Prospectus Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5) (424b5)

Date : 11/13/2019 @ 10:23PM
Source : Edgar (US Regulatory)
Stock : Fulgent Genetics Inc (FLGT)
Quote : 13.57  0.0 (0.00%) @ 12:24PM
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Prospectus Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5) (424b5)

 

Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)

Registration No. 333-233227

 

The information in this preliminary prospectus supplement is not complete and may be changed. A registration statement relating to these securities has been declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission. This preliminary prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are not an offer to sell these securities, and we are not soliciting offers to buy these securities, in any state or other jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED NOVEMBER 13, 2019

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

(To Prospectus dated August 23, 2019)

Shares

Common Stock

We are offering     shares of our common stock in this offering. Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market, or Nasdaq, under the symbol “FLGT.”  On November 12, 2019, the last reported sale price for our common stock on Nasdaq was $13.66 per share.

We are an “emerging growth company” under applicable Securities and Exchange Commission rules and are subject to reduced public company reporting requirements.

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Please read “Risk Factors” on page S-9 of this prospectus supplement and under similar headings in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus is accurate or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

____________________________________________________

 

 

Per

Share

 

Total

Public offering price

 

$

 

 

$

 

Underwriting discounts and commissions (1)

 

$

 

 

$

 

Proceeds, before expenses, to us

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

(1)

We have agreed to reimburse the underwriter for certain expenses. See “Underwriting.”

We have granted the underwriter an option for a period of 30 days from the date of this prospectus supplement to purchase up to an additional shares of our common stock. See “Underwriting” for more information.

The underwriter expects to deliver the shares of our common stock to the purchasers on or about              , 2019.

Sole Book-Running Manager

Piper Jaffray

 

The date of this prospectus supplement is                  , 2019.

 

 

 


 

Table of Contents

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

PROSPECTUS

 

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus relate to an offering of shares of our common stock. Before buying any shares of our common stock that we are offering, we urge you to carefully read this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, together with the information incorporated by reference as described under the headings “Where You Can Find Additional Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference” in this prospectus supplement. These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.

Unless the context otherwise requires, “Fulgent,” “FLGT,” “the Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar terms refer to Fulgent Genetics, Inc., a company incorporated under the laws of Delaware, together with its subsidiaries.

This document contains two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the terms of this offering of shares of our common stock and also adds to, updates and changes information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference. The second part is the accompanying prospectus, dated August 23, 2019, which gives more general information. To the extent the information contained in this prospectus supplement differs from or conflicts with the information contained in the accompanying prospectus or any document incorporated by reference, the information in this prospectus supplement will control. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference into the accompanying prospectus—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

This prospectus supplement is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under the shelf registration process, we may from time to time offer and sell any combination of the securities described in the accompanying prospectus up to a total dollar amount of $75.0 million, of which this offering is a part.

We are responsible for the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and in any free writing prospectus we prepare or authorize. We have not, and the underwriter has not, authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that which is contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering and we take no responsibility for any other information others may give you. We are not, and the underwriter is not, making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information contained in this prospectus supplement is accurate only as of the date on the front cover of this prospectus supplement, and that any information we have incorporated by reference or included in the accompanying prospectus is accurate only as of the date given in the document incorporated by reference or as of the date of the prospectus, as applicable, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, any related free writing prospectus, or any sale of shares of our common stock. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date.

For investors outside the United States: Neither we, nor the underwriter, have done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. You are required to inform yourselves about, and to observe any restrictions relating to, this offering and the distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompany prospectus.

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

Market data and industry statistics and forecasts used throughout this prospectus supplement are based on the good faith estimates of management, which in turn are based upon management’s reviews of independent industry publications, reports by market research firms, and other independent and publicly available sources. Although we are not aware of any misstatements regarding the industry data that we present in this prospectus supplement, our estimates involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under “Risk Factors,” “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, as well as our subsequent filings with the SEC also incorporated by reference herein.

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated herein and therein by reference include trademarks, service marks and trade names owned by us or other companies. All trademarks, service marks and trade names included or incorporated by reference into this prospectus are the property of their respective owners.

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Information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website does not constitute part of this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or any related free writing prospectus.


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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus include and incorporate by reference “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, about Fulgent.  

We intend these forward-looking statements to be covered by the safe harbor provisions for forward-looking statements contained in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Words such as “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expect,” “project,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “predict,” “believe,” “possible,” “should” and similar words or expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. These forward-looking statements include statements about, among other things:

 

developments, projections and trends relating to us, our competitors and our industry;

 

our strategic plans for our business;

 

our operating performance, including our ability to achieve equal or higher levels of revenue, stabilize the historical fluctuations in our performance and achieve or grow profitability;

 

the rate and degree of market acceptance and adoption of our tests and genetic testing generally and other anticipated trends in our industry;

 

our ability to remain competitive, particularly if the genetic testing market continues to expand and competition becomes more acute;

 

our ability to continue to expand the number of genes covered by our tests and introduce other improvements to our tests;

 

our continued ability to offer affordable pricing for our tests, in spite of recent price degradation in our industry, and our ability to maintain the low internal costs of our business model and record acceptable margins on our sales;

 

our ability to strengthen our existing base of hospital and medical institution customers by maintaining or increasing demand from these customers;

 

our ability to grow and diversify our customer base, including our plans to target new institutional and individual customer groups;

 

our reliance on a limited number of suppliers and ability to adapt to possible disruptions in their operations;

 

our use of our sole laboratory facility and ability to adapt in the event it is damaged or rendered inoperable;

 

the level of success of our efforts to increase our global presence, including strengthening relationships with existing and new international customers and establishing other types of arrangements, including our joint venture in the People’s Republic of China, or PRC, or other international joint venture or distributor relationships we may pursue;

 

the impact on our business of our recent investments in building and restructuring our sales and marketing strategies and teams, and our plans for future sales and marketing efforts;

 

advancements in technology by us and our competitors;

 

our use of technology and ability to prevent security breaches, loss of data and other disruptions;

 

our ability to effectively manage any growth we may experience, including expanding our infrastructure, developing increased efficiencies in our operations and hiring additional skilled personnel in order to support any such growth;

 

developments with respect to U.S. and foreign regulations applicable to our business, and our ability to comply with these regulations;

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our ability to prevent errors in interpreting the results of our tests so as to avoid product liability and professional liability claims;

 

our ability to obtain and maintain coverage and adequate reimbursement for our tests and to manage the complexity of billing and collecting such reimbursement;

 

the state of the U.S. and foreign healthcare markets, including the role of governments in the healthcare industry generally and pressures or incentives to reduce healthcare costs while expanding individual benefits, as well as the impact of general uncertainty in the U.S. healthcare regulatory environment following the results of the 2016 U.S. presidential election;

 

our ability to attract, retain and motivate key scientific and management personnel;

 

our expectations regarding our ability to obtain and maintain protection of our trade secrets and other intellectual property rights and not infringe the rights of others;

 

our expectations regarding our future expense levels and our ability to appropriately forecast and plan our expenses;

 

our expectations regarding our future capital requirements and our ability to obtain additional capital if and when needed; and

 

the impact of the above factors and other future events on the market price of our common stock.

All forward-looking statements reflect management’s present assumptions, expectations and beliefs regarding future events and are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in or implied by any forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include those described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus, any related free writing prospectus, and in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K and quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, as well as any amendments thereto reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC. Given these risks, uncertainties and other important factors, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. You should carefully read this prospectus, the accompanying base prospectus and any related free writing prospectus, together with the information incorporated herein and therein by reference as described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information,” completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect.

These forward-looking statements represent our estimates and assumptions only as of the date made. Any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and actual results, developments and business decisions may differ from those contemplated by such forward-looking statements. We undertake no duty to update these forward-looking statements after the date of this prospectus, except as required by law, even though our situation may change in the future. You should carefully consider other information set forth in reports or other documents that we file with the SEC. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. This summary does not contain all the information you should consider before investing in our common stock. You should read and consider carefully the more detailed information in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and the factors described under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement and the financial and other information incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, as well as the information included in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, before making an investment decision.

Overview

Fulgent is a growing technology company offering comprehensive genetic testing and providing physicians with clinically actionable diagnostic information they can use to improve the quality of patient care. We have developed a proprietary technology platform that allows us to offer a broad and flexible test menu and continually expand and improve our proprietary genetic reference library, while maintaining accessible pricing, high accuracy and competitive turnaround times. Combining next generation sequencing, or NGS, with our technology platform, we perform full-gene sequencing with deletion/duplication analysis in single-gene tests; pre-established, multi-gene, disease-specific panels; and customized panels that can be tailored to meet specific customer needs. We believe our test menu offers more genes for testing than our competitors in today’s market, which enables us to provide expansive options for test customization and clinically actionable results. After launching our first commercial genetic tests in 2013 and as of September 2019, we have expanded our test menu to include approximately 18,000 single-gene tests and more than 800 panels that collectively test for approximately 7,700 genetic conditions, including various cancers, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders and pediatric conditions. A cornerstone of our business is our ability to provide expansive options and flexibility for all clients’ unique genetic testing needs.

 

Genetic testing offers the possibility of early identification of a disease or a genetic predisposition to a disease and enhanced disease treatment and prognosis. As a result, we believe widespread genetic testing could enable significant health improvements and healthcare cost reductions by providing patients and clinicians with more advanced knowledge and options for personal health management plans. Due to these and other potential benefits, genetic testing has experienced significant growth in recent years. If this growth trend continues, we believe genetic testing will become part of standard medical care. The knowledge of a person’s unique genetic makeup could then begin to play a more important role in the practice of medicine. We believe this growth has been tempered in prior years, however, because many tests are prohibitively expensive, are produced through inefficient processes and often do not result in clinically actionable data. Through our technology platform, we have developed an offering that we believe addresses these industry challenges and provides a sustainable competitive advantage, both in today’s genetic testing market and as we seek to implement new diagnostic tools in the future.

 

Our technology platform, which integrates sophisticated data comparison and suppression algorithms, adaptive learning software, advanced genetic diagnostics tools and integrated laboratory processes, allows us to offer a test menu with expansive genetic coverage. We believe the comprehensive data output and high detection rates of our tests, both made possible by this expansive genetic coverage, provide physicians with information they can readily incorporate into treatment decisions for their patients, which we refer to as clinical actionability. In addition, our technology platform facilitates our ability to perform customized genetic tests using our expansive library of genes, and we believe this flexibility increases the utility of the genetic data we produce. Further, our technology platform provides us with operating efficiencies that help lower our internal costs, which allows us to offer our tests at accessible price points. As a result, our efforts to build and continually enhance our technology platform allow us to deliver comprehensive, adaptable, clinically actionable and affordable genetic analysis while maintaining a low cost per billable test, enabling us to efficiently meet the needs of our growing base of customers. These features of our offering have resulted in rapid volume growth since our commercial launch, with 48,988 billable tests delivered as of October 31, 2019, 22,298 billable tests delivered in 2018, 16,578 billable tests delivered in 2017, and an aggregate of over 108,189 billable tests delivered to approximately 1,060 customers from inception through October 31, 2019.

 

Corporate Information

We were incorporated in Delaware on May 13, 2016. We are the holding company of our subsidiaries, including primarily Fulgent LLC, which was initially formed in June 2011. On September 30, 2016, Fulgent LLC became our wholly owned subsidiary in a transaction we refer to as the Reorganization, in which the holders of all equity interests in Fulgent LLC immediately prior to the Reorganization became all of our stockholders immediately following the Reorganization.

Our website is located at www.fulgentgenetics.com. Any information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into, nor is it in any way part of this prospectus supplement and should not be relied upon in connection

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with making any decision with respect to an investment in our securities. We are required to file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may obtain any of the documents filed by us with the SEC at no cost from the SEC's website at http://www.sec.gov.

We are a “smaller reporting company” as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act, and we qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, as amended, or JOBS Act. We will remain an emerging growth company until December 31, 2021, unless our gross revenue exceeds $1.07 billion in any fiscal year before that date, we issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt in any three-year period before that date or the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates exceeds $700.0 million as of the last business day of the second fiscal quarter of any fiscal year before that date. We have elected to take advantage of certain of the scaled disclosure available for smaller reporting companies and emerging growth companies in this prospectus as well as our filings under the Exchange Act.

 


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The Offering

Common stock offered by us

Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $  million.

 

 

 

Underwriter’s option to purchase additional shares

 

We have granted the underwriter an option for a period of up to 30 days from the date of this prospectus supplement to purchase up to an additional   shares of common stock at the public offering price less the underwriting discounts and commissions.

 

 

 

Common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering

  shares (or    shares if the underwriter exercises its option to purchase additional shares in full)

 

 

 

Use of proceeds

We currently plan to use the net proceeds from this offering for working capital and general corporate purposes.  See “Use of Proceeds” on page S-34 of this prospectus supplement.

Risk factors

An investment in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See the information contained in or incorporated by reference under “Risk Factors” on page S-9 of this prospectus supplement and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference herein and therein, as well as the other information included in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

 

 

 

The Nasdaq Global Market Symbol

Our common stock is listed on Nasdaq under the symbol “FLGT.”

 

 

 

The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 18,673,481 shares of our common stock issued and outstanding as of September 30, 2019 and excludes:

 

372,547 shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding options, at a weighted-average exercise price of $1.20 per share;

 

1,351,071 shares of our common stock issuable upon the settlement of restricted stock awards;

 

and 1,723,618 shares of our common stock that are reserved for future grant or issuance under our equity incentive plans.

Unless otherwise indicated, this prospectus supplement reflects and assumes the following:

 

no exercise of outstanding stock options or warrants described above;

 

no purchases of shares of our common stock by our existing stockholders in this offering; and no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional shares of our common stock.

 

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before investing in our common stock, you should consider carefully the risks described below and under the heading “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, on March 22, 2019, and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2019, filed with the SEC on November 8, 2019, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement, together with the other information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and in our other filings with the SEC that we have incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. If any of these risks occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations and future growth prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In these circumstances, the market price of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to this Offering and Our Common Stock

We will have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may not use them effectively.

We currently intend to use the net proceeds of this offering for working capital and general corporate purposes, as further described in the section of this prospectus supplement entitled “Use of Proceeds.” We will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds and investors will be relying on the judgment of our management regarding the application of the proceeds of this offering. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in short-term, interest-bearing instruments. These investments may not yield a favorable return, or any return, to us or our stockholders.

You may experience immediate and substantial dilution.

The offering price per share in this offering may exceed the net tangible book value per share of our common stock outstanding prior to this offering. Therefore, if you purchase shares of our common stock in this offering, you will pay a price per share that substantially exceeds our net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering. If you purchase common stock in this offering, you will incur an immediate and substantial dilution in net tangible book value of $   per share. The exercise of outstanding stock options and vesting of other stock awards may result in further dilution of your investment. See the section entitled “Dilution” appearing elsewhere in this prospectus supplement for a more detailed illustration of the dilution you would incur if you participate in this offering.

You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.

In order to raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock at prices that may not be the same as the price per share in this offering. We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is less than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable into common stock, in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share paid by investors in this offering.

We do not intend to pay dividends on our common stock, so any returns will be limited to the value of our common stock.

We currently anticipate that we will retain any future earnings to finance the continued development, operation and expansion of our business. As a result, we do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends or other distributions in the foreseeable future. Further, if we were to enter into a credit facility or issue debt securities or preferred stock in the future, we may become contractually restricted from paying dividends. If we do not pay dividends, our common stock may be less valuable because stockholders must rely on sales of their common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, to realize any gains on their investment.

The sale of our common stock in this offering and any future sales of our common stock may depress our stock price and our ability to raise funds in new stock offerings.

Sales of our common stock in this offering and the public market following this offering could lower the market price of our common stock. Sales may also make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities or equity-related securities in the future at a time and price that our management deems acceptable, or at all.

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Business and Strategy Risks

Our results of operations may fluctuate significantly from period to period and can be difficult to predict.

Our results of operations have experienced fluctuations from period to period, which we expect may continue in the future. These fluctuations can occur because of a variety of factors, including, among others, the amount and timing of sales of billable tests; the prices we charge for our tests due to changes in product, customer or payor mix, general price degradation for genetic tests or other competitive factors; the rate and timing of our billings and collections; and the timing and amount of our commitments and other payments, as well as the other risk factors discussed in this report. In addition, in certain prior periods, our results have been impacted by events that may not recur regularly, in the same amounts or at all in the future. Moreover, our limited operating history makes it difficult to determine if fluctuations in our performance reflect seasonality or other trends or are the result of other factors or events. These fluctuations in our operating results may render period-to-period comparisons less meaningful, and investors should not rely on the results of any one period as an indicator of future performance. Additionally, these fluctuations in our operating results could cause our performance in any particular period to fall below the expectations of securities analysts or investors or guidance we have provided to the public, which could negatively affect the price of our common stock.

We have a history of losses, and we may not be able to achieve or sustain profitability.

We have a history of losses. Although we achieved profitability in the first half of 2017, the second and third quarters of 2019, we have recorded losses in all other periods since our inception. As a result, we may not be able to achieve profitability in any future period, and even if we can achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain it. Further, we have generated limited revenue to date, and our historical revenue levels may not grow at historical rates or at all, and we may not be able to achieve or sustain profitability. We may incur additional losses in the future, particularly as we focus on investing in and growing our business and operations and experience related increases in expenses. Our prior losses and any future losses have had and will continue to have an adverse effect on our stockholders’ equity and working capital, which could negatively impact our operations and your investment in our company. Any failure to sustain or grow our revenue levels and achieve or maintain profitability would negatively affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows, and could cause the market price of our common stock to decline.

We are an early-stage company with a limited operating history, which could expose us to enhanced risks and increase the difficulty of evaluating our business and prospects.

We began operations in May 2012 and commercially launched our first genetic tests in 2013. As a result, we have only a limited operating history upon which you can evaluate our business and prospects. Our limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate our current business and hinders our ability to reliably forecast our future operating results, including revenue, cash flows and movement toward sustained profitability. We have encountered and will continue to encounter risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by growing companies in the life sciences and technology industries, such as risks related to an evolving and unpredictable industry and business model, management of growth and the other uncertainties described in this report. If our assumptions regarding these risks and uncertainties are incorrect or these risks and uncertainties change due to fluctuations in our markets, or if we do not address these risks successfully, our operating and financial results could differ materially from our expectations and our business could suffer.

Our industry is subject to rapidly changing technology and new and increasing amounts of scientific data, and if we fail to keep pace with these technological advances, we may be unable to compete effectively and our business and prospects could suffer.

In recent years, there have been numerous advances in the ability to analyze large amounts of genomic information and the role of genetics and gene variants in disease diagnosis and treatment. Our industry has been, and we believe will continue to be, characterized by rapid technological change, increasing amounts of data, frequent introductions of new genetic tests and evolving industry standards, all of which could make our tests obsolete if we are not able to enhance our technologies and tests faster and better than our competitors. We believe our future success will depend in part on our ability to keep pace with the evolving needs of our customers in a timely and cost-effective manner and to pursue new market opportunities that develop as a result of technological and scientific advances. If we are not able to keep pace with these advances and increased customer expectations that develop as a result of these advances, we may be unable to sustain or grow our business and our future operations and prospects could suffer.

Our mix of customers can fluctuate from period to period and our revenue may be concentrated among only a small number of customers, and the loss of or a reduction in sales to any of our customers could materially harm our business.

The composition and concentration of our customer base can fluctuate from period to period, and in certain prior periods, a small number of customers accounted for a significant portion of our revenue. In particular, in the three and nine month periods ended September 30, 2019, when customers who, to our knowledge, are under common control or otherwise affiliated with each other are

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aggregated, one customer contributed 40% and 33%, respectively, of our total revenue. For this customer and for customers generally, tests are purchased on a test-by-test basis and not pursuant to any long-term purchasing arrangements. As a result, any or all of our customers, including affiliated customers or customers under common control who purchase large quantities of billable tests, could decide at any time to decrease, delay or discontinue their orders from us which could adversely affect our revenue. Although we believe some of these fluctuations in customer demand may be attributable in part to the nature of our business, in which our customers can experience significant volatility in their genetic testing demand from period to period in the ordinary course of their operations, these demand fluctuations, particularly for any key customers, can have a significant impact on our period-to-period performance regardless of their cause. In addition, the failure of any one of our customers or their payors to pay on a timely basis would negatively impact our results and cash flows. Our ability to maintain or increase sales to our existing customers depends on a variety of factors, including the other risk factors discussed in this report, many of which are beyond our control. Because of these and other factors, sales to any of our customers, including any key, affiliated or commonly controlled customers, may not continue in the amounts or at the rates as they have in the past, and such sales may never reach or exceed historical levels in any future period. The loss of any of our customers, or a reduction in orders or difficulties collecting payments for tests ordered by any of them, could significantly reduce our revenue and adversely affect our operating results.

If we are not able to grow and diversify our customer base and increase demand for our tests from existing and new customers, our potential for growth could be limited.

To achieve our desired revenue growth, we must increase test volume by further penetrating our existing hospital and medical institution customers. In addition, we must grow our customer base beyond hospitals, medical institutions and other laboratories and into additional customer groups, such as individual physicians, other practitioners and research institutions. To this end, we are making efforts to diversify our customer market, including building relationships with research institutions and other similar institutional customers, a national clinical laboratory and various other organizations to facilitate access to physicians, practitioners and other new customer groups, including certain U.S. government agencies. We are also pursuing relationships with payors, including Medicare, some state Medicaid programs and commercial payors, in an effort to obtain coverage and reimbursement for our tests to make them accessible to more individual physicians. Generally, when we establish these new customer relationships, we agree with the applicable payor, laboratory or other customer to provide certain of our tests at negotiated rates, but, subject to limited exceptions, none of these relationships obligate any party to order our tests at any agreed volume or frequency or at all. Further, any relationships we may develop with any government agencies are subject to unique risks associated with government contracts, including cancellation if adequate appropriations for subsequent performance periods are not made and modification or termination at the government’s convenience and without prior notice. In September 2019, we launched Picture Genetics, a consumer-initiated genetic testing offering aimed at individual consumers. Our efforts to pursue individual consumers, new payor or institutional customers or other new customer markets could fail, and even if we are able to develop relationships with new customers in these or any other new customer groups, these relationships may not lead to meaningful or any increases in our customer base, the number of billable tests we deliver or our revenue, and may not improve our ability to achieve or sustain profitability.

