution of the shareholders at the meeting at which such director is removed and, in the absence of such election or appointment, the remaining directors may fill the vacancy. The board of directors may fill a vacancy by an affirmative vote of a majority of the directors constituting a quorum. If there is an insufficient number of directors to constitute a quorum, the board may nonetheless act to fill such vacancies or call a general meeting of the shareholders. Under our Articles of Association, if the board fills a vacancy, the director will hold this position as a director for a term that will coincide with the remaining term of the relevant class of director. If there is an appointment to fill a casual vacancy or an addition to the board, the total number of directors shall not at any time exceed the number of directors from time to time fixed by the board in accordance with our Articles of Association.

Removal of Directors

The Irish Companies Act provides that, notwithstanding anything contained in the Articles of Association of a company or in any agreement between that company and a director, the shareholders may, by an ordinary resolution, remove a director from office before the expiration of his or her term, provided that notice of the intention to move any such resolution be given by the shareholders to the company not less than 28 days before the meeting at which the director is to be removed, and the director will be entitled to be heard at such meeting. The power of removal is without prejudice to any claim for damages for breach of contract (e.g., employment agreement) that the director may have against us in respect of his or her removal.

Director Interested Transactions

Under the Irish Companies Act and our Articles of Association, a director who has an interest in a proposal, arrangement or contract is required to declare the nature of his or her interest at the first opportunity either (i) at a meeting of the board at which such proposal, arrangement or contract is first considered (provided such director knows this interest then exists, or in any other case, at the first meeting of the board after learning that he or she is or has become so interested) or (ii) by providing a general notice to the directors declaring that he or she is to be regarded as interested in any proposal, arrangement or contract with a particular person, and after giving such general notice will not be required to give special notice relating to any particular transaction. Provided the interested director makes such required disclosure, he or she shall be counted in determining the presence of a quorum at a meeting regarding the relevant proposal, arrangement or contract and will be permitted to vote on such proposal, arrangement or contract.

Pursuant to our Articles of Association, it is within the directors’ sole discretion to determine their compensation.

Borrowing

Pursuant to our Articles of Association, among the directors’ powers are the right to borrow money and to mortgage or charge the company’s undertaking, property and uncalled capital or any part thereof and to issue debentures, debenture stock, mortgages, bonds or such other securities whether outright or as security for any debt, liability or obligation of the company or of any third party.

 

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Duration; Dissolution; Rights upon Liquidation

Our duration will be unlimited. We may be dissolved and wound up at any time by way of a shareholders’ voluntary winding up or a creditors’ winding up. In the case of a shareholders’ voluntary winding-up, a special resolution of shareholders is required. We may also be dissolved by way of court order on the application of a creditor, or by the Companies Registration Office as an enforcement measure where we have failed to file certain returns. We may also be dissolved by the Director of Corporate Enforcement in Ireland where the affairs of the company have been investigated by an inspector and it appears from the report or any information obtained by the Director of Corporate Enforcement that we should be wound up.

The rights of the shareholders to a return of our assets on dissolution or winding up, following the settlement of all claims of creditors, are prescribed in our Articles of Association or the terms of any shares issued by the directors from time to time. The holders of preferred shares in particular may have the right to priority in a dissolution or winding up. If the Articles of Association and terms of issue of the shares of the Company contain no specific provisions in respect of a dissolution or winding up then, subject to the shareholder priorities and the rights of any creditors, the assets will be distributed to shareholders in proportion to the paid-up nominal value of the shares held. Our Articles of Association provide that our ordinary shareholders may be entitled to participate in a winding up, and the method by which the property will be divided shall be determined by the liquidator, subject to a special resolution of the shareholders, but such rights of ordinary shareholders to participate may be subject to the rights of any preferred shareholders to participate under the terms of any series or class of preferred shares.

Share Certificates

Pursuant to the Irish Companies Act, a shareholder is entitled to be issued a share certificate on request and subject to payment of a nominal fee.

Stock Exchange Listing

Our ordinary shares are listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “ITRM.” Our ordinary shares are not listed on the Irish Stock Exchange.

No Sinking Fund

Our shares have no sinking fund provisions.

