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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
Commission File No. 001-37854
 
Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) 
Nevada 99-0367049
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
1414 Harbour Way South, Suite 1201
Richmond, California 94804
(Address of Principal Executive Offices) (Zip Code)

Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (510) 984-1761 
 
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of each class Trading Symbol Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.001 par value EKSO
Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
  (Nasdaq Capital Market)
 
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act: None
 
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes ¨   No ý
 
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes ¨   No ý
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý   No ¨
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ý   No ¨
 
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,”
“smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. Large accelerated filer  ¨      Accelerated filer  ¨     Non-accelerated filer ý Smaller reporting company     Emerging growth company 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
 
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).   Yes No
 
The aggregate market value of the registrant's common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $52,257,307 based on the last sale price for such stock on June 30, 2020, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter.
 
As of February 19, 2021 the registrant had 12,599,900 outstanding shares of common stock.
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:
Portions of the registrant’s Proxy Statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated herein by reference in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K to the extent stated herein. Such proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.


Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
For the Year Ended December 31, 2020
Table of Contents

4

2

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K, or this Annual Report, contains forward-looking statements, including, without limitation, in the sections captioned “Business,” “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and elsewhere. Any and all statements contained in this Annual Report that are not statements of historical fact may be deemed forward-looking statements. Terms such as “may,” “might,” “would,” “should,” “could,” “project,” “estimate,” “pro-forma,” “predict,” “potential,” “strategy,” “anticipate,” “attempt,” “develop,” “plan,” “help,” “believe,” “continue,” “intend,” “expect,” “future,” and terms of similar import (including the negative of any of the foregoing) may be intended to identify forward-looking statements. However, not all forward-looking statements may contain one or more of these identifying terms. Forward-looking statements in this Annual Report may include, without limitation, statements regarding (i) the plans and objectives of management for future operations, including plans or objectives relating to the design, development and commercialization of exoskeleton products for humans, (ii) the manufacturing of our products and strengthening our supply chain, and potential opportunities for strategic partnerships, (iii) future financial performance, including any projection of income (including income/loss), earnings (including earnings/loss) per share, capital expenditures, dividends, capital structure or other financial items, (iv) our future financial performance, including any statement contained in a discussion and analysis of financial condition by management or in the results of operations included pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"), (v) our beliefs regarding the potential for commercial opportunities, including for exoskeleton technology in general and, our exoskeleton products in particular and for strategic partnerships, (vi) our beliefs regarding potential clinical and other health benefits of our medical devices, (vii) the impact and effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and other risk factors on our business, results of operations or prospects, and (viii) the assumptions underlying or relating to any statement described in points (i) through (viii) above.

The forward-looking statements are not meant to predict or guarantee actual results, performance, events or circumstances and may not be realized because they are based upon our current projections, plans, objectives, beliefs, expectations, estimates and assumptions and are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties and other influences, many of which we have no control over. Actual results and the timing of certain events and circumstances may differ materially from those described by the forward-looking statements as a result of these risks and uncertainties. Factors that may influence or contribute to the inaccuracy of the forward-looking statements or cause actual results to differ materially from expected or desired results may include, without limitation, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on the Company’s financial condition and business, the highly competitive markets in which the Company’s products are sold, the Company's significant losses to date and anticipated future losses, the new and unproven nature of the market for the Company’s products, the long and variable sales cycles for the Company’s products, the factors outside the Company’s control that affect the international sales of its products, the costs related to and impacts of potential failure of the Company to obtain or maintain protection for the Company's intellectual property rights, the failure of the Company to obtain or maintain regulatory approval to market the Company's medical devices, risks related to product liability, recall and warranty claims, the volatility of the market price of and limited trading in our common stock. A description of some of the risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those described by the forward-looking statements in this Annual Report appears in the section captioned “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report.

Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements because of the risks and uncertainties related to them and to the risk factors. We disclaim any obligation to update the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report to reflect any new information or future events or circumstances or otherwise.

Readers should read this Annual Report in conjunction with the discussion under the caption “Risk Factors,” our financial statements and the related notes thereto in this Annual Report, and other documents which we may file from time to time with the SEC.

Notes regarding references to Ekso Bionics

In this Annual Report, the “Company”, “we”, “its” and “our” refers to Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, and “Ekso Bionics” refers to Ekso Bionics, Inc. as it existed prior to the January 15, 2014 merger of our wholly-owned subsidiary, Ekso Acquisition Corp., with and into Ekso Bionics, Inc. or the Merger. Ekso Bionics was the surviving corporation in the Merger and became our wholly-owned subsidiary, and all of the outstanding Ekso Bionics stock was converted into shares of our common stock. Ekso®, Ekso Bionics®, EksoVest®, EksoWorks®, EksoGT, EksoNR, EksoZeroG, EVOTM, EksoUE, and EksoPulse are registered and unregistered trademarks of the Company. All other trademarks that may appear in this Annual Report are the property of their respective owners.
3

PART I

Item 1.    BUSINESS

Overview

We design, develop, sell, and rent exoskeleton products that augment human strength, endurance and mobility. Our exoskeleton technology serves multiple markets and can be utilized both by able-bodied users and persons with physical disabilities. We have sold or rented devices that (i) enable individuals with neurological conditions affecting gait (acquired brain injury, or ABI, and spinal cord injury, or SCI) to rehabilitate, and in some cases, to walk again, (ii) assist individuals with a broad range of upper extremity impairments, and (iii) allow industrial workers to perform difficult repetitive work for extended periods.

We believe that the commercial opportunity for exoskeleton technology adoption is accelerating as a result of recent advancements in material technologies, electronic and electrical engineering, control technologies, and sensor and software development. Taken individually, many of these advancements have become ubiquitous in peoples’ everyday lives. Supported by an industry-leading intellectual property portfolio, we believe that we have learned how to integrate these existing technologies; wrapping the result around a human being efficiently, elegantly and safely. We further believe that we can do so across a broad spectrum of applications, from persons with lower limb paralysis to able-bodied users.

For medical applications we have two primary products.
EksoNR is used as a rehabilitation tool to allow physicians and therapists to rehabilitate patients who have suffered a stroke or spinal cord injury. In June 2020, we received 501(k) clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, to market our EksoNR for use with patients with ABI. With its unique features designed specifically for hospitals and its proprietary SmartAssist software, EksoNR allows for the early mobilization of patients and, increased endurance during rehabilitation sessions through higher step counts and extended training durations. The intent is to allow the patient's central nervous system to take advantage of a patient's neuroplasticity to maximize recovery.
EksoUE is a wearable upper body exoskeleton that assists patients with a broad range of upper extremity impairments and aims to provide a wider active range of motion, increased endurance, and heightened intensity during rehabilitation sessions.

For able-bodied industrial workers, we built on the leading market position we achieved with EksoVest and EksoZeroG by introducing EVO, a new wearable exoskeleton for overhead work. Like EksoVest, EVO is an upper body exoskeleton that elevates and supports a worker's arms to assist them with tasks ranging from chest height to overhead. Based on extensive customer feedback, EVO was designed specifically to increase adoption of exoskeletons in the workplace. Compared to EksoVest, EVO is lighter weight, lower profile, lower cost, and has minimal contact with the body, making it comfortable to wear while enabling an even broader free range of motion. The goal is for workers using EVO to experience lower levels of fatigue and reduce on-site injuries while boosting productivity. In 2020, we introduced EVO into targeted vertical markets including food processing, specific construction trades, and manufacturing.

EksoHealth - Rehabilitation

Today, we focus our healthcare business on rehabilitation robotics. We are leveraging our patented exoskeleton technology to develop and market products intended to enable patients with lower limb impairments to rehabilitate earlier and with better outcomes than the current standard of care.

EksoNR

Our leading product, EksoNR, is a wearable bionic suit that allows our hospital and rehabilitation customers to provide in-patients and out-patients the ability to stand and walk over ground while the device makes real-time adjustments to correct issues with the patient’s reciprocal gait. Patients receive therapy in the device under the supervision of a physical therapist, and typically use an additional assistive device such as a cane, crutches or a walker. Walking is achieved by a user shifting their weight, requiring the user to achieve balance thereby replicating and reinforcing the movements of a natural gait. If needed, some patients utilize sensors in the device which assist in step initiation. Battery-powered motors drive the legs, detecting the deficient neuromuscular function and providing the level of assistance necessary for a user to complete their step. Users can expect to walk, with aid from the device, the first time they put on the EksoNR exoskeleton (after passing an assessment). Physical therapists can transfer patients to or from their wheelchair and don or remove the EksoNR in less than ten minutes.

4

The EksoNR incorporates SmartAssist, our proprietary, adaptive software that allows a patient to perform to their capability but dynamically provides 0-100% power on either side of the body as needed for successful walking. SmartAssist can promote a greater number of high-quality steps in a short time period and support the early re-learning of correct step patterns and weight shifts, potentially mitigating compensatory behaviors. SmartAssist also has allowed our customers to significantly expand the spectrum of patients that can potentially benefit from robotic rehabilitation.

In addition, SmartAssist can aid in promoting early mobility by training patients (PreGait) to walk in an exoskeleton.We believe this expands access of care to additional patients. SmartAssist also includes next generation Variable Assist technology. Variable Assist allows healthcare providers to adjust the level of assistance provided by the EksoNR as necessary, in some instances allowing patients to power themselves (FreeGait).

Another important feature of our EksoNR is its EksoPulse Analytics, a real-time data capture program. EksoPulse gathers and transmits statistics and device information during EksoNR walking sessions. This information can be used to track patient progression and to monitor device utilization. The EksoNR records data such as steps, speed, step size, and other settings along with error logs and operating parameters. Data is sent securely to our servers where it is available for customers to view, filter, and export through a secure web portal. This feature enables more thorough patient care while reducing manual data entry. It also enables us to provide a higher level of service through early identification and thorough reporting of device errors, saving customers the time and expense of unnecessary on-site visits.

The EksoNR is used by customers in both in-patient and out-patient settings. Our customers believe that for patients with some preserved motor ability (for example, after a stroke, a traumatic brain injury (TBI), or an incomplete SCI), the EksoNR exoskeleton offers unique benefits. It helps therapists teach proper step patterns and weight shifts, allowing patients potentially to mobilize earlier and ultimately to walk again. By allowing individuals to stand and walk in a full weight-bearing setting, early clinical evidence is beginning to show, that EksoNR may offer potential healthcare benefits (inclusive of patients with complete SCI). These benefits include a reduction in secondary complications such as pressure sores, urinary tract infections, bowel problems, pneumonia and other respiratory issues, bone loss/osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease and psychological disorders resulting in reduced post injury medical costs.

EksoGT

EksoGT, previously our leading rehabilitation product, has been superseded by EksoNR. We may still sell small quantities of EksoGT into certain foreign countries while awaiting regulatory clearance for our EksoNR. For existing customers with one or more previously purchased EksoGT, we offer an upgrade package.

As of December 31, 2020, we had shipped over 500 EksoGT and EksoNR units combined to over 400 rehabilitation facilities or customers worldwide. The number of units utilized at a facility varies from one to six, and is driven by the number of beds and rehabilitation sessions a hospital can offer and that hospital’s adoption of robotics within its rehabilitation protocols.

EksoUE

In 2019, we entered the market for upper extremity rehabilitation devices with EksoUE. EksoUE is a wearable assistive device that helps to reduce the effect of gravity on the wearer’s shoulders and arms. While worn, EksoUE allows longer, more intense rehabilitation sessions by reducing fatigue, while also allowing the patient to achieve a larger active range of motion. Similar to EksoNR, EksoUE is a tool for use by trained clinicians, primarily physical and occupational therapists, during rehabilitation sessions. Based on the same technology that is used in our industrial products, EksoUE uses a passive (non-motorized) design which avoids the need to charge or manage batteries and other electrical systems.

Market Overview
 
Rehabilitation clinics with significant stroke, TBI, and SCI populations comprise the primary market for our medical products. Due to their chronic nature, we believe that these conditions have an enormous clinical and economic impact on both people with the conditions and the healthcare system. According to the Centers for Disease Control, there are approximately 800,000 strokes suffered per year in the U.S. and approximately 15 million worldwide, making stroke rehabilitation our largest target market. Likewise, according to the National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center, there are approximately 18,000 incidences of SCI per year in the U.S., and according to the World Health Organization, between 250,000 to 500,000 incidences worldwide.

While the market opportunity for robotic exoskeleton rehabilitation may be large, we also recognize that the path for medical devices to become the standard of care is long and challenging. We believe that our ability to accelerate adoption will also be based, in part, on our ability to build on our partners’ early efforts: (i) to expand clinical evidence and (ii) to drive toward
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standard of care. We are already seeing customers appreciate that one way for stroke patients at in-patient facilities to receive the recommended amount of rehabilitation per guidelines is by using an EksoNR, the only device currently in the market that has the versatility to provide an over-ground gait training intervention that is task-specific, high intensity and allows for a margin of error, across the continuum of care.

Clinical Evidence

Many of our early clinical customers have participated in research focusing on safety and feasibility of exoskeletons and robotics in rehabilitation market development. These early studies were favorable and have further developed to focus on efficacy and outcomes. EksoNR technology is one of the most studied exoskeletons in the market. World-renowned institutions are leading the charge in research focused on acquired brain injury, stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis and others. EksoNR is involved in over 115 investigator-initiated studies with greater than 2000 enrolled patient participants. Notable gains have been observed with increased heart rate, rating of perceived exertion and metabolic responses when walking in EksoNR. Also discussed is improved gait speed, walking distance and standing balance out of EksoNR demonstrating improvements in motor activity and functional mobility independence. Our latest company sponsored WISE (Walking Improvement for SCI with Exoskeleton) study demonstrates clinically meaningful improvement in independent walking speed, functional gains in shorter timeframe and influence of factors that may modify gait recovery. The data is currently being submitted to journals for publication.
The European Union also requires a two-track approach to market penetration and subsequent coverage, requiring separate claims for purchasing the device and for requests for reimbursement. We are well represented in clinics run by German and Austrian accident insurers, with four out of nine rehabilitation sites in Germany and four out of four rehabilitation sites in Austria. We operate out-patient rehabilitation sessions paid by an accident insurer, where a patient trains using our EksoGT or EksoNR device twice a week. We are using these examples to integrate exoskeletal therapy in existing care pathways. In the United Kingdom, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, or NICE, has selected us as the first exoskeleton company to produce a Medtech Innovation Briefing, or MIB, which are designed to support National Health Services, or NHS, and social care commissioners and staff who are considering using new medical devices and other medical or diagnostic technologies. The MIB highlighted the innovative aspect of our proprietary SmartAssist software, which differentiates our EksoNR and EksoGT from other available exoskeletons.
Economic Value Proposition

We believe that our EksoNR allows our customers to benefit economically without modifying the reimbursement model or reimbursement codes. First, many of our customers have reported that utilizing the EksoNR promotes continuous patient improvement beginning sooner than with traditional rehabilitation methods, potentially leading to a commensurate increase in insurance reimbursements. Second, many of our customers report that facilities equipped with EksoNR as part of their rehabilitation programs attract more patients, thereby driving positive economic benefits. Lastly, we believe that improvements in patient outcomes, such as those seen with the use of EksoNR, translate positively to other metrics including discharge to community, staffing efficiency in the rehabilitation unit, and reductions in readmission rates.