We may fail to obtain the customer growth needed to grow volumes and revenue levels as desired or anticipated or at all, which could occur for a variety of reasons, including, among others:

 

the genetic testing market generally, and particularly the market for next generation sequencing, or NGS, genetic tests, is relatively new and may not grow as predicted or may decline;

 

our efforts to improve our existing tests and develop and launch new tests may be unsuccessful;

 

we may not be able to convince additional hospitals, medical institutions and other laboratories or additional customer groups of the utility of our tests and their potential advantages over existing and new alternatives;

 

our investments in our sales and marketing functions, including our efforts to increase and restructure our sales force and re-focus and expand our marketing initiatives and strategies, may fail;

 

we may be unsuccessful in convincing customers of the benefits of our broad and customizable test menu;

 

genetic testing is expensive and many existing and potential new customers may be sensitive to pricing, particularly if we are not able to maintain low prices relative to our competitors;

 

potential new customers, particularly individual physicians and other practitioners, may not adopt our tests if coverage and adequate reimbursement are not available;

 

negative publicity or regulatory investigations into the actions of companies in our industry could raise doubts about the legitimacy of diagnostic technologies generally, and could result in scrutiny of diagnostic activities by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, or other applicable government agencies; and

 

our competitors could introduce new tests that cover more genes or that provide more accurate or reliable results.

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If we are unable to address these and other risks associated with growing our customer base and deepening our relationships with existing customers, we may not achieve our desired growth in billable tests and revenue, and our results of operations could be adversely impacted.

We face intense competition, which could intensify further in the future, and we may fail to maintain or increase our revenue levels, maintain the current prices and margins for our billable tests, or achieve or sustain profitability if we cannot compete successfully.

With the development of NGS, the clinical genetic testing market has become increasingly competitive, and we expect this competition to intensify further in the future. We face competition from a variety of sources, including, among others, dozens of companies focused on molecular genetic testing services, such as specialty and reference laboratories that offer traditional single-gene and multi-gene tests, as well as established and emerging healthcare, information technology and service companies that may develop and sell competitive products or services, which may include informatics, analysis, integrated genetic tools and services for health and wellness.

Additionally, participants in closely related markets, such as prenatal testing and clinical trial or companion diagnostic testing, could converge on offerings that are competitive with the type of tests we perform. Instances where potential competitors are aligned with key suppliers or are themselves suppliers could provide these potential competitors with significant advantages. Further, hospitals, research institutions and eventually individual physicians and other practitioners may also seek to perform at their own facilities the type of genetic testing we would otherwise perform for them. In this regard, continued development of, and associated decreases in the cost of, equipment, reagents and other materials and databases and genetic data interpretation services may enable broader direct participation in genetic testing and analysis and drive down the use of third-party testing companies such as ours. Moreover, the biotechnology and genetic testing fields continue to undergo significant consolidation, permitting larger clinical laboratory service providers to increase cost efficiencies and service levels, resulting in more intense competition.

Many of our existing and potential future competitors have longer operating histories, larger customer bases, more expansive brand recognition and deeper market penetration, substantially greater financial, technological and research and development resources and selling and marketing capabilities, and considerably more experience dealing with third-party payors. As a result, they may be able to respond more quickly to changes in customer requirements or preferences, develop faster, better and more expansive advancements for their technologies and tests, create and implement more successful strategies for the promotion and sale of their tests, obtain more favorable results from third-party payors regarding coverage and reimbursement for their offerings, adopt more aggressive pricing and/or price reduction policies for their tests, secure supplies from vendors on more favorable terms or devote substantially more resources to infrastructure and systems development. We may not be able to compete effectively against these organizations.

Additionally, increased competition and cost-saving initiatives on the part of government entities and other third-party payors could result in downward pressure on the price for genetic analysis and interpretation generally, which could harm our revenue levels and sales volume and our ability to gain market share. This downward pricing pressure could intensify in future periods if adoption of genetic testing becomes more widespread, and we may not be able to maintain acceptable margins on our sales if we are forced to reduce prices for our tests to try to remain competitive, especially if we are also experiencing increasing expenses as we make efforts to grow our business or otherwise meet customer demands. The occurrence of these risks could materially harm our ability to achieve or sustain profitability. In addition, competitors may be acquired by, receive investments from or enter into other commercial

relationships with larger, well-established and well-financed companies if and as use of NGS for clinical diagnosis and preventative care increases. Further, companies or governments that effectively control access to genetic testing through umbrella contracts or regional preferences could promote our competitors or prevent us from performing certain tests in certain territories. If we are unable to compete successfully against current and future competitors for these or any other reasons, we may be unable to increase market acceptance and sales volume of our tests, which could prevent us from maintaining or increasing our revenue levels or achieving or sustaining profitability or could otherwise negatively affect our performance.

Our level of commercial success will depend in part on our ability to generate and grow sales with our sales and marketing team, strategies and partnerships, and we may be unsuccessful in these efforts.

We may not be able to market or sell our existing tests or any tests we may develop in the future in order to drive demand sufficiently to support our desired growth. We currently sell our tests through a small internal sales force and a number of contractors who serve as independent sales representatives. Although we have made efforts to enhance and improve our internal sales department, it remains significantly smaller than many of our competitors’ sales teams. We have historically relied significantly on organic growth and word-of-mouth among our customers to generate interest in our tests, but our ability to rely on this type of interest in future periods is uncertain.

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We believe our ability to maintain and grow sales volume in the future will depend in large part on our ability to further develop our sales team and create and implement effective sales and marketing strategies. We have been focused on these objectives and have taken steps to pursue them in recent periods, including hiring new key members and restructuring the organization of our sales and marketing team, re-focusing our sales and marketing initiatives and strategies and increasing the overall scope of our marketing activities. These efforts have required and will continue to involve significant time and expense. Moreover, these efforts may be unsuccessful. For instance, we may not be able to attract and hire the qualified personnel we need to grow or otherwise improve our sales and marketing team as quickly or as successfully as we would like for various reasons, including intense competition in our industry for qualified personnel and our relative lack of experience selling and marketing our tests. Even if we are able to further develop our sales and marketing team and strategy, and we may not be successful in growing our customer base or increasing order volumes from our existing customers. Further, our reliance on independent sales representatives subjects us to risks, as we have very little control over their activities and they are generally free to market and sell other, potentially competing, products. As a result, these independent sales representatives could devote insufficient time or resources to marketing and selling our tests, could market them in an ineffective manner or could otherwise be unsuccessful in selling adequate or expected quantities of our tests.

In addition, our future sales levels will depend in large part on the effectiveness of our sales and marketing strategies, including our ability to expand our brand awareness by providing education about the benefits and full scale of our offering to the medical community in general and to our targeted geographic and customer markets. We also intend to continue to pursue targeted marketing initiatives, including working with medical professional societies to promote awareness of the benefits of our tests and genetic testing in general, pursuing or supporting scientific studies of our tests and publication of results in medical or scientific journals and making presentations at medical, scientific or industry conferences and trade shows. We may not be successful in implementing these initiatives or other marketing strategies we may develop and pursue. If we are not able to drive sufficient revenue using our sales and marketing strategies to support our planned growth, our business and results of operations would be negatively affected.

Our sales and marketing strategies also include a continued focus on growing our international sales and customer base, which we plan to pursue through our direct sales team, a number of independent contractor sales representatives, and, if opportunities arise, by engaging distributors or establishing other types of arrangements, such as joint ventures or other relationships, to manage or assist with sales, logistics, education or customer support in certain territories. To this end, we have worked with Xi Long USA, Inc., or Xi Long, a large stockholder of our company, to form a joint venture in the second quarter of 2017, which we refer to as FF Gene Biotech, to offer genetic testing to customers in the People’s Republic of China, or PRC. Although we believe this joint venture could result in expanded long-term opportunities to address the genetic testing market in Asia, these expectations could turn out to be wrong and we may never realize the benefits we anticipate from this joint venture. While it may become necessary to identify, qualify and engage other commercial partners or distributors with local industry experience and knowledge in order to effectively market and sell our tests outside the United States, we have not established any such relationships to cover any non-U.S. territories except for this joint venture in the PRC. As a result, we may not be successful in finding, attracting and retaining qualified distributors or other commercial partners or we may not be able to enter into arrangements covering desired territories on favorable terms. In addition, sales practices utilized by distributors or other commercial partners that are locally acceptable may not comply with sales practices or standards required under U.S. laws that apply to us, which could subject us to additional compliance risks. If our sales and marketing efforts outside the United States are not successful, we may not achieve significant acceptance for our tests in international markets, which could materially and adversely impact our business operations.

We will need to invest in and expand our infrastructure and hire additional skilled personnel in order to support our desired growth, and our failure to effectively manage any future growth could jeopardize our business.

To increase the volume of tests we offer and deliver, we must invest in our infrastructure, including our testing capacity and information systems, enterprise software systems, customer service, billing and collections systems and processes and internal quality assurance programs. We will also need to invest in our workforce by hiring additional skilled personnel, including biostatisticians, geneticists, software engineers, laboratory directors and specialists, sales and marketing experts and other scientific, technical and managerial personnel to market, process, interpret and validate the quality of results of our genetic tests and otherwise manage our operations. For example, before we deliver a report for any of our genetic tests, the results summarized in the report must be reviewed and approved by a licensed and qualified laboratory director. We currently have only four such laboratory directors with all of the required licenses, including Dr. Han Lin Gao. We may need to hire more licensed laboratory directors in the future to further scale our business. If we fail to hire additional qualified personnel when needed or otherwise develop our infrastructure sufficiently in advance of demand or if we fail to generate demand commensurate with our level of investment in our infrastructure, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. Additionally, although we do not presently have plans to acquire new or expand our existing laboratory space, we may need to do so in the future if our test volume increases, and any need to obtain an additional facility or replace our existing facility with a larger one could involve significant costs and challenges.

The time and resources required to implement new systems, to add and train new skilled personnel and to expand or acquire new laboratory space as needed are uncertain. Any future growth we may experience could create a strain on our organizational, administrative and operational infrastructure, including laboratory operations, quality control, customer service, sales and marketing

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and management. We may not be able to maintain the quality of or expected turnaround times for our tests or satisfy customer demand if and when it grows. Our ability to effectively manage any growth we experience will also require us to continue to improve our laboratory and other operational, financial and management systems and controls and our reporting processes and procedures, which may involve significant time and costs and which we may not be able to do successfully.

Our ability to achieve or sustain profitability depends on our collection of payment for the tests we deliver, which we may not be able to do successfully.

Since starting our genetic testing business, we have historically been focused primarily on providing our tests to hospitals, medical institutions and other laboratories. Our current customer base is principally comprised of hospitals, medical institutions and other laboratories. These customers typically pay for the cost of our tests using funds reimbursed in connection with a patient’s diagnosis related group, or DRG. However, our ability to collect payment for the tests we deliver to our hospital and medical institution customers, as well as to other types of customers, is subject to a number of risks, many of which are not within our control. These risks include the potential for default or bankruptcy by the party responsible for payment and other risks associated with payment collection generally. Further, healthcare policy changes that influence the way healthcare is financed or other changes in the market that impact payment rates by institutional or non-institutional customers could affect our collection rates. For example, because reimbursement under a DRG is typically provided at a fixed amount intended to cover all services provided to the patient, the cost of our tests may be viewed to limit the profitability of the billing institution. If we are unable to convince hospitals, medical institutions and other laboratories of the value and benefit provided by our tests, or if the amount reimbursed under these DRG codes is decreased, these customers may slow, or stop altogether, their purchases of our tests. Moreover, our ability to collect payment for our tests in a timely manner or at all may decline to the extent we expand our business into new customer groups, including individual physicians and other practitioners, from which collection rates are often significantly lower than hospitals, medical institutions and other laboratories and which involve substantial additional risks that are discussed in these risk factors below. Any inability to maintain our past payment collection levels could cause our revenue and ability to achieve profitability to decline.

If third-party payors do not provide coverage and adequate reimbursement for our tests, our potential for growth could be limited.

Coverage and reimbursement by third-party payors, including managed care organizations, private health insurers and government healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, for the types of genetic tests we perform can be limited and uncertain. Although our existing customer base consists primarily of hospitals, medical institutions and other laboratories, from which we typically receive direct payment for ordered tests, we believe our potential for future growth is dependent on our ability to attract new customer groups, including individual physicians and other practitioners. These practitioners may not order our tests unless third-party payors cover and provide adequate reimbursement for a substantial portion of the price of the tests. If we are not able to obtain coverage and an acceptable level of reimbursement for our tests from third-party payors, there would typically be a greater co-insurance or co-payment requirement from the patient for whom the test is ordered or the patient may be forced to pay the entire cost of the test out-of-pocket, which could dissuade practitioners from ordering our tests and, if ordered, could result in a delay in or decreased likelihood of collecting payment, whether from patients or from third-party payors. We believe our ability to increase the number of tests we sell and our revenue will depend in part on our ability to achieve broad coverage and reimbursement for our tests from third-party payors.

Coverage and reimbursement by a third-party payor may depend on a number of factors, including a payor’s determination that a test is appropriate, medically necessary and cost-effective. Each payor makes its own decision as to whether to establish a policy or enter into a contract to cover our tests and the amount it will reimburse for each test, and any determination by a payor regarding coverage and amount of reimbursement for our tests would likely be made on an indication-by-indication basis. Even if a test has been approved for reimbursement, for any particular indication or in any particular jurisdiction, there is no guarantee this test will remain approved for reimbursement or that any similar or additional tests will be approved for reimbursement in the future. Moreover, there can be no assurance that any new tests we launch will be reimbursed or reimbursed at rates comparable to the rates of any previously reimbursed tests. In addition, the coding procedure used by all third-party payors with respect to establishing payment rates for various procedures, including our tests, is complex, does not currently adapt well to the genetic tests we perform and may not enable coverage and adequate reimbursement rates for our tests. If physicians fail to provide appropriate codes for desired tests, we may not be reimbursed our tests. Additionally, if we are not able to obtain sufficient clinical information in support of our tests, third-party payors could designate our tests as experimental or investigational and decline to cover and reimburse our tests because of this designation. As a result of these factors, obtaining approvals from third-party payors to cover our tests and establishing adequate reimbursement levels is an unpredictable, challenging, time-consuming and costly process, and we may never be successful.

To date, we have contracted directly with a national health insurance company to become an in-network provider and enrolled as a supplier in the Medicare program and some state Medicaid programs, and we have also received payment for our tests from other third-party payors as an out-of-network provider. Although becoming an in-network provider or enrolling as a supplier means that we have agreed with these payors to provide certain of our tests at negotiated rates, it does not obligate any physicians or other practitioners to order our tests or guarantee that we will receive reimbursement for our tests from these or any other payors at adequate

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levels. As a result, these payor relationships, any other similar relationships we may establish in the future, or any additional payments we may receive from other payors as an out-of-network provider, may not amount to acceptable levels of reimbursement for our tests or meaningful or any increases in our physician customer base or the number of billable tests we sell to physicians. We expect to focus on increasing coverage and reimbursement for our current tests and any future tests we may develop, but we cannot predict whether, under what circumstances, or at what payment levels payors will cover and reimburse for our tests. Further, even if we are successful, we believe it could take several years to achieve coverage and adequate contracted reimbursement with third-party payors. If we fail to establish and maintain broad coverage and reimbursement for our tests, our ability to maintain or grow our test volume, customer base, collectability rates and revenue levels could be limited and our future prospects and our business could suffer.

 

Failure to comply with government laws and regulations related to submission of claims for our services could result in significant monetary damages and penalties and exclusion from the Medicare and Medicaid programs and corresponding foreign reimbursement programs.

We are subject to laws and regulations governing the submission of claims for payment for our services, such as those relating to: coverage of our services under Medicare, Medicaid and other state, federal and foreign health care programs; the amounts that we may bill for our services; and the party to which we must submit claims. Our failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations could result in our inability to receive payment for our services or in attempts by state and federal healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, to recover payments already made. Submission of claims in violation of these laws and regulations can result in recoupment of payments already received, substantial civil monetary penalties, and exclusion from state and federal health care programs, and can subject us to liability under the federal False Claims Act and similar laws. The failure to report and return an overpayment to the Medicare or Medicaid program within 60 days of identifying its existence can give rise to liability under the False Claims Act. Further, a government agency could attempt to hold us liable for causing the improper submission of claims by another entity for services that we performed if we were found to have knowingly participated in the arrangement at issue.

 

We may not be successful in developing and marketing new tests, which could negatively impact our performance and prospects.

We believe our future success will depend in part on our ability to continue to expand our test offering and develop and sell new tests. We may not be successful in launching or marketing any new tests we may develop, including our recently launched Picture Genetics offering, and, even if we are successful, the demand for our other tests could decrease or may not continue to increase at historical rates due to sales of the new tests. Our pipeline of new tests is in various stages of development and will be time-consuming and costly to fully develop and introduce, as development and marketing of new tests requires us to conduct research and development activities regarding the new tests and to further scale our laboratory processes and infrastructure to be able to analyze increasing amounts of more diverse data. Further, we may be unable to discover or develop and launch new tests for a variety of reasons, including failure of any proposed test to perform as expected, lack of validation or reference data for the test or failure to demonstrate the utility of the test. Further, any new test we are able to discover and develop may not be launched in a timely manner, meet applicable regulatory standards, successfully compete with other technologies and available tests, avoid infringing the proprietary rights of others, achieve coverage and adequate reimbursement from third-party payors, be capable of performance at commercial levels and at reasonable costs, be successfully marketed or achieve sufficient market acceptance for us to recoup our time and capital investment in the development of the test. Any failure to successfully develop, market and sell new tests could negatively impact our ability to attract and retain customers and our revenue and prospects.

We are exposed to additional business, regulatory, political, operational, financial and economic risks related to our international operations.

Our existing customer base includes international customers from a variety of geographic markets. In addition, we have established FF Gene Biotech to offer genetic testing to customers in the PRC. As part of our strategy, we aim to increase our volume of direct sales to international customers in a variety of markets by conducting targeted marketing outreach activities and, if opportunities arise, engaging distributors or establishing other types of arrangements, such as joint ventures or other relationships. However, we may never be successful in achieving these objectives, and even if we are successful, these strategies may not result in meaningful or any increases in our customer base, test volumes or revenue.

Doing business internationally involves a number of risks, including, among others:

 

compliance with the laws and regulations of multiple jurisdictions, which may be conflicting or subject to increasing stringency or other changes, including privacy regulations, tax laws, employment laws, healthcare regulatory requirements and other related approvals, including permitting and licensing requirements;

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logistics associated with the shipment of blood or other tissue specimens, including infrastructure conditions, transportation delays and the impact of U.S. and local laws and regulations, such as export and import restrictions, tariffs or other charges and other trade barriers, all of which involve increased related to the trade policies of the current

administration, which may threaten existing and proposed trade agreements and impose more restrictive U.S. export-import regulations that impact our business;

 

limits on our ability to penetrate international markets, including legal and regulatory requirements that would force us to conduct our tests locally by building additional laboratories or engaging in joint ventures or other relationships in order to offer our tests in certain countries, which relationships could involve significant time and resources to establish, deny us control over certain aspects of the foreign operations or reduce the economic value to us of these operations;

 

failure by us, any joint ventures or other arrangements we may establish or any distributors or other commercial partners we may engage to obtain any regulatory approvals required to market, sell and use our tests in various countries;

 

challenges predicting the market for genetic testing generally and tailoring our test menu to meet varying customer expectations in different countries and territories;

 

difficulties gaining market share in territories in which we do not have a strong physical presence or brand awareness;

 

complexities and difficulties obtaining protection for and enforcing our intellectual property rights;

 

difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations;

 

complexities associated with managing multiple payor coverage and reimbursement regimes, government payors or patient self-pay systems;

 

financial risks, such as longer payment cycles, difficulty collecting accounts receivable and the impact of local and regional financial conditions on demand and payment for our tests;

 

exposure to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations, including increased risk with respect to the Canadian dollar after we recently started billing certain of our Canadian hospital customers in their local currency and with respect to the renminbi, or RMB, related to revenue received under our agreements with FF Gene Biotech;

 

risks relating to conversion and repatriation of certain foreign currencies, particularly the RMB, which is subject to legal procedures and restrictions on currency conversion and movement outside the PRC and which could impact our ability to receive the anticipated financial benefits of our FF Gene Biotech joint venture;

 

natural disasters, political and economic instability, including wars, terrorism and political unrest, outbreak of disease, boycotts and other business restrictions; and

 

regulatory and compliance risks related to applicable anti-bribery laws, including requirements to maintain accurate information and control over activities that may fall within the purview of these laws.

Any of these factors could significantly harm our existing relationships with international customers or derail our international expansion plans, which would cause our revenue and results of operations to suffer.

In addition, we are exposed to a number of additional risks and challenges related to our efforts to access customers in the PRC with the formation of FF Gene Biotech. These risks include, among others, difficulties predicting the market for genetic testing in Asia; competitive factors in this market, including challenges securing market share; local differences in customer demands and preferences and regulatory requirements; our lack of control over FF Gene Biotech due to our non-majority ownership interest; and many of the other risks of doing business internationally that are discussed above. Further, we could experience declines in our direct sales to, and revenue from, customers in Asia if any of these customers choose to order genetic tests from FF Gene Biotech instead of from us. As a result of these risks, although we believe FF Gene Biotech could result in expanded long-term opportunities to address the genetic testing market in Asia, this belief could turn out to be wrong and we may never realize these or any other benefits we anticipate from this joint venture. Moreover, FF Gene Biotech or any other joint venture we may seek to establish may never produce sufficient revenue to us to recover our capital and other investments in the joint venture, and we could become subject to liabilities based on our involvement in the joint venture’s operations. The materialization of any of these risks related to FF Gene Biotech could materially harm our performance and prospects.

If we are sued for product or professional liability, we could face substantial liabilities that exceed our resources.

Our business depends on our ability to provide reliable and accurate test results that incorporate rapidly evolving information about the role of genes and gene variants in disease and clinically relevant outcomes associated with these variants. Hundreds of genes can be implicated in some disorders and overlapping networks of genes and symptoms can be implicated in multiple conditions. As a result, substantial judgment is required in order to interpret the results of each test we perform and produce a report summarizing these results. Errors, such as failures to detect genomic variants with high accuracy, or mistakes, such as failures to completely and correctly identify the significance of gene variants, could subject us to product liability or professional liability claims. Any such claim against us could result in substantial damages and be costly and time-consuming to defend. Although we maintain liability insurance, including for errors and omissions, our insurance may not fully protect us from the financial impact of defending against these types of

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claims or any judgments, fines or settlement costs arising out of any such claims. Additionally, any liability claim brought against us, with or without merit, could increase our insurance rates or prevent us from securing adequate insurance coverage in the future. Moreover, any liability lawsuit could damage our reputation or force us to suspend sales of our tests. The occurrence of any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation and results of operations.

If our sole laboratory facility becomes inoperable, if we are forced to vacate the facility or if we are unable to obtain additional laboratory space as and when needed, we would be unable to perform our tests and our business would be harmed.

We perform all of our tests at a single laboratory in Temple City, California. Our laboratory facility could be damaged or rendered inoperable by natural or man-made disasters, including earthquakes, floods, fires and power outages, which could render it difficult or impossible for us to perform our tests for some period of time. The inability to perform our tests or the backlog that could develop if our laboratory becomes inoperable for even a short time could result in the loss of customers or harm to our reputation. Although we maintain insurance for damage to our property and disruption of our business, this insurance may not be sufficient to cover all of our potential losses and may not continue to be available to us on acceptable terms, if at all.