Transfer and Registration of Shares

Our transfer agent is Computershare Trust Company, N.A. The transfer agent maintains our share register, and registration in the share register will be determinative of membership in us. A shareholder of ours who only holds shares beneficially will not be the holder of record of such shares. Instead, the depository or other nominee will be the holder of record of those shares. Accordingly, a transfer of shares from a person who holds such shares beneficially to a person who also holds such shares beneficially through a depository or other nominee will not be registered in our official share register, as the depository or other nominee will remain the record holder of any such shares.

A written instrument of transfer is required under Irish law in order to register on our official share register any transfer of shares (i) from a person who holds such shares directly to any other person, (ii) from a person who holds such shares beneficially to a person who holds such shares directly or (iii) from a person who holds such shares beneficially to another person who holds such shares beneficially where the transfer involves a change in the depository or other nominee that is the record owner of the transferred shares. An instrument of transfer is also required for a shareholder who directly holds shares to transfer those shares into his or her own broker account (or vice versa). Such instruments of transfer may give rise to Irish stamp duty, which must be paid prior to registration of the transfer on our official Irish share register. However, a shareholder who directly holds shares may transfer those shares into his or her own broker account (or vice versa) without giving rise to Irish stamp duty provided there is no change in the ultimate beneficial ownership of the shares as a result of the transfer and the transfer is not made in contemplation of a sale of the shares.

 

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Any transfer of our shares that is subject to Irish stamp duty will not be registered in the name of the buyer unless an instrument of transfer is duly stamped and provided to our transfer agent. Our Articles of Association allow us, in our absolute discretion, to create an instrument of transfer and pay (or procure the payment of) any stamp duty, which is the legal obligation of a transferee. In the event of any such payment, we are (on behalf of ourselves or our affiliates) entitled to (i) seek reimbursement from the transferee or transferor (at its discretion), (ii) set-off the amount of the stamp duty against future dividends payable to the transferee or transferor (at its discretion) and (iii) have a lien against the shares on which it has paid stamp duty. Parties to a share transfer may assume that any stamp duty arising in respect of a transaction in our shares has been paid unless one or both of such parties is otherwise notified by us.

Our Articles of Association delegate to our secretary (or such other person as may be nominated by the secretary for this purpose) the authority to execute an instrument of transfer on behalf of a transferring party.

Our Articles of Association grant our board of directors general discretion to decline to register an instrument of transfer unless the transfer is in respect of one class of shares only, the instrument of transfer is accompanied by the certificate of shares to which it relates (if any) and such other evidence as the directors may reasonably require to show the right of the transferor to make the transfer, the instrument of transfer is in favor of not more than four transferees and it is lodged at our registered office or such other place as our directors or secretary may appoint.

The directors may suspend registration of transfers from time to time, not exceeding 30 days in aggregate each year, as our board of directors may from time to time determine (except as may be required by law).

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units comprised of one or more of the other securities that may be offered under this prospectus, in any combination. The following, together with the additional information we may include in the applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms summarized below will apply generally to any units we may offer, we will describe the particular terms of any series of units in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately at any time, or at any time before a specified date.

Any applicable prospectus supplement will describe:

 

   

the material terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

 

   

any material provisions relating to the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and

 

   

any material provisions of the governing unit agreement that differ from those described above.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

We may issue warrants to purchase ordinary shares, preferred shares or debt securities subject to applicable law. We may offer warrants separately or together with one or more additional warrants, ordinary shares, preferred shares or debt securities, or any combination of those securities in the form of units, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we issue warrants as part of a unit, the accompanying prospectus supplement will specify whether those warrants may be separated from the other securities in the unit prior to the expiration date of the warrants. The applicable prospectus supplement will also describe the following terms of any warrants:

 

   

the specific designation and aggregate number of, and the offering price at which we will issue, the warrants;

 

   

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will begin and the date on which that right will expire or, if you may not continuously exercise the warrants throughout that period, the specific date or dates on which you may exercise the warrants;

 

   

whether the warrants are to be sold separately or with other securities as parts of units;

 

   

whether the warrants will be issued in definitive or global form or in any combination of these forms, although, in any case, the form of a warrant included in a unit will correspond to the form of the unit and of any security included in that unit;

 

   

any applicable material U.S. federal income tax consequences;

 

   

the identity of the warrant agent for the warrants and of any other depositaries, execution or paying agents, transfer agents, registrars or other agents;

 