Current Sales and Marketing Efforts

Our key marketing goal today is the broad-based commercial adoption of our EksoNR in the rehabilitation setting. We are focusing our go-to-market protocols and collateral on our three target audiences: medical administrators, medical directors/ therapists, and patients. Working closely with thought leaders, we will continue to build upon our early user-group exchanges, develop clinical education programs, and grow our medical advisory council.

There continues to be high market interest in expanding neurosciences service lines. In alignment with this interest, our sales priority involves the education of clinical and executive stakeholders on the economic and clinical value of our EksoNR Robotics Neuro Rehabilitation Program under our FDA indications of Stroke, Acquired Brain Injury, and Spinal Cord Injury. In tandem, we continue to leverage our EksoNR customer base to educate and mentor strategic target centers that specialize in Stroke, ABI and SCI rehabilitation in key market service areas across the US and Canada. Geographically, the priorities have been Canada, the U.S., and Mexico in the Americas, Germany in EMEA (the Europe, the Middle East, and Africa region), and Singapore, Hong Kong, and Australia in APAC (the Asia Pacific region). Currently, we utilize a direct sales force for the U.S., Canada, Singapore, Hong Kong, Germany and Switzerland. We also have an expanding distributor network in EMEA and Asia.

The sales and marketing team is principally based in the U.S., Germany, and Singapore, and is structured as follows:

One commercial leader each for the Americas, EMEA, and APAC;
Americas, EMEA, and APAC sales professionals that pursue new prospects and organize demonstrations;
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Clinical professionals and physical therapists that provide peer-to-peer demonstrations and trainings;
Marketing professionals and consultants to build awareness and generate demand;
Ambassadors, who are stroke and SCI survivors, that provide demonstrations and personal experiences.

The sales cycle for the EksoNR averages approximately eight to 12 months for a first device and six to eight months for subsequent devices. Our typical sale is our EksoNR complete package, which includes the device and all relevant components, two sets of batteries for continuous run-time, training through two levels of certification, and SmartAssist software. Customers also typically purchase Ekso Care, which is our one- to four-year after-sales service package.

Clinical Services and Customer Success

We have developed leading clinical capability in robotic rehabilitation, and we provide extensive training and support to our customers to ensure they are successful. All rentals or sales include customer training. This is comprised of both on-line and in-person training of our customers’ physical therapists. We have made this a high priority as we recognize getting customers comfortable using our product is a prerequisite to them successfully implementing a robotic rehabilitation program. In addition to the training that is included with each sale or rental, we also offer additional training services for customers who are interested in more advanced uses of the product or who desire more supervised experiences.

After Sales Service

We provide direct service for the EksoNR at our facilities in Richmond, California, and Germany. In addition, we utilize third-party service providers for some customers in EMEA and APAC. When maintenance or service is required, a customer schedules service by contacting us directly. We then arrange for the appropriate service, depending on the level of Ekso Care the customer has purchased and the nature of the service required. In some cases, we may decide it is appropriate to send an Ekso field technician onsite to service the device. However, many service issues are diagnosable remotely with the use of EksoPulse.

In addition to the Ekso Care service programs we provide a Fee-for-Service option. In this program, EksoNR repair is fulfilled per quote on demand of the customer and as per our repair price list.

Manufacturing and Supply Chain

We produce the EksoNR at our facilities in Richmond, California for worldwide sales. We currently run one line for one shift per day and believe we have the capacity to eventually run additional lines and shifts should we deem it appropriate. The EksoNR uses over 700 purchased parts, which we source globally from over 70 suppliers. Whenever possible, we seek to secure dual source suppliers for our components.

Our commitment to the philosophy of continuous improvement has continued to increase product performance and reliability over the past year. As a result, we expect our cost of field service will continue to decline over the next 12 months.

EksoWorks - Able-Bodied Industrial Applications

We continue to pursue market and product development opportunities for the industrial market. Our initial efforts have included EksoZeroG Arm, a mobile arm mount that makes heavy tools feel weightless and enables workers to be more productive and safe, and EksoVest, an upper body exoskeleton that elevates and supports a worker's arms to assist them with tasks ranging from chest height to overhead.

Building on our existing EksoVest technology, in August of 2020 we introduced EVO, an endurance-boosting assistive upper body exoskeleton that alleviates the burden of repetitive work. EVO’s innovative design is our latest product for able-bodied applications. EVO is a passive, spring-loaded assistive upper-body exoskeleton that aids workers with overhead work. It is designed to reduce fatigue and shoulder and back muscle strain, with the goal of eliminating work-related injuries to the neck, shoulder, and back. EVO offers 5-15 pounds of lift assistance in each arm to elevate and alleviate the day-to-day strain on workers across all industries. Shoulder injuries caused by overhead work, repetitive tasks, and overexertion is the leading cause of lost work days due to workplace injuries. Ekso Bionics is striving to alleviate the burden on skilled workers, drastically reducing the number of workplace injuries and cutting down on worker fatigue.

Market feedback continues to indicate a growing imperative among construction and manufacturing companies to drive adoption of improved safety and health practices. Furthermore, based on initial field-testing and market research, we believe that industrial exoskeletons have the potential to help prevent workforce injuries, improve productivity and over time reduce
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workers’ compensation and related costs. In the U.S. alone, our target manufacturing and construction verticals employ a total of 18.4 million workers (according to U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics), many of whom can potentially benefit from our assistive technology.

In addition, human augmentation technology is being viewed by senior managers of companies that have participated in field-testing as an opportunity to extend the careers of experienced and skilled workers while also changing the work environment to attract future workers to these careers.

While we believe that the evidence clearly demonstrates that there is significant demand for human augmentation in industrial applications, adoption rates remain a challenge due to the nascent nature of the technology. That said, we believe that there is significant mid-to-long-term potential in the industrial markets, and accordingly, we will continue our product development efforts to expand our EksoWorks product offerings. Given the fragmented nature of the industrial market we believe that the best approach in this market involves collaboration with established strategic partners that can help us target applications tailored for specific use cases. We believe that leveraging our extensive exoskeleton expertise and intellectual property portfolio with the established channel and applying the expertise of one or more strategic partners unlocks the highest value for us and our stockholders. We continue to engage with multiple potential industrial partners, and plan to continue this approach going forward.
China Joint Venture

We entered into a joint venture, or the China JV, to develop and serve the exoskeleton market in China and certain other Asian markets and to create a global exoskeleton manufacturing center. The Equity Joint Venture Contract, dated January 30, 2019, between us, Zhejiang Youchuang Venture Capital Investment Co., Ltd., and another partner, collectively referred to as, the JV Partners, as amended by the Amendment to the Joint Venture Contract, dated April 30, 2019, or the JV Agreement, provided for the establishment of the China JV as a limited liability company pursuant to the Law on Sino-foreign Equity Joint Ventures and the Regulations for the Implementation of the Law on Sino-foreign Equity Joint Ventures. In May 2020, the Company, and the JV Partners received notice from the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States, or CFIUS, in connection with its review of the Company’s and the JV Partners’ investment in the China JV. The notice stated that CFIUS’s prior national security concerns regarding the China JV could not be mitigated. In connection with such determination, on July 13, 2020, the Company and the JV Partners entered into a National Security Agreement, or NSA, which, among other things, required the termination of the Company’s agreements and role with the China JV. On August 12, 2020, the Company and the JV Partners agreed to terminate the agreements underlying the China JV. As of December 31, 2020, all agreements related to the China JV had been terminated.

Intellectual Property

We have established an extensive intellectual property portfolio that includes various U.S. patents and patent applications. The table below provides a summary of U.S. patents by issuing status and ownership status.
Issuing Status
License Status Issued
Patents
Pending
Applications
Licensed to the Company 15  — 
Exclusively licensed to the Company — 
Co-owned with Regents of the University of California, exclusively licensed to the Company — 
Co-owned with the Regents of the University of California — 
Sole ownership by the Company 33 
Total: 65 61  4 

Pending applications mean a complete application has been filed with the applicable patent authority and additional action is pending.

Many of these applications have also been filed internationally as appropriate for their respective subject matter. As of December 31, 2020, 203 applications have issued or have been allowed as patents internationally. Our patent portfolio contains 227 cases that have issued or are in prosecution in 21 countries outside the U.S.

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Our patent portfolio includes product and method type claims, since the devices that we produce and the processes performed by those devices are patentable. Our patents encompass technologies relevant to our devices, including medical exoskeletons, commercial exoskeletons, actuators, and strength-enhancing exoskeletons. The earliest priority date of the portfolio reaches back to 2003, and new applications may continue to be filed from time-to-time.

Licensors include the Regents of the University of California, or UC Berkeley, and Garrett Brown (as a result of our acquisition of technology of Equipois, LLC, or Equipois).

The license with UC Berkeley consists of two agreements and one amendment to the agreement covering ten patent cases exclusively licensed to us, nine of which have issued and one of which remains in prosecution or the UC Berkeley License Agreements. Inventions covered by a further three patent applications are co-owned by us and UC Berkeley, with no license agreement between us and UC Berkeley. As a result, UC Berkeley may license its rights in these patents to a third party. With respect to two of these co-owned patent applications, UC Berkeley has licensed their rights in the U.S. to an unrelated third party. The third patent application will need to be fully prosecuted before it can be determined which claims are exclusive to us (through a previous license) and which claims UC Berkeley may license to other entities.

Pursuant to the UC Berkeley License Agreements, Ekso Bionics initially paid UC Berkeley consideration consisting of $5,000 in cash and 310,400 common shares of Ekso Bionics, and committed to pay a 1% royalty on sales, including sales generated by sublicenses. In addition, the UC Berkeley License Agreements call for minimum annual payments of $50,000. We do not pay royalties to UC Berkeley on products sold or to be resold to the U.S. government.

In some cases, as a result of government funding we receive, the patents have a government use license, granting the U.S. government a non-exclusive, non-transferable, irrevocable, paid-up license for use of the inventions for or on behalf of the U.S. government, as is typical in the case of government sponsored research.

In connection with our acquisition of assets of Equipois, we assumed the rights and obligations of Equipois under a license agreement with Garrett Brown, the developer of certain intellectual property related to mechanical balance and support arm technologies, which grants us an exclusive license with respect to the technology and patent rights for certain fields of use. Pursuant to the terms of the license agreement, we will be required to pay Mr. Brown a single-digit royalty on net receipts, subject to a $50,000 annual minimum royalty requirement.

Intellectual Property Out-Licensing

We believe that the breadth of the coverage across various bionic systems and technologies, together with our freedom to grant sub-licenses under the UC Berkeley License Agreements gives us the potential to generate licensing revenue in fields outside our present areas of commercialization. Since 2009, we have generated approximately $1.8 million in such licensing revenue from our two licensees: Lockheed Martin Corporation or Lockheed and OttoBock Healthcare Product GmbH or OttoBock.

We receive revenue pursuant to a Government Field Cross License Agreement dated as of July 1, 2013 between Ekso Bionics, Inc. and Lockheed and a Cross License Agreement dated as of July 1, 2013 between Ekso Bionics, Inc. and Lockheed. Pursuant to these agreements, we have licensed to Lockheed certain rights with respect to our anthropomorphic exoskeleton technology for which Lockheed is obligated to pay us a royalty on sales of products incorporating such technology. Royalty fees from Lockheed were either de minimus or nil for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

With respect to OttoBock, we received exclusivity payments pursuant to the License and Services Agreement dated October 27, 2014. The License and Services Agreement grants OttoBock exclusive rights in order to develop a semi-active prosthetic knee prototype for use in medical prosthetics and provides that OttoBock will pay us a royalty based on sales by OttoBock of products incorporating the licensed technology. We did not receive any royalty fees from Ottobock during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. In November of 2019, OttoBock informed us that they will not be pursuing commercialization of products based on our intellectual property. As a result, we do not expect additional royalty revenue from OttoBock in the future.

In March 2018, we entered into a set of agreements with Daydo Co, Ltd., or Daydo, related to distribution and cross-licensing of EksoVest. Under these agreements, Daydo has exclusive distribution rights for EksoVest within Japan and rights to modify EksoVest as needed to address the Japanese market in exchange for royalty payments to us. We also have rights to use any improvements made by Daydo. Daydo released its localized version of EksoVest (called Task AR) in January of 2019. Revenue from related royalty payments was de minimis in 2020 and 2019.

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In June 2020, we entered into a non-exclusive license agreement with HAWE Hydraulik of Germany for rights to develop hydraulic pumps covered by a family of our patents. The agreement additionally includes an exclusivity option. We did not receive any royalty revenue from this license in 2020.

Competition

The medical technology and industrial robotics industries are characterized by intense competition and rapid technological change. We believe that a number of other companies are developing competitive technology and devices for both the able-bodied and medical fields of use and many of these competitors have significantly more financial and other resources than we possess.

In the medical field, we face competition from companies that are focused on technology for rehabilitation of patients suffering from stroke and related neurological disabilities as well as from companies that are focused on SCI. In stroke, Cyberdyne, Parker Hannafin’s Indego, and ReWalk all now offer ambulatory exoskeletons for rehabilitation use in various markets where we operate. While not functionally equivalent, Hocoma, AlterG, Aretech and Reha Technology are selling treadmill-based gait therapies. In SCI, ReWalk Robotics and Parker Hannafin also sell ambulatory exoskeletons. Other companies who have announced plans to commercialize robotic exoskeletons include: Bionik Laboratories and SuitX.

Technologies developed by competitors in the areas of stroke rehabilitation and SCI represent therapeutic interventions with utility at varying points of the continuum of care. Clinically, the EksoNR is unique in its broad ability to mobilize pre- or even non-ambulatory patients using a full weight bearing, over ground, task-based platform. From a practice management perspective, the EksoNR is less expensive than many other systems, has a smaller footprint, the ability to move around the hospital, and uses standard power requirements that make it easy to integrate into existing infrastructure. Other over-ground exoskeletons were initially designed for an individual to achieve ambulation reliant on the device. By contrast, the EksoNR’s design accommodates patients with complete paraplegia and additionally includes features that are optimized to assist therapists in helping patients with some motor ability learn to walk again in a clinical setting, treating several patients and indications in a single day.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, the most pressing challenges we face are not necessarily competitive technologies, but rather achieving rapid market awareness and adoption of this emerging technology while acclimating prospects to a fundamentally new paradigm in neuro-rehabilitation and mobility. In addition, it may be difficult for the rehabilitation department of a hospital or clinic to secure the funds for acquisition of an Ekso device in an environment where capital expenditures of this magnitude are not commonly incurred by those rehabilitation departments.
In the able-bodied field, Lockheed Martin, Raytheon, BAE Systems, Panasonic, Honda, Daewoo, Noonee, Revision Military, SuitX, Skel-ex, Levitate and Cyberdyne - among others - are each developing or commercializing some form of exoskeleton for military and/or industrial applications.
The field of robotic exoskeleton technology remains in its infancy. As this field develops, we believe that we will face increased competition on the basis of product features, clinical outcomes, price, services and other factors. Our competitive position will depend on multiple, complex factors, including our ability to achieve market acceptance for our products, develop new products, implement production and marketing plans, secure regulatory approvals for products under development and protect our intellectual property. In some instances, competitors may also offer, or may attempt to develop, alternative therapies for disease states that may be delivered without a medical device.