Further, if we need to move to a different facility or obtain additional laboratory space, we may have difficulty locating suitable space in a timely manner, on reasonable terms or at all, and even if acceptable space was available, it would be challenging, time-consuming and expensive to obtain or transfer the licensure and accreditation required for a commercial laboratory like ours and the equipment we use to perform our tests. These challenges could be amplified if we or our joint ventures or other commercial partners seek to procure and maintain laboratory space outside the United States as we pursue international expansion. If we are unable to obtain or are delayed in obtaining new laboratory space as needed, we may not be able to provide our existing tests or develop and launch new tests, which could result in harm to our business, reputation, financial condition and results of operations.

We rely on a limited number of suppliers and, in some cases, a sole supplier, for certain of our laboratory substances, equipment and other materials, and any delays or difficulties securing these materials could disrupt our laboratory operations and materially harm our business.

We rely on a limited number of suppliers for certain of our laboratory substances, including reagents, as well as for the sequencers and various other equipment and materials we use in our laboratory operations. In particular, we rely on Illumina, Inc. as the sole supplier of the next generation sequencers and associated reagents we use to perform our genetic tests and as the sole provider of maintenance and repair services for these sequencers. We do not have long-term agreements with any of our suppliers and, as a result, they could cease supplying these materials and equipment to us at any time due to an inability to reach agreement with us on supply terms, disruptions in their operations, a determination to pursue other activities or lines of business or for other reasons, or they could fail to provide us with sufficient quantities of materials that meet our specifications. Transitioning to a new supplier or locating a temporary substitute, if any are available, would be time-consuming and expensive, could result in interruptions in or otherwise affect the performance specifications of our laboratory operations or could require that we revalidate our tests. In addition, the use of equipment or materials provided by a replacement supplier could require us to alter our laboratory operations and procedures. Moreover, we believe there are currently only a few manufacturers that are capable of supplying and servicing some of the equipment and other materials necessary for our laboratory operations, including sequencers and various associated reagents. As a result, replacement equipment and materials that meet our quality control and performance requirements may not be available on reasonable terms, in a timely manner or at all. If we encounter delays or difficulties securing, reconfiguring or revalidating the equipment, reagents and other materials we require for our tests, our operations could be materially disrupted and our business, financial condition, results of operations and reputation could be adversely affected.

Billing and collections processing for our tests is complex and time-consuming, and any delay in transmitting and collecting claims could have an adverse effect on our revenue.

Billing for our tests is complex, time-consuming and expensive. Depending on the billing arrangement and applicable law, we bill various different parties for our tests, including customers directly in the case of our hospital and medical institution customers, as well as Medicare, Medicaid, insurance companies and patients, all of which may have different billing requirements. We may face increased risk in our collection efforts due to the complexities of these billing requirements, including long collection cycles and lower collection rates, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Several factors make this billing process complex, including:

 

differences between the list price for our tests and the reimbursement rates of payors;

 

compliance with complex federal and state regulations related to billing government healthcare programs, including Medicare and Medicaid;

 

disputes among payors as to which party is responsible for payment;

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differences in coverage among payors and the effect of patient co-payments or co-insurance;

 

differences in information and billing requirements among payors;

 

incorrect or missing billing information; and

 

the resources required to manage the billing and claims appeals process.

We are developing internal systems and procedures to handle these billing and collections functions and we have engaged a third party to assist with some of these functions, but we will need to make significant efforts and expend substantial resources to further develop our systems and procedures to handle these aspects of our business, which could become increasingly important as we focus on increasing test volumes from non-hospital and medical institution customer groups and establishing coverage and reimbursement policies with third-party payors. As a result, these billing complexities, along with the related uncertainty in obtaining payment for our tests, could negatively affect our revenue and cash flow, our ability to achieve or sustain profitability and the consistency and comparability of our results of operations. In addition, if claims for our tests are not submitted to payors on a timely basis, or if we are required to switch to a different provider to handle our processing and collections functions, our revenue and our business could be adversely affected.

Ethical, legal and social concerns related to the use of genetic information could reduce demand for our tests.

Genetic testing has raised ethical, legal and social issues regarding privacy and the appropriate uses of the resulting information. Government authorities could, for social or other purposes, limit or regulate the use of genetic information or genetic testing or prohibit testing for genetic predisposition to certain conditions, particularly for those that have no known cure. Similarly, these concerns may cause patients to refuse to use, or physicians to be reluctant to order, genetic tests such as ours, even if permissible. These and other ethical, legal and social concerns may limit market acceptance and adoption of our tests or reduce the potential markets for our tests, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Actual or attempted security breaches, loss of data or other disruptions could compromise sensitive information related to our business or to patients or prevent us from accessing critical information, any of which could expose us to liability and adversely affect our business and our reputation.

In the ordinary course of our business, we generate, collect and store sensitive data, including protected health information, or PHI, personally identifiable information, intellectual property and proprietary and other business-critical information, such as research and development data, commercial data and other business and financial information. We manage and maintain the data we generate, collect and store utilizing a combination of on-site systems and managed data center systems. We also communicate sensitive patient data when we deliver reports summarizing test results to our customers, which we deliver via our online encrypted web portal, encrypted email or fax or overnight courier. We face a number of risks related to protecting this information, including loss of access, unauthorized modification or inappropriate disclosure.

The secure processing, storage, maintenance and transmission of this information are vital to our operations and business strategy, and we devote significant resources to protecting the confidentiality and integrity of this information. Although we have implemented security measures and other controls designed to protect sensitive information from unauthorized access, use or disclosure, our information technology and infrastructure could fail, be inadequate or vulnerable to attacks by hackers or viruses or be breached due to employee error, malfeasance or other disruptions. A breach or interruption could compromise our information systems and the information we store could be accessed by unauthorized parties, manipulated, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen. Any such unauthorized access, manipulation, disclosure or other loss of information could result in legal claims or proceedings and could result in liability or penalties under federal, state or foreign laws that protect the privacy of personal information, discussed below under “—We are subject to broad legal requirements regarding the information we test and analyze, and any failure to comply with these requirements could result in harsh penalties, damage our reputation and materially harm our business.” Additionally, unauthorized access, manipulation, loss or dissemination could significantly damage our reputation and disrupt our operations, including our ability to perform our tests, analyze and provide test results, bill customers or other payors, process claims for reimbursement, provide customer service, conduct research and development activities, collect, process, and prepare company financial information, conduct education and outreach activities and manage the administrative aspects of our operations, as described further below under “—We depend on our information technology systems, and any failure of these systems, due to hardware or software malfunctions, delays in operation, failures to implement new or enhanced systems or cybersecurity breaches, could harm our business.” The occurrence of any of these risks could materially adversely affect our business.

The loss of any member of our senior management team could adversely affect our business.

Our success depends in large part on the skills, experience and performance of our executive management team and others in key leadership positions, especially Ming Hsieh, our founder, Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of our board of directors, and Dr.

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Han Lin Gao, our Chief Scientific Officer and Laboratory Director. The continued efforts of these persons will be critical to us as we continue to develop our technologies and test processes and focus on growing our business. If we lose one or more key executives, we could experience difficulties maintaining our operations, including the ability to deliver reports to customers after review and approval by a licensed and qualified laboratory director, competing effectively, advancing our technologies, developing new tests and implementing our business strategies. All of our executives and employees, including Mr. Hsieh and Dr. Gao, are at-will, which means either we or the executive or employee may terminate their employment at any time. We do not carry key man insurance for any of our executives or other employees. In addition, we do not have long-term retention agreements in place with any of our executives or key employees.

We rely on highly skilled personnel in a broad array of disciplines, and if we are unable to hire, retain or motivate these individuals, we may not be able to maintain the quality of our tests or grow our business.

Our business, including our research and development programs, laboratory operations and administrative functions, largely depends on our continued ability to identify, hire, train, motivate and retain highly skilled personnel for all areas of our organization, including biostatisticians, geneticists, software engineers, laboratory directors and specialists, sales and marketing experts and other scientific, technical and managerial personnel. Competition in our industry for qualified executives and other employees is intense, and we may not be able to attract or retain the qualified personnel we need to execute our business plans due to high levels of competition for these personnel among our competitors, other life science businesses, universities and public and private research institutions. In addition, our compensation arrangements may not be successful in attracting new employees and retaining and motivating our existing employees. If we are not able to attract and retain the necessary personnel to accomplish our business objectives, we may experience constraints that could adversely affect our ability to expand our business and support our clinical laboratory operations and our sales and marketing and research and development efforts, which would negatively affect our prospects for future growth and success.

Any inability to obtain additional capital when needed and on acceptable terms may limit our ability to execute our business plans.

We expect our capital expenditures and operating expenses to increase over the next several years as we seek to expand our infrastructure, sales and marketing and other commercial operations and research and development activities. We may seek to raise additional capital through securities offerings, credit facilities or other debt financings, asset sales or collaborations or licensing arrangements. Additional funding may not be available to us when needed, on acceptable terms or at all. If we raise funds by issuing equity securities, our existing stockholders could experience substantial dilution. Additionally, any preferred stock we issue could provide for rights, preferences or privileges senior to those of our common stock, and our issuance of any additional equity securities, or the possibility of such an issuance, could cause the market price of our common stock to decline. The terms of any debt securities we issue or borrowings we incur, if available, could impose significant restrictions on our operations, such as limitations on our ability to incur additional debt or issue additional equity or other restrictions that could adversely affect our ability to conduct our business, and would result in increased fixed payment obligations. If we seek to sell assets or enter into collaborations or licensing arrangements to raise capital, we may be required to accept unfavorable terms or relinquish or license to a third party our rights to important or valuable technologies or tests we may otherwise seek to develop ourselves. Moreover, we may incur substantial costs in pursuing future capital, including investment banking, legal and accounting fees, printing and distribution expenses and other similar costs. If we are not able to secure funding if and when needed and on reasonable terms, we may be forced to delay, reduce the scope of or eliminate one or more sales and marketing initiatives, research and development programs or other growth plans or strategies. In addition, we may be forced to work with a partner on one or more aspects of our tests or market development programs or initiatives, which could lower the economic value to us of these tests, programs or initiatives. Any such outcome could significantly harm our business, performance and prospects.

We may acquire businesses or assets, form joint ventures, make investments in other companies or technologies or establish other strategic relationships, any of which could harm our operating results, dilute our stockholders’ ownership or cause us to incur debt or significant expense.

As part of our business strategy, we may pursue acquisitions of complementary businesses or assets, investments in other companies, technology licensing arrangements, joint ventures or other strategic relationships. As an organization, we have limited experience with respect to acquisitions, investments or the formation of strategic relationships or joint ventures. If we make acquisitions in the future, we may not be able to successfully integrate the acquired businesses or technologies into our existing operations, we could assume unknown or contingent liabilities and we could be forced to record significant write-offs or incur debt as a result of the acquisitions, any of which could harm our operating results. Further, integration of an acquired business or technology could involve significant difficulties, and could require management and capital resources that otherwise would be available for ongoing development of our existing business or pursuit of other opportunities. If we pursue relationships with pharmaceutical companies or other strategic relationships, our ability to establish and maintain these relationships could be challenging due to several factors, including competition with other genetic testing companies and internal and external constraints placed on pharmaceutical and other organizations that limit the number and type of relationships they can establish with companies like ours. Moreover, we may not be

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able to identify or complete any acquisition, investment, technology license, joint venture or other strategic relationship in a timely manner, on a cost-effective basis or at all, and we may not realize the anticipated benefits of any such transaction sufficiently to recoup our costs.

To finance any acquisitions, investments, joint ventures or other strategic relationships, we may seek to raise additional funds through securities offerings, credit facilities, asset sales or collaborations or licensing arrangements. Each of these methods of fundraising is subject to a variety of risks, including those discussed above under “—Any inability to obtain additional capital when needed and on acceptable terms may limit our ability to execute our business plans.” Further, additional funds from capital-raising transactions may not be available when needed, on acceptable terms or at all. Any inability to fund any acquisitions, investments or strategic relationships we pursue could cause us to forfeit opportunities we believe are promising or valuable, which could harm our prospects.

We depend on our information technology systems and any failure of these systems, due to hardware or software malfunctions, delays in operation, failures to implement new or enhanced systems or cybersecurity breaches, could harm our business.

We depend on information technology and telecommunications systems for significant elements of our operations, such as our laboratory information management systems, including test validation, specimen tracking and quality control; our bioinformatics analytical software systems; our reference library of information relating to genetic variants and their role in disease; personal information storage, maintenance and transmission; our customer-facing web-based software and customer service functions; our report production systems; our billing and reimbursement procedures; our scientific and medical data analysis and other research and development activities and programs; and our general and administrative activities, including disclosure controls, internal control over financial reporting and other public reporting functions. In addition, our third-party service providers depend on technology and telecommunications systems in order to provide contracted services for us. We expect we will need to continue to expand and strengthen a number of enterprise software systems that affect a broad range of business processes and functions, particularly if and as our operations grow, including, for example, systems handling human resources, financial and other disclosure controls and reporting, customer relationship management, regulatory compliance, security controls and other infrastructure functions.

Information technology and telecommunications systems are vulnerable to disruption and damage from a variety of sources, including power outages and other telecommunications or network failures, natural disasters, the outbreak of war or acts of terrorism. Moreover, despite network security and back-up measures, our servers and other electronic systems are potentially vulnerable to cybersecurity breaches, such as physical or electronic break-ins, computer viruses and similar disruptive events. Despite the precautionary measures we have taken to detect and prevent or solve problems that could affect our information technology and telecommunications systems, there may be significant downtime or failures of these systems or those used by our third-party service providers. Any such downtime or failure could prevent us from conducting tests, preparing and providing reports to customers, billing payors, responding to customer inquiries, conducting research and development activities, maintaining our financial and disclosure controls and other reporting functions and managing the administrative aspects of our business. Moreover, any such downtime or failure could force us to transfer data collection operations to an alternate provider of server-hosting services, which could involve significant costs and result in further delays in our ability to conduct tests, deliver reports to our customers and otherwise manage our operations. Further, although we carry property and business interruption insurance, the coverage may not be adequate to compensate for all losses that may occur in the event of system downtime or failure. Any such disruption or loss of information technology or telecommunications systems on which critical aspects of our operations depend could have a material adverse effect on our business and our reputation.

Additionally, if and as our business grows, we will need to continually improve and expand the scope of our technology systems in order to maintain their adequacy for the scale of our operations. Any failure to make such improvements or any significant delay in the planned implementation of new or enhanced systems could render our systems obsolete or inadequate, in which case our service to our customers and our other business activities could suffer and we could be more vulnerable to electronic breaches from outside sources.

We rely on commercial courier delivery services to transport specimens to our laboratory facility in a timely and cost-efficient manner, and if these delivery services are disrupted, our business would be harmed.

Our business depends on our ability to quickly and reliably deliver test results to our customers. We typically receive specimens from customers within days of shipment, for analysis at our Temple City, California laboratory. Disruptions in delivery service, whether due to labor disruptions, bad weather, natural disasters, terrorist acts or threats or for other reasons, could adversely affect specimen integrity and our ability to process specimens in a timely manner and otherwise service our customers, and ultimately our reputation and our business. In addition, if we are unable to continue to obtain expedited delivery services on commercially reasonable terms, our operating results may be adversely affected.

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If we are unable to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, investors could lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our reported financial information and the market price of our common stock could decline.

We are required to maintain internal control over financial reporting and report any material weaknesses in these internal controls. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires that we evaluate and determine the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and annually provide a management report on these internal controls. Although we have implemented systems, processes and controls and performed this evaluation as of the end of 2018, we will need to maintain and enhance them if and as we grow and, we may need to hire additional personnel and devote more resources to our financial reporting function in order to do so.

If we identify one or more material weaknesses during the process of annually evaluating our internal controls, we may not detect errors on a timely basis and our financial statements may be materially misstated. In addition, in that event, our management would be unable to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective. Further, when we are no longer an emerging growth company or smaller reporting company, as described in the risk factors below, our independent registered public accounting firm will be required to issue an attestation report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. When that occurs, our independent registered public accounting firm may conclude that there are material weaknesses in our internal controls or the level at which our internal controls are documented, designed, implemented or reviewed even if our management concludes that our internal control over financial reporting is effective.

If we or our auditors were to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting was not effective because one or more material weaknesses had been identified or if internal control deficiencies result in the restatement of our financial results, investors could lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial disclosures and the price of our common stock could decline.

 

Our disclosure controls and procedures may not prevent or detect all errors or acts of fraud.

We are subject to the periodic reporting and other requirements of the Exchange Act. We have implemented disclosure controls and procedures designed to provide reasonable assurance that information we must disclose in reports we file or submit under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to management and recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the rules and forms of the SEC. However, any disclosure controls and procedures, no matter how well-conceived and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the control system are met. These inherent limitations include the realities that judgments in decision-making can be faulty and that breakdowns can occur because of simple errors or mistakes. Additionally, controls can be circumvented by the individual acts of some persons, by collusion of two or more people or by an unauthorized override of the controls. As a result, because of these inherent limitations in our control system, misstatements or omissions due to error or fraud may occur and may not be detected, which could result in failures to file required reports in a timely manner and filing reports containing incorrect information. Any of these outcomes could result in SEC enforcement actions, monetary fines or other penalties, damage to our reputation and harm to our financial condition and stock price.

We may elect to comply with reduced public company reporting requirements available to us because we are an emerging growth company and a smaller reporting company, which could make our common stock less attractive to investors.

We are an emerging growth company, as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, as amended, or JOBS Act, and we will remain an emerging growth company until December 31, 2021, unless, before that date, our gross revenue exceeds $1.07 billion in any fiscal year, we issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt in any three-year period or the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the last business day of the second fiscal quarter of any fiscal year. In addition, beginning in 2018, we are a smaller reporting company, as defined in applicable SEC rules, and we will remain a smaller reporting company until the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates, or public float, equals or exceeds $250 million. When and if our public float exceeds $250 million, we may still qualify to report as a smaller reporting company provided our public float is less than $700 million and our annual revenues are less than $100 million for the year preceding the date of determination. As an emerging growth company, we are eligible for exemptions from certain reporting requirements applicable to other public companies, including an exemption from the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced financial statement and other financial disclosure requirements in registration statements and periodic reports we file, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation and, so long as we remain an emerging growth company, exemption from the requirements to hold non-binding advisory votes on executive compensation and obtain stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We have relied on many of these exemptions in our registration statement and periodic reports to date, and investors may find our common stock less attractive if we choose to continue to rely on these exemptions, in which case there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile. Under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or Securities Act, emerging growth companies can elect to delay adoption of new or revised accounting standards until those standards apply to private companies. We have irrevocably elected not to avail ourselves of this exemption and, as a result, we are subject to the same new or revised accounting standards at the same time as other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.

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Regulatory Risks

Any changes in laws, regulations or the enforcement discretion of the FDA with respect to the marketing of diagnostic products, or violations of laws or regulations by us, could adversely affect our business, prospects, results of operations or financial condition.

The laws and regulations governing the marketing of diagnostic products are evolving, extremely complex and, in many instances, there are no significant regulatory or judicial interpretations of these laws and regulations. Pursuant to its authority under the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or FDC Act, the FDA has jurisdiction over medical devices, including potentially our tests. Among other things, pursuant to the FDC Act and its implementing regulations, the FDA regulates the research, testing, manufacturing, safety, labeling, storage, recordkeeping, premarket clearance or approval, marketing and promotion, and sales and distribution of medical devices in the United States to ensure that medical products distributed domestically are safe and effective for their intended uses. In addition, the FDA regulates the import and export of medical devices.

Although the FDA has statutory authority to assure that medical devices, including potentially our tests, are safe and effective for their intended uses, the FDA has historically exercised its enforcement discretion and not enforced applicable provisions of the FDC Act and regulations with respect to laboratory developed tests, or LDTs, which are a particular type of medical device. We believe our tests, including the Picture Genetics tests, are LDTs. As a result, we believe our tests are not currently subject to the FDA’s enforcement of its medical device regulations and the applicable FDC Act provisions.

Even though we commercialize our tests as LDTs, our tests may in the future become subject to more onerous regulation by the FDA. For example, the FDA may disagree with our assessment that our tests fall within the definition of an LDT and seek to regulate our tests as medical devices. Moreover, the FDA issued draft guidance and a 2017 Discussion Paper to allow for further public discussion about an appropriate LDT oversight approach and to give congressional committees the opportunity to develop a legislative solution. The FDA also solicited public input and published two final guidance documents in April 2018 relating to FDA oversight of NGS-based tests. These two guidance documents describe the FDA’s thinking and recommendations regarding test developer’s use of FDA-recognized standards to support analytical validity, and public human genetic variant databases to support clinical validity, of these tests. Until the

FDA finalizes its regulatory position regarding LDTs, however, or legislation is passed concerning regulation of LDTs, it is unknown how the FDA may regulate our tests in the future and what testing and data may be required to support any required clearance or approval.

If the FDA begins to enforce its medical device requirements for LDTs or if the FDA disagrees with our assessment that our tests are LDTs, we could for the first time be subject to enforcement of a variety of regulatory requirements, including registration and listing, medical device reporting and quality control, and we could be required to obtain premarket clearance or approval for our existing tests and any new tests we may develop, which may force us to cease marketing our tests until we obtain the required clearance or approval. The premarket review process can be lengthy, expensive, time-consuming and unpredictable. Further, obtaining pre-market clearance may involve, among other things, successfully completing clinical trials. Clinical trials require significant time and cash resources and are subject to a high degree of risk, including risks of experiencing delays, failing to complete the trial or obtaining unexpected or negative results. If we are required to obtain premarket clearance or approval and/or conduct premarket clinical trials, our development costs could significantly increase, our introduction of any new tests we may develop may be delayed and sales of our existing tests could be interrupted or stopped. Any of these outcomes could reduce our revenue or increase our costs and materially adversely affect our business, prospects, results of operations or financial condition. Moreover, any cleared or approved labeling claims may not be consistent with our current claims or adequate to support continued adoption of and reimbursement for our tests. For instance, if we are required by the FDA to label our tests as investigational, or if labeling claims the FDA allows us to make are limited, order levels may decline and reimbursement may be adversely affected. As a result, we could experience significantly increased development costs and a delay in generating additional revenue from our existing tests or from tests we may develop.

In addition, while we qualify all materials used in our products in accordance with the regulations and guidelines of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988, or CLIA, the FDA could promulgate regulations or guidance documents impacting our ability to purchase materials necessary for the performance of our tests. If any of the reagents we obtain from suppliers and use in our tests are affected by future regulatory actions, our business could be adversely affected, including by increasing the cost of testing or delaying, limiting or prohibiting the purchase of reagents necessary to perform testing with our products.

Failure to comply with any applicable FDA requirements could trigger a range of enforcement actions by the FDA, including warning letters, civil monetary penalties, injunctions, criminal prosecution, recall or seizure, operating restrictions, partial suspension or total shutdown of operations and denial of or challenges to applications for clearance or approval, as well as significant adverse publicity.