   

the proposed listing, if any, of the warrants or any securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants on any securities exchange;

 

   

the designation and terms of any equity securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

the designation, aggregate principal amount, currency and terms of any debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

if applicable, the designation and terms of the preferred shares with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each security;

 

   

if applicable, the date from and after which any warrants issued as part of a unit and the related debt securities, preferred shares or ordinary shares will be separately transferable;

 

   

the number of ordinary shares or preferred shares purchasable upon exercise of a warrant and the price at which those shares may be purchased;

 

   

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

   

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

   

the anti-dilution provisions of, and other provisions for changes to or adjustment in the exercise price of, the warrants, if any;

 

   

any redemption or call provisions; and

 

   

any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange or exercise of the warrants.

 

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FORMS OF SECURITIES

Each debt security, unit and warrant will be represented either by a certificate issued in definitive form to a particular investor or by one or more global securities representing the entire issuance of securities. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, certificated securities in definitive form and global securities will be issued in registered form. Definitive securities name you or your nominee as the owner of the security, and in order to transfer or exchange these securities or to receive payments other than interest or other interim payments, you or your nominee must physically deliver the securities to the trustee, registrar, paying agent or other agent, as applicable. Global securities name a depositary or its nominee as the owner of the debt securities, units or warrants represented by these global securities. The depositary maintains a computerized system that will reflect each investor’s beneficial ownership of the securities through an account maintained by the investor with its broker/dealer, bank, trust company or other representative, as we explain more fully below.

Global Securities

We may issue the debt securities, units and warrants in the form of one or more fully registered global securities that will be deposited with a depositary or its nominee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement and registered in the name of that depositary or nominee. In those cases, one or more global securities will be issued in a denomination or aggregate denominations equal to the portion of the aggregate principal or face amount of the securities to be represented by global securities. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole for securities in definitive registered form, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by and among the depositary for the global security, the nominees of the depositary or any successors of the depositary or those nominees.

If not described below, any specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any securities to be represented by a global security will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those securities. We anticipate that the following provisions will apply to all depositary arrangements.

Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be limited to persons, called participants, that have accounts with the depositary or persons that may hold interests through participants. Upon the issuance of a global security, the depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants’ accounts with the respective principal or face amounts of the securities beneficially owned by the participants. Any dealers, underwriters or agents participating in the distribution of the securities will designate the accounts to be credited. Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be shown on, and the transfer of ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary, with respect to interests of participants, and on the records of participants, with respect to interests of persons holding through participants. The laws of some states may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of these securities in definitive form. These laws may impair your ability to own, transfer or pledge beneficial interests in global securities.

So long as the depositary, or its nominee, is the registered owner of a global security, that depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the securities represented by the global security for all purposes under the applicable indenture, unit agreement or warrant agreement. Except as described below, owners of beneficial interests in a global security will not be entitled to have the securities represented by the global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of the securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders of the securities under the applicable indenture, unit agreement or warrant agreement. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a global security must rely on the procedures of the depositary for that global security and, if that person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which the person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the applicable indenture, unit agreement or warrant agreement. We understand that under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a global security desires to give or take any action that a holder is entitled to give or take under the applicable indenture, unit agreement or warrant agreement, the depositary for the global security would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to give or take that action, and the participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through them to give or take that action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.

Principal, premium, if any, and interest payments on debt securities, and any payments to holders with respect to warrants or units, represented by a global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the global security. None of us, or any trustee, warrant agent, unit agent, or other agent of ours, or any agent of any trustee, warrant agent or unit agent will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the global security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to those beneficial ownership interests.

 

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We expect that the depositary for any of the securities represented by a global security, upon receipt of any payment to holders of principal, premium, interest or other distribution of underlying securities or other property on that registered global security, will immediately credit participants’ accounts in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in that global security as shown on the records of the depositary. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in a global security held through participants will be governed by standing customer instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers or registered in “street name,” and will be the responsibility of those participants.

If the depositary for any of the securities represented by a global security is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depositary or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and a successor depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act is not appointed by us within 90 days, we will issue securities in definitive form in exchange for the global security that had been held by the depositary. Any securities issued in definitive form in exchange for a global security will be registered in the name or names that the depositary gives to the relevant trustee, warrant agent, unit agent or other relevant agent of ours or theirs. It is expected that the depositary’s instructions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global security that had been held by the depositary.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell securities:

 

   

through underwriters;

 

   

through dealers;

 

   

through agents;

 

   

directly to purchasers; or

 

   

through a combination of any of these methods of sale.