Governmental Regulation and Product Approval

U.S. Regulation

The U.S. government regulates the medical device industry through various agencies, including but not limited to the FDA, which administers the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, or FDCA. The design, testing, manufacturing, storage, labeling, distribution, advertising, and marketing of medical devices are subject to extensive regulation by federal, state, and local governmental authorities in the United States, including the FDA, and by similar agencies in other countries. Any medical device product that we develop must receive all requisite regulatory approvals or clearances, as the case may be, before it may be marketed in a particular country.

Device Development, Marketing Clearance and Approval. The FDA classifies medical devices into one of three classes (Class I, II or III) based on the degree of risk the FDA determines to be associated with a device and the extent of control deemed necessary to ensure the device’s safety and effectiveness. Devices requiring fewer controls because they are deemed to pose
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lower risk are placed in Class I or II. Class I devices are deemed to pose the least risk and are subject only to general controls applicable to all devices, such as requirements for device labeling, premarket notification, and adherence to the FDA’s current good manufacturing practice requirements, as reflected in its Quality System Regulation, or QSR. Class II devices are intermediate risk devices that are subject to general controls and may also be subject to special controls such as performance standards, product-specific guidance documents, special labeling requirements, patient registries or post-market surveillance. Class III devices are those for which insufficient information exists to assure safety and effectiveness solely through general or special controls, and include life- sustaining, life-supporting, or implantable devices, and devices not “substantially equivalent” to a device that is already legally marketed. Most Class I devices, and some Class II devices are exempted by regulation from the 510(k) clearance requirement and can be marketed without prior authorization from the FDA. Class I and Class II devices that have not been so exempted are eligible for marketing through the 510(k) clearance pathway. By contrast, devices placed in Class III generally require premarket approval, or PMA, prior to commercial marketing.

To obtain 510(k) clearance for a medical device, an applicant must submit a premarket notification application to the FDA demonstrating that the device is “substantially equivalent” to a predicate device, which is typically a Class II device that is legally marketed in the United States. A device is substantially equivalent to a predicate device if it has the same intended use and (i) the same technological characteristics, or (ii) has different technological characteristics and the information submitted demonstrates that the device is as safe and effective as a legally marketed device and does not raise different questions of safety or effectiveness. A showing of substantial equivalence sometimes, but not always, requires clinical data. Generally, the 510(k) clearance process can exceed 90 days and may extend to a year or more. After a device has received 510(k) clearance for a specific intended use, any modification that could significantly affect its safety or effectiveness, such as a significant change in the design, materials, method of manufacture or intended use, will require a new 510(k) clearance or if the device as modified is not substantially equivalent to a legally marketed predicate device PMA. While the determination as to whether new authorization is needed is initially left to the manufacturer, the FDA may review this determination and evaluate the regulatory status of the modified product at any time and may request the manufacturer to cease marketing and recall the modified device until 510(k) clearance or PMA is obtained. The manufacturer may also be subject to significant regulatory fines or penalties.

The second, more comprehensive, approval process applies to a new device that is not substantially equivalent to a predicate device or that is to be used in supporting or sustaining life or preventing impairment. These devices are normally Class III devices requiring PMA. The FDA will approve the PMA application if it finds there is reasonable assurance that the device is safe and effective for its intended use. The PMA process takes substantially longer than the 510(k) process, approximately one to two years or more.

In some instances, the FDA may find that a device is new and not substantially equivalent to a predicate device but is also not a high-risk device as is generally the case with Class III PMA devices. In these instances, the FDA may allow a device to be reclassified from Class III to Class I or II. The de novo reclassification option is an alternate pathway to classify novel devices of low to moderate risk that had automatically been placed in Class III after receiving a “not substantially equivalent” (NSE) determination in response to a 510(k) notification. The FDCA also allows a sponsor to submit a de novo reclassification request to the FDA for novel low to moderate risk devices without first being required to submit a 510(k) application. These types of applications are referred to as “Evaluation of Automatic Class III Designation” or “de novo.” In instances where a device is deemed not substantially equivalent to a Class II predicate device, the candidate device may be filed as a de novo application which may lead to delays in regulatory decisions by the FDA. FDA review of a de novo application may lead the FDA to identify the device as either a Class I or II device and subject to or exempt from 510(k) premarket notification.

Clinical trials are generally required to support a PMA or de novo reclassification application and are sometimes required for 510(k) clearance. Clinical trials generally require an investigational device exemption application, or IDE, approved in advance by the FDA for a specified number of patients and study sites, unless the product is deemed a non-significant risk device eligible for more abbreviated IDE requirements. Clinical trials are subject to extensive monitoring, recordkeeping and reporting requirements. Clinical trials must be conducted under the oversight of an institutional review board or an IRB, for the relevant clinical trial sites and must comply with FDA regulations, including but not limited to those relating to good clinical practices. Conducting a clinical trial also requires obtaining the patients' informed consent in form and substance compliant with both FDA requirements and state and federal privacy and human subject protection regulations. The FDA or the IRB could suspend a clinical trial at any time for various reasons, including a belief that the risks to study subjects outweigh the anticipated benefits. Even if a trial is completed, the results of clinical testing may not adequately demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the device or may otherwise not be sufficient to obtain FDA approval to market the product in the U.S. To date, the EksoGT has been the subject of several clinical studies, some sponsored by us, as well as non-Ekso-sponsored independent studies conducted by rehabilitation institutions. In addition, we are currently conducting several studies to investigate additional indications for use for the EksoGT, as well as to evaluate clinical and non-clinical outcomes of using the device.

Our current indication for use, or IFU, clearance for stroke, SCI, and ABI. On April 4, 2016, we received clearance from the
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FDA to market our EksoGT robotic exoskeleton for use in the treatment of individuals with hemiplegia due to stroke, individuals with SCI at levels T4 to L5, and individuals with SCI at levels of T3 to C7 (ASIA D), in accordance with the device’s labeling. On July 19, 2016, we received clearance from the FDA to expand/clarify the indications and labeling to expressly include individuals with hemiplegia due to stroke who have upper extremity function of at least 4 out of 5 strength in at least one arm. On June 15, 2020, we received clearance from FDA to expand the indications for use, or IFU, and labeling to expressly include individuals with acquired brain injury, including traumatic brain injury and stroke who have upper extremity function of at least 4 out of 5 strength in at least one arm.

After a device is placed on the market, numerous regulatory requirements apply. These include:
product listing and establishment registration, which helps facilitate FDA inspections and other regulatory action;
QSR, which requires manufacturers, including third-party manufacturers, to follow stringent design, testing, control, documentation and other quality assurance procedures during all aspects of the manufacturing process;
labeling regulations and FDA prohibitions against the promotion of products for un-cleared, unapproved or off-label use or indication;
510(k) clearance of product modifications that could significantly affect safety or efficacy or that would constitute a major change in intended use of one of our cleared devices;
medical device reporting regulations, which require that manufacturers comply with FDA requirements to report if their device may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury, or has malfunctioned in a way that would likely cause or contribute to a death or serious injury if the malfunction of the device or a similar device were to recur;
post-approval restrictions or conditions, including post-approval study commitments;
post-market surveillance regulations, which apply when necessary to protect the public health or to provide additional safety and effectiveness data for the device;
the FDA's recall authority, whereby it can ask, or under certain conditions order, device manufacturers to recall from the market a product that is in violation of governing laws and regulations;
regulations pertaining to voluntary recalls; and
notices provision regarding corrections or removals.

Advertising and promotion of medical devices, in addition to being regulated by the FDA, are also regulated by the Federal Trade Commission and by state regulatory and enforcement authorities. Recently, promotional activities for FDA-regulated products of other companies have been the subject of enforcement action brought under healthcare reimbursement laws and consumer protection statutes. In addition, under the federal Lanham Act and similar state laws, competitors and others can initiate litigation relating to advertising claims. If the FDA determines that promotional or training material related to an approved device constitute the promotion of an un-cleared or unapproved use, the FDA could request that the promotional or training materials related to such device be modified or it could subject the manufacturer to regulatory or enforcement actions. It is also possible that other federal, state or foreign enforcement authorities might take action if they consider our promotional or training materials to constitute promotion of an unapproved use, which could result in significant fines or penalties under other statutory authorities, such as laws prohibiting false claims for reimbursement. In that event, our reputation could be damaged and adoption of the products would be impaired.

The FDA has broad post-market and regulatory enforcement powers. We are subject to unannounced inspections by the FDA to determine our compliance with the QSR and other regulations.

Since January 2020, there has been one report of an adverse event relating to our EksoNR and none related to our EksoGT devices reported to the FDA under the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience Database.

Foreign Regulation

In addition to regulations in the U.S., we are subject to a variety of foreign regulations governing clinical trials and commercial sales and distribution of our products in foreign countries. Regardless of the FDA’s approval requirements for a particular product, we must obtain approval of a product by the comparable regulatory authorities of foreign countries before we can commence clinical trials or marketing of the product in those countries. The approval process varies from country to country, and the time may be longer or shorter than that required for FDA approval. The requirements governing the conduct of clinical trials, product licensing, pricing and reimbursement vary greatly from country to country.

The policies of the FDA and foreign regulatory authorities may change, and additional government regulations may be enacted which could prevent or delay regulatory approval of our products and could also increase the cost of regulatory compliance. We
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cannot predict the likelihood, nature or extent of adverse governmental regulation that might arise from future legislative or administrative action, either in the U.S. or abroad.

Human Capital Resources and Management

As of February 19, 2021, we had 40 employees, including 39 full time employees and one part-time employee. Seven employees reside in Europe and two in Singapore. None of our employees are covered by a collective bargaining agreement and we consider our relationship with our employees to be good.

We endeavor to maintain a workplace that is free from discrimination or harassment on the basis of color, race, sex, national origin, ethnicity, religion, age, disability, sexual orientation, gender identification or expression or any other status protected by applicable law. We conduct annual training to prevent harassment and discrimination and monitor employee conduct year-round, including by providing employees with access to an anonymous whistleblower hotline to report any violations. The basis for recruitment, hiring, development, training, compensation and advancement at the Company is qualifications, performance, skills and experience. Our employees are fairly compensated, without regard to gender, race and ethnicity, and routinely recognized for outstanding performance and provided with training and professional development opportunities. Our compensation program is designed to attract and retain talent. We continually assess and strive to enhance employee satisfaction and engagement. Our employees, many of whom have been employed by us for the majority of our existence, frequently express satisfaction with management including by responding positively about our management in anonymous surveys.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated as PN Med Group Inc. in Nevada on January 30, 2012. Prior to the Merger and Split-Off (each as defined below), our business was to distribute medical supplies and equipment in Chile.

On January 15, 2014, we consummated the Merger, in which our wholly-owned subsidiary, Ekso Acquisition Corp., a corporation formed in the State of Delaware on January 3, 2014, merged with and into Ekso Bionics, Inc., a corporation incorporated in the State of Delaware on January 19, 2005. Ekso Bionics was the surviving corporation in the Merger and became our wholly-owned subsidiary. All of the outstanding Ekso Bionics' capital stock was converted into shares of our common stock in the Merger.

In connection with the Merger and pursuant to a split-off agreement and general release, we transferred our pre-Merger assets and liabilities to our pre-Merger majority stockholders, in exchange for the surrender by them and cancellation of 2,497,586 shares of our common stock, or the Split-Off, after adjusting to give effect to the 1-for-7 reverse stock split, which occurred on May 4, 2016 and the subsequent 1-for-15 reverse stock split, which occurred on March 24, 2020.

As a result of the Merger and Split-Off, we discontinued our pre-Merger business and acquired the business of Ekso Bionics, and have continued the existing business operations of Ekso Bionics as a publicly-traded company under the name Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.

Our principal executive office is located at 1414 Harbour Way South, Suite 1201, Richmond, California, and our telephone number is (510) 984-1761.

We make available free of charge on or through our website our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. Our internet address is www.eksobionics.com. This website address is intended to be an inactive, textual reference only; none of the material on this website is part of this Annual Report. Copies of our annual reports on Form 10-K will be furnished without charge to any person who submits a written request directed to the attention of our Secretary, at our offices located at 1414 Harbour Way South, Suite 1201, Richmond, California, 94804. The SEC maintains an internet site (http://www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.

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Item 1A.    RISK FACTORS

An investment in our securities is highly speculative and involves a high degree of risk.  We face a variety of risks that may affect our operations or financial results and many of those risks are driven by factors that we cannot control or predict.  Before investing in our securities, you should carefully consider the following risks, together with the financial and other information contained in this prospectus.  If any of the following risks actually occurs, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.  In that case, the trading price of our common stock would likely decline and investors may lose all or a part of their investment.  

This Annual Report contains certain statements relating to future events or our future financial performance. Readers are cautioned that such forward-looking statements are only predictions and involve risks and uncertainties, and that actual events or results may differ materially. In evaluating such statements, readers should specifically consider the various factors identified in this Annual Report, including the matters set forth below, which could cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated by such forward-looking statements.

The risks described below do not purport to be all the risks to which we could be exposed. This section is a summary of certain risks and is not set out in any particular order of priority. They are the risks that we presently believe are material to our operations. Additional risks of which we are not presently aware or which we presently deem immaterial may also impair our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Business and Operational Risks

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected our financial condition and there is little future certainty.
The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted our business, including our employees, suppliers, customers and other business partners. We have seen demand for our exoskeleton products decrease in the current business environment, as many inpatient rehabilitation facilities temporarily shift priorities and delay capital expenditures. Many of our customers are not able to access their facilities, are not performing elective surgeries and are sending patients home sooner than they otherwise would, all of which may reduce their need for our products and impact their decisions as to leasing or acquiring our products. It is also harder for us to drive growth when our sales teams cannot visit rehabilitation facilities and demonstrate our products in person and given difficulties in presenting new data to the public and attending professional conferences. In addition, there could be a potential effect of a slowdown at FDA, which could result in delays of regulatory correspondence that are necessary for us to maintain or advance our product candidates in clinical studies.
We are also subject to other risks applicable to business operating in the current environment. For example, our business insurance may not provide coverage against economic loss or claims specifically tied to COVID-19. A greater number of our employees are working remotely, which exposes us to a greater risk of cybersecurity breaches. The COVID-19 outbreak may also adversely impact our ability to make requisite filings under federal securities laws on a routine and timely basis. In addition, any deterioration in economic conditions due to the COVID-19 pandemic or any related market volatility may impact our ability to access the capital markets or ability to obtain financing on favorable terms or at all, which may affect our liquidity. The situation is constantly evolving, however, so the extent to which the COVID-19 outbreak will impact business and the economy is uncertain. Accordingly, consequences stemming from the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

We have a limited operating history upon which investors can evaluate our future prospects.
Although we were incorporated in 2005, we did not sell our first Ekso medical device until 2012 and did not sell our first industrial unit until 2016. Therefore, we have limited operating history upon which an evaluation of our business plan or performance and prospects can be made. Our business and prospects must be considered in light of the potential problems, delays, uncertainties and complications encountered in connection with a newly established business and creating a new industry. The risks include, but are not limited to, the possibility that we will not be able to develop functional and scalable products and services, or that although functional and scalable, our products and services will not be economical to market; that our competitors hold proprietary rights that preclude us from marketing such products; that our competitors market a superior or equivalent product; that we are not able to upgrade and enhance our technologies and products to accommodate new features and expanded service offerings; or that we fail to receive necessary regulatory clearances for our products. To successfully introduce and market our products at a profit, we must establish brand name recognition and competitive advantages for our products. There are no assurances that we can successfully address these challenges. If we are unsuccessful, we and our business, financial condition and operating results could be materially and adversely affected.