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If we fail to comply with applicable federal, state, local and foreign laboratory licensing requirements, we could lose the ability to perform our tests or experience disruptions to our business.

We are subject to CLIA, a federal law that establishes quality standards for all laboratory testing and is intended to ensure the accuracy, reliability and timeliness of patient results. CLIA requires that we hold a certificate specific to the laboratory examinations we perform and that we comply with various standards with respect to personnel qualifications, facility administration, proficiency testing, quality control, quality assurance and inspections. CLIA certification is required in order for us to be eligible to bill federal and state health care programs, as well as many private third-party payors, for our tests. We have obtained CLIA certification to conduct our tests at our laboratory in Temple City, California. To renew this certification, we are subject to survey and inspection every two years, and we may be subject to additional unannounced inspections.

In addition to CLIA requirements, we elect to participate in the accreditation program of the College of American Pathologists, or CAP. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, has deemed CAP standards to be equally or more stringent than CLIA regulations and has approved CAP as a recognized accrediting organization. Inspection by CAP is performed in lieu of inspection by CMS for CAP-accredited laboratories. Because we are accredited by the CAP Laboratory Accreditation Program, we are deemed to also comply with CLIA. While not required to operate a CLIA-certified laboratory, many private insurers require CAP accreditation as a condition to contracting with clinical laboratories to cover their tests. In addition, some countries outside the United States require CAP accreditation as a condition to permitting clinical laboratories to test samples taken from their citizens. Failure to maintain CAP accreditation could have a material adverse effect on the sales of our tests and the results of our operations.

We are also required to maintain a license to conduct testing in the State of California. California laws establish standards for day-to-day operation of our clinical reference laboratory in Temple City, including with respect to the training and skills required of personnel, quality control and proficiency testing requirements. In addition, because we receive test specimens originating from New York, we have obtained a state laboratory permit for our Temple City laboratory from the New York Department of Health, or DOH. The New York state laboratory laws, regulations and rules are at least as stringent as the CLIA regulations and establish standards for the operation of a clinical laboratory and performance of test services, including education and experience requirements for laboratory directors and personnel; physical requirements of a laboratory facility; equipment validations; and quality management practices. The laboratory director must maintain a Certificate of Qualification issued by New York’s DOH in permitted categories. We are subject to on-site routine and complaint-driven inspections under both California and New York state laboratory laws and regulations. If we are found to be out of compliance with either California or New York requirements, the CA Department of Public Health or New York’s DOH may suspend, restrict or revoke our license or laboratory permit, respectively (and, with respect to California, may exclude persons or entities from owning, operating or directing a laboratory for two years following such license revocation), assess civil monetary penalties, or impose specific corrective action plans, among other sanctions. Any such actions could materially and adversely affect our business by prohibiting or limiting our ability to offer testing.

Moreover, certain other states require us to maintain out-of-state laboratory licenses or obtain approval on a test-specific basis to perform testing on specimens from these states. Additional states could adopt similar licensure requirements in the future, which could require us to modify, delay or discontinue our operations in such jurisdictions. We are also subject to regulation in foreign jurisdictions, which we expect will increase as we seek to expand international utilization of our tests or if jurisdictions in which we pursue operations adopt new or modified licensure requirements. Foreign licensure requirements could require review and modification of our tests in order to offer them in certain jurisdictions or could impose other limitations, such as restrictions on the transport of human blood or other tissue necessary for us to perform our tests that may limit our ability to make our tests available outside the United States. Additionally, complying with licensure requirements in new jurisdictions may be expensive, time-consuming and subject us to significant and unanticipated delays.

CLIA and state laws and regulations, operating together, also impose restrictions on the ability of laboratories to offer consumer-initiated testing (also known as “direct access testing”), including our Picture Genetics line of at-home genetic test offerings. CLIA certified laboratories are generally permitted to perform testing only upon the order of an “authorized person,” defined as an individual authorized under state law to order tests or receive test results, or both. Many states similarly do not permit persons other than licensed healthcare providers to order tests and may also impose certain informed consent requirements and marketing restrictions

Failure to comply with applicable clinical laboratory licensure requirements could result in a range of enforcement actions, including license suspension, limitation or revocation, directed plan of correction, onsite monitoring, civil monetary penalties, civil injunctive suits, criminal sanctions and exclusion from the Medicare and Medicaid programs, as well as significant adverse publicity. Any sanction imposed under CLIA, its implementing regulations or state or foreign laws or regulations governing clinical laboratory licensure, or our failure to renew our CLIA certificate or any other required local, state or foreign license or accreditation, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In such case, even if we were able to bring our laboratory back into compliance, we could incur significant expenses and lose revenue while doing so.

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We are subject to broad legal requirements regarding the information we test and analyze and any failure to comply with these requirements could result in harsh penalties, damage our reputation and materially harm our business.

Our business is subject to federal and state laws that protect the privacy and security of personal health information, including the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1986, or HIPAA, the federal Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, or HITECH, and similar state laws, as well as numerous other federal, state and foreign laws, including consumer protection laws and regulations, that govern the collection, dissemination, use, access to, confidentiality and security of patient health information. In addition, new laws and regulations that further protect the privacy and security of medical records or medical information are regularly considered by federal and state governments. Further, with the recent increase in publicity regarding data breaches resulting in improper dissemination of consumer information, federal and state governments have passed or are considering laws regulating the actions that a business must take if it experiences a data breach, such as prompt disclosure to affected customers. The Federal Trade Commission and states’ Attorneys General have also brought enforcement actions and prosecuted some data breach cases as unfair and/or deceptive acts or practices under the Federal Trade Commission Act. In addition to data breach notification laws, some states have enacted statutes and rules requiring businesses to reasonably protect certain types of personal information they hold or to otherwise comply with certain specified data security requirements for personal information. We intend to continue to comprehensively protect all personal information and to comply with all applicable laws regarding the protection of such information.

Any failure to implement appropriate security measures to protect the confidentiality and integrity of personal information or any breach or other failure of these systems resulting in the unauthorized access, manipulation, disclosure or loss of this information could result in our noncompliance with these laws. Penalties for failure to comply with a requirement of HIPAA and HITECH vary significantly depending on the failure and could include civil monetary or criminal penalties.

The European Union formally adopted the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) in 2016, which applies to all European Union member states from May 25, 2018 and replaced the European Data Protection Directive. The GDPR also includes new operational requirements for companies that receive or process personal data of European residents, as well as significant penalties for non-compliance. The regulation introduces stringent new data protection requirements in the European Union and substantial fines for breaches of the data protection rules. It has increased our responsibility and liability in relation to personal data that we process and we may be required to put in place additional mechanisms ensuring compliance with the new European data protection rules. The GDPR is a complex law and the regulatory guidance is still evolving, including with respect to how the GDPR should be applied in the context of clinical studies. Furthermore, many of the countries within the European Union are still in the process of drafting supplementary data protection legislation in key fields where the GDPR allows for national variation, including the fields of clinical study and other health-related information. These variations in the law may raise our costs of compliance and result in greater legal risks.

In addition, the interpretation, application and interplay of consumer and health-related data protection laws in the United States, Europe and elsewhere are often uncertain, contradictory and in flux. As a result, it is possible that laws may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our current practices. Moreover, these laws and their interpretations are constantly evolving and they may become more stringent over time. For example, on June 28, 2018, California enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act, or CCPA, which takes effect on January 1, 2020. The CCPA creates individual privacy rights for California consumers and increases the privacy and security obligations of entities handling certain personal information. The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for data breaches that is expected to increase data breach litigation. Complying with these laws or any new laws or interpretations of their application could involve significant time and substantial costs or require us to change our business practices and compliance procedures in a manner adverse to our business. We may not be able to obtain or maintain compliance with the diverse privacy and security requirements in all of the jurisdictions in which we currently or plan to do business, and failure to comply with any of these requirements could result in civil or criminal penalties, harm our reputation and materially adversely affect our business.

We conduct business in a heavily regulated industry. Complying with the numerous statutes and regulations pertaining to our business is expensive and time-consuming, and any failure by us, our consultants or commercial partners to comply could result in substantial penalties.

Our industry and our operations are heavily regulated by various federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations, and the regulatory environment in which we operate could change significantly and adversely in the future. These laws and regulations currently include, among others:

 

the FDA’s enforcement discretion with respect to LDTs;

 

CLIA’s and CAP’s regulation of our laboratory activities;

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federal and state laws and standards affecting reimbursement by government payors, including certain coding requirements to obtain reimbursement and certain changes to the payment mechanism for clinical laboratory services resulting from the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014, or PAMA;

 

HIPAA and HITECH, which establish comprehensive federal standards with respect to the privacy and security of PHI, and requirements for the use of certain standardized electronic transactions with respect to transmission of such information, as well as similar laws protecting other types of personal information;

 

state laws governing the maintenance of personally identifiable information of state residents, including medical information, and which impose varying breach notification requirements, some of which allow private rights of action by individuals for violations and also impose penalties for such violations;

 

the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which generally prohibits knowingly and willfully offering, paying, soliciting or receiving remuneration, directly or indirectly, in return for or to induce a person to refer to an individual any good, facility, item or service that is reimbursable under a federal health care program;

 

the federal Stark Law, which generally prohibits a physician from making a referral for certain designated health services covered by the Medicare program, including laboratory and pathology services, if the physician or an immediate family member has a financial relationship with the entity providing the designated health services;

 

the federal false claims laws, which generally impose liability on any person or entity that, among other things, knowingly presents, or causes to be presented, a false or fraudulent claim for payment to the federal government;

 

the federal Civil Monetary Penalties Law, which generally prohibits, among other things, the offering or transfer of remuneration to a Medicare or Medicaid beneficiary if it is likely to influence the beneficiary’s selection of a particular provider, practitioner or supplier of services reimbursable by Medicare or Medicaid;

 

the Affordable Care Act, which, among other things, establishes a requirement for providers and suppliers to report and return any overpayments received from the Medicare and Medicaid programs;

 

other federal and state fraud and abuse laws, such as anti-kickback laws, prohibitions on self-referral, fee-splitting restrictions, insurance fraud laws, anti-markup laws, prohibitions on the provision of tests at no or discounted cost to induce physician or patient adoption and false claims acts, some of which may extend to services reimbursable by any third-party payor, including private insurers;

 

the federal Physician Sunshine Payment Act and various state laws on reporting relationships with health care providers and customers, which could be determined to apply to our LDTs;

 

the prohibition on reassignment of Medicare claims;

 

state laws that prohibit other specified healthcare practices, such as billing physicians for tests that they order, waiving coinsurance, copayments, deductibles and other amounts owed by patients, business corporations practicing medicine or employing or engaging physicians to practice medicine and billing a state Medicaid program at a price that is higher than what is charged to one or more other payors;

 

the federal Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, and applicable foreign anti-bribery laws;

 

federal, state and local regulations relating to the handling and disposal of regulated medical waste, hazardous waste and biohazardous waste and workplace safety for healthcare employees;

 

laws and regulations relating to health and safety, labor and employment, public reporting, taxation and other areas applicable to businesses generally, all of which are subject to change, including, for example, the significant changes to the taxation of business entities were enacted in December 2017; and

 

similar foreign laws and regulations that apply to us in the countries in which we operate or may operate in the future.

The genetic testing industry is currently under a high degree of government scrutiny. The Office of Inspector General for the Department of Health and Human Services and a variety of State Attorneys General have issued fraud alerts regarding a variety of cancer genetic testing fraud schemes, and the Department of Justice has announced indictments in such fraud schemes involving a variety of individuals and entities, including genetic testing and other laboratories, physicians who order genetic testing for a large volume of patients without treating them, and third parties who arranged for the genetic testing by approaching patients through telemarketing calls, booths at public events, health fairs, and door-to-door visits. These individuals then shared the proceeds received from Medicare, TRICARE, and other third-party payors. This increased regulatory scrutiny could decrease demand for our testing services or increase our costs of regulatory compliance, either of which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Any future growth of our business, including, in particular, growth of our international business and continued reliance on consultants, commercial partners and other third parties, may increase the potential for violating these laws. In some cases, our risk of violating

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these or other laws and regulations is further increased because of the lack of their complete interpretation by applicable regulatory authorities or courts, and their provisions are thus open to a variety of interpretations.

Our recently launched Picture Genetics line of at-home genetic test offerings are consumer-initiated screening tests, which may receive greater scrutiny from regulatory authorities than our traditional testing services that are offered directly to health care providers. Because the tests are consumer-initiated, we may be required to comply with additional state licensure laws that limit who may order laboratory testing or receive laboratory test results or that restrict advertising directly to consumers. In some states we may also be prohibited from dealing directly with patients.

We have adopted policies and procedures designed to comply with these laws and regulations and, in the ordinary course of our business, we conduct internal reviews of our compliance with these laws. Our compliance is also subject to review by applicable government agencies. It is not always possible to identify and deter misconduct by employees, distributors, consultants and commercial partners, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from government investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to comply with applicable laws or regulations. Additionally, we are subject to the risk that a person or government could allege such fraud or other misconduct, even if none occurred. Any action brought against us for violation of these or other laws or regulations, even if we successfully defend against it, could cause us to incur significant legal expenses, divert our management’s attention from the operation of our business and harm our reputation. If our operations, including the conduct of our employees, consultants and commercial partners, are found to be in violation of any of these laws and regulations, we may be subject to applicable penalties associated with the violation, including administrative, civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines, individual imprisonment, exclusion from participation in federal healthcare programs, refunding of payments received by us and curtailment or cessation of our operations. Any of these consequences could seriously harm our business and our financial results.

Healthcare policy changes, including recently enacted and proposed new legislation reforming the U.S. healthcare system, could cause significant harm to our business, operations and financial condition.

The Affordable Care Act made a number of substantial changes to the way healthcare is financed both by governmental and private insurers. For example, the Affordable Care Act requires each medical device manufacturer to pay an excise tax on the medical devices it sells. The medical device tax has been suspended through 2019. It is unclear at this time when, or if, sales of our LDTs will trigger the medical device tax, and it is possible that this tax will apply to some or all of our existing tests or tests we may develop in the future. Additionally, the Affordable Care Act introduces mechanisms to reduce the per capita rate of growth in Medicare spending if expenditures exceed certain targets. Any such reductions could affect reimbursement payments for our tests. The Affordable Care Act also contains a number of other provisions, including provisions governing enrollment in federal and state healthcare programs, reimbursement matters and fraud and abuse, which we expect will impact our industry and our operations in ways that we cannot currently predict.

In April 2014, Congress passed PAMA, which included substantial changes to the way in which clinical laboratory services will be paid under Medicare. Under PAMA, certain clinical laboratories are required to periodically report to CMS private payor payment rates and volumes for their tests. Laboratories that fail to report the required payment information may be subject to substantial civil monetary penalties. Further, effective January 1, 2018 under PAMA, Medicare reimbursement for diagnostic tests will be based on the weighted-median of the payments made by private payors for these tests, rendering private payor payment levels even more significant. As a result, future Medicare payments may fluctuate more often and become subject to the willingness of private payors to recognize the value of diagnostic tests generally and any given test individually. The impact of this new payment system on rates for our tests, including any current or future tests we may develop, is uncertain.

We cannot predict whether or when these or other recently enacted healthcare initiatives will be implemented at the federal or state level or how any such legislation or regulation may affect us. For instance, the payment reductions imposed by the Affordable Care Act and the changes to reimbursement amounts paid by Medicare for tests such as ours based on the procedure set forth in PAMA, could limit the prices we will be able to charge or the amount of available reimbursement for our tests, which would reduce our revenue. Additionally, these healthcare policy changes could be amended or additional healthcare initiatives could be implemented in the future. For instance, there is uncertainty regarding the continued effect or the Affordable Care Act in its current form following the results of the 2016 U.S. presidential election and in light of the policies of the current administration, which has threatened to repeal, replace or change the Affordable Care Act. Further, the impact on our business of the expansion of the federal and state governments’ role in the U.S. healthcare industry generally, including the social, governmental and other pressures to reduce healthcare costs while expanding individual benefits, is uncertain. Any future changes or initiatives could have a materially adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

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Changes in laws and regulations, or in their application, may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The clinical laboratory testing industry is highly regulated, and failure to comply with applicable regulatory, supervisory, accreditation, registration or licensing requirements may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In particular, the laws and regulations governing the marketing and research of clinical diagnostic testing are extremely complex, and in many instances there are no clear regulatory or judicial interpretations of these laws and regulations, increasing the risk that we may be found to be in violation of these laws.

Furthermore, the genetic testing industry as a whole is a growing industry and regulatory agencies such as the United States Department of Health and Human Services, or HHS, or the FDA may apply heightened scrutiny to new developments in the field, or the U.S. Congress may do so. Since 2017, Congress has been working on legislation to create an LDT and IVD regulatory framework that would be separate and distinct from the existing medical device regulatory framework. In August 2018, the FDA recommended changes to draft legislation that had been released by Congress in 2017. The agency’s comments addressed the need for a requirement that new tests undergo FDA review to demonstrate analytical and clinical validity and suggested changes to the draft language as it relates to premarket approval, provisional approval, and a precertification program for diagnostics. FDA’s recommendations, if included in enacted law, would give the FDA authority to revoke approval, request raw data, and take corrective action against test developers. In December 2018, legislators released a discussion draft of a bill that incorporated many of FDA’s suggestions. The new bill is called the Verifying Accurate, Leading-edge IVCT Development (VALID) Act and would codify into law the term “in vitro clinical test” (IVCT), a new medical product category separate from medical devices and that includes products currently regulated as IVDs as well as LDTs. It is unclear whether the VALID Act would be passed by Congress in its current form or signed into law by the President.

In addition, there has been a recent trend of increased U.S. federal and state regulation, scrutiny and enforcement relating to payments made to referral sources, which are governed by laws and regulations including the Stark law, the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, the federal False Claims Act, as well as state equivalents of such laws. For example, the Eliminating Kickbacks in Recovery Act of 2018, or EKRA, was passed in October 2018 as part of the Substance Use-Disorder Prevention that Promotes Opioid Recovery and Treatment for Patients and Communities Act (referred to as the SUPPORT Act). Similar to the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, EKRA imposes criminal penalties for knowing or willful payment or offer, or solicitation or receipt, of any remuneration, whether directly or indirectly, overtly or covertly, in cash or in kind, in exchange for the referral or inducement of laboratory testing (among other health care services) unless a specific exception applies. However, unlike the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, EKRA is not limited to services covered by federal or state health care programs but applies more broadly to services covered by “health care benefit programs,” including commercial insurers. Additionally, because EKRA’s exceptions are not identical to the federal Anti-Kickback Statute’s safe harbors, compliance with a federal Anti-Kickback Statute safe harbor does not guarantee protection under EKRA. As currently drafted, EKRA potentially expands the universe of arrangements that could be subject to government enforcement under federal fraud and abuse laws. Because EKRA is a new law, there is no agency guidance or court precedent to indicate how and to what extent it will be applied and enforced. We cannot assure you that our relationships with physicians, sales representatives, hospitals, customers, or any other party will not be subject to scrutiny or will survive regulatory challenge under such laws. If imposed for any reason, sanctions under the EKRA could have a negative effect on our business.

If the hazardous materials we use in our operations cause contamination or injury, we could be liable for resulting damages.

Our operations require the use of regulated medical waste, hazardous waste and biohazardous waste, including chemicals, biological agents and compounds and blood and other tissue specimens. We are subject on an ongoing basis to federal, state and local laws and regulations governing the use, storage, handling and disposal of these hazardous materials and other specified waste products. Although we typically use licensed or otherwise qualified outside vendors to dispose of this waste, applicable laws and regulations could hold us liable for damages and fines if our, or others’, business operations or other actions result in contamination to the environment or personal injury due to exposure to hazardous materials. We cannot eliminate the risk of contamination or injury, and any liability imposed on us for any resulting damages or injury could exceed our resources or any applicable insurance coverage. The cost to secure such insurance coverage and to comply with these laws and regulations could become more significant in the future, and any failure to comply could result in substantial costs and other business and reputational consequences, any of which could negatively affect our operating results.

We could be adversely affected by violations of the FCPA and other anti-bribery laws.

Our international operations are subject to various anti-bribery laws, including the FCPA and similar anti-bribery laws in the non-U.S. jurisdictions in which we operate. The FCPA prohibits companies and their intermediaries from offering, making, or authorizing improper payments to non-U.S. or foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business or securing any other improper advantage. These laws are complex and far-reaching in nature, and we may be required in the future to alter one or more of our practices to be in compliance with these laws or any changes to these laws or their interpretation.

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We currently engage in significant business outside the United States, and we plan to increase our international operations in the future. These operations could involve dealings with governments, foreign officials and state-owned entities, such as government hospitals, outside the United States. In addition, we may engage distributors, other commercial partners or third-party intermediaries, such as representatives or contractors, or establish joint ventures or other arrangements to manage or assist with promotion and sale of our tests abroad and obtaining necessary permits, licenses and other regulatory approvals. Any such third parties could be deemed to be our agents and we could be held responsible for any corrupt or other illegal activities of our employees or these third parties, even if we do not explicitly authorize or have actual knowledge of such activities. We have instituted policies, procedures, and internal controls reasonably designed to promote compliance with the FCPA and other anti-corruption laws and we exercise a high degree of vigilance in maintaining, implementing and enforcing these policies and controls. However, these policies and controls could be circumvented or ignored and they cannot guarantee compliance with these laws and regulations. Any violations of these laws or allegations of such violations could disrupt our operations, involve significant management distraction, involve significant costs and expenses, including legal fees, and harm our reputation. Additionally, other U.S. companies in the medical device and pharmaceutical fields have faced substantial fines and criminal penalties in the recent past for violating the FCPA, and we could also incur these types of penalties, including criminal and civil penalties, disgorgement, and other remedial measures, if we violate the FCPA or other applicable anti-bribery laws. Anyof these outcomes could result in a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, or results of operations.

Our services present the potential for embezzlement, identity theft or other similar illegal behavior by our employees, consultants, service providers or commercial partners.

Our operations involve the use and disclosure of personal and business information that could be used to impersonate third parties or otherwise gain access to their data or funds. If any of our employees, consultants, service providers or commercial partners takes, converts or misuses these funds or data, we could be liable for any resulting damages, which could harm our financial condition and damage our business reputation.

We could be adversely affected by alleged violations of the Federal Trade Commission Act or other truth-in-advertising and consumer protection laws.

Our advertising for laboratory services and tests is subject to federal truth-in-advertising laws enforced by the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”), as well as comparable state consumer protection laws. Under the Federal Trade Commission Act (“FTC Act”), the FTC is empowered, among other things, to (a) prevent unfair methods of competition and unfair or deceptive acts or practices in or affecting commerce; (b) seek monetary redress and other relief for conduct injurious to consumers; and (c) gather and compile information and conduct investigations relating to the organization, business, practices, and management of entities engaged in commerce. The FTC has very broad enforcement authority, and failure to abide by the substantive requirements of the FTC Act and other consumer protection laws can result in administrative or judicial penalties, including civil penalties, injunctions affecting the manner in which we would be able to market services or products in the future, or criminal prosecution. In conjunction with the recent launch of our Picture Genetics line of at-home genetic test offerings that are initiated consumers, we plan to increase our advertising activities that would be subject to these federal and state truth-in-advertising laws. Any actual or perceived non-compliance with those laws could lead to an investigation by the FTC or a comparable state agency, or could lead to allegations of misleading advertising by private plaintiffs. Any such action against us would disrupt our business operations, cause damage to our reputation, and result in a material adverse effects on our business.