In addition, we may issue the securities as a dividend or distribution or in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders subject to applicable law. This prospectus may be used in connection with any offering of our securities through any of these methods or other methods described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including sales deemed to be an “at the market” offering as defined in Rule 415 (a) (4) under the Securities Act, including without limitation, sales made directly on the Nasdaq Global Market, on any other existing trading market for our securities or through a market maker.

We may directly solicit offers to purchase securities, or agents may be designated to solicit such offers. We will, in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering, name any agent that could be viewed as an underwriter under the Securities Act, and describe any commissions that we must pay. Any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment or, if indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, on a firm commitment basis.

The distribution of the securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

   

at a fixed price, or prices, which may be changed from time to time;

 

   

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

   

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

   

at negotiated prices.

Each prospectus supplement will describe the method of distribution of the securities and any applicable restrictions.

The prospectus supplement with respect to the securities of a particular series will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including the following:

 

   

the name of the agent or any underwriters;

 

   

the public offering or purchase price and the proceeds we will receive from the sale of the securities;

 

   

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or re-allowed or paid to the agent or underwriters;

 

   

all other items constituting underwriting compensation;

 

   

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers; and

 

   

any exchanges on which the securities will be listed.

If any underwriters or agents are utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will enter into an underwriting agreement or other agreement with them at the time of sale to them, and we will set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering the names of the underwriters or agents and the terms of the related agreement with them.

If a dealer is utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will sell such securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell such securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by such dealer at the time of resale.

If we offer securities in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders, we may enter into a standby underwriting agreement with dealers, acting as standby underwriters. We may pay the standby underwriters a commitment fee for the securities they commit to purchase on a standby basis. If we do not enter into a standby underwriting arrangement, we may retain a dealer-manager to manage a subscription rights offering for us.

 

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Remarketing firms, agents, underwriters, dealers and other persons may be entitled under agreements which they may enter into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in the prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in the prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:

 

   

the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and

 

   

if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery. The underwriters and other persons acting as our agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.

Certain agents, underwriters and dealers, and their associates and affiliates may be customers of, have borrowing relationships with, engage in other transactions with, and/or perform services, including investment banking services, for us or one or more of our respective affiliates in the ordinary course of business.

In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, any underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities or any other securities the prices of which may be used to determine payments on such securities. Specifically, any underwriters may over allot in connection with the offering, creating a short position for their own accounts. In addition, to cover overallotments or to stabilize the price of the securities or of any such other securities, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, the securities or any such other securities in the open market. Finally, in any offering of the securities through a syndicate of underwriters, the underwriting syndicate may reclaim selling concessions allowed to an underwriter or a dealer for distributing the securities in the offering if the syndicate repurchases previously distributed securities in transactions to cover syndicate short positions, in stabilization transactions or otherwise. Any of these activities may stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities above independent market levels. Any such underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time.

Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise or the securities are sold by us to an underwriter in a firm commitment underwritten offering. The applicable prospectus supplement may provide that the original issue date for your securities may be more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities. Accordingly, in such a case, if you wish to trade securities on any date prior to the second business day before the original issue date for your securities, you will be required, by virtue of the fact that your securities initially are expected to settle in more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities, to make alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.

The securities may be new issues of securities and may have no established trading market. The securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence of trading markets for any of the securities.

In compliance with the guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, or FINRA, to the extent applicable, the aggregate maximum discount, commission or agency fees or other items constituting underwriting compensation to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker-dealer will not exceed 8% of the proceeds from any offering pursuant to this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement indicates otherwise, certain legal matters of U.S. federal law and New York State law will be passed upon for us by Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement indicates otherwise, the validity of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered and certain legal matters with respect to Irish law will be passed upon by A&L Goodbody.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Iterum Therapeutics plc as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, and for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2018 have been incorporated by reference herein in reliance upon the report of KPMG, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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Iterum Therapeutics plc

2,971,770 Ordinary Shares

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

 

H.C. Wainwright & Co.

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