The markets in which our products are sold are highly competitive.
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We face competition within the medical devices and industrial robotics markets on the basis of product features, clinical outcomes, price, services and other factors.
Our competitive position will depend on multiple, complex factors, including our ability to achieve market acceptance for our products, develop new products, implement production and marketing plans, secure regulatory approvals for products under development and protect our intellectual property. Competitors may offer, or may attempt to develop, more efficacious, safer, cheaper, or more convenient alternatives to our products, including alternatives that could make the need for robotic exoskeletons obsolete. The entry into the market of manufacturers located in low-cost manufacturing locations may also create pricing pressure, particularly in developing markets. Our future success depends, among other things, upon our ability to compete effectively against current technology, as well as to respond effectively to technological advances, and upon our ability to successfully implement our marketing strategies and execute our research and development plan.

The market for our products is new and unproven, and susceptible to technological change and scientific developments.
The market for medical and industrial exoskeletons is new and unproven. We cannot be certain that the market for robotic exoskeletons will continue to develop, or that robotic exoskeletons for medical or industrial use will achieve market acceptance. Additionally, the development of new or improved products, processes or technologies by other companies may render our products or proposed products obsolete or less competitive. Furthermore, the use of robotic devices is not universally accepted in the rehabilitation community. The exoskeleton market may fail to develop, or may develop more slowly than we anticipate, or we may be unable to respond effectively to technological changes or fail to gain acceptance of our product in our target markets. Current or future clinical trials and studies may not provide sufficient data that the rehabilitation community interprets to support the use of exoskeletons in rehabilitation, or such trials and studies may actually prove the opposite. Any of these outcomes could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

Coverage policies and reimbursement levels of third-party payers may impact sales of our products.
To the extent that the adoption of our product by our customers becomes dependent in the future on their ability to obtain adequate reimbursement for treatments provided using our product from third-party payers, the coverage policies and reimbursement levels of these third-party payers may impact the decisions of healthcare providers and facilities to purchase our products or the prices they would be willing to pay for those products. Reimbursement rates could also affect the acceptance rates of new technologies. We have no control over these factors.

We will experience long and variable sales cycles.
The EksoNR has a lengthy sale and purchase order cycle because it is a major capital expenditure item and generally requires the approval of senior management at purchasing institutions, which may contribute to substantial fluctuations in our quarterly operating results.

International sales of our products are subject to factors outside of our control.
Our business currently depends in part on our activities in the EMEA, APAC, and other foreign markets. Our international activities are subject to a number of risks inherent in selling and operating abroad, including failure of local laws to provide the same degree of protection against infringement of our intellectual property rights; protectionist laws and business practices that favor local competitors, which could slow our growth in international markets; the expense of establishing facilities and operations in new foreign markets; building an organization capable of supporting geographically dispersed operations, challenges caused by distance, language and cultural differences; challenges caused by differences in legal regulations, markets, and customer preferences, which may limit our ability to adapt our products or succeed in other regions; multiple, conflicting, and changing laws and regulations, including complications due to unexpected changes in regulatory requirements, foreign laws, tax schemes, international import and export legislation, trading and investment policies, exchange controls and tariff and other trade barriers; foreign tax consequences; fluctuations in currency exchange rates and foreign currency translation adjustments; foreign exchange controls that might prevent us from repatriating income earned outside the United States; imposition of public sector controls; differing payer reimbursement regimes, governmental payers or patient self-pay systems and price controls; political, economic and social instability; and restrictions on the export or import of technology.

We rely on independent distributors for the sale and marketing of our products in certain geographies.
In non-German-speaking European countries, other EMEA countries and Central and South American countries, we rely on independent distributors to distribute and assist us with the marketing and sale of our products. These distributors are our principal customers, and revenue growth will depend in large part on our success in establishing and maintaining this sales and distribution channel. However, there can be no assurance that our distributors will be successful in selling our products to end users, or will focus adequate resources on selling them, and they may not continue to purchase or market our products for a
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number of reasons.

Our business may suffer if we are not able to attract and retain key employees.
Our success depends on our ability to identify, hire, train and retain highly qualified managerial, technical and sales and marketing personnel. In addition, as we introduce new products or services, we will need to hire additional personnel. Currently, competition for personnel with the required knowledge, skill and experiences is intense, particularly in the San Francisco Bay area, where we are headquartered, and we may not be able to attract, assimilate or retain such personnel. The inability to attract and retain the necessary managerial, technical and sales and marketing personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

The acquisition of other companies, businesses, or technologies could result in operating difficulties, dilution, and other harmful consequences.
We may selectively pursue strategic acquisitions, any of which could be material to our business, operating results, and financial condition. Future acquisitions could divert management’s time and focus from operating our business. In addition, integrating an acquired company, business or technology is risky and may result in unforeseen operating difficulties and expenditures associated with integrating employees from the acquired company into our organization and integrating each company’s accounting, management information, human resources and other administrative systems to permit effective management. The anticipated benefits of future acquisitions may not materialize. Future acquisitions or dispositions could result in potentially dilutive issuances of our equity securities, the incurrence of debt, contingent liabilities or amortization expenses, or write-offs of goodwill, any of which could harm our financial condition. Future acquisitions may also require us to obtain additional financing, which may not be available on favorable terms or at all.

Natural or other disasters could disrupt our business and result in loss of revenue or in higher expenses.
Natural disasters, terrorist activities, military conflict and other business disruptions could seriously harm our revenue and financial condition and increase our costs and expenses. Our corporate headquarters are located in California, a seismically active region. A natural disaster in any of our major markets in North America or Europe could have a material adverse impact on our operations, operating results and financial condition. Further, any unanticipated business disruption caused by Internet security threats, damage to global communication networks or otherwise could have a material adverse impact on our operating results.
Financial & Accounting Risks

We have incurred significant losses to date and anticipate continuing to incur losses in the future, and we may not achieve or maintain profitability.
We have thus far been largely dependent on capital raised through the sale of equity securities in various public and private offerings, and we have incurred losses in each fiscal year since our incorporation in 2005. Our net losses were $15.8 million and $12.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively (with losses from an increase in common stock purchase warrant liabilities due to an increase in our stock price accounting for a $3.1 million increase in net losses in 2020). As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, we had an accumulated deficit of $199.1 million and $183.3 million, respectively.
The operation of our business and our growth efforts will require significant cash outlays and advance capital equipment expenditures and commitments. We believe we have sufficient resources to operate for the foreseeable future based upon our current cash resources, the recent rate of using cash for operations and investment, and assuming modest increases in current revenue offset by incremental increases in expenses related to increased sales and marketing and research and development, and a potential increase in rental activity from our medical device business. However, unless we are able to generate significant revenues from sales and rentals of our products, we will not be able to achieve or maintain profitability in the near future or at all, and we will remain largely dependent on capital raised from past and future financings to implement our business plan, support our operations and service our debt obligations, which totaled $3.1 million as of January 31, 2021. Our lack of profitability may depress our stock price, and if we are unable become profitable, we may be required to reduce the scope of our business development activities, which could harm our business plans, financial condition and operating results, or to cease our operations entirely.

Our loan agreement imposes certain financial, and operational restrictions on us, limiting the discretion of our management in operating our business.

Our loan agreement with Pacific Western Bank, which we entered into in August 2020, or our PWB Loan Agreement, contains, subject to certain carve-outs, various restrictive covenants that limit our management's discretion in operating our business. In particular, these instruments limit our ability to, among other things incur additional debt, grant liens on assets, sell or acquire
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assets outside the ordinary course of business, pay dividends and make certain fundamental business changes. Our obligations are also secured by a security interest in all of our assets, exclusive of intellectual property. As a result, we may need to use our capital resources to repay the PWB Loan in order to undertake certain financing or strategic transactions.

Management will have broad discretion as to our use of capital resources.

As of December 31, 2020, we had $12.9 million in cash and cash equivalents, and our recently completed public offering in February 2021 resulted in our receiving an additional $36.4 million in estimated net proceeds. Our management will have broad discretion in the application of these capital resources, including for working capital and other general corporate purposes, which may include repayment of debt, acquisitions and other business opportunities. The amounts and timing of our use of proceeds will vary depending on a number of factors, including the amount of cash generated or used by our operations, and the rate of growth, if any, of our business. In addition, while we have not entered into any agreements, commitments or understandings relating to any significant transaction as of the date of this Annual Report, we may use a portion of the net proceeds to pursue acquisitions of other businesses, products or technologies that are complementary to our business, joint ventures and licensing arrangements, and other strategic transactions and business opportunities. Our broad use of these funds may not always align with the focus of our investors, and our investors may not have the opportunity as part of their investment decision in any such offering to assess whether the net proceeds of such offering are being used appropriately. Because of the number and variability of factors that will determine our use of the net proceeds from any offering, their ultimate use may vary from the intended use as may be stated in the relevant prospectus related to such offering. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could harm our business. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from any offering in a variety of capital preservation investments. These investments may not yield a favorable return to our securityholders.

We may not be able to reduce the cost to manufacture or service our products as planned.
Our business plan assumes that exoskeletons can be manufactured more inexpensively than they are currently being manufactured. However, we have not yet found a way to significantly reduce the manufacturing cost of our products and doing so may prove more difficult than expected or even impossible. For example, if expectations for greater functionality of the products drive costs up as other factors drive costs down, the result may be that the overall cost of manufacturing the product stays the same or even increases. Likewise, we currently provide service and support of our products for our customers at a high standard (both in and out of warranty), and plan on continuing to do so. Our business plan also assumes that as we continue to improve our product, we achieve improved levels of product reliability and decreased service cost and frequency, which also may prove more difficult than expected.

We may not be able to leverage our cost structure or achieve better margins.
Due to the early stage of our commercial efforts, and particularly the early stage of customer adoption of our products, our current sales and marketing, research and development, and general and administrative expenses are each a higher percentage of sales than they will need to be for us to reach profitability. While we do expect these expenses to grow as our business grows, we also expect these expenses to decline as a percentage of revenues over time. If we are unable to leverage these costs and grow revenues at a greater pace than these operating expenses as we expect, we will not be able to achieve viable operating margins and profitability.

We could fail to maintain effective internal control over our financial reporting.
Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires us to include in our annual reports on Form 10-K and quarterly reports on Form 10-Q an assessment by management of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. While we believe that the policies, processes and procedures we have put in place will be sufficient to render our internal controls over financial reporting effective, our initiatives may not prove successful. If so, management may not be able to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective. This could result in a loss of investor confidence in the reliability of our financial statements, which in turn could negatively affect the price of our common stock. In addition, we must perform system and process evaluation and testing of our internal control over financial reporting to allow management to report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, as required by Section 404. Our compliance with Section 404 may require that we incur substantial accounting expense and expend significant management efforts.

Intellectual Property Risks

Protecting our intellectual proprietary rights can be costly, and our success in doing so is not certain.
Our long-term success largely depends on our ability to market technologically competitive products. Failure to protect or to obtain, maintain or extend adequate patent and other intellectual property rights could materially adversely impact our competitive advantage and impair our business. Our issued patents may not be sufficient to protect our intellectual property and our patent applications may not result in issued patents. Even if our patent applications issue as patents, they may not issue in a
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form that will provide us with any meaningful protection, prevent competitors from competing with us or otherwise provide us with any competitive advantage. Our competitors may be able to circumvent our patents by developing similar or alternative technologies or products in a non-infringing manner or may challenge the validity of our patents. Our attempts to prevent third parties from circumventing our intellectual property and other rights ultimately may be unsuccessful. We may also fail to take the required actions or pay the necessary fees to maintain any of our patents that issue.
Furthermore, we have not filed applications for all of our inventions internationally and may not be able to prevent third parties from using our proprietary technologies or may lose access to technologies critical to our products in other countries. These include, in some cases, countries in which we are currently selling products and countries in which we intend to sell products in the future.

Intellectual property litigation and infringement claims could cause us to incur significant expenses or prevent us from selling certain of our products.
The industries in which we operate, including, in particular, the medical device industry, are characterized by extensive intellectual property litigation and, from time to time, we might be the subject of claims by third parties of potential infringement or misappropriation. Regardless of outcome, such claims are expensive to defend and divert the time and effort of our management and operating personnel from other business issues. A successful claim or claims of patent or other intellectual property infringement against us could result in our payment of significant monetary damages and/or royalty payments or negatively impact our ability to sell current or future products in the affected category and could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition or results of operations.
Because competition in our industry is intense, competitors may infringe or otherwise violate our issued patents, patents of our licensors or other intellectual property. To counter infringement or unauthorized use, we may be required to file infringement claims, which can be expensive and time-consuming. Any claims we assert against perceived infringers could provoke these parties to assert counterclaims against us alleging that we infringe their patents. In addition, in a patent infringement proceeding, a court may decide that a patent of ours is invalid or unenforceable, in whole or in part, construe the patent’s claims narrowly, or refuse to stop the other party from using the technology at issue on the grounds that our patents do not cover the technology in question. An adverse result in any litigation proceeding could put one or more of our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly. We may also elect to enter into license agreements in order to settle patent infringement claims or to resolve disputes prior to litigation, and any such license agreements may require us to pay royalties and other fees that could be significant. Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure.