Intellectual Property Risks

We currently own no patents or patent applications related to our technology platform and rely on trade secret protection, non-disclosure agreements and invention assignment agreements to protect our proprietary information, which may not be effective.

We currently rely on trade secret protection, non-disclosure agreements and invention assignment agreements with our employees, consultants and third-parties to protect our confidential and proprietary information. Although our competitors have utilized and are expected to continue to utilize technologies and methods similar to ours and have aggregated and are expected to continue to aggregate libraries of genetic information similar to ours, we believe our success will depend in part on our ability to develop proprietary methods and libraries and to defend any advantages afforded to us by these methods and libraries relative to our competitors. If we do not protect our intellectual property and other confidential information adequately, competitors may be able to use our proprietary technologies and information and thereby erode any competitive advantages they provide us.

We will be able to protect our proprietary rights from unauthorized use by third parties only to the extent these rights are effectively maintained as confidential. We expect to rely primarily on trade secret and contractual protections for our confidential and proprietary information and we have taken security measures we believe are appropriate to protect this information. These measures, however, may not provide adequate protection for our trade secrets, know-how or other confidential information. We seek to protect our

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proprietary information by, among other things, entering into confidentiality agreements with employees, consultants and other third parties. These confidentiality agreements may not sufficiently safeguard our trade secrets and other confidential information and may not provide adequate remedies in the event of unauthorized use or disclosure of this information. Enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated a trade secret or other proprietary information could be difficult, expensive and time-consuming and the outcome could be unpredictable. In addition, trade secrets or other confidential information could otherwise become known or be independently developed by others in a manner that could prevent legal recourse by us. If any of our trade secrets or other confidential or proprietary information were disclosed or misappropriated or if any such information was independently developed by a competitor, our competitive position could be harmed and our business could suffer.

Litigation or other proceedings or third-party claims of intellectual property infringement or misappropriation could require us to spend significant time and money and prevent us from selling our tests.

We believe our ability to succeed will depend in part on our avoidance of infringement of patents and other proprietary rights owned by third parties, including the intellectual property rights of competitors. There are numerous third-party-owned U.S. and foreign patents, pending patent applications and other intellectual property rights that cover technologies relevant to genetic testing. We may be unaware of patents or other intellectual property rights that a third-party might assert are infringed by our business, and there may be pending patent applications that, if issued, could be asserted against us. As a result, our existing or future operations may be alleged or found to infringe existing or future patents or other intellectual property rights of others. Moreover, as we continue to sell our existing tests and if we launch new tests and enter new markets, competitors may claim that our tests infringe or misappropriate their intellectual property rights as part of strategies designed to impede our existing operations or our entry into new markets.

If a patent infringement or misappropriation of intellectual property lawsuit was brought against us, we could be forced to discontinue or delay our development or sales of any tests or other activities that are the subject of the lawsuit while it is pending, even if it is not ultimately successful. In the event of a successful claim of infringement against us, we could be forced to pay substantial damages, including treble damages and attorneys’ fees if we were found to have willfully infringed patents; obtain one or more licenses, which may not be available when needed, on commercially reasonable terms or at all; pay royalties, which may be substantial; or redesign any infringing tests or other activities, which may be impossible or require substantial time and expense. In addition, third parties making claims against us for infringement or misappropriation of their patents or other intellectual property rights could seek and obtain injunctive or other equitable relief, which, if granted, could prohibit us from performing our tests. Further, defense against these claims, regardless of their merit or success, could cause us to incur substantial expenses, be a substantial diversion to our management and other employee resources and significantly harm our reputation. Any of these outcomes could delay our introduction of new tests, significantly increase our costs or prevent us from conducting certain of our essential activities, which could materially adversely affect our ability to operate and grow our business.

Developments in patent law could have a negative impact on our business.

From time to time, the U.S. Supreme Court, other federal courts, the U.S. Congress or the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, or USPTO, may change the standards of patentability, and any such changes could have a negative impact on our business.

Three cases involving diagnostic method claims and “gene patents” have been decided by the Supreme Court in recent years. In March 2012, the Supreme Court issued a decision in Mayo Collaborative v. Prometheus Laboratories, or Prometheus, a case involving patent claims directed to optimizing the amount of drug administered to a specific patient, holding that the applicable patents’ claims failed to incorporate sufficient inventive content above and beyond mere underlying natural correlations to allow the claimed processes to qualify as patent-eligible processes that apply natural laws. In June 2013, the Supreme Court decided Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, or Myriad, a case challenging the validity of patent claims relating to the breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, holding that isolated genomic DNA that exists in nature, such as the DNA constituting the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, is not patentable subject matter, but that cDNA, which is an artificial construct created from RNA transcripts of genes, may be patent eligible. In June 2014, the Supreme Court decided Alice Corporation Pty. Ltd. v. CLS Bank International, or Alice, which affirmed the Prometheus and Myriad decisions and provided additional interpretation.

If we make efforts to seek patent protection for our technologies and tests, these efforts may be negatively impacted by the Prometheus, Myriad and Alice decisions, rulings in other cases or guidance or procedures issued by the USPTO. However, we cannot fully predict the impact of the Prometheus, Myriad and Alice decisions on the ability of genetic testing, biopharmaceutical or other companies to obtain or enforce patents relating to DNA, genes or genomic-related discoveries in the future, as the contours of when claims reciting laws of nature, natural phenomena or abstract ideas may meet patent eligibility requirements are not clear and may take years to develop via interpretation at the USPTO and in the courts. There are many previously issued patents claiming nucleic acids and diagnostic methods based on natural correlations that issued before these recent Supreme Court decisions and, although many of these patents may be invalid under the standards set forth in these decisions, they are presumed valid and enforceable until they are successfully challenged, and third parties holding these patents could allege that we infringe or request that we obtain a license under the patents. Whether based on patents issued before or after these Supreme Court decisions, we could be forced to defend against

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claims of patent infringement or obtain license rights, if available, under these patents. In particular, although the Supreme Court has held in Myriad that isolated genomic DNA is not patent-eligible subject matter, third parties could allege that our activities infringe other classes of gene-related patent claims. There are numerous risks associated with any patent infringement claim that may be brought against us, as discussed above under “—Litigation or other proceedings or third-party claims of intellectual property infringement or misappropriation could require us to spend significant time and money and prevent us from selling our tests.”

In addition, the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, or America Invents Act, which was signed into law in 2011, includes a number of significant changes to U.S. patent law. These changes include a transition from a “first-to-invent” system to a “first-to-file” system, changes to the way issued patents are challenged and changes to the way patent applications are disputed during the examination process. These changes may favor larger and more established companies that have greater resources to devote to patent application filing and prosecution. The USPTO has developed new regulations and procedures to govern the full implementation of the America Invents Act, but the impact of the America Invents Act on the cost of prosecuting any patent applications we may file, our ability to obtain patents based on our discoveries if we pursue them and our ability to enforce or defend any patents that may issue remains uncertain.

These and other substantive changes to U.S. patent law could affect our susceptibility to patent infringement claims and our ability to obtain any patents we may pursue and, if obtained, to enforce or defend them, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We may not be able to enforce our intellectual property rights outside the United States.

The laws of some foreign countries do not protect proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States, and many companies have encountered significant challenges in establishing and enforcing their proprietary rights outside the United States. These challenges can be caused by the absence of rules and methods for the establishment and enforcement of intellectual property rights in certain jurisdictions. In addition, the legal systems of some countries, particularly developing countries, do not favor the enforcement of certain intellectual property protection, especially relating to healthcare. These aspects of many foreign legal systems could make it difficult for us to prevent or stop the misappropriation of our intellectual property rights in these jurisdictions. Moreover, changes in the law and legal decisions by courts in foreign countries could affect our ability to obtain adequate protection for our technologies and enforce our intellectual property rights. As a result, our efforts to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights outside the United States may prove inadequate, in which case our ability to remain competitive and grow our business and revenue could be materially harmed.

Third parties may assert that our employees or consultants have wrongfully used or disclosed confidential information or misappropriated trade secrets.

We employ individuals who were previously employed at universities and biometric solution, genetic testing, diagnostic or other healthcare companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Further, we may become subject to ownership disputes in the future arising from, for example, conflicting obligations of consultants or others who are involved in developing our and other parties’ technologies and intellectual property rights. Although we try to ensure that our employees and consultants do not use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that we or our employees or consultants have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed intellectual property rights, including trade secrets or other proprietary information, of a former employer or other third-party. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims, should they arise. If we fail in defending against any such claims, we could be subject to monetary damages and the loss of valuable intellectual property rights or personnel. Even if we are successful in defending against any such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs, distract management and other employees and damage our reputation.

Common Stock Risks

An active, liquid trading market for our common stock may not be sustained, which could make it difficult for stockholders to sell their shares of our common stock.

An active trading market for our common stock may not be sustained. Further, Mr. Hsieh, our founder, Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of our board of directors, beneficially owns close to half of our outstanding voting equity. As a result, fewer shares are actively traded in the public market, which reduces the liquidity of our common stock. The lack of an active trading market could impair our stockholders’ ability to sell their shares at the desired time or at a price considered reasonable. Further, an inactive trading market may impair our ability to raise capital by selling shares of our common stock in the future, and may impair our ability to enter into strategic relationships or acquire companies or technologies using shares of our common stock as consideration.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “FLGT.” If we fail to satisfy the continued listing standards of Nasdaq, however, we could be de-listed, which would negatively impact the price and liquidity of our common stock.

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The price of our common stock may be volatile and you could lose all or part of your investment.

The trading price of our common stock has experienced, and may continue to experience, wide fluctuations and significant volatility. This volatility may be exacerbated by the relatively small and illiquid market for our common stock. Other factors that may contribute to this volatility include, among others:

 

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results;

 

competition from existing tests or new tests that may emerge, particularly if competitive factors in our industry, including prices for genetic testing, become more acute;

 

failures to meet or exceed financial estimates and projections of the investment community or guidance we have provided to the public;

 

issuance of new or updated research or reports by securities analysts or changed recommendations for our common stock;

 

announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, investments, strategic relationships, joint ventures, collaborations or capital commitments;

 

the timing and amount of our investments in our business and the market’s perception of these investments and their impact on our prospects;

 

actual or anticipated changes in laws or regulations applicable to our business or our tests;

 

additions or departures of key management or other personnel;

 

changes in coverage and reimbursement by current or potential payors;

 

inability to obtain additional funding as and when needed on reasonable terms;

 

disputes or other developments with respect to our or others’ intellectual property rights;

 

product liability claims or other litigation;

 

sales of our common stock by us or our stockholders;

 

general economic, political, industry and market conditions, including factors not directly related to our operating performance or the operating performance of our competitors, such as increased uncertainty in the U.S. regulatory environment for healthcare, trade and tax-related matters following the results of the 2016 U.S. presidential election;

 

and the other risk factors discussed in this report.

In addition, the stock market in general, and the market for the stock of companies in the life sciences and technology industries in particular, has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations in recent years that have at times been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of specific companies. These broad market and industry factors may negatively affect the market price of our common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance. In addition, in the past, following periods of volatility in the overall market and the market price of a particular company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against the company. This type of litigation, if instituted against us, could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our management’s attention and resources.

Our principal stockholders and management own a significant percentage of our capital stock and are able to exert significant control over matters subject to stockholder approval.

Our executive officers, directors, beneficial owners of 5% or more of our outstanding voting equity and their respective affiliates collectively beneficially own the substantial majority of our outstanding voting equity, and of this, Mr. Hsieh, our founder, Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of our board of directors, by himself beneficially owns close to half of our outstanding voting equity. As a result, these stockholders have the ability to control matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including elections of directors, amendments to our organizational documents or approval of any merger, sale of assets or other major corporate transaction. This concentration of ownership may prevent or discourage unsolicited acquisition proposals or offers to acquire our common stock that some of our stockholders feel are in their best interests, as the interests of these stockholders may not coincide with the interests of our other stockholders and they may act in a manner that advances their best interests and not necessarily those of all of our stockholders. Further, this concentration of ownership could adversely affect the prevailing market price for our common stock.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that such sales could occur, could cause the price of our common stock to fall.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could occur at any time. Any such sales, or the perception in the market that sales are pending or could occur, could reduce the market price of our common stock. All of the

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outstanding shares of our common stock are freely tradable without restriction in the public market, subject to certain volume and manner of sale limitations applicable to shares held by our affiliates, as that term is defined in the Securities Act. In addition, subject to similar limitations and any other applicable legal and contractual limitations, all of the shares of our common stock subject to outstanding equity-based awards or reserved for issuance pursuant to such awards we may grant in the future are registered under the Securities Act or are otherwise eligible under applicable securities laws for free trading in the public market upon their issuance. Moreover, Xi Long, a large stockholder of our company, has the right, subject to certain conditions, to include its shares in registration statements we may file for ourselves or other stockholders and to require us to file registration statements covering its shares.

Future issuances of our common stock or rights to purchase our common stock, including pursuant to our equity incentive plan, could result in additional dilution to the percentage ownership of our stockholders and could cause the price of our common stock to fall.

To raise capital or for other strategic purposes, we may sell common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities in one or more transactions at prices and in a manner we determine from time to time. In particular and in August 2019, we entered into an Equity Distribution Agreement with Piper Jaffray & Co. as sales agent (“Piper”), pursuant to which we may, from time to time, sell through Piper shares of our common stock with an aggregate purchase price of up to $30 million. During the quarter ended September 30, 2019, we sold an aggregate of 104,390 shares of our common stock pursuant to the Equity Distribution Agreement at a weighted-average selling price of $12.14 per share. We also may issue common stock or grant other equity awards for compensatory purposes under our equity incentive plan. If we issue common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities, including shares pursuant to the Equity Distribution Agreement or equity awards under our equity incentive plan, our then-existing stockholders could be materially diluted by such issuances and, if we otherwise issue preferred stock, new investors could gain rights, preferences and privileges senior to the holders of our common stock, any of which could cause the price of our common stock to decline.

We do not intend to pay dividends on our common stock, so any returns will be limited to the value of our common stock.

We currently anticipate that we will retain any future earnings to finance the continued development, operation and expansion of our business. As a result, we do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends or other distributions in the foreseeable future. Further, if we were to enter into a credit facility or issue debt securities or preferred stock in the future, we may become contractually restricted from paying dividends. If we do not pay dividends, our common stock may be less valuable because stockholders must rely on sales of their common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, to realize any gains on their investment.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business or if they issue an adverse or misleading opinion regarding our common stock, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock is influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of us or fails to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause the price and trading volume of our common stock to decline. Further, if any of these analysts issues an adverse or misleading opinion regarding us, our business model, our industry or our stock performance or if our operating results fail to meet analyst expectations, the price of our common stock could also decline.

Provisions in our charter documents and Delaware law could discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company or changes in our management and depress the market price of our common stock.

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that could depress the market price of our common stock by acting to discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company or changes in our management that our stockholders may deem advantageous. These provisions, among other things:

 

authorize our board of directors to issue, without further action by our stockholders, up to 1,000,000 shares of undesignated or “blank check” preferred stock;

 

prohibit stockholder action by written consent, thus requiring all stockholder actions to be taken at a duly noticed and held meeting of our stockholders;

 

specify that special meetings of our stockholders can be called only by our board of directors, the Chairman of our board of directors or our President, thereby eliminating the ability of our stockholders to call special meetings;

 

permit only our board of directors to establish the number of directors and fill vacancies on the board of directors, except as may be required by law;

 

permit our board of directors to amend our bylaws, subject to the power of our stockholders to repeal any such amendment;

 

do not permit cumulative voting on the election of directors; and

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establish advance notice requirements for stockholders to propose nominees for election as directors or matters to be acted upon at annual meetings of stockholders.

In addition, we are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or DGCL, which imposes certain restrictions on mergers, business combinations and other transactions between us and holders of 15% or more of our common stock. Section 203 may have the effect of discouraging, delaying or preventing a change in control of our company.

Holders of our common stock could be adversely affected if we issue preferred stock.

Pursuant to our certificate of incorporation, our board of directors is authorized to issue up to 1,000,000 shares of preferred stock without any action by our stockholders. Our board of directors also has the power, without stockholder approval, to set the terms of any series of preferred stock that may be issued, among others, including voting rights, dividend rights and preferences over our common stock with respect to dividends or in the event of a dissolution, liquidation or winding up. If we issue preferred stock in the future that has preferences over our common stock with respect to payment of dividends or upon a liquidation, dissolution or winding up, or if we issue preferred stock that is convertible into our common stock at greater than a one-to-one ratio, the voting and other rights of the holders of our common stock and the market price of our common stock could be adversely affected.

Our certificate of incorporation designates the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a judicial forum they consider favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees.

Our certificate of incorporation provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware shall be the sole and exclusive forum for:

 

any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf;

 

any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to us or to our stockholders;

 

any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL, our certificate of incorporation or our bylaws; and

 

any action asserting a claim against us governed by the internal affairs doctrine.

Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our capital stock is deemed to have notice of and consented to this provision of our certificate of incorporation. This choice-of-forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage these lawsuits. Alternatively, if a court were to find this provision of our certificate of incorporation inapplicable to, or unenforceable in respect of, one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving these matters in other jurisdictions, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.


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USE OF PROCEEDS

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for working capital and general corporate purposes.

Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds we receive from this offering and, as of the date of this prospectus supplement, we cannot predict with certainty all of the particular uses for these net proceeds. The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures will depend on numerous factors, including the amount of cash generated by our operations, competitive and technological developments, demand for our tests, the number of billable tests we deliver and the number of billable tests for we collect full or partial payment, our ability to develop our sales and marketing team, the timing and amount of other investments in our business, including sequencing or other equipment or systems, and unforeseen cash needs. We also may use a portion of the net proceeds for the acquisition of, investment in or partnership with new and complementary businesses, technologies or assets. Although we presently have no specific agreements, commitments or understandings with respect to any such acquisition, investment or partnership, we evaluate such opportunities and engage in related discussions with other companies from time to time.

Pending their use as described above, we intend to invest the net proceeds from this offering in short term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities such as money market accounts, certificates of deposit, commercial paper and guaranteed obligations of the U.S. government.

 


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DIVIDEND POLICY

We currently anticipate that, following completion of this offering, we will retain all available funds and any future earnings for use in the operation of our business. As a result, we do not anticipate paying any dividends or other distributions on our common stock in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to declare dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our financial condition, operating results, capital requirements, general business conditions and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. Our ability to pay dividends may also be restricted by the terms of any future credit facility we may establish or any future debt or preferred equity securities we may issue, although we presently have no specific plans, agreements or commitments with respect to establishing any such credit facility or issuing any such securities.

 

 


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DILUTION

If you purchase our common stock in this offering, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per share and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock after this offering. We calculate net tangible book value per share by dividing our net tangible assets (tangible assets less total liabilities) by the number of shares of our common stock issued and outstanding as of September 30, 2019.

Our net tangible book value at September 30, 2019 was $54.5 million, or $2.92 per share. After giving effect to the sale by us of shares of common stock at the public offering price of $     per share, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our net tangible book value as of September 30, 2019 would have been approximately $ million, or $    per share of common stock. This amount represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $   per share to existing stockholders and an immediate dilution of $       per share to purchasers in this offering. The following table illustrates this per share dilution:

 

Public offering price per share

 

 

 

 

 

$

 

 

As adjusted net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2019

 

$

2.92

 

 

 

 

 

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to this offering

 

$

 

 

 

 

 

 

As adjusted net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2019, after giving effect to this offering

 

 

 

 

 

$

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dilution per share to new investors purchasing shares in this offering

 

 

 

 

 

$

 

 

The above discussion and table are based on 18,673,481 shares of our common stock issued and outstanding as of September 30, 2019 and excludes the following:

 

372,547 shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding options, at a weighted-average exercise price of $1.20 per share;

 

1,351,071 shares of our common stock issuable upon the settlement of restricted stock awards;

 

and 1,723,618 shares of our common stock that are reserved for future grant or issuance under our equity incentive plans.

To the extent that options outstanding as of September 30, 2019 have been or are exercised, restricted stock units vest or other shares are issued, investors purchasing shares in this offering could experience further dilution. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations, even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to our stockholders.

In addition, the amounts in the table above assume no exercise by the underwriter of its option to purchase additional shares.

If the underwriter exercises its option to purchase       shares of common stock in full at the public offering price, the as adjusted net tangible book value after this offering would be approximately $        per share, representing an increase in net tangible book value of approximately $         per share to existing stockholders and immediate dilution in net tangible book value of approximately $              per share to investors purchasing our common stock in this offering at the public offering price.


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MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL TAX CONSIDERATIONS

The following is a discussion of material U.S. federal income and estate tax considerations applicable to non-U.S. holders with respect to their ownership and disposition of shares of our common stock.  This discussion is for information only and is not tax advice.  Accordingly, all prospective non-U.S. holders of our common stock should consult their own tax advisors with respect to the U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. tax consequences of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our common stock.  For purposes of this discussion, a non-U.S. holder means a beneficial owner (other than a partnership or other pass-through entity) of our common stock who is not, for U.S. federal income tax purposes:

 

an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

a corporation, or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, created or organized in the United States or under the laws of the United States or of any state thereof or the District of Columbia;

 

an estate, the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income tax regardless of its source; or

 

a trust if (1) a U.S. court is able to exercise primary supervision over the trust’s administration and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all of the trust’s substantial decisions or (2) the trust has a valid election in effect under applicable U.S. Treasury Regulations to be treated as a U.S. person.

This discussion is based on current provisions of the Code, existing and proposed U.S. Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder, current administrative rulings and judicial decisions, all as in effect as of the date of this prospectus supplement, all of which are subject to change or to differing interpretation, possibly with retroactive effect.  Any change could alter the tax consequences to non-U.S. holders described in this prospectus supplement.  In addition, there can be no assurance that the Internal Revenue Service, which we refer to as the IRS, will not challenge one or more of the tax consequences described herein.  We assume in this discussion that a non-U.S. holder holds shares of our common stock as a capital asset within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code (generally property held for investment).

This discussion does not address all aspects of U.S. federal income and estate taxation that may be relevant to a particular non-U.S. holder in light of that non-U.S. holder’s individual circumstances nor does it address the alternative minimum tax, the Medicare tax on net investment income, or any aspects of U.S. state, local or non-U.S. taxes.  This discussion also does not consider any specific facts or circumstances that may apply to a non-U.S. holder and does not address the special tax rules applicable to particular non-U.S. holders, such as:

 

banks, insurance companies or other financial institutions;

 

tax-exempt organizations;

 

brokers or dealers in securities or currencies;

 

pension plans;

 

controlled foreign corporations;

 

passive foreign investment companies;

 

owners that have elected to mark securities to market or that hold our common stock as part of a straddle, hedge, conversion transaction, synthetic security or other integrated investment;

 

persons deemed to sell our stock under a constructive sale provision of the Code;

 

holders who have acquired our common stock through the exercise of a stock option or otherwise as compensation; and

 

certain U.S. expatriates.

In addition, this discussion does not address the tax treatment of partnerships or persons who hold our common stock through partnerships or other entities or arrangements that are treated as pass-through (i.e. fiscally transparent) entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes.  A partner in a partnership or other pass-through entity that will hold our common stock should consult his, her or its own tax advisor regarding the tax consequences of acquiring, holding and disposing of our common stock through a partnership or other pass-through entity, as applicable.

Distributions on Our Common Stock

Distributions on our common stock generally will constitute dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes to the extent paid from our current or accumulated earnings and profits, as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles.  If a distribution exceeds our current and accumulated earnings and profits, the excess will be treated as a tax-free return of the non-U.S. holder’s investment, in

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general, up to such holder’s tax basis in the common stock.  Any remaining excess will be treated as capital gain, subject to the tax treatment described below in “Gain on Sale, Exchange or Other Taxable Disposition of Our Common Stock.”  Any such distributions will also be subject to the discussion below under the section titled “Withholding and Information Reporting Requirements—FATCA.”

Subject to the discussion below on effectively connected income, dividends paid to a non-U.S. holder generally will be subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty between the United States and such holder’s country of residence.  A non-U.S. holder of our common stock who claims the benefit of an applicable income tax treaty between the United States and such holder’s country of residence generally will be required to provide a properly executed IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or successor form) and satisfy applicable certification and other requirements.  A non-U.S. holder that is eligible for a reduced rate of U.S. withholding tax under an income tax treaty may be able to obtain a refund or credit of any excess amounts withheld by timely filing the required information with the IRS.  Non-U.S. holders are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding their entitlement to benefits under an applicable income tax treaty.

Dividends that are treated as effectively connected with a trade or business conducted by a non-U.S. holder within the United States and, if an applicable income tax treaty so provides, that are attributable to a permanent establishment or a fixed base maintained by the non-U.S. holder within the United States, are generally exempt from the 30% withholding tax if the non-U.S. holder satisfies applicable certification and disclosure requirements.  However, such U.S. effectively connected income, net of specified deductions and credits, is generally taxed at the same graduated U.S. federal income tax rates applicable to United States persons (as defined in the Code).  Any U.S. effectively connected income received by a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also, under certain circumstances, be subject to an additional “branch profits tax” at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty between the United States and such holder’s country of residence.

Gain on Sale, Exchange or Other Taxable Disposition of Our Common Stock

Subject to the discussion below under “Withholding and Information Reporting Requirements—FATCA,” in general, a non-U.S. holder will not be subject to any U.S. federal income tax on any gain realized upon such holder’s sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of shares of our common stock unless:

 

the gain is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a U.S. trade or business and, if an applicable income tax treaty so provides, is attributable to a permanent establishment or a fixed base maintained by such non-U.S. holder in the United States, in which case the non-U.S. holder generally will be taxed at the graduated U.S. federal income tax rates applicable to United States persons (as defined in the Code) and, if the non-U.S. holder is a foreign corporation, the branch profits tax described above in “Distributions on Our Common Stock” also may apply;

 

the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more in the taxable year of the disposition and certain other conditions are met, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to a 30% tax (or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty between the United States and such holder’s country of residence) on the net gain derived from the disposition, which may be offset by certain U.S. source capital losses of the non-U.S. holder, if any; or

 

we are, or have been, at any time during the five-year period preceding such disposition (or the non-U.S. holder’s holding period, if shorter) a “U.S. real property holding corporation,” unless our common stock is regularly traded on an established securities market and the non-U.S. holder holds no more than 5% of our outstanding common stock, directly or indirectly, during the shorter of the 5-year period ending on the date of the disposition or the period that the non-U.S. holder held our common stock.  If we are determined to be a U.S. real property holding corporation and the foregoing exception does not apply, then the non-U.S. holder generally will be taxed on its net gain derived from the disposition at the graduated U.S. federal income tax rates applicable to United States persons (as defined in the Code).  Generally, a corporation is a U.S. real property holding corporation only if the fair market value of its U.S. real property interests equals or exceeds 50% of the sum of the fair market value of its worldwide real property interests plus its other assets used or held for use in a trade or business.  Although there can be no assurance, we do not believe that we are, or have been, a U.S. real property holding corporation, or that we are likely to become one in the future.  No assurance can be provided that our common stock will be regularly traded on an established securities market for purposes of the rules described above.

Backup Withholding and Information Reporting

We must report annually to the IRS and to each non-U.S. holder the gross amount of the distributions on our common stock paid to such holder and the tax withheld, if any, with respect to such distributions.  Non-U.S. holders may have to comply with specific certification procedures to establish that the holder is not a United States person (as defined in the Code) in order to avoid backup withholding at the applicable rate with respect to dividends on our common stock.  Generally, a non-U.S. holder will comply with such procedures if it provides a properly executed IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable Form W-8) or otherwise meets documentary evidence requirements for establishing that it is a non-U.S. holder, or otherwise establishes an exemption.  

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Dividends paid to non-U.S. holders subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax, as described above in “Distributions on Our Common Stock,” generally will be exempt from U.S. backup withholding.

Information reporting and backup withholding will generally apply to the proceeds of a disposition of our common stock by a non-U.S. holder effected by or through the U.S. office of any broker, U.S. or foreign, unless the holder certifies its status as a non-U.S. holder and satisfies certain other requirements, or otherwise establishes an exemption.  Generally, information reporting and backup withholding will not apply to a payment of disposition proceeds to a non-U.S. holder where the transaction is effected outside the United States through a non-U.S. office of a broker.  However, for information reporting purposes, dispositions effected through a non-U.S. office of a broker with substantial U.S. ownership or operations generally will be treated in a manner similar to dispositions effected through a U.S. office of a broker.  Non-U.S. holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the application of the information reporting and backup withholding rules to them.

Copies of information returns that are filed with the IRS may be made available to the tax authorities of the country in which the non-U.S. holder resides or is incorporated under the provisions of a specific treaty or agreement.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax.  Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules from a payment to a non-U.S. holder can be refunded or credited against the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, if any, provided that an appropriate claim is timely filed with the IRS.

Withholding and Information Reporting Requirements—FATCA

Sections 1471 to 1474 of the Code (referred to as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or FATCA) generally impose a U.S. federal withholding tax at a rate of 30% on payments of dividends on, and, after December 31, 2018, gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of, our common stock paid to certain foreign entities, unless (i) if the foreign entity is a “foreign financial institution,” such foreign entity undertakes certain due diligence, reporting, withholding, and certification obligations, (ii) if the foreign entity is not a “foreign financial institution,” such foreign entity identifies certain of its U.S. investors, if any, or (iii) the foreign entity is otherwise exempt under FATCA.  If the payee is a foreign financial institution and is subject to the diligence, reporting, withholding, and certification requirements in (i) above, it must enter into an agreement with the U.S. Department of the Treasury requiring, among other things, that it undertake to identify accounts held by certain “specified United States persons” or “United States-owned foreign entities” (each as defined in the Code), annually report certain information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on certain payments to non-compliant foreign financial institutions and certain other account holders. An intergovernmental agreement between the United States and an applicable foreign country may modify the FATCA rules described above.  Non-U.S. holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the possible implications of FATCA on non-U.S. holders’ investment in our common stock and the entities (including financial intermediaries) through which they hold our common stock.

U.S. Federal Estate Tax

Shares of our common stock are considered U.S. situs assets and if they are owned or treated as owned at the time of death by an individual, they will be included in the individual’s gross estate for U.S. federal estate tax purposes irrespective of whether such individual is, for U.S. federal estate tax purposes, considered a citizen or resident of the United States.  Such shares, therefore, may be subject to U.S. federal estate tax, unless an applicable estate tax or other treaty provides otherwise.

The preceding discussion of material U.S. federal tax considerations is for information only. It is not tax advice. Prospective investors should consult their own tax advisors regarding the particular U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. tax consequences of purchasing, owning, and disposing of our common stock, including the consequences of any proposed changes in applicable laws.

 


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UNDERWRITING

We are offering the shares of common stock described in this prospectus supplement through Piper Jaffray & Co. as the book-running manager. We have entered into a firm commitment underwriting agreement with Piper Jaffray, as representative of the several underwriters named below. Subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the underwriting agreement, we have agreed to sell to the underwriters, and each of the underwriters has agreed, severally and not jointly, to purchase from us, the number of shares of our common stock listed opposite its name below.

 

Underwriter

 

Number of Shares

 

Piper Jaffray & Co.

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

Option to Purchase Additional Shares

 

We have granted the underwriters an option to buy up to         additional shares of common stock from us to cover over-allotments, if any. The underwriters may exercise this option at any time and from time to time during the 30-day period from the date of this prospectus supplement. If any additional shares of common stock are purchased, the underwriters will offer the additional shares on the same terms as those on which the shares are being offered.

 

Discounts and Commissions

 

The underwriters have advised us that they propose to offer the common stock directly to the public at the offering price set forth on the cover page of this prospectus supplement. The underwriters propose to offer the shares to certain dealers at the same price less a concession of not more than $      per share. After the offering, these figures may be changed by the underwriters.

 

The underwriting fee is equal to the public offering price per share of common stock less the amount paid by the underwriters to us per share of common stock. The following table shows the per share and total underwriting discount to be paid by the underwriters in connection with this offering, assuming either no exercise and full exercise of the over-allotment option:

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

Per Share

 

Without Option

 

With Option

 

Public offering price

 

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

Underwriting discounts and commissions

 

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

Proceeds, before expenses, to us

 

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

 

We estimate that the total fees and expenses payable by us, excluding underwriting discount, will be approximately $   . We have also agreed to reimburse the underwriters for certain of their expenses in an amount up to $   .

 

Indemnification of Underwriters

 

We have agreed to indemnify the underwriters against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments that the underwriters may be required to make in respect of those liabilities.

 

No Sales of Similar Securities

 

We and each of our directors and executive officers are subject to lock-up agreements that prohibit us and them from offering, pledging, announcing the intention to sell, selling, contracting to sell, selling any option or contract to purchase, purchasing any option or contract to sell, granting any option, right or warrant to purchase, making any short sale or otherwise transferring or disposing of, directly or indirectly, any shares of our common stock or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for shares of our common stock for a period of at least 90 days following the date of this prospectus supplement without the prior written consent of Piper Jaffray.

 

The lock-up agreements do not prohibit our directors and executive officers from transferring shares of our common stock for bona fide estate or tax planning purposes, subject to certain requirements, including that the transferee be subject to the same lock-up terms. The lock-up provisions do not prohibit us from issuing shares upon the exercise or conversion of securities outstanding on the date of this prospectus supplement. The lock-up provisions do not prevent us from selling shares to the underwriters pursuant to the underwriting agreement, or from granting options to acquire securities under our existing stock option plans or issuing shares upon the exercise or conversion of securities outstanding on the date of this prospectus supplement.

 

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Listing

 

Our common stock is listed on Nasdaq under the symbol “FLGT.”

 

Price Stabilization, Short Positions and Penalty Bids

 

To facilitate the offering, the underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of our common stock during and after the offering. Specifically, the underwriters may over-allot or otherwise create a short position in the common stock for their own account by selling more shares of common stock than we have sold to them. Short sales involve the sale by the underwriters of a greater number of shares than the underwriters are required to purchase in the offering. The underwriters may close out any short position by either exercising their option to purchase additional shares or purchasing shares in the open market.

 

In addition, the underwriters may stabilize or maintain the price of the common stock by bidding for or purchasing shares of common stock in the open market and may impose penalty bids. If penalty bids are imposed, selling concessions allowed to syndicate members or other broker-dealers participating in the offering are reclaimed if shares of common stock previously distributed in the offering are repurchased, whether in connection with stabilization transactions or otherwise. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the common stock at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. The imposition of a penalty bid may also affect the price of the common stock to the extent that it discourages resales of the common stock. The magnitude or effect of any stabilization or other transactions is uncertain. These transactions may be effected on Nasdaq or otherwise and, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time. The underwriters may also engage in passive market making transactions in our common stock. Passive market making consists of displaying bids on Nasdaq and is limited by the prices of independent market makers and effecting purchases is limited by those prices in response to order flow. Rule 103 of Regulation M promulgated by the SEC limits the amount of net purchases that each passive market maker may make and the displayed size of each bid. Passive market making may stabilize the market price of the common stock at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market and, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time.

 

Electronic Distribution

 

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus in electronic format may be made available on the web sites maintained by one or more of the underwriters and the underwriters may distribute prospectuses and prospectus supplements electronically.

 

Affiliations

 

From time to time in the ordinary course of its businesses, the underwriters and certain of their affiliates have engaged, and may in the future engage, in commercial banking or investment banking transactions with us and our affiliates.

 

Selling Restrictions

Notice to Prospective Investors in the European Economic Area

In relation to each Member State of the European Economic Area which has implemented the Prospectus Directive (each, a “Relevant Member State”), each underwriter represents and agrees that with effect from and including the date on which the Prospectus Directive is implemented in that Relevant Member State, it has not made and will not make an offer of securities which are the subject of the offering contemplated by this prospectus supplement to the public in that Relevant Member State other than:

 

 

(a)

to any legal entity which is a qualified investor as defined in the Prospectus Directive;

 

 

(b)

to fewer than 100 or, if the Relevant Member State has implemented the relevant provision of the 2010 PD Amending Directive, 150, natural or legal persons (other than qualified investors as defined in the Prospectus Directive), as permitted under the Prospectus Directive, subject to obtaining the prior consent of the representatives for any such offer; or

 

 

(c)

in any other circumstances falling within Article 3(2) of the Prospectus Directive, provided that no such offer of securities shall require us or any underwriter to publish a prospectus pursuant to Article 3 of the Prospectus Directive.

 

For the purposes of this provision, the expression an “offer to the public” in relation to any Relevant Member State means the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and the securities to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe the securities, as the same may be varied in that Member State by any measure implementing the Prospectus Directive in that Member State, the expression Prospectus Directive means Directive 2003/71/EC (and

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amendments thereto, including the 2010 PD Amending Directive, to the extent implemented in the Relevant Member State), and includes any relevant implementing measure in the Relevant Member State and the expression “2010 PD Amending Directive” means Directive 2010/73/EU

Notice to Prospective Investors in the United Kingdom

Each of the underwriters severally represents, warrants and agrees as follows:

 

 

(a)

it has only communicated or caused to be communicated and will only communicate or cause to be communicated an invitation or inducement to engage in investment activity (within the meaning of Section 21 of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (“FSMA”) received by it in connection with the issue or sale of the securities in circumstances in which Section 21 of the FSMA does not apply to us; and

 

 

(b)

it has complied with, and will comply with all applicable provisions of the FSMA with respect to anything done by it in relation to the securities in, from or otherwise involving the United Kingdom.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Israel

In the State of Israel this prospectus supplement shall not be regarded as an offer to the public to purchase securities under the Israeli Securities Law, 5728 — 1968, which requires a prospectus to be published and authorized by the Israel Securities Authority, if it complies with certain provisions of Section 15 of the Israeli Securities Law, 5728 — 1968, including, inter alia, if: (i) the offer is made distributed or directed to not more than 35 investors, subject to certain conditions, or the Addressed Investors; or (ii) the offer is made, distributed or directed to certain qualified investors defined in the First Addendum of the Israeli Securities Law, 5728 — 1968, subject to certain conditions, or the Qualified Investors. The Qualified Investors shall not be taken into account in the count of the Addressed Investors and may be offered to purchase securities in addition to the 35 Addressed Investors. Our company has not and will not take any action that would require it to publish a prospectus in accordance with and subject to the Israeli Securities Law, 5728 — 1968. We have not and will not distribute this prospectus supplement or make, distribute or direct an offer to subscribe for our securities to any person within the State of Israel, other than to Qualified Investors and up to 35 Addressed Investors.

Qualified Investors may have to submit written evidence that they meet the definitions set out in of the First Addendum to the Israeli Securities Law, 5728 — 1968. In particular, we may request, as a condition to be offered securities, that Qualified Investors will each represent, warrant and certify to us or to anyone acting on our behalf: (i) that it is an investor falling within one of the categories listed in the First Addendum to the Israeli Securities Law, 5728 — 1968; (ii) which of the categories listed in the First Addendum to the Israeli Securities Law, 5728 — 1968 regarding Qualified Investors is applicable to it; (iii) that it will abide by all provisions set forth in the Israeli Securities Law, 5728 — 1968 and the regulations promulgated thereunder in connection with the offer to be issued securities; (iv) that the securities that it will be issued are, subject to exemptions available under the Israeli Securities Law, 5728 — 1968: (a) for its own account; (b) for investment purposes only; and (c) not issued with a view to resale within the State of Israel, other than in accordance with the provisions of the Israeli Securities Law, 5728 — 1968; and (v) that it is willing to provide further evidence of its Qualified Investor status. Addressed Investors may have to submit written evidence in respect of their identity and may have to sign and submit a declaration containing, inter alia, the Addressed Investor’s name, address and passport number or Israeli identification number.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Canada

The securities may be sold in Canada only to purchasers purchasing, or deemed to be purchasing, as principal that are accredited investors, as defined in National Instrument 45-106 Prospectus Exemptions or subsection 73.3(1) of the Securities Act (Ontario), and are permitted clients, as defined in National Instrument 31-103 Registration Requirements, Exemptions, and Ongoing Registrant Obligations. Any resale of the securities must be made in accordance with an exemption form, or in a transaction not subject to, the prospectus requirements of applicable securities laws.

Securities legislation in certain provinces or territories of Canada may provide a purchaser with remedies for rescission or damages if this prospectus (including any amendment thereto) contains a misrepresentation, provided that the remedies for rescission or damages are exercised by the purchaser within the time limit prescribed by the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory. The purchaser should refer to any applicable provisions of the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory for particulars of these rights or consult with a legal advisor.

Pursuant to section 3A.3 of National Instrument 33-105 Underwriting Conflicts (NI 33-105), the underwriters are not required to comply with the disclosure requirements of NI 33-105 regarding underwriter conflicts of interest in connection with this offering.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Hong Kong

The securities may not be offered or sold in Hong Kong by means of any document other than (i) in circumstances which do not constitute an offer to the public within the meaning of the Companies (Winding Up and Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance (Cap. 32 of the Laws of Hong Kong) (“Companies (Winding Up and Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance”) or which do not constitute an invitation to the public within the meaning of the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Cap. 571 of the Laws of Hong Kong) (“Securities

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and Futures Ordinance”), or (ii) to “professional investors” as defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance and any rules made thereunder, or (iii) in other circumstances which do not result in the document being a “prospectus” as defined in the Companies (Winding Up and Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance, and no advertisement, invitation or document relating to the securities may be issued or may be in the possession of any person for the purpose of issue (in each case whether in Hong Kong or elsewhere), which is directed at, or the contents of which are likely to be accessed or read by, the public in Hong Kong (except if permitted to do so under the securities laws of Hong Kong) other than with respect to shares which are or are intended to be disposed of only to persons outside Hong Kong or only to “professional investors” in Hong Kong as defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance and any rules made thereunder.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Singapore

This prospectus has not been registered as a prospectus with the Monetary Authority of Singapore. Accordingly, this prospectus and any other document or material in connection with the offer or sale, or invitation for subscription or purchase, of the shares may not be circulated or distributed, nor may the shares be offered or sold, or be made the subject of an invitation for subscription or purchase, whether directly or indirectly, to persons in Singapore other than (i) to an institutional investor (as defined under Section 4A of the Securities and Futures Act, Chapter 289 of Singapore (the “SFA”)) under Section 274 of the SFA, (ii) to a relevant person (as defined in Section 275(2) of the SFA) pursuant to Section 275(1) of the SFA, or any person pursuant to Section 275(1A) of the SFA, and in accordance with the conditions specified in Section 275 of the SFA or (iii) otherwise pursuant to, and in accordance with the conditions of, any other applicable provision of the SFA, in each case subject to conditions set forth in the SFA.

Where the shares are subscribed or purchased under Section 275 of the SFA by a relevant person which is a corporation (which is not an accredited investor (as defined in Section 4A of the SFA)) the sole business of which is to hold investments and the entire share capital of which is owned by one or more individuals, each of whom is an accredited investor, the securities (as defined in Section 239(1) of the SFA) of that corporation shall not be transferable for 6 months after that corporation has acquired the shares under Section 275 of the SFA except: (1) to an institutional investor under Section 274 of the SFA or to a relevant person (as defined in Section 275(2) of the SFA), (2) where such transfer arises from an offer in that corporation’s securities pursuant to Section 275(1A) of the SFA, (3) where no consideration is or will be given for the transfer, (4) where the transfer is by operation of law, (5) as specified in Section 276(7) of the SFA, or (6) as specified in Regulation 32 of the Securities and Futures (Offers of Investments) (Shares and Debentures) Regulations 2005 of Singapore (“Regulation 32”).

Where the shares are subscribed or purchased under Section 275 of the SFA by a relevant person which is a trust (where the trustee is not an accredited investor (as defined in Section 4A of the SFA)) whose sole purpose is to hold investments and each beneficiary of the trust is an accredited investor, the beneficiaries’ rights and interest (howsoever described) in that trust shall not be transferable for 6 months after that trust has acquired the shares under Section 275 of the SFA except: (1) to an institutional investor under Section 274 of the SFA or to a relevant person (as defined in Section 275(2) of the SFA), (2) where such transfer arises from an offer that is made on terms that such rights or interest are acquired at a consideration of not less than S$200,000 (or its equivalent in a foreign currency) for each transaction (whether such amount is to be paid for in cash or by exchange of securities or other assets), (3) where no consideration is or will be given for the transfer, (4) where the transfer is by operation of law, (5) as specified in Section 276(7) of the SFA, or (6) as specified in Regulation 32.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Japan

The securities have not been and will not be registered under the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act of Japan (Act No. 25 of 1948, as amended), or the FIEA. The securities may not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, in Japan or to or for the benefit of any resident of Japan (including any person resident in Japan or any corporation or other entity organized under the laws of Japan) or to others for reoffering or resale, directly or indirectly, in Japan or to or for the benefit of any resident of Japan, except pursuant to an exemption from the registration requirements of the FIEA and otherwise in compliance with any relevant laws and regulations of Japan.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Australia

No placement document, prospectus, product disclosure statement or other disclosure document has been lodged with the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (“ASIC”), in relation to the offering. This offering document does not constitute a prospectus, product disclosure statement or other disclosure document under the Corporations Act 2001 (the “Corporations Act”), and does not purport to include the information required for a prospectus, product disclosure statement or other disclosure document under the Corporations Act.