Some of the patents and patent applications in the intellectual property portfolio are not within our complete control, which could reduce the value of such patents.
Some of our U.S. patents (which have associated international patents and applications) are co-owned by UC Berkeley. UC Berkeley has exclusively licensed its rights under many of these patents to us, but we do not have an exclusive license to UC Berkeley’s rights under three of these patents.
UC Berkeley has licensed their U.S. rights in two of these three co-owned patents to an unrelated third-party.
The third patent is a continuation-in-part of a patent that UC Berkeley has licensed to us. Under the terms of the relevant license agreement between us and UC Berkeley, we have exclusive rights to any claims that are fully supported by the specification in the parent application. However, any claims that are not based on the specification in the parent application are co-owned by UC Berkeley and us, and UC Berkeley’s rights in respect of such claims are not exclusively licensed to us. There is no assurance that we will be able to obtain a license to UC Berkeley’s rights in any such claims on commercially reasonable terms or at all, and UC Berkeley may choose to license its rights to third parties instead of us.
In addition, in connection with our acquisition of certain assets from Equipois, we assumed the rights and obligations of Equipois with respect to certain patents and patent applications under an in-license of intellectual property from a third-party and subject to an out-license of that intellectual property to an unrelated third-party for use in a particular field. We do not have complete control over the prosecution of these patent applications. As well, the license of intellectual property rights under these patents to third parties could reduce the value of our patent portfolio and limit any income or license fees that we might receive if we were to attempt to transfer or license our rights under any of our co-owned or licensed patents.

If we fail to comply with our obligations in the agreements under which we license intellectual property rights from third-parties or otherwise experience disruptions to our business relationships with our licensors, we could lose intellectual property rights that are important to our business.
We are a party to two exclusive license agreements and one amendment to the license agreement with UC Berkeley, covering ten patents exclusively licensed to us. In addition, in connection with our acquisition of certain assets from Equipois, we
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assumed the rights and obligations of Equipois with respect to certain patents and patent applications under an in-license of intellectual property from a third-party and subject to an out-license of that intellectual property to an unrelated third-party for use in a particular field. We may also need to obtain additional licenses from others to advance our research and development activities or allow the commercialization of our devices or any other devices we may identify and pursue. Our license agreements with UC Berkeley and the rights and obligations that we assumed in connection with the Equipois acquisition impose various development, diligence, commercialization, and other obligations on us, and any future license agreements may impose similar or other obligations on us. For example, under our license agreements with UC Berkeley we are required to submit a commercialization plan with performance milestones and progress report to UC Berkeley, and must satisfy specified minimum annual royalty payment obligations. In spite of our efforts, our licensors might conclude that we have materially breached our obligations under such license agreements and might therefore terminate the license agreements, thereby removing or limiting our ability to develop and commercialize products and technology covered by these license agreements. If our license agreements with UC Berkeley are terminated, or if our agreements granting us intellectual property rights in connection with the Equipois acquisition or any future agreements granting us material intellectual property rights are terminated or impeded in a material way, competitors or other third parties would have the freedom to seek regulatory approval of, and to market, products that may be identical or functionally similar to our devices and we may be required to cease our development and commercialization of such devices. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, business, financial conditions, results of operations and prospects.
Moreover, disputes may arise between us and our counterparties regarding intellectual property subject to a licensing agreement, including the scope of rights granted under the license agreement and other interpretation-related issues; the extent to which our devices, technology and processes infringe on intellectual property of the licensor that is not subject to the licensing agreement; the sublicensing of patent and other rights under our collaborative research and development relationships; our diligence obligations under the license agreement and what activities satisfy those diligence obligations; the ownership of inventions and know-how resulting from the joint creation or use of intellectual property by our licensors and us and our partners; and the priority of invention of patented or patentable technology. In addition, certain provisions in our license agreement with UC Berkeley may be susceptible to multiple interpretations. The resolution of any contract interpretation disagreement that may arise could narrow what we believe to be the scope of our rights to the relevant intellectual property or technology, or increase what we believe to be our financial or other obligations under the agreement, either of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Moreover, if disputes over intellectual property that we have licensed prevent or impair our ability to maintain our current licensing arrangements on commercially acceptable terms, we may be unable to successfully develop and commercialize the affected devices, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions, results of operations and prospects.

Patent terms may be inadequate to protect our competitive position on our devices for an adequate amount of time.
Patents have a limited lifespan. In the United States, if all maintenance fees are timely paid, the natural expiration of a patent is generally 20 years from its earliest U.S. non-provisional filing date. Various extensions may be available, but the life of a patent, and the protection it affords, is limited. Even if patents covering our devices are obtained, once the patent life has expired, we may be open to competition from competitive products. Given the amount of time required for the development, testing and regulatory review of new devices, patents protecting such devices might expire before or shortly after such devices are commercialized. As a result, our owned and licensed patent portfolio may not provide us with sufficient rights to exclude others from commercializing products similar or identical to ours.

Legal and Regulatory Compliance Risks

If we fail to obtain or maintain necessary regulatory clearances or approvals for our medical device products, or if clearances or approvals for future products or modifications to existing products are delayed or not issued, our commercial operations would be harmed.
Our EksoGT, EksoNR and EksoUE products are medical devices and are regulated by the FDA, the European Union and other governmental authorities both inside and outside of the United States. These agencies enforce laws and regulations that govern the development, testing, manufacturing, labeling, advertising, marketing and distribution, and market surveillance of our medical products. Our failure to comply with these complex laws and regulations could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows
In the United States, before we can market a new medical device, or a new use of, new claim for or significant modification to an existing product, we must first receive either clearance under Section 510(k) of the FDCA or approval of a premarket approval or PMA application from the FDA, unless an exemption applies. Both the PMA and the 510(k) clearance process can be expensive, lengthy and uncertain. The FDA’s 510(k) clearance process may take anywhere from several months to over a year. The process of obtaining a PMA is much more costly and uncertain than the 510(k) clearance process and generally takes
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from one to three years, or even longer, from the time the application is filed with the FDA. In addition, PMA generally requires the performance of one or more clinical trials.
The FDA also has substantial discretion in the medical device review process. Despite the time, effort and cost, we cannot assure you that any particular device will be approved or cleared by the FDA. Any delay or failure to obtain necessary regulatory approvals could harm our business. Failure can occur at any stage, and we could encounter problems that cause us to repeat or perform additional development, standardized testing, pre-clinical studies and clinical trials. Any delay or failure to obtain necessary regulatory approvals could harm our business.
The FDA or other non-U.S. regulatory authorities can delay, limit or deny clearance or approval of a medical device candidate for many reasons, including a medical device candidate may not be deemed to be substantially equivalent to a device lawfully marketed either as a grandfathered device or one that was cleared through the 510(k) premarket notification process; a medical device candidate may not be deemed to be substantially equivalent to a device lawfully marketed either as a grandfathered device or one that was cleared through the 510(k) premarket notification process; a medical device candidate may not be deemed to be in conformance with applicable standards and regulations; FDA or other regulatory officials may not find the data from pre-clinical studies and clinical trials or other product testing date to be sufficient; other non-U.S. regulatory authorities may not approve our processes or facilities or those of any of our third-party manufacturers, thereby restricting export; or the FDA or other non-U.S. regulatory authorities may change clearance or approval policies or adopt new regulations.
Even after regulatory clearance or approval has been granted, a cleared or approved product and its manufacturer are subject to extensive regulatory requirements relating to manufacturing, labeling, packaging, adverse event reporting, storage, advertising and promotion for the product. If we fail to comply with the regulatory requirements of the FDA or other non-U.S. regulatory authorities, or if previously unknown problems with our products or manufacturing processes are discovered, we could be subject to administrative or judicially imposed sanctions, including restrictions on the products, manufacturers or manufacturing process; adverse inspectional observations (Form 483), warning letters, non-warning letters incorporating inspectional observations; civil or criminal penalties or fines; injunctions; product seizures, detentions or import bans; voluntary or mandatory product recalls and publicity requirements; suspension or withdrawal of regulatory clearances or approvals; total or partial suspension of production; imposition of restrictions on operations, including costly new manufacturing requirements; refusal to clear or approve pending applications or premarket notifications; and import and export restrictions.
If imposed on us, any of these sanctions could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, results of operations and financial condition.

Modifications to our EksoNR and our future products may require new 510(k) clearances or premarket approvals, or may require us to cease marketing or recall the modified products until clearances are obtained
On April 4, 2016, we received clearance from the FDA to market our EksoGT robotic exoskeleton for use in the treatment of individuals with hemiplegia due to stroke, individuals with SCI at levels T4 to L5, and individuals with SCI at levels of T3 to C7 (ASIA D), in accordance with the device’s labeling. On July 19, 2016, we received clearance from the FDA to expand/clarify the indications and labeling to expressly include individuals with hemiplegia due to stroke who have upper extremity function of at least four-fifths in only one arm. Our prior cleared indications for use statement required that individuals with hemiplegia due to stroke have upper extremity function of at least four-fifths in both arms.
An element of our strategy is to continue to upgrade our robotic exoskeleton platform to incorporate new software and hardware enhancements. Any modification to a 510(k)-cleared device, including our EksoGT, that could significantly affect its safety or effectiveness, or that would constitute a major change in its intended use, design, or manufacture, requires a new 510(k) clearance or, possibly, a PMA. The FDA requires every manufacturer to make this determination in the first instance based on the final guidance document issued by the FDA in October 2017 addressing when to submit a new 510(k) application due to modifications to 510(k)-cleared devices and a separate guidance document on when to submit a new 510(k) application due to software changes to 510(k)-cleared devices. Although largely aligned with the FDA’s longstanding guidance document issued in 1997, the 2017 guidance includes targeted changes intended to provide additional clarity on when a new 510(k) application is needed. The FDA may review our determinations regarding whether new clearances or approvals are necessary, and may not agree with our decisions. If the FDA disagrees with our determinations for any future changes, or prior changes to previously marketed products, as the case may be, we may be required to cease marketing or to recall the modified products until we obtain clearance or approval, and we may be subject to significant regulatory fines or penalties.
We may introduce new products with enhanced features and extended capabilities from time to time. The products may be subject to various regulatory processes, and we may need to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals in order to sell our new products. If a potential purchaser of our products believes that we plan to introduce a new product in the near future or if a potential purchaser is located in a country where a new product that we have introduced has not yet received regulatory approval, planned purchases may be deferred or delayed. As a result, new product introductions may adversely impact our financial results.
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Our failure to meet strict post-market regulatory requirements with respect to our products could require us to pay fines, incur other costs or even close our facilities.
We are required to comply with the FDA’s Quality System Regulation, or QSR, which is a complex regulatory scheme that covers the procedures and documentation of the design, testing, production, process controls, quality assurance, labeling, packaging, handling, storage, distribution, installation, servicing and shipping of our marketed products. These regulatory requirements may significantly increase our production costs and may even prevent us from making our products in amounts sufficient to meet market demand. If we change our approved manufacturing process, the FDA may need to review the process before it may be used. The FDA enforces the QSR through periodic announced and unannounced inspections of manufacturing facilities. Failure to comply with regulatory requirements such as QSR may result in changes to labeling, restrictions on such products or manufacturing processes, withdrawal of the products from the market, voluntary or mandatory recalls, a requirement to repair, replace or refund the cost of any medical device we manufacture or distribute, fines, suspension of regulatory approvals, product seizures, injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties which would adversely affect our business, operating results and prospects.
Federal, state and non-U.S. regulations regarding the manufacture and sale of medical devices are subject to future changes. The complexity, timeframes and costs associated with obtaining marketing clearances are unknown. Although we cannot predict the impact, if any, these changes might have on our business, the impact could be material.

We may be subject to fines, penalties or injunctions if we are determined to be promoting the use of our products for unapproved or “off-label” uses.
Any cleared or approved product may be promoted only for its indicated uses and our promotional materials must comply with FDA and other applicable laws and regulations. We believe that the specific use for which our products are marketed fall within the scope of the indications for use that have been cleared by the FDA. However, if the FDA determines that our promotional materials or training constitutes promotion of an unapproved use, it could request that we modify our promotional materials or subject us to regulatory or enforcement actions, including the issuance of an untitled letter, a warning letter, injunction, seizure, civil fine and criminal penalties. It is also possible that other federal, state or foreign enforcement authorities might take action if they consider our promotional or training materials to constitute promotion of an unapproved use, which could result in significant fines or penalties under other statutory authorities, such as laws prohibiting false claims for reimbursement. In that event, our reputation could be damaged and adoption of the products would be impaired.

We may be subject to adverse medical device reporting obligations, voluntary corrective actions or agency enforcement actions.
Under the FDA’s medical device reporting or MDR regulations, we are required to report to the FDA any incident in which our product may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury or in which our product malfunctioned and, if the malfunction were to recur, would likely cause or contribute to death or serious injury. For example, we have been informed of a limited number of events with respect to our EksoNR or EksoGT devices that have been determined to be reportable pursuant to the MDR regulations. In each case, the required MDR report was filed with the FDA.
In addition, all manufacturers bringing medical devices to market in the European Economic Area are legally bound to report any incident that led or might have led to the death or serious deterioration in the state of health of a patient, user or other person, and which the manufacturer’s device is suspected to have caused, to the competent authority in whose jurisdiction the incident occurred. In such case, the manufacturer must file an initial report with the relevant competent authority, which would be followed by further evaluation or investigation of the incident and a final report indicating whether further action is required. The events described above that were reported to the FDA were also reported to the relevant EU regulatory authorities.
We are also required to follow detailed recordkeeping requirements for all Company-initiated medical device corrections and removals, and to report such corrective and removal actions to the FDA if they are carried out in response to a risk to health and have not otherwise been reported under the MDR regulations. Any adverse event involving our products could result in future voluntary corrective actions, such as recalls or customer notifications, or agency action, such as inspection or enforcement action. Recalls of our products, or agency actions relating to our failure to comply with our reporting or recordkeeping obligations, could harm our reputation and financial results.

Failure to comply with anti-kickback and fraud regulations could result in substantial penalties and changes in our business operations.
Although we do not provide healthcare services, submit claims for third-party reimbursement, or receive payments directly from Medicare, Medicaid or other third-party payers for our products, we are subject to healthcare fraud and abuse regulation and enforcement by federal, state and foreign governments, which could significantly impact our business. These laws may
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constrain the business and financial arrangements and relationships through which we conduct our operations, including how we research, market, sell and distribute any product for which we have obtained regulatory approval, or for which we obtain regulatory approval in the future. The principal U.S. federal laws implicated include, but are not limited to, those that prohibit, among other things, (i) filing, or causing to be filed, false or improper claims for federal payment, known as the false claims laws, (ii) payment, solicitation or receipt of unlawful inducements, directly or indirectly, for the referral of business reimbursable under federally-funded health care programs, known as the anti-kickback laws, and (iii) health care service providers from seeking reimbursement for providing certain services to a patient who was referred by a physician who has certain types of direct or indirect financial relationships with the service provider, known as the Stark law. Many states have similar laws that apply to reimbursement by state Medicaid and other government funded programs as well as in some cases to all payers. In addition, we may be subject to federal and state data privacy laws that govern the privacy and security of health information in specified circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and may not have the same effect, thus complicating compliance efforts.
Efforts to ensure that our business arrangements will comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations will involve substantial costs. We are subject to the risk that a person or government could allege we have engaged in fraud or other misconduct, even if none occurred. It is possible that governmental and enforcement authorities will conclude that our business practices do not comply with current or future statutes, regulations or case law interpreting applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws described above or any other governmental regulations that apply to us now or in the future, we may be subject to penalties, including civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, exclusion from governmental health care programs, additional integrity oversight and reporting obligations, contractual damages, reputational harm and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our financial results.