Any offer in Australia of the shares may only be made to persons (the “Exempt Investors”) who are “sophisticated investors” (within the meaning of section 708(8) of the Corporations Act), “professional investors” (within the meaning of section 708(11) of the Corporations Act) or otherwise pursuant to one or more exemptions contained in section 708 of the Corporations Act so that it is lawful to offer the shares without disclosure to investors under Chapter 6D of the Corporations Act.

The shares applied for by Exempt Investors in Australia must not be offered for sale in Australia in the period of 12 months after the date of allotment under the offering, except in circumstances where disclosure to investors under Chapter 6D of the Corporations Act

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would not be required pursuant to an exemption under section 708 of the Corporations Act or otherwise or where the offer is pursuant to a disclosure document which complies with Chapter 6D of the Corporations Act. Any person acquiring shares must observe such Australian on-sale restrictions.

This offering document contains general information only and does not take account of the investment objectives, financial situation or particular needs of any particular person. It does not contain any securities recommendations or financial product advice. Before making an investment decision, investors need to consider whether the information in this offering document is appropriate to their needs, objectives and circumstances, and, if necessary, seek expert advice on those matters.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Dubai International Financial Centre

This offering document relates to an Exempt Offer in accordance with the Offered Securities Rules of the Dubai Financial Services Authority (“DFSA”). This offering document is intended for distribution only to persons of a type specified in the Offered Securities Rules of the DFSA. It must not be delivered to, or relied on by, any other person. The DFSA has no responsibility for reviewing or verifying any documents in connection with Exempt Offers. The DFSA has not approved this prospectus nor taken steps to verify the information set forth in this prospectus and has no responsibility for the offering document. The securities to which this offering document relates may be illiquid and/or subject to restrictions on their resale. Prospective purchasers of the securities offered should conduct their own due diligence on the securities. If you do not understand the contents of this offering document you should consult an authorized financial advisor.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Switzerland

We have not and will not register with the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority (“FINMA”) as a foreign collective investment scheme pursuant to Article 119 of the Federal Act on Collective Investment Scheme of 23 June 2006, as amended (“CISA”), and accordingly the securities being offered pursuant to this prospectus have not and will not be approved, and may not be licensable, with FINMA. Therefore, the securities have not been authorized for distribution by FINMA as a foreign collective investment scheme pursuant to Article 119 CISA and the securities offered hereby may not be offered to the public (as this term is defined in Article 3 CISA) in or from Switzerland. The securities may solely be offered to “qualified investors,” as this term is defined in Article 10 CISA, and in the circumstances set out in Article 3 of the Ordinance on Collective Investment Scheme of 22 November 2006, as amended (“CISO”), such that there is no public offer. Investors, however, do not benefit from protection under CISA or CISO or supervision by FINMA. This prospectus and any other materials relating to the securities are strictly personal and confidential to each offeree and do not constitute an offer to any other person. This prospectus may only be used by those qualified investors to whom it has been handed out in connection with the offer described in this prospectus and may neither directly or indirectly be distributed or made available to any person or entity other than its recipients. It may not be used in connection with any other offer and shall in particular not be copied and/or distributed to the public in Switzerland or from Switzerland. This prospectus does not constitute an issue prospectus as that term is understood pursuant to Article 652a and/or 1156 of the Swiss Federal Code of Obligations. We have not applied for a listing of the securities on the SIX Swiss Exchange or any other regulated securities market in Switzerland, and consequently, the information presented in this prospectus does not necessarily comply with the information standards set out in the listing rules of the SIX Swiss Exchange and corresponding prospectus schemes annexed to the listing rules of the SIX Swiss Exchange.

 

 


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LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the securities being offered by this prospectus supplement will be passed upon for us by Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C., San Diego, California. Certain matters will be passed upon for Piper Jaffray by Latham & Watkins LLP.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements incorporated in this prospectus supplement by reference from the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 have been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report, which is incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements have been so incorporated in reliance upon the report of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

We are a reporting company and file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act with respect to the securities being offered under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities being offered under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including Fulgent.  The SEC's Internet site can be found at http://www.sec.gov.

 

We maintain a website at www.fulgentgenetics.com. Information contained in or accessible through our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus supplement, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement contain important information that you should read about us.

The following documents are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement:

 

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on March 22, 2019, including the information incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K from our definitive proxy statement for the 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders;

 

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the period ended March 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on May 10, 2019;

 

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the period ended June 30, 2019, filed with the SEC on August 12, 2019;

 

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the period ended September 30, 2019, filed with the SEC on November 8, 2019;

 

our Current Report on Form 8-K as filed with the SEC on June 3, 2019, our Current Report on Form 8-K reporting pursuant to Items 5.02 and 9.01 of Form 8-K filed with the SEC on August 5, 2019 and our Current Report on Form 8-K as filed with the SEC on August 30, 2019;

 

the description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on September 26, 2016, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description; and

 

all reports and other documents subsequently filed by us pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus supplement and prior to the termination or completion of the offering of securities under this prospectus supplement shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and to be a part hereof from the date of filing such reports and other documents.

We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus all documents (other than current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items) that are filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (i) after the date of the initial filing of this prospectus supplement, or (ii) after the date of this prospectus supplement but prior to the termination of the offering. These documents include periodic reports, such as Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as proxy statements.

We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus is delivered, without charge upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the

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prospectus, including exhibits which are specifically incorporated by reference into such documents. Requests should be directed to: Fulgent Genetics, Inc., Attn: Investor Relations, 4978 Santa Anita Avenue, Suite 205, Temple City, California 91780, telephone: (626) 350-0537.

Any statement contained herein or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this document will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of the document to the extent that a statement contained in this document or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this document modifies or supersedes the statement.

 

 

 

 

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PROSPECTUS

$75,000,000

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Rights

Units

 

From time to time, we may offer up to $75,000,000 of any combination of the securities described in this prospectus. We may also offer securities as may be issuable upon conversion, redemption, repurchase, exchange or exercise of any securities registered hereunder, including any applicable antidilution provisions.

This prospectus provides a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer securities, we will provide specific terms of the securities offered in a supplement to this prospectus. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as any documents incorporated by reference, before you invest in any of the securities being offered.

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of any securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “FLGT.” On August 9, 2019, the last reported sales price of our common stock was $11.31 per share. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing on the Nasdaq Global Market or any securities market or other exchange of the securities, if any, covered by the prospectus supplement.

We will sell these securities directly to investors, through agents designated from time to time or to or through underwriters or dealers, on a continuous or delayed basis. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus. If any agents or underwriters are involved in the sale of any securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such agents or underwriters and any applicable fees, commissions, discounts or over-allotment options will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.

The aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3 was approximately $59.3 million based on 18,486,137 shares of common stock outstanding as of August 9, 2019, of which 5,242,649 shares were held by non-affiliates, and a last reported sale price on the Nasdaq Global Market of $11.31 per share on August 9, 2019. Pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3, in no event will we sell securities pursuant to this registration statement with a value more than one-third of the aggregate market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates in any 12-month period, so long as the aggregate market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates is less than $75.0 million. We have not sold any securities pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3 during the 12 calendar months prior to, and including, the date of this registration statement.

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

NEITHER THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION NOR ANY STATE SECURITIES COMMISSION HAS APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED OF THESE SECURITIES OR DETERMINED IF THIS PROSPECTUS IS TRUTHFUL OR COMPLETE. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.

 

The date of this prospectus is August 23, 2019.

 

 


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is a part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings up to a total dollar amount of $75,000,000. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer.

Each time we sell securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in any documents that we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should read this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, together with the information incorporated herein by reference as described under the heading “Incorporation of Certain Information By Reference,” before investing in any of the securities offered.

THIS PROSPECTUS MAY NOT BE USED TO CONSUMMATE A SALE OF SECURITIES UNLESS IT IS ACCOMPANIED BY A PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT.

You should rely only on the information that we have provided or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you. We have not authorized any dealer, salesman or other person to give any information or to make any representation other than those contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you. You must not rely upon any information or representation not contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus. This prospectus, any applicable supplement to this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the registered securities to which they relate, nor do this prospectus, any applicable supplement to this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy securities in any jurisdiction to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation in such jurisdiction.

You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is accurate on any date subsequent to the date set forth on the front of the document or that any information we have incorporated by reference is correct on any date subsequent to the date of the document incorporated by reference, even though this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is delivered, or securities are sold, on a later date.

This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information from this prospectus and does not contain all of the information that you need to consider in making your investment decision. You should carefully read the entire prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, including the risks of investing in our securities discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should also carefully read the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our financial statements, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

Unless the context indicates otherwise, as used in this prospectus, the terms “Fulgent Genetics,” “Fulgent,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Fulgent Genetics, Inc., a Delaware corporation.

About Fulgent Genetics, Inc.

Fulgent is a growing technology company offering comprehensive genetic testing and providing physicians with clinically actionable diagnostic information they can use to improve the quality of patient care. We have developed a proprietary technology platform that allows us to offer a broad and flexible test menu and continually expand and improve our proprietary genetic reference library, while maintaining accessible pricing, high accuracy and competitive turnaround times. Combining next generation sequencing, or NGS, with our technology platform, we perform full-gene sequencing with deletion/duplication analysis in single-gene tests; pre-established, multi-gene, disease-specific panels; and customized panels that can be tailored to meet specific customer needs. We believe our test menu offers more genes for testing than our competitors in today’s market, which enables us to provide expansive options for test customization and clinically actionable results. After launching our first commercial genetic tests in 2013 and as of August 2019, we have expanded our test menu to include approximately 18,000 single-gene tests and more than 800 panels that collectively test for approximately 7,700 genetic conditions, including various cancers, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders and pediatric conditions. A cornerstone of our business is our ability to provide expansive options and flexibility for all clients’ unique genetic testing needs.

Genetic testing offers the possibility of early identification of a disease or a genetic predisposition to a disease and enhanced disease treatment and prognosis. As a result, we believe widespread genetic testing could enable significant health improvements and healthcare cost reductions by providing patients and clinicians with more advanced knowledge and options for personal health management plans. Due to these and other potential benefits, genetic testing has experienced significant growth in recent years. If this growth trend continues, we believe genetic testing will become part of standard medical care. The knowledge of a person’s unique genetic makeup could then begin to play a more important role in the practice of medicine. We believe this growth has been tempered in prior years, however, because many tests are prohibitively expensive, are produced through inefficient processes and often do not result in clinically actionable data. Through our technology platform, we have developed an offering that we believe addresses these industry challenges and provides a sustainable competitive advantage, both in today’s genetic testing market and as we seek to implement new diagnostic tools in the future.

Our technology platform, which integrates sophisticated data comparison and suppression algorithms, adaptive learning software, advanced genetic diagnostics tools and integrated laboratory processes, allows us to offer a test menu with expansive genetic coverage. We believe the comprehensive data output and high detection rates of our tests, both made possible by this expansive genetic coverage, provide physicians with information they can readily incorporate into treatment decisions for their patients, which we refer to as clinical actionability. In addition, our technology platform facilitates our ability to perform customized genetic tests using our expansive library of genes, and we believe this flexibility increases the utility of the genetic data we produce. Further, our technology platform provides us with operating efficiencies that help lower our internal costs, which allows us to offer our tests at accessible price points. As a result, our efforts to build and continually enhance our technology platform allow us to deliver comprehensive, adaptable, clinically actionable and affordable genetic analysis while maintaining a low cost per billable test, enabling us to efficiently meet the needs of our growing base of customers. These features of our offering have resulted in rapid volume growth since our commercial launch, with 23,899 billable tests delivered as of June 2019, 22,298 billable tests delivered in 2018, 16,578 billable tests delivered in 2017, and an aggregate of over 83,100 billable tests delivered to approximately 1,000 customers from inception through June 30, 2019.

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Corporate Information

Information concerning the Company is contained in the documents that we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, as a reporting company under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, which are accessible at www.sec.gov. Our website address is www.fulgentgenetics.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus. Investors should not rely on any such information in deciding whether to purchase our common stock. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.

Our mailing address is 4978 Santa Anita Avenue, Temple City, California 91780. Our telephone number is (626) 350-0537.

The Securities We May Offer

We may offer shares of our common stock, preferred stock, various series of debt securities and warrants to purchase any of such securities, or units to purchase any combination thereof, with a total value of up to $75,000,000 from time to time under this prospectus, together with any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the offering. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

designation or classification;

 

aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;

 

maturity, if applicable;

 

original issue discount, if any;

 

rates and times of payment of interest or dividends, if any;

 

redemption, conversion, exchange or sinking fund terms, if any;

 

conversion or exchange prices or rates, if any, and, if applicable, any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the conversion or exchange prices or rates and in the securities or other property receivable upon conversion or exchange;

 

ranking;

 

restrictive covenants, if any;

 

voting or other rights, if any; and

 

important United States federal income tax considerations.

The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in documents we have incorporated by reference. However, no prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus will offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

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We may sell the securities directly to investors or through underwriters, dealers or agents. We, and our underwriters or agents, reserve the right to accept or reject all or part of any proposed purchase of securities. If we do offer securities through underwriters or agents, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement:

 

the names of those underwriters or agents;

 

applicable fees, discounts and commissions to be paid to them;

 

details regarding over-allotment options, if any; and

 

the estimated net proceeds to us.

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully review the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, before deciding whether to purchase any of the securities being registered pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. Each of the risk factors could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our securities, and the occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also significantly impair our business operations.


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RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

Any time debt securities are offered pursuant to this prospectus, we will provide a table setting forth our ratio of earnings to fixed charges on a historical basis in the applicable prospectus supplement, if required.


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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement include and incorporate by reference “forward-looking statements.”

We intend these forward-looking statements to be covered by the safe harbor provisions for forward looking statements contained in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Words such as “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expect,” “project,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “predict,” “believe,” “possible,” “should” and similar words or expressions are intended to identify forward looking statements although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. These forward looking statements include statements about, among other things:

 

developments, projections and trends relating to us, our competitors and our industry;

 

our strategic plans for our business;

 

our operating performance, including our ability to achieve equal or higher levels of revenue, stabilize the historical fluctuations in our performance and achieve or grow profitability;

 

the rate and degree of market acceptance and adoption of our tests and genetic testing generally and other anticipated trends in our industry;

 

our ability to remain competitive, particularly if the genetic testing market continues to expand and competition becomes more acute;

 

our ability to continue to expand the number of genes covered by our tests and introduce other improvements to our tests;

 

our continued ability to offer affordable pricing for our tests, in spite of recent price degradation in our industry, and our ability to maintain the low internal costs of our business model and record acceptable margins on our sales;

 

our ability to strengthen our existing base of hospital and medical institution customers by maintaining or increasing demand from these customers;

 

our ability to grow and diversify our customer base, including our plans to target new institutional and individual customer groups;

 

our reliance on a limited number of suppliers and ability to adapt to possible disruptions in their operations;

 

our use of our sole laboratory facility and ability to adapt in the event it is damaged or rendered inoperable;

 

the level of success of our efforts to increase our global presence, including strengthening relationships with existing and new international customers and establishing other types of arrangements, including our joint venture in the People’s Republic of China, or PRC, or other international joint venture or distributor relationships we may pursue;

 

the impact on our business of our recent investments in building and restructuring our sales and marketing strategies and teams, and our plans for future sales and marketing efforts;

 

advancements in technology by us and our competitors;

 

our use of technology and ability to prevent security breaches, loss of data and other disruptions;

 

our ability to effectively manage any growth we may experience, including expanding our infrastructure, developing increased efficiencies in our operations and hiring additional skilled personnel in order to support any such growth;

 

developments with respect to U.S. and foreign regulations applicable to our business, and our ability to comply with these regulations;

 

our ability to prevent errors in interpreting the results of our tests so as to avoid product liability and professional liability claims;

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our ability to obtain and maintain coverage and adequate reimbursement for our tests and to manage the complexity of billing and collecting such reimbursement;

 

the state of the U.S. and foreign healthcare markets, including the role of governments in the healthcare industry generally and pressures or incentives to reduce healthcare costs while expanding individual benefits, as well as the impact of general uncertainty in the U.S. healthcare regulatory environment following the results of the 2016 U.S. presidential election;

 

our ability to attract, retain and motivate key scientific and management personnel;

 

our expectations regarding our ability to obtain and maintain protection of our trade secrets and other intellectual property rights and not infringe the rights of others;

 

our expectations regarding our future expense levels and our ability to appropriately forecast and plan our expenses;

 

our expectations regarding our future capital requirements and our ability to obtain additional capital if and when needed; and

 

the impact of the above factors and other future events on the market price of our common stock.

All forward-looking statements reflect management’s present assumptions, expectations and beliefs regarding future events and are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in or implied by any forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include those described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus, any related free writing prospectus, and in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K and quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, as well as any amendments thereto reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC. Given these risks, uncertainties and other important factors, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. You should carefully read this prospectus, the accompanying base prospectus and any related free writing prospectus, together with the information incorporated herein and therein by reference as described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information,” completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect.

These forward-looking statements represent our estimates and assumptions only as of the date made. Any such forward looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and actual results, developments and business decisions may differ from those contemplated by such forward looking statements. We undertake no duty to update these forward-looking statements after the date of this prospectus, except as required by law, even though our situation may change in the future. You should carefully consider other information set forth in reports or other documents that we file with the SEC. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

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USE OF PROCEEDS

Unless we inform you otherwise in the prospectus supplement, we expect to use any net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes, including working capital and other general and administrative purposes. We may also use any net proceeds from this offering for acquisitions of complementary products, technologies or businesses, but we do not have any current plans, agreements or commitments for any specific acquisitions at this time. We have not reserved or allocated specific amounts for any of these purposes and we cannot specify with certainty how we will use any net proceeds, and the timing and amount of our actual expenditures will be based on many factors, including, among others, cash flows from operations and any growth of our business. Our management will have broad discretion in applying any net proceeds of this offering. Until the funds are used as described above, we intend to invest any net proceeds from this offering in interest bearing, investment grade securities.


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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

The securities covered by this prospectus may be sold from time to time, at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, at prices related to market prices, at a fixed price or prices subject to change or at negotiated prices, by a variety of methods including the following:

 

 

in the over-the-counter market;

 

in privately negotiated transactions;

 

through broker-dealers, who may act as agents or principals;

 

through one or more underwriters on a firm commitment or best-efforts basis;

 

in a block trade in which a broker-dealer will attempt to sell a block of securities as agent but may position and resell a portion of the block as principal to facilitate the transaction;

 

directly to one or more purchasers;

 

through agents;

 

in “at the market offerings” to or through a market maker or into an existing trading market, or a securities exchange or otherwise; or

 

in any combination of the above.

In effecting sales, brokers or dealers engaged by the selling stockholders may arrange for other brokers or dealers to participate. Broker-dealer transactions may include:

 

 

purchases of the securities by a broker-dealer as principal and resales of the securities by the broker-dealer for its account pursuant to this prospectus;

 

ordinary brokerage transactions; or

 

transactions in which the broker-dealer solicits purchasers on a best efforts basis.

 

We may change the price of the securities offered from time to time.

 

Offers to purchase securities may be solicited directly by us and the sale thereof may be made by us directly to institutional investors or others. In this case, no underwriters or agents would be involved. We may use electronic media, including the Internet, to sell offered securities directly.

 

We, or agents designated by us, may directly solicit, from time to time, offers to purchase the securities. Any such agent may be deemed to be an underwriter as that term is defined in the Securities Act. We will name any agents involved in the offer or sale of the securities and describe any commissions payable by us to these agents in the prospectus supplement. Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, these agents will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of their appointment. The agents may be entitled under agreements which may be entered into with us to indemnification by us against specific civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. The agents may also be our customers or may engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

 

If we utilize any underwriters in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will enter into an underwriting agreement with those underwriters at the time of sale to them. We will set forth the names of these underwriters and the terms of the transaction in the prospectus supplement, which will be used by the underwriters to make resales of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered to the public. We may indemnify the underwriters under the relevant underwriting agreement against specific liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. The underwriters or their affiliates may be customers of, may engage in transactions with and may perform services for us or our affiliates in the ordinary course of business. 

 

If we utilize a dealer in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will sell those securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell those securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale. We may indemnify the dealers against specific liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. The dealers or their affiliates may also be our customers or may engage in transactions with, or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

 

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We may offer the common stock covered by this prospectus into an existing trading market on the terms described in the prospectus supplement relating thereto. Underwriters, dealers and agents who participate in any at-the-market offerings will be described in the prospectus supplement relating thereto.

 

A prospectus and accompanying prospectus supplement in electronic form may be made available on the web sites maintained by the underwriters. The underwriters may agree to allocate a number of securities for sale to their online brokerage account holders. Such allocations of securities for internet distributions will be made on the same basis as other allocations. In addition, securities may be sold by the underwriters to securities dealers who resell securities to online brokerage account holders.

 

In compliance with guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, or FINRA, the maximum consideration or discount to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker dealer may not exceed 8% of the aggregate amount of the securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement.

 

To the extent required, this prospectus may be amended or supplemented from time to time to describe a specific plan of distribution. The place and time of delivery for the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered will be set forth in the accompanying prospectus supplement.

 

In connection with offerings of securities under the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and in compliance with applicable law, underwriters, brokers or dealers may engage in transactions that stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at levels above those that might otherwise prevail in the open market. Specifically, underwriters, brokers or dealers may over-allot in connection with offerings, creating a short position in the securities for their own accounts. For the purpose of covering a syndicate short position or stabilizing the price of the securities, the underwriters, brokers or dealers may place bids for the securities or effect purchases of the securities in the open market. Finally, the underwriters may impose a penalty whereby selling concessions allowed to syndicate members or other brokers or dealers for distribution of the securities in offerings may be reclaimed by the syndicate if the syndicate repurchases previously distributed securities in transactions to cover short positions, in stabilization transactions or otherwise. These activities may stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the market price of the securities, which may be higher than the price that might otherwise prevail in the open market, and, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time.


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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

As of the date of this prospectus, our certificate of incorporation authorizes us to issue 50,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, and 1,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share. As of August 9, 2019, 18,486,137 shares of common stock were outstanding and no shares of preferred stock were outstanding.

The following summary description of our capital stock is based on the provisions of our Certificate of Incorporation, as amended, or the Certificate, as well as our Bylaws, and the applicable provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the DGCL. This information is qualified entirely by reference to the applicable provisions of our Certificate, Bylaws and the DGCL. For information on how to obtain copies of our Certificate and Bylaws, which are exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, see “Where You Can Find More Information.”

Common Stock

The holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders. The holders of our common stock do not have any cumulative voting rights. Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive ratably any dividends declared by our board of directors out of funds legally available for that purpose, subject to any preferential dividend rights of any outstanding preferred stock. Our common stock has no preemptive rights, conversion rights or other subscription rights or redemption or sinking fund provisions. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock will be entitled to share ratably in all assets remaining after payment of all debts and other liabilities and any liquidation preference of any outstanding preferred stock.