Changes in law or regulation could make it more difficult and costly for us to manufacture, market and distribute our products or obtain or maintain regulatory approval of new or modified products.
From time to time, legislation is drafted and introduced in Congress that could significantly change the statutory provisions governing the regulatory approval, manufacture and marketing of regulated devices. In addition, FDA regulations and guidance are often revised or reinterpreted by the FDA in ways that may significantly affect our business and our products. Any new regulations or revisions or reinterpretations of existing regulations may impose additional costs or lengthen review times of future products. In addition, FDA regulations and guidance are often revised or reinterpreted by the agency in ways that may significantly affect our business and our products. Elections could result in significant changes in, and uncertainty with respect to, legislation, regulation and government policy that could significantly impact our business and the health care industry. It is impossible to predict whether legislative changes will be enacted or FDA regulations, guidance or interpretations changed, and what the impact of such changes, if any, may be.
Any change in the laws or regulations that govern the clearance and approval processes relating to our current and future products could make it more difficult and costly to obtain clearance or approval for new products, or to produce, market, and distribute existing products. Significant delays in receiving clearance or approval, or the failure to receive clearance or approval, for any new products would have an adverse effect on our ability to expand our business.

Healthcare changes in the U.S. and other countries, including recently enacted legislation reforming the U.S. healthcare system, could have a negative impact on our future operating results.
In the United States and some foreign jurisdictions, there have been a number of legislative and regulatory proposals to change the health care system in ways that could affect our ability to sell our products profitably. For example, in 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, or ACA, was enacted into law. The legislation seeks to reform the United States healthcare system. It is far-reaching and is intended to expand access to health insurance coverage, improve quality and reduce costs over time. We expect the law will have a significant impact upon various aspects of our business operations. The ACA reduces Medicare and Medicaid payments to hospitals, clinical laboratories and pharmaceutical companies, and could otherwise reduce the volume of medical procedures. These factors, in turn, could result in reduced demand for our products and increased downward pricing pressure. It is also possible that the ACA will result in lower reimbursements. While the ACA is intended to expand health insurance coverage to uninsured persons in the United States, the impact of any overall increase in access to healthcare on sales of our products remains uncertain. The current U.S. Presidential administration and the majority party in both Houses of U.S. Congress have indicated their desire to repeal all or certain provisions of the ACA. It is unclear whether, when and how that repeal could be effectuated and what the effect on the healthcare sector might be. A number of lawsuits have been filed challenging various aspects of the ACA and related regulations. In addition, the efficacy of the ACA is the subject of much debate among members of Congress and the public. On December 14, 2018, the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Texas held the individual mandate provisions, and therefore the entirety of ACA, unconstitutional. The impact of the ruling is stayed as it is appealed to the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals. Our business may be materially and adversely impacted
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in the event that the ACA in part, or in its entirety, is ruled unconstitutional. Furthermore, the uncertainty regarding the constitutionality of the ACA, or specific provisions therein, may negatively affect our business.
In December 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act was enacted and signed into law, one part of which repeals the “individual mandate” introduced by the ACA starting in 2019. The repeal of the “individual mandate” may have an adverse effect on ACA insurance markets and lead to further legislative changes. In addition, the new law imposes a 2.3% excise tax on medical devices that will apply to U.S. sales of our medical device products. In January 2018, President Trump signed into law a spending package that included a two-year moratorium on the medical device excise tax, which lapsed on December 31, 2019. This tax has had, and may continue to have, a negative impact on our gross margin. There have been other changes to the ACA since the enactment of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, and Congress could still consider additional legislation to repeal or replace all or certain elements of the ACA. In addition, other reform legislation has been passed subsequent to the enactment of the ACA, including measures that reduced reimbursement for certain providers and entities under federal health care programs. The outlook for the healthcare sector is unclear, and we are unable to predict the future course of federal or state healthcare legislation and regulations. Changes in the law or regulatory framework that reduce our revenues or increase our costs could also harm our business, financial condition and results of operations and cash flows.
Future elections in the United States could result in significant changes in, and uncertainty with respect to, legislation, regulation, implementation of Medicare and/or Medicaid, and government policy that could significantly impact our business and the healthcare industry. In the event that legal challenges are successful, or the ACA, is repealed or materially amended, particularly any elements of the ACA that are beneficial to our business or that cause changes in the health insurance industry, including reimbursement and coverage by private payers or, Medicare or Medicaid payers, our business, operating results and financial condition could be harmed. While it is not possible to predict whether and when any such changes may occur, certain proposals, including a repeal or material amendment of the ACA, could harm our business, operating results and financial condition. In addition, even if the ACA is not amended or repealed, the President and the executive branch of the federal government have a significant impact on the implementation of the provisions of the ACA, and the current or future administrations could make changes impacting the implementation and enforcement of the ACA, which could harm our business, operating results and financial condition. If we are slow or unable to adapt to any such changes, our business, operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected.

Product Liability Risks

Our products may become subject to voluntary or involuntary recall.
The FDA and similar foreign governmental authorities have the authority to require the recall of commercialized products in the event of material deficiencies or defects in design or manufacture or in the event that a product poses an unacceptable risk to health. In addition, manufacturers may, under their own initiative, recall a product if any material deficiency in a device is found. A government-mandated or voluntary recall by us could occur as a result of an unacceptable risk to health, component failures, manufacturing errors, design or labeling defects or other deficiencies and issues. To date, we have initiated only one field action in which we voluntarily accelerated our maintenance schedule based on field usage.
When a medical human exoskeleton is used by a paralyzed individual to walk, the individual relies completely on the exoskeleton to hold them upright. There are many exoskeleton components that, if they were to fail catastrophically, could cause a fall resulting in severe injury or death of the patient. Certain of our competitors have reported injuries caused by the malfunction of human exoskeleton devices (in at least one case to the FDA). Injuries caused by the malfunction or misuse of human exoskeleton devices, even where such malfunction or misuse occurs with respect to one of our competitor’s products, could cause regulatory agencies to implement more conservative regulations on the medical human exoskeleton industry, which could significantly increase our operating costs.
Similarly, when an industrial exoskeleton is used by a healthy individual - for example to operate heavy machinery overhead - malfunction of the device at an inopportune moment could result in severe injury or death of the person using the device. Such occurrences could result in regulatory action on the part of OSHA or its foreign counterparts.
Any future recalls of any of our products could divert managerial and financial resources, impair our ability to manufacture our products in a cost-effective and timely manner, and have an adverse effect on our reputation, results of operations and financial condition. In some circumstances, such adverse events could also cause delays in new product approvals. We may also be required to bear other costs or take other actions that may have a negative impact on our future sales and our ability to generate profits.
In addition, personal injuries relating to the use of our products could also result in product liability claims being brought against us. Any product liability claim brought against us, with or without merit, could result in substantial damages, be costly and time-consuming to defend and could increase our insurance rates or prevent us from securing insurance coverage in the future.
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Our product liability insurance may not adequately cover potential claims or recalls.
The testing, manufacture, marketing and sale of medical devices and industrial products entail the inherent risk of liability claims or product recalls. Although we maintain product liability insurance, the coverage is subject to deductibles and limitations, and may not be adequate to cover future claims. A successful product liability claim or product recall could inhibit or prevent the successful commercialization of our products, cause a significant financial burden on us, or both, which in either case could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

Warranty claims and our accelerated maintenance program results in additional operating costs to us.
Sales of our EksoNR and EksoGT generally include a one-year warranty for parts and services in the U.S. and a two-year warranty in Europe, the Middle East and Africa. We also generally provide customers with an option to purchase an extended warranty for up to an additional three years. The costs associated with such warranties, including any warranty-related legal proceedings, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity. As we enhance our product and in an effort to build our brand and drive adoption, we have elected to incur increased service expenses related to an accelerated maintenance program, field corrections and the implementation of technological improvements developed subsequent to many of our units being placed into service, sometimes outside of its warranty and contractual obligations. Continuation of these activities could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.

Risks Related to Ownership of Common Stock

You may be diluted from future issuances of our equity securities, including from compensatory equity awards, exercise of outstanding warrants, or issuances of securities in financing or strategic transactions, and such issuances, or perception that such issuances may occur, could depress the market price of our common stock.

Future operating or business decisions may cause dilution to our stockholders. For example, we may sell equity securities or issue securities exercisable or convertible into shares of our common stock in connection with strategic transactions or for financing purposes, including under an At The Market Offering Agreement we entered into in October 2020 with H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC or our “shelf” registration statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-239203) which was declared effective by the SEC on June 26, 2020. While in 2020, we sold no shares of common stock under our “at the market offering” program, but from year-end to February 25, 2021, we sold $0.8 million of common stock under the program, leaving $6.7 million available for future offerings under our current prospectus for the offering. After giving effect to our public offering in February 2021, registered warrant transactions and potential sales under our prospectus for the “at the market offering” program, approximately $16.7 million of registered securities are available for issuance under our shelf registration statement. We have also registered all of the shares of common stock that we may issue pursuant to the exercise of 0.5 million stock options and settlement of 0.1 million restricted stock units outstanding as of December 31, 2020 and granted under our Amended and Restated 2014 Incentive Plan (the “Incentive Plan”), the 1.1 million shares reserved for future issuance under the Incentive Plan, and all of the 0.5 million shares of common stock that we may issue in the future under our Employee Stock Purchase Plan. You may also be subject to dilution from the exercise or settlement of outstanding options or restricted stock units under the Incentive Plan, and from the exercise of warrants, with respect to which as of February 25, 2021, 1.0 million were exercisable at a weighted average exercise price of $6.63 per share. In addition, sales or issuances of a substantial number of shares of our common stock, or other equity-related securities in the public markets, or the perception that such sales or issuances could occur, could depress the market price of our common stock.

The ability of our Board of Directors to issue additional stock may prevent us from making more difficult transactions, including a sale or merger.
Our Board of Directors is authorized to issue up to 10 million shares of preferred stock with powers, rights and preferences designated by it. Shares of voting or convertible preferred stock could be issued, or rights to purchase such shares could be issued, to create voting impediments or to frustrate persons seeking to effect a takeover or otherwise gain control of us. The ability of the Board of Directors to issue such additional shares of preferred stock, with rights and preferences it deems advisable, could discourage an attempt by a party to acquire control of us by tender offer or other means. Such issuances could therefore deprive stockholders of benefits that could result from such an attempt, such as the realization of a premium over the market price for their shares in a tender offer or the temporary increase in market price that such an attempt could cause. Moreover, the issuance of such additional shares of preferred stock to persons friendly to the Board of Directors could make it more difficult to remove incumbent officers and directors from office even if such change were to be favorable to stockholders generally.

We have never paid and do not intend to pay cash dividends.
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Cash dividends have never been declared or paid on our common stock, and we do not anticipate such a declaration or payment for the foreseeable future. We expect to use future earnings, if any, to fund business growth. Therefore, stockholders will not receive any funds absent a sale of their shares of common stock. If we do not pay dividends, our common stock may be less valuable because a return on investment will only occur if our stock price appreciates

The market price of our common stock has been, and may continue to be, highly volatile.
During the period from our initial listing on Nasdaq on August 9, 2016 through December 31, 2020, the closing price of our common stock fluctuated from a high of $93.15 per share to a low of $2.54 per share (on a split-adjusted basis), and our stock price continues to fluctuate. The market price of our common stock may continue to fluctuate significantly in response to numerous factors, some of which are beyond our control, such as our ability to grow our revenue and customer base; the announcement of new products or product enhancements by us or our competitors; developments concerning regulatory oversight and approvals; variations in our and our competitors’ results of operations; changes in earnings estimates or recommendations by securities analysts, if our common stock is covered by analysts; successes or challenges in our collaborative arrangements or alternative funding sources; developments in the rehabilitation and industrial robotics markets; the results of product liability or intellectual property lawsuits; future issuances of common stock or other securities; the addition or departure of key personnel; announcements by us or our competitors of acquisitions, investments or strategic alliances; and general market conditions and other factors, including factors unrelated to our operating performance.

Trading of our common stock is limited, which may affect our stock price.
Trading of our common stock is currently conducted on Nasdaq. The liquidity of our common stock is limited, not only in terms of the number of shares that can be bought and sold at a given price, but also as it may be adversely affected by delays in the timing of transactions and low coverage by research analysts’ the media, if at all. These factors may result in different prices for our common stock than might otherwise be obtained in a more liquid market and could also result in a larger spread between the bid and asked prices for our common stock. In addition, without a large public float, our common stock is less liquid than the stock of companies with broader public ownership, and, as a result, the trading prices of our common stock may be more volatile. In the absence of an active public trading market, an investor may be unable to liquidate his or her investment in our common stock. Trading of a relatively small volume of our common stock may have a greater impact on the trading price of our stock than would be the case if our public float were larger. Additionally, sales by stockholders of substantial amounts of our shares of common stock, the issuance of new shares of common stock by us or the perception that these sales may occur in the future could materially and adversely affect the market price of our common stock, and you may lose all or a portion of your investment in our common stock.

Item 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

Item 2.    PROPERTIES

Our principal executive offices are currently located at 1414 Harbour Way South, Suite 1201, Richmond, CA 94804, where we leased approximately 45,000 square feet. The Richmond office serves as headquarters for our medical device and industrial device sales segments. In addition, we lease approximately 1,400 square feet of office space at Friesenweg 4, House 13, 4th floor, 22763 Hamburg, Germany for our European headquarters.

We do not own any real property.

Item 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

From time to time we may be involved in litigation that we believe is of the type common to companies engaged in our line of business, including intellectual property and employment issues. While the outcome of these other claims cannot be predicted with certainty, we do not believe that the outcome of any of these other legal matters will have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.

Item 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

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PART II

Item 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information and Dividend Policy

Our common stock has been traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “EKSO” since August 9, 2016. Prior to August 9, 2016, our common stock was eligible for quotation and traded on the OTC Market. The quotation of our common stock on the OTC market began on or about January 16, 2014. The closing price of EKSO stock as of February 19, 2021 was $9.22.

As of February 19, 2021, we had approximately 185 stockholders of record of our common stock. This number does not include stockholders whose shares are held in investment accounts by other entities. We believe that the actual number of stockholders is greater than the number of holders of record.

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock and do not intend to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Payment of future dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of our board of directors after taking into account various factors, including our financial condition, operating results, restrictions imposed by financing arrangements, if any, legal and regulatory restrictions on the payment of dividends, current and anticipated cash needs and other factors the board of directors deems relevant. 

Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans

See Item 12, “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for information regarding securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans.

Item 6.         SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

Not applicable.
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Item 7.    MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following discussion contains forward-looking statements. Actual results may differ significantly from those projected in the forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause future results to differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, those discussed in "Risk Factors" and elsewhere in this Annual Report. See also "Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements."

On March 24, 2020, we effected a one-for-fifteen reverse stock split, or the Reverse Stock Split, reducing the number of our common shares outstanding on that date from 87.4 million shares to approximately 5.8 million shares. Additionally, the exercise price and number of all outstanding options and warrants, and the number of shares reserved for future issuance pursuant to our equity compensation plan were all adjusted proportionately. All such amounts presented herein have been adjusted retroactively to reflect these changes. The number of the Company’s authorized shares were not proportionately reduced in the Reverse Stock Split and remain at 141,428,571 shares.

Overview

The following discussion highlights the results of our operations and the principal factors that have affected our financial condition as well as our liquidity and capital resources for the periods described, and provides information that management believes is relevant for an assessment and understanding of our financial condition and results of operations presented herein. The following discussion and analysis is based on our audited consolidated financial statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States. You should read the discussion and analysis together with such financial statements and the related notes thereto.

COVID-19

In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 outbreak to be a global pandemic. In response to this pandemic, public health officials and governments across the world have recommended and mandated actions to curb the spread of the SARS-COV-2 virus, the pathogen that causes COVID-19. The COVID-19 pandemic and the related responses to the pandemic have caused a significant adverse impact on the global economy, including disruptions to supply chains, sharp increases in unemployment and overall economic uncertainty.

This pandemic has negatively impacted our business, including our employees, suppliers, customers and other business partners, resulting in our terminating 23 employees in 2020. We have seen demand for our exoskeleton products decrease in the current business environment, as many inpatient rehabilitation facilities temporarily shift priorities and delay capital expenditures, resulting in 61 units booked (non-cancellable customer orders) in 2020 compared to 98 in 2019, a decrease of 38%. We have seen that the clinical need has not diminished as more data is coming out about the increase prevalence of strokes during this pandemic. As such, we continue to engage with our current and prospective customers through video conferencing, virtual training events and online education demos to offer our support and showcase the value of our Ekso devices. Although market uncertainties related to the pandemic make it difficult for us to project the full impact on our business and customers, we believe that we are well-positioned to serve our customers when business conditions begin to normalize.

We continue to instruct the majority of our employees to work from home, restrict non-critical business travel and have enhanced the use of personal protective equipment in our facilities.

We are hopeful that COVID cases and hospitalizations will continue to decrease, and now that our clinical team is fully vaccinated and are active onsite at rehab centers, we expect to see an uptick in live in-person interactions going forward. In fact, we are now close to the number of onsite demos in the first quarter of 2021 compared to the previous three quarters combined. While we are cautiously optimistic about the current COVID outlook, the successful completion of our first virtual training sessions leave us well-positioned to address existing pipeline opportunities, mitigating the effects of future COVID-related lock downs or travel restrictions.

Management continues to actively monitor the global situation and its effects on our financial position and operations.

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Business

We design, develop, sell, and rent exoskeleton products that augment human strength, endurance and mobility. Our exoskeleton technology serves multiple markets and can be utilized both by able-bodied persons and persons with physical disabilities. We have sold or leased devices that (i) enable individuals with neurological conditions affecting gait (acquired brain injury and spinal cord injury) to rehabilitate, and in some cases, to walk again, (ii) assist individuals with a broad range of upper extremity impairments, and (iii) allow industrial workers to perform difficult repetitive work for extended periods. 

We believe that the commercial opportunity for exoskeleton technology adoption is accelerating as a result of recent advancements in material technologies, electronic and electrical engineering, control technologies, and sensor and software development. Taken individually, many of these advancements have become ubiquitous in peoples’ everyday lives. We believe that we have learned how to integrate these existing technologies and wrap the result around a human being efficiently, elegantly and safely, supported by an industry leading intellectual property portfolio. We further believe that we can do so across a broad spectrum of applications, from persons with lower limb paralysis to able-bodied users.

EksoHealth

EksoHealth is our business unit focused on developing, marketing, and selling exoskeletons for medical applications. Our leading product in EksoHealth, the EksoNR, is a robotic exoskeleton used to provide physical therapy for patients with lower extremity impairment. EksoNR, which in 2019 superseded our EksoGT product in this segment, includes unique features designed specifically to assist physical therapists and other clinicians to teach patients to walk again after suffering a neurological impairment. Typical conditions that can be treated with the assistance of EksoNR include acquired brain injuries, such as stroke and traumatic brain injuries, as well as spinal cord injuries and others. The benefits of using EksoNR for rehabilitation can include earlier mobilization of patients, longer and more intense rehab sessions, and better quality of sessions compared to alternative therapies. The product is most typically used in a clinical setting, with the most common among those being inpatient rehab facilities and stroke centers.

EksoUE is a wearable upper body exoskeleton that is also used as a tool during rehabilitation. EksoUE is designed to assists patients with a broad range of upper extremity impairments and aims to provide them with a wider active range of motion and increased endurance for rehabilitation sessions of higher intensity.

EksoWorks

EksoWorks is our business unit focused on developing, marketing, and selling exoskeletons and other assistive tools for industrial applications. The target users for these devices are generally able-bodied, and as such the goal of these products is to reduce fatigue for workers. The benefits of fatigue reduction can include reduced rates of injuries, higher productivity, higher worker morale, and lower turnover. Currently, we sell these products primarily directly to companies that deploy them for use in their operations.

Within EksoWorks we have two main categories of products. Our wearable exoskeleton products include EksoVest and the new EVO, both of which support the weight of a worker’s arms and tools, reducing the fatigue associated with working at or above shoulder height for extended periods. These products are currently targeted at end markets in Manufacturing, Aerospace, Construction, and Food Processing.

EksoZeroG is a tool holder that can mount on aerial lift platform or scaffolding. This effectively reduces the weight of heavy tools as felt by the operator. EksoZeroG has been sold primarily through rental companies into the construction market.

Operational Highlights
In 2020, we booked a total of 61 EksoGT and EksoNR units, 19 of which were subscription units and 9 of which were previously rented units that were converted to sales.
We recorded annual gross margins of approximately 57% in 2020, compared to 49% in 2019.
In February 2020, we announced the worldwide launch of our upgraded EksoPulse platform, an innovative cloud-based information technology platform that measures and analyzes progress using the EksoNR robotic exoskeleton. The improved analytics system provides an easy-to-use dashboard to chart activity in rehabilitation sessions, enhancing the clinician, institutional, and patient experience of the most clinically used exoskeleton. 
In June 2020, we received FDA clearance to market our EksoNR robotic exoskeleton for use with acquired brain injury patients
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Also in June 2020, we were named “Best Healthcare Robotics Company” in 2020 MedTech Breakthrough Awards Program
In August 2020, we launched EVO, an endurance-boosting assistive upper body exoskeleton designed for industrial use.
2020 Financing Activities
In April 2020, we received proceeds of a $1.1 million unsecured loan under the Paycheck Protection Program, or the PPP.
In June 2020, we sold 1,747,704 shares of our common stock and warrants to purchase up to 873,852 shares of our common stock, or June 2020 Investor Warrants, at a combined public offering price of $4.51 per share for proceeds, net of expenses and underwriting discount and commission, of $7.1 million.
In August 2020, we paid off the entire amount of $1.5 million of the Company's indebtedness to Western Alliance Bank with proceeds from a new loan of $2.0 million from Pacific Western Bank. The terms of the new loan agreement include monthly interest-only payments over the next three years.
During the year ended December 31, 2020, we received $3.3 million in proceeds from the exercise of 723,426 warrants.
Subsequent to year end, we received estimated net proceeds of $36.4 million from an underwritten public offering, $1.4 million from warrant exercises, and $0.7 million from sales under our "at the market offering" program. Refer to Note. 18 in the notes to our consolidated financial statements under the caption Subsequent Events.

Critical Accounting Policies, Estimates, and Judgments

Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. We continually evaluate our estimates and judgments. We base our estimates and judgments on historical experience and other factors that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Materially different results can occur as circumstances change and additional information becomes known. Besides the estimates identified below that are considered critical, we make many other accounting estimates in preparing our financial statements and related disclosures. All estimates, whether or not deemed critical, affect reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, as well as disclosures of contingent liabilities. These estimates and judgments are also based on historical experience and other factors that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. Materially different results can occur as circumstances change and additional information becomes known, even for estimates and judgments that are not deemed critical.

Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of promised products or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to receive in exchange for those products or services. We enter into contracts that can include various combinations of products and services, which when capable of being distinct, are accounted for as separate performance obligations. 

Our EksoHealth segment revenue is primarily generated through the sale and rental of our EksoNR and associated software (SmartAssist and VariableAssist), EksoUE, sale of accessories, and support and maintenance contracts (Ekso Care). Revenue from EksoHealth sales is recognized at the point in time when control of the product transfers to the customer. Transfer of control generally occurs upon shipment from our facility for sales of our EksoNR, software, and accessories. Ekso Care support and maintenance contracts extend coverage beyond our standard warranty agreements. The separately priced Ekso Care contracts range from 12 to 48 months. We receive payment at the inception of the contract and recognize revenue over the term of the agreement. Revenue from medical device rentals is recognized over the lease term, typically over 12 months.

Our EksoWorks segment revenue is generated by the sales of our EksoVest, EksoZeroG and EVO. Revenue from EksoWorks device sales is recognized at the point in time when control of the product transfers to the customer. Transfer of control generally occurs upon shipment from our facility. 

Inventory valuation

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Inventories are recorded at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is computed using standard cost, which approximates actual cost on a first-in, first-out basis. Materials from vendors are received and recorded as raw material. Once the raw materials are incorporated in the fabrication of the product, the related value of the component is recorded as work in progress, or WIP. Direct and indirect labor and applicable overhead costs are also allocated and recorded to WIP inventory. Finished goods are comprised of completed products that are ready for customer shipment. We periodically evaluate the carrying value of inventory on hand for potential excess amounts over sales and forecasted demand. Excess and obsolete inventories identified, if any, are recorded as an inventory impairment charge to the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. Our estimate of write-downs for excess and obsolete inventory is based on a detailed analysis of on-hand inventory and purchase commitments in excess of forecasted demand.  Subsequent disposals of inventories are recorded as a reduction of an inventory reserve.

Stock-based Compensation

We measure stock-based compensation expense for certain stock-based awards made to employees and directors based on the estimated fair value of the award on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model, or the Black-Scholes Model, and recognize the fair value on a straight-line basis over the requisite service periods of the awards.

Our determination of the fair value of stock options on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes Model is affected by our stock price as well as assumptions regarding a number of highly complex and subjective variables. These variables include, but are not limited to, our expected stock price volatility over the term of the awards, and actual and projected employee stock option exercise behaviors. We adopted the simplified method of estimating the expected term pursuant to SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin Topic 14. On this basis, we estimate the expected term of options granted by taking the average of the vesting term and the contractual term of the option.

We have, from time to time, modified the terms of stock options granted to our employees. We account for the incremental increase in the fair value over the original award on the date of the modification as an expense for vested awards or over the remaining service (vesting) period for unvested awards. The incremental compensation cost is the excess of the fair value based measure of the modified award on the date of modification over the fair value of the original award immediately before the modification.

Warrant Valuation

We generally account for warrants issued in connection with debt and equity financings as a component of equity, unless the warrants include a conditional obligation to issue a variable number of shares or there is a deemed possibility that we may need to settle the warrants in cash.

Where there is a possibility that we may have to settle warrants in cash, we estimate the fair value of the issued warrants as a liability at each reporting date and record changes in the estimated fair value as a non-cash gain or loss in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. The fair values of these warrants have been determined using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model (the “Black-Scholes Model”) and the Binomial Lattice model (the “Lattice Model”). The Black-Scholes Model requires inputs, such as the expected volatility, expected term, exercise price, risk-free interest rate, and the value of the underlying security. The Lattice Model provides for assumptions regarding expected volatility, expected term, exercise price, risk-free interest rates, the value of the underlying security, and the probability of and likely timing of a specific event within the period to maturity. These values are subject to a significant degree of judgment on our part. Our common stock price represents a significant input that affects the valuation of our warrants.

Going Concern
 
We assess our ability to continue as a going concern at every interim and annual period in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 205-40, Presentation of Financial Statements – Going Concern. The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming that we will continue as a going concern.
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Comparison of the year ended December 31, 2020 to the year ended December 31, 2019 (dollars in thousands):

Years ended December 31,
2020 2019 Change % Change
Revenue $ 8,882  $ 13,917  $ (5,035) (36) %
Cost of revenue 3,812  7,153  (3,341) (47) %
Gross profit 5,070  6,764  (1,694) (25) %
Gross profit % 57  % 49  %
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing 7,752  11,398  (3,646) (32) %
Research and development 2,474  4,596  (2,122) (46) %
General and administrative 7,702  7,409  293  %
Impairment of goodwill 189  —  189 
nm(1)
Restructuring 244  —  244 
nm(1)
Total operating expenses 18,361  23,403  (5,042) (22) %
Loss from operations (13,291) (16,639) 3,348  (20) %
Other (expense) income, net:
Interest expense (139) (384) 245  (64) %
Finance cost associated with warrant issuance (329) (1,096) 767  (70) %
(Loss) gain on warrant liabilities (3,056) 6,376  (9,432)
nm(1)
Loss on modification of warrants —  (257) 257 
nm(1)
Other income (expense), net 990  (132) 1,122 
nm(1)
Total other (expense) income, net (2,534) 4,507  (7,041) (156) %
Net loss $ (15,825) $ (12,132) $ (3,693) 30  %
(1) Not meaningful

Revenue

Revenue decreased $5.0 million, or 36%, for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to the same period of 2019. This decrease was comprised of a $3.9 million decrease in EksoHealth and a $1.1 million decrease in EksoWorks primarily due to a decrease in volume of medical device sales driven by the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, as our customers shifted their priorities to prepare for and manage their business during the pandemic.

Gross Profit

Gross profit decreased $1.7 million, or 25%, for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to the same period of 2019, primarily attributable to a decreased volume of device sales. Gross margin was approximately 57% for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to a gross margin of 49% for the same period in 2019. Gross margins increased primarily due to higher average selling prices for EksoNR, an increased proportion of medical device sales in overall revenue composition, lower unit production costs, the introduction of EVO, and higher service margins.

Operating Expenses

Sales and marketing expenses decreased $3.6 million, or 32%, for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to the same period of 2019, primarily due to a decrease in employee compensation expenses as a result of a furlough and a reduction in force in March and May 2020, respectively, lower selling expense as we shifted to video conferencing, virtual training events and online education demonstrations, lower general marketing and trade show activities, and the absence of clinical trials expense due to the completion of our main clinical trial in the first quarter of 2019.

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Research and development expenses decreased $2.1 million, or 46%, for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to the same period of 2019, primarily due to a decrease in employee compensation expenses as a result of a furlough and a reduction in force in March and May 2020, respectively, and a decrease in patent and licensing costs.

General and administrative expenses increased $0.3 million, or 4%, for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to the same period of 2019, primarily due to an increase in legal expense.

Goodwill impairment charge of $0.2 million was recorded in the year ended December 31, 2020, reducing the goodwill balance to zero. No goodwill impairment charge was recorded in 2019.

Restructuring expense of $0.2 million was recorded in the year ended December 31, 2020, and related to the completion of a restructuring plan in May of 2020. We streamlined our operations and reduced our workforce by approximately 35% to lower operating expenses and reduce cash burn. The restructuring expense consisted of employee severance payments.