Registration Rights

We and Xi Long have entered into an investors’ rights agreement entitling Xi Long to certain rights with respect to registration rights under the Securities Act of the shares of our common stock. For purposes of the below description, we refer to these shares as “registrable securities.” The registration rights provisions of the investors’ rights agreement provide any holders of such rights with demand, piggyback and Form S-3 registration rights as described below.  

Demand Registration Rights

Upon the written request of a holder or holders of a majority of the registrable securities then outstanding that we file a registration statement under the Securities Act covering registrable securities with an anticipated aggregate price to the public of at least $35 million, we will be obligated to give written notice to all holders of registrable securities of such request within 20 days of our receipt of such notice. We will then be obligated to use our best efforts to register the sale of all registrable securities that the holder or holders of registrable securities request in writing to be registered within 20 days after our mailing of a notice to all such holders. We are required to file no more than one registration statement that is declared or ordered effective by the SEC upon exercise of these rights. We may delay the filing of a registration statement for up to 120 days twice in a 12-month period if, in the good faith judgment of our board of directors, such registration would be detrimental to us and our stockholders, and we are not required to file a registration statement during the period beginning 60 days prior to our good faith estimate of the date of the filing of, and ending on a date 180 days following the effective date of, a registration initiated by us.

Piggyback Registration Rights

If we register any of our securities in connection with a public offering, we would be required to use our best efforts to register all registrable securities that the holders of such registrable securities request in writing be registered within 20 days after our mailing of a notice to all holders of the proposed registration. However, this right does not apply to a registration relating to any of our equity incentive plans or a corporate reorganization or other transaction under Rule 145 of the Securities Act, a registration on any registration statement form that does not include substantially the same information as would be required to be included in a registration statement covering the sale of the registrable securities or a registration in which the only shares of common stock being registered are shares issuable upon conversion of debt securities that are also being registered.

Registration on Form S-3

Upon the written request of a holder or holders of at least 50% of the registrable securities then outstanding that we file a registration statement on Form S-3 covering registrable securities with an anticipated aggregate price to the public of at least $5 million (net of any underwriters’ discounts or commissions), and provided we are then eligible to file a registration statement on Form S-3, we will be obligated to use our best efforts to register the sale of all registrable securities that such holder or holders request in writing to be registered within 15 days after our mailing of a notice to all holders of such registration on Form S-3. We are required to file no more than two registration statements on Form S-3 per 12-month period upon exercise of these rights. We may delay the filing of a

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registration statement for up to 120 days if, in the good faith judgment of our board of directors, such registration would be detrimental to us and our stockholders.

Expenses of Registration; Indemnification

We are generally required to pay the registration expenses, other than underwriting discounts and selling commissions, of the shares registered pursuant to the demand, piggyback and Form S-3 registrations described above. Under the Investor’s Rights Agreement, we have agreed to indemnify a holder of registrable securities, any underwriter for such a holder and any person, if any, who controls such a holder (within the meaning of the Securities Act or the Exchange Act) against any losses, claims or damages resulting from violation of securities laws and regulations and from any untrue statement or omission of material fact in any registration statement or prospectus pursuant to which we sell shares of our common stock, unless such liability arose from reliance on written information furnished by the holder for use in connection the registration of shares, and each holder has agreed to indemnify us against all losses caused by its misstatements or omissions to the extent such losses result from our reliance on written information furnished by the holder for use in connection the registration of shares.

Termination of Registration Rights

The demand, piggyback and Form S-3 registration rights described above will expire three years after the completion of our initial public offering on Form S-1 or, with respect to any particular holder, at such earlier time that the holder can sell its shares under Rule 144 under the Securities Act, or Rule 144, during any three-month period.

Preferred Stock

Our board of directors is authorized, subject to the limitations imposed by Delaware law, to issue up to 1,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share, in one or more series, without stockholder approval. Our board of directors may fix the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of our authorized shares of preferred stock in one or more series and authorize their issuance without the approval of our stockholders. These rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions could include dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption, liquidation preferences, sinking fund terms and the number of shares constituting any series or the designation of such series, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of our common stock. The issuance of our preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power of holders of our common stock and the likelihood that such holders will receive dividend payments and payments upon liquidation. In addition, the issuance of preferred stock could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change of control of our company or other corporate action. Upon completion of this offering, no shares of preferred stock will be outstanding, and we have no present plans to issue any shares of preferred stock.

Antitakeover Provisions

Certain provisions of Delaware law, our Certificate and/or our Bylaws may have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another person from acquiring control of our company, as described below.

 

Section 203 of the DGCL

 

We are subject to Section 203 of the DGCL, which prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years after the date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, with the following exceptions:

 

before such date, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

 

upon completion of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction began, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding (but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder) those shares owned by (i) persons who are directors and also officers and (ii) employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or

 

on or after such date, the business combination is approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder

In general, Section 203 defines a “business combination” to include the following:

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any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;

 

any sale, transfer, pledge or other disposition of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation involving the interested stockholder;

 

subject to certain exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder

 

any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock or any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; or

 

the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits by or through the corporation.

In general, Section 203 defines an “interested stockholder” as an entity or person who, together with the person’s affiliates and associates, beneficially owns, or within three years prior to the time of determination of interested stockholder status did own, 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation.

Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

Our Certificate and Bylaws include a number of provisions that may discourage or delay attempts to take over our company or effect change to our management. These provisions are intended to enhance the likelihood of continued stability in the composition of our board of directors and its policies and to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to reduce our vulnerability to hostile takeovers and to discourage certain tactics that may be used in proxy fights. We believe the benefits of these provisions, including increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with the proponent of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure our company, outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging takeover proposals.

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No Cumulative Voting Rights

Because our Certificate does not provide for cumulative voting rights, stockholders holding a majority of our outstanding voting power will be able to elect all of our directors.

Removal of Directors; Number of Directors; Vacancies

Our Bylaws provide that directors may be removed by our stockholders upon the vote of a majority of our outstanding common stock, voting together as a single class, and subject to any rights of holders of any series of preferred stock that we may issue in the future, and that any such removal may be made with or without cause. Further, subject to any rights of holders of any series of preferred stock that we may issue in the future, the authorized number of directors may be changed only by the board of directors. Vacancies and newly created directorships on the board of directors may, except as otherwise required by law or determined by the board of directors, only be filled by a majority vote of the directors then serving on the board of directors, even though less than a quorum. These provisions will make it difficult for stockholders to remove directors and will prevent a stockholder from increasing the size of our board of directors and gaining control of our board of directors by filling the resulting vacancies with its own nominees.

Stockholder Actions; Special Meetings of Stockholders

Our Certificate and Bylaws provide that all stockholder actions must be effected at a duly called meeting of stockholders, thereby eliminating the right of stockholders to act by written consent without a meeting. Our Bylaws also provide that special meetings of stockholders may only be called by the Chairman of our board of directors, our President or our board of directors.

Advance Notice Requirements for Stockholder Proposals and Director Nominations

Our Bylaws provide advance notice procedures that must be followed by stockholders seeking to bring business before an annual meeting of our stockholders or to nominate candidates for election as directors at any meeting of our stockholders, which will require any such notice to be delivered to us at a specified time and in a specified form and contain certain specified information. These provisions may preclude our stockholders from bringing matters before our meetings of stockholders or from making nominations for directors at our meetings of stockholders if they do not comply with these requirements.

Issuance of Undesignated Preferred Stock

The existence of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock enables our board of directors to render more difficult or to discourage an attempt to obtain control of our company by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise.

Limitations on Liability and Indemnification Matters

Our Certificate contains provisions that limit the liability of our directors for monetary damages to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL. Consequently, our directors will not be personally liable to us or our stockholders for monetary damages for any breach of fiduciary duties as directors, except liability for:

 

any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders;

 

any act or omission not in good faith or that involves intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

 

unlawful payments of dividends or unlawful stock repurchases or redemptions as provided in Section 174 of the DGCL; or

 

any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.

Additionally, our Certificate and Bylaws require us to indemnify our directors and officers to the maximum extent permitted by the DGCL and allow us to indemnify other employees and agents as set forth in the DGCL. These documents further provide that we shall pay expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by an director or officer in defending any civil, criminal, administrative or investigative action, suit or proceeding for which such director or officer may be entitled to indemnification in advance of the final disposition of such action, suit or proceeding, upon receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of such director or officer to repay such amount if it shall ultimately be determined that he or she is not entitled to be indemnified by us.

We have entered separate indemnification agreements with each of our directors which provide these individuals with indemnification in addition to the indemnification provided for in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws. These agreements, among other things, require us to indemnify our directors and officers for certain expenses, including attorneys’ fees, judgments, penalties, fines and

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settlement amounts actually and reasonably incurred by such director and officer in any action or proceeding arising out of his or her service to us or any of our subsidiaries or any other company or enterprise to which the individual provides services at our request. Subject to certain limitations, these indemnification agreements also require us to advance expenses incurred by our directors and officers for the defense of any action for which indemnification is required or permitted.

The limitation of liability and indemnification provisions in our Certificate, Bylaws and indemnification agreements may discourage stockholders from bringing a lawsuit against our directors and officers for breach of their fiduciary duty. They may also reduce the likelihood of derivative litigation against our directors and officers, even though an action, if successful, might benefit us and other stockholders. Further, a stockholder’s investment may be adversely affected to the extent that we pay the costs of settlement and damage awards against directors and officers as required by these indemnification provisions.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A. The transfer agent’s address is 250 Royall Street, Canton, Massachusetts 02021 and its telephone number is 1(800) 662-7232.

Listing on the Nasdaq Global Market

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “FLGT.”

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any future debt securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we so indicate in a prospectus supplement, the terms of any debt securities offered under such prospectus supplement may differ from the terms we describe below, and to the extent the terms set forth in a prospectus supplement differ from the terms described below, the terms set forth in the prospectus supplement shall control.

We may sell from time to time, in one or more offerings under this prospectus, debt securities, which may be senior or subordinated. We will issue any such senior debt securities under a senior indenture that we will enter into with a trustee to be named in the senior indenture. We will issue any such subordinated debt securities under a subordinated indenture, which we will enter into with a trustee to be named in the subordinated indenture. We have filed forms of these documents as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part. We use the term “indentures” to refer to either the senior indenture or the subordinated indenture, as applicable. The indentures will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, or the Trust Indenture Act, as in effect on the date of the indenture. We use the term “debenture trustee” to refer to either the trustee under the senior indenture or the trustee under the subordinated indenture, as applicable.

The following summaries of material provisions of the senior debt securities, the subordinated debt securities and the indentures are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities.

General

Each indenture provides that debt securities may be issued from time to time in one or more series and may be denominated and payable in foreign currencies or units based on or relating to foreign currencies. Neither indenture limits the amount of debt securities that may be issued thereunder, and each indenture provides that the specific terms of any series of debt securities shall be set forth in, or determined pursuant to, an authorizing resolution and/or a supplemental indenture, if any, relating to such series.

We will describe in each prospectus supplement the following terms relating to a series of debt securities:

 

the title or designation;

 

the aggregate principal amount and any limit on the amount that may be issued;

 

the currency or units based on or relating to currencies in which debt securities of such series are denominated and the currency or units in which principal or interest or both will or may be payable;

 

whether we will issue the series of debt securities in global form, the terms of any global securities and who the depositary will be;

 

the maturity date and the date or dates on which principal will be payable;

 

the interest rate, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the date or dates interest will be payable and the record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

the terms of the subordination of any series of subordinated debt;

 

the place or places where payments will be payable;

 

our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

the date, if any, after which, and the price at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional redemption provisions;

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the date, if any, on which, and the price at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities;

 

whether the indenture will restrict our ability to pay dividends, or will require us to maintain any asset ratios or reserves;

 

whether we will be restricted from incurring any additional indebtedness;

 

a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to a series of debt securities;

 

the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof; and

 

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities.

We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Conversion or Exchange Rights

We will set forth in the prospectus supplement the terms, if any, on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or our other securities. We will include provisions as to whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

Consolidation, Merger or Sale; No Protection in Event of a Change of Control or Highly Leveraged Transaction

The indentures do not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets must assume all of our obligations under the indentures or the debt securities, as appropriate.

Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change of control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change of control), which could adversely affect holders of debt securities.

Events of Default Under the Indenture

The following are events of default under the indentures with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

if we fail to pay interest when due and our failure continues for 90 days and the time for payment has not been extended or deferred;

 

if we fail to pay the principal, or premium, if any, when due and the time for payment has not been extended or delayed;

 

if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant set forth in the debt securities of such series or the applicable indentures, other than a covenant specifically relating to and for the benefit of holders of another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice from the debenture trustee or holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

 

if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur as to us.

No event of default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an event of default with respect to any other series of debt securities. The occurrence of an event of default may constitute an event of default under any bank credit agreements we may have in existence from time to time. In addition, the occurrence of certain events of default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain of our other indebtedness outstanding from time to time.

If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may, by a notice in writing to us (and to the debenture trustee if given by the holders), declare to be due and payable immediately the principal (or, if the debt

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securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) of and premium and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all debt securities of that series. Before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained with respect to debt securities of any series, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) may rescind and annul the acceleration if all events of default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the applicable indenture (including payments or deposits in respect of principal, premium or interest that had become due other than as a result of such acceleration). We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an event of default.

Subject to the terms of the indentures, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the debenture trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the debenture trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the debenture trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the debenture trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

 

subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the debenture trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

A holder of the debt securities of any series will only have the right to institute a proceeding under the indentures or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies if:

 

the holder previously has given written notice to the debenture trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

 

the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and such holders have offered reasonable indemnity to the debenture trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee; and

 

the debenture trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series (or at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) other conflicting directions within 60 days after the notice, request and offer.

These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.

We will periodically file statements with the applicable debenture trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the applicable indenture.

Modification of Indenture; Waiver

The debenture trustee and we may change the applicable indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters, including:

 

to fix any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture; and

 

to change anything that does not materially adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series issued pursuant to such indenture.

In addition, under the indentures, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the debenture trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt

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securities of such series represented at such meeting) that is affected. However, the debenture trustee and we may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

extending the fixed maturity of the series of debt securities;

 

reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or any premium payable upon the redemption of any debt securities;

 

reducing the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity;

 

making the principal of or premium or interest on any debt security payable in currency other than that stated in the debt security; or

 

reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment or waiver.

Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or any interest on any debt security of that series or in respect of a covenant or provision, which cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holder of each outstanding debt security of the series affected; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration.

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Discharge

Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for obligations to:

 

the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

 

replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

 

maintain paying agencies;

 

hold monies for payment in trust;

 

compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

 

appoint any successor trustee.

In order to exercise our rights to be discharged with respect to a series, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, the premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

Form, Exchange, and Transfer

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indentures provide that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company or another depositary named by us and identified in a prospectus supplement with respect to that series.

At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

Subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange or in the applicable indenture, we will make no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

 

register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

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Information Concerning the Debenture Trustee

The debenture trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under the applicable indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the debenture trustee under such indenture must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the debenture trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indentures at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.

Payment and Paying Agents

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check which we will mail to the holder. Unless we otherwise indicate in a prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the debenture trustee in the City of New York as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

All money we pay to a paying agent or the debenture trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities which remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

Governing Law

The indentures and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.

Subordination of Subordinated Debt Securities

Our obligations pursuant to any subordinated debt securities will be unsecured and will be subordinate and junior in priority of payment to certain of our other indebtedness to the extent described in a prospectus supplement. The subordinated indenture does not limit the amount of senior indebtedness we may incur. It also does not limit us from issuing any other secured or unsecured debt.


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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

General

 We may issue warrants to purchase shares of our common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities in one or more series together with other securities or separately, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Below is a description of certain general terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer. Particular terms of the warrants will be described in the warrant agreements and the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants.

The applicable prospectus supplement will contain, where applicable, the following terms of and other information relating to the warrants:

 

the specific designation and aggregate number of, and the price at which we will issue, the warrants;

 

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

 

the designation, amount and terms of the securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

if applicable, the exercise price for shares of our common stock and the number of shares of common stock to be received upon exercise of the warrants;

 

if applicable, the exercise price for shares of our preferred stock, the number of shares of preferred stock to be received upon exercise, and a description of that series of our preferred stock;

 

if applicable, the exercise price for our debt securities, the amount of debt securities to be received upon exercise, and a description of that series of debt securities;

 

the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will begin and the date on which that right will expire or, if you may not continuously exercise the warrants throughout that period, the specific date or dates on which you may exercise the warrants;

 

whether the warrants will be issued in fully registered form or bearer form, in definitive or global form or in any combination of these forms, although, in any case, the form of a warrant included in a unit will correspond to the form of the unit and of any security included in that unit;

 

any applicable material U.S. federal income tax consequences;

 

the identity of the warrant agent for the warrants and of any other depositaries, execution or paying agents, transfer agents, registrars or other agents;

 

the proposed listing, if any, of the warrants or any securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants on any securities exchange;

 

if applicable, the date from and after which the warrants and the common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities will be separately transferable;

 

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

the anti-dilution provisions of the warrants, if any;

 

any redemption or call provisions;

 

whether the warrants may be sold separately or with other securities as parts of units; and

 

any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the warrants.

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Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for any warrants will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.


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DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS

General

We may issue rights to our stockholders to purchase shares of our common stock, preferred stock or the other securities described in this prospectus. We may offer rights separately or together with one or more additional rights, debt securities, preferred stock, common stock or warrants, or any combination of those securities in the form of units, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Each series of rights will be issued under a separate rights agreement to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as rights agent. The rights agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the certificates relating to the rights of the series of certificates and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders of rights certificates or beneficial owners of rights. The following description sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the rights to which any prospectus supplement may relate. The particular terms of the rights to which any prospectus supplement may relate and the extent, if any, to which the general provisions may apply to the rights so offered will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. To the extent that any particular terms of the rights, rights agreement or rights certificates described in a prospectus supplement differ from any of the terms described below, then the terms described below will be deemed to have been superseded by that prospectus supplement. We encourage you to read the applicable rights agreement and rights certificate for additional information before you decide whether to purchase any of our rights. We will provide in a prospectus supplement the following terms of the rights being issued:

 

the date of determining the stockholders entitled to the rights distribution;

 

the aggregate number of shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities purchasable upon exercise of the rights;

 

the exercise price;

 

the aggregate number of rights issued;

 

whether the rights are transferrable and the date, if any, on and after which the rights may be separately transferred;

 

the date on which the right to exercise the rights will commence, and the date on which the right to exercise the rights will expire;

 

the method by which holders of rights will be entitled to exercise;

 

the conditions to the completion of the offering, if any;

 

the withdrawal, termination and cancellation rights, if any;

 

whether there are any backstop or standby purchaser or purchasers and the terms of their commitment, if any;

 

whether stockholders are entitled to oversubscription rights, if any;

 

any applicable material U.S. federal income tax considerations; and

 

any other terms of the rights, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the distribution, exchange and exercise of the rights, as applicable.

Each right will entitle the holder of rights to purchase for cash the principal amount of shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities at the exercise price provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. Rights may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date for the rights provided in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Holders may exercise rights as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Upon receipt of payment and the rights certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the rights agent or any other office indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, forward the shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities, as applicable, purchasable upon exercise of the rights. If less than all of the rights issued in any rights offering are exercised, we may offer any unsubscribed securities directly to persons other than stockholders, to or through agents, underwriters or dealers or through a combination of such methods, including pursuant to standby arrangements, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

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Rights Agent

The rights agent for any rights we offer will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.


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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

The following description, together with the additional information that we include in any applicable prospectus supplements summarizes the material terms and provisions of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any units that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of units in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any units offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below.

We will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of unit agreement that describes the terms of the series of units we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of the related series of units. The following summaries of material terms and provisions of the units are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the unit agreement and any supplemental agreements applicable to a particular series of units. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements related to the particular series of units that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free writing prospectuses and the complete unit agreement and any supplemental agreements that contain the terms of the units.

General

We may issue units consisting of common stock, preferred stock, one or more debt securities, warrants or rights for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities in one or more series, in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each security included in the unit. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date.

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of units being offered, including:

 

the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

 

any provisions of the governing unit agreement that differ from those described below; and

 

any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units.

The provisions described in this section, as well as those set forth in any prospectus supplement or as described under “Description of Common Stock,” “Description of Preferred Stock,” “Description of Debt Securities,” “Description of Warrants” and “Description of Rights” will apply to each unit, as applicable, and to any common stock, preferred stock, debt security, warrant or right included in each unit, as applicable.

Unit Agent

The name and address of the unit agent, if any, for any units we offer will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Issuance in Series

We may issue units in such amounts and in such numerous distinct series as we determine.

Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Units

Each unit agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable unit agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any unit. A single bank or trust company may act as unit agent for more than one series of units. A unit agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable unit agreement or unit, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a unit may, without the consent of the related unit agent or the holder of any other unit, enforce by appropriate legal action its rights as holder under any security included in the unit.

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LEGAL MATTERS

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, certain legal matters in connection with the offering and the validity of the securities offered by this prospectus, and any supplement thereto, will be passed upon by Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo P.C.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements incorporated in this Prospectus by reference from the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 have been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report, which is incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements have been so incorporated in reliance upon the report of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities we are offering under this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement. You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front page of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of the securities offered by this prospectus.

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including Fulgent. The address of the SEC website is www.sec.gov.

We maintain a website at www.fulgentgenetics.com. Information contained in or accessible through our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus.

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The SEC file number for the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus is 001-37894. The documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus contain important information that you should read about us.

The following documents are incorporated by reference into this document:

 

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on February 28, 2019, May 7, 2019, June 3, 2019 and August 5, 2019 (in each case, except for the information furnished under Items 2.02 or 7.01 in any Current Report on Form 8-K);

 

our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on May 10, 2019 and August 12, 2019;

 

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018 and filed with the SEC on March 22, 2019;

 

the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A initially filed on September 26, 2016, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description; and

 

all reports and other documents subsequently filed by us pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination or completion of the offering of securities under this prospectus shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus and to be a part hereof from the date of filing such reports and other documents.

We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus all documents (other than current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items) that are filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (i) after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement, or (ii) after the date of this prospectus but prior to the termination

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of the offering. These documents include periodic reports, such as Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as proxy statements.

We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus is delivered, without charge upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus, including exhibits which are specifically incorporated by reference into such documents. Requests should be directed to: Fulgent Genetics, Inc., Attn: Investor Relations, 4978 Santa Anita Avenue, Suite 205, Temple City, California 91780, telephone: (626) 350-0537.

Any statement contained herein or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this document will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of the document to the extent that a statement contained in this document or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this document modifies or supersedes the statement.

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DISCLOSURE OF COMMISSION POSITION ON INDEMNIFICATION FOR
SECURITIES ACT LIABILITY

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers or persons controlling the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, the registrant has been informed that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is therefore unenforceable.

 

 

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Shares

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Stock

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

 

 

 

 

Sole Book-Running Manager

Piper Jaffray

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 , 2019

 

 

 

 

 

 

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