The reduction in operating expenses reflects the continuation of the company-wide initiatives we implemented last year, the restructuring completed in May 2020, as well as improving overall operational efficiencies. Our focus remains on optimizing the cost structure of our organization.

Other (Expense) Income, Net

Interest expense decreased $0.2 million, or 64% for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to the same period of 2019, primarily due to lower effective interest rates on our term loans.

Loss on revaluation of warrant liabilities of $3.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, was associated with the revaluation of warrants issued in 2015, 2019 and 2020. Gain on revaluation of warrant liabilities of $6.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, related to warrants issued in 2015 and 2019. Gains and losses on revaluation of warrants are primarily driven by changes in our stock price.

Loss on modification of warrants of $0.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, was due to the reduction of the exercise price of the 2015 Warrants from $56.10 per share to $41.25 per share, in connection with an amendment of the 2015 Warrant Agreement, which retroactively removed a provision from such securities purchase agreement that prohibited the Company from effecting or entering into an agreement to effect any issuance by the Company of its common stock at a price determined based on the trading price of the Company’s common stock or otherwise at a future determined price. There was no comparable amount during the same period in 2020.

Warrant issuance expense of $0.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 was recorded in connection with our private placement offerings of warrants to purchase common stock concurrently with a registered direct offering of our common stock in June 2020. We incurred $1.1 million in direct financing costs, which were allocated on a relative fair value basis between the common stock and warrant issuances, of which $0.3 million was allocated to warrants and expensed immediately. Warrant issuance expense of $1.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 was recorded in connection with our May 2019 and December 2019 financings. We incurred $1.7 million in direct financing costs, which were allocated on a relative fair value basis between the common stock and warrant issuances, of which $1.1 million was allocated to warrants and expensed immediately.

Other income, net was $1.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to other expense, net of $0.1 million the same period of 2019, due to unrealized gains and losses on foreign currency revaluations of our inter-company monetary assets and liabilities.

Financial Condition, Liquidity and Capital Resources

Since our inception, we have devoted substantially all of our efforts toward the development of exoskeletons for the medical and industrial markets, toward the commercialization of medical exoskeletons to rehabilitation centers and toward raising capital. We have financed our operations primarily through the issuance and sale of equity securities for cash consideration and through bank debt.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

At December 31, 2020, we had working capital of $13.4 million, compared to working capital of $11.0 million at December 31, 2019.  The increase in working capital is primarily due to higher cash balance from equity financings, warrants exercises, and
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the reduction of notes payable, current as a result of retiring our WAB Term Loan. Our cash and cash equivalents as of December 31, 2020 consisted of bank deposits with third party financial institutions.  As of December 31, 2020, of our $12.9 million of cash, $12.3 million was held domestically while $0.6 million was held by foreign subsidiaries.

As of December 31, 2020, we had an accumulated deficit of $199.1 million and cash on hand of $12.9 million.  Largely as a result of significant research and development activities related to our advanced technology and commercialization of such technology into our medical device business, we have incurred significant operating losses and negative cash flows from operations since inception. We have incurred net losses of $15.8 million and $12.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. In the year ended December 31, 2020, we received net proceeds of $7.1 million from a registered direct offering and $3.3 million from warrant exercises, and used $8.8 million of cash in our operations.

Subsequent to year-end through February 25, 2021, we received estimated net proceeds of $36.4 million from an underwritten public offering, $1.4 million from warrant exercises, and $0.7 million from sales under our "at the market offering" program. Refer to Note. 18 in the notes to our consolidated financial statements under the caption Subsequent Events.

In 2020, management took several actions to alleviate the substantial doubt about the our ability to continue as a going concern that existed as of the date of issuance of the December 31, 2019 consolidated financial statements, including, but not limited to, the following:

•streamlined our operations and reduced our workforce by approximately 35% to lower operating expenses and reduce cash burn;
•conducted a registered direct offering of 1,747,704 shares of our common stock for net proceeds of $7.1 million;
•paid off the entire amount of $1.5 million of our indebtedness to Western Alliance Bank with proceeds from a new loan of $2.0 million from Pacific Western Bank. The terms of the new loan agreement include monthly interest-only payments over the next three years.
•invested in the development and reliability of our products;
•restructured our commercial organization and strategy which has been gaining traction;
•received FDA clearance for ABI to market our product to a larger patient population increasing the value proposition to our customers.

As described in Note 9 in the notes to our consolidated financial statements under the caption Notes Payable, net, borrowings under our new secured term loan agreement with Pacific Western Bank have a requirement of minimum cash on hand equivalent to the current outstanding principal balance. As of December 31, 2020, $2.0 million of cash must remain as restricted. After considering cash restrictions, effective unrestricted cash as of December 31, 2020 is estimated to be $10.9 million. With this unrestricted cash balance and the impact of management's actions described above, and additional cash received after year-end, we believe that we currently have sufficient cash to fund our operations beyond the look forward period of one year from the issuance of these consolidated financial statements.

Our actual capital requirements may vary significantly and will depend on many factors. We plan to continue our investments in our (i) sales initiatives to accelerate adoption of the Ekso robotic exoskeleton in the rehabilitation market, (ii) research, development and commercialization activities with respect to exoskeletons for rehabilitation, and (iii) development and commercialization of able-bodied exoskeletons for industrial use. Consequently, we may require significant additional financing in the future, which we intend to raise through corporate collaborations, public or private equity offerings, debt financings, or warrant solicitations. Sales of additional equity securities by us could result in the dilution of the interests of existing stockholders. There can be no assurance that financing will be available when required in sufficient amounts, on acceptable terms or at all. In the event that the necessary additional financing is not obtained, we may be required to further reduce our discretionary overhead costs substantially, including research and development, general and administrative, and sales and marketing expenses or otherwise curtail operations.

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Cash and Cash Equivalents

The following table summarizes the sources and uses of cash for the periods stated (in thousands):
Years ended December 31,
2020 2019
Cash, beginning of year $ 10,872  $ 7,655 
Net cash used in operating activities (8,755) (15,772)
Net cash used in investing activities —  (60)
Net cash provided by financing activities 10,704  19,039 
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash 41  10 
Cash, end of year $ 12,862  $ 10,872 

Net Cash Used in Operating Activities

Net cash used in operations decreased $7.0 million, or 44%, for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to the same period of 2019, primarily due to the reduction in operating expenses by improving overall operational efficiencies, including but not limited to, the reduction of employee headcount. In addition, increased collection efforts resulted in higher ratio of accounts receivable collections to sales.

Net Cash Used in Investing Activities

Net cash used in investing activities decreased $0.1 million, or 100%, during the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to the same period of 2019, primarily due to lower hardware and software purchases due to lower headcount.

Net Cash Provided by Financing Activities

Net cash provided by financing activities of $10.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 was from the sale of our common stock for net proceeds of $7.1 million in connection with the equity financing in June 2020, proceeds of $1.1 million from our PPP loan, and proceeds of $3.3 million from the exercise of June 2020 Warrants and May 2019 Warrants, partially offset by aggregate principal payments of $1.3 million against our term loan and the $1.5 million payoff of our loan with Western Alliance Bank.

Net cash provided by financing activities of $19.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 was from the sale of common stock and warrants for net proceeds of $9.0 million in connection with the equity financing in May 2019, net proceeds of $4.2 million with the equity financing in December 2019, net proceeds of $2.8 million from our “at the market offering” program, net proceeds of $5.0 million from equity investors associated with the JV Agreement, and proceeds of $0.2 million from the exercise of stock options, partially offset by aggregate principal payments of $2.4 million against our term loan.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

Our liquidity is not dependent on the use of off-balance sheet financing arrangements (as that term is defined in Item 303(a) (4) (ii) of Regulation S-K) and as of December 31, 2020, we had no such arrangements. There has been no material change in our contractual obligations other than in the ordinary course of business since our fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.

Contractual Obligations and Commitments

The following table summarizes our outstanding contractual obligations, including interest payments, as of December 31, 2020 and the effect those obligations are expected to have on our liquidity and cash flows in future periods (in thousands):
Payments Due By Period
Total Less than one year 1-3 Years 3-5 Years After 5 Years
Term loan $ 3,356  $ 90  $ 3,266  $ —  $ — 
Facility operating leases 836  599  237  —  — 
Purchase obligations 396  396  —  —  — 
Total $ 4,588  $ 1,085  $ 3,503  $ —  $ — 
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In addition to the table above, which reflects only fixed payment obligations, we have two license agreements to maintain exclusive rights to certain patents. Under these license agreements, we are required to pay 1% of net sales of products sold to entities other than the U.S. government. In the event of a sublicense, we will owe 21% of license fees and must pass through 1% of the sub-licensee’s net sales of products sold to entities other than the U.S. government. The license agreements also stipulate minimum annual royalties of $50,000 per year.

In connection with our acquisition of Equipois in December 2015, we assumed the rights and obligations of Equipois under a license agreement with the developer of certain intellectual property related to mechanical balance and support arm technologies, which grants us an exclusive license with respect to the technology and patent rights for certain fields of use. Pursuant to the terms of the license agreement, we will be required to pay a single-digit royalty on net receipts, subject to a $50,000 annual minimum royalty requirement.

We purchase components from a variety of suppliers and use contract manufacturers to provide manufacturing services for our products. Purchase obligations are defined as agreements that are enforceable and legally binding and that specify all significant terms, including: fixed or minimum quantities to be purchased; fixed, minimum or variable price provisions; and the approximate timing of the transaction. We had purchase obligations primarily for purchases of inventory and manufacturing related service contracts totaling $0.4 million as of December 31, 2020, which is expected to be paid within a year. Timing of payments and actual amounts paid may be different depending on the time of receipt of goods or services or changes to agreed-upon amounts for some obligations.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

See Note 2 in the notes to our consolidated financial statements under the caption Recent Accounting Pronouncements for a discussion of new accounting pronouncements.
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ITEM 7A.    QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

Foreign Currency Risk

We report our financial results in U.S. dollars; however, we conduct business in foreign countries. For U.S. reporting purposes, we translate all assets and liabilities of our non-U.S. subsidiaries at the period-end exchange rate, equity at historical exchange rates, and revenue and expenses at the average exchange rates in effect during the periods. The net effect of these translation adjustments is shown in the accompanying consolidated financial statements as a component of stockholders’ equity.

We generate a portion of our revenue and collect receivables in foreign currencies outside of the U.S. and, as such, we have foreign currency exposure. Currently, we sell our products mainly in United States dollars, Euros, and Singapore dollars although we may in the future transact business in other currencies. Future fluctuations in the foreign exchange rates of these currencies can result in foreign exchange gains and losses which may impact our financial results. In the past, we have not hedged our exposures to foreign currencies or entered into any other derivative instruments and we have no current plans to do so. For the year ended December 31, 2020, sales denominated in foreign currencies were approximately 33% of total revenue. A hypothetical 10% increase in the United States dollar exchange rate used would have resulted in a $0.3 million decrease to revenues for 2020.

Interest Rate Risk

Our exposure to market rate risk for changes in interest rates relates primarily to our term loan. The variable interest rate related to our long-term debt is charged at the greater of 0.50% above the variable rate of interest announced by the lender as its “prime rate” then in effect or 4.50.  A hypothetical 10% change in the lender's prime rate would have an immaterial impact on our annualized interest expense.
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ITEM 8.    FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

Table of Contents

The following financial statements are filed as part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K
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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

Stockholders and Board of Directors
Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Richmond, California

Opinion on the Consolidated Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc. as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the related consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2020, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2020, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

Basis for Opinion

These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matter

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of a critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Revenue Recognition

Description of the Matter

As described in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company’s contracts with customers sometimes contain multiple performance obligations, which are accounted for separately if they are distinct. In such cases, the transaction price is then allocated to the distinct performance obligations on a relative standalone selling price basis and revenue is recognized when the distinct performance obligation is satisfied. For example, device revenue is recognized at the point in time that the customer takes control of the device, generally upon shipment, and subscription and service revenues are recognized over time as the services are performed.

Auditing the Company’s revenue recognition was challenging, specifically related to the identification and determination of the distinct performance obligations, the allocation of the transaction price to the identified performance obligations and the timing of revenue recognition. For example, certain arrangements required judgment to determine the distinct performance obligations,
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how the transaction price is allocated to the identified performance obligations, and the appropriate timing of revenue recognition.

How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit

We obtained an understanding and evaluated the design of the Company’s process and controls to determine the distinct performance obligations, allocation of the transaction price to the identified performance obligations and the timing of revenue recognition.

Among the procedures we performed to test the determination of the distinct performance obligations, allocations of the transaction price to the identified performance obligations and the timing of revenue recognition, we read executed contracts and purchase orders to understand the rights and obligations conveyed in the contractual arrangement, evaluated management’s assessment of the performance obligations and whether they were distinct, determined the reasonableness of the standalone selling price used by management in the allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations, and tested the timing of revenue recognition for a sample of individual sales transactions. We evaluated the accuracy of the Company’s accounting conclusions, specifically related to the identification and determination of distinct performance obligations, allocation of the transaction price to the identified performance obligations, and the timing of revenue recognition.

/s/ OUM & CO. LLP

San Francisco, California
February 25, 2021
We have served as the Company's auditor since 2010.
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Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Consolidated Balance Sheets
(In thousands, except par value amounts)

December 31,
2020 2019
Assets
Current assets:
Cash $ 12,862  $ 10,872 
Accounts receivable, net of allowances of $42 and $121, respectively
3,389  5,208 
Inventories 1,978  2,489 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets 191  238 
Total current assets 18,420  18,807 
Property and equipment, net 1,172  1,657 
Right-of-use assets 685  1,084 
Goodwill —  189 
Other assets 320  178 
Total assets $ 20,597  $ 21,915 
Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable $ 1,501  $ 1,903 
Accrued liabilities 1,429  1,683 
Deferred revenues, current 1,496  1,492 
Note payable, current —  2,333 
Lease liabilities, current 548  421 
Total current liabilities 4,974  7,832 
Deferred revenues 1,806  1,789 
Notes payable, net 3,075  407 
Lease liabilities 233  711 
Warrant liabilities 6,037  4,307 
Other non-current liabilities 38  72 
Total liabilities 16,163  15,118 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 16)
Stockholders' equity:
Convertible preferred stock, $0.001 par value; 10,000 shares authorized; no shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2020 and 2019
—  — 
Common stock, $0.001 par value; 141,429 shares authorized; 8,349 and 5,795 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively
Additional paid-in capital 204,376  190,019 
Accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income (847) 50 
Accumulated deficit (199,103) (183,278)
Total stockholders' equity 4,434  6,797 
Total liabilities and stockholders' equity $ 20,597  $ 21,915 


See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements
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Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss
(In thousands, except per share amounts)

Years ended December 31,
2020 2019
Revenue $ 8,882  $ 13,917 
Cost of revenue 3,812  7,153 
Gross profit 5,070  6,764 
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing 7,752  11,398 
Research and development 2,474  4,596 
General and administrative 7,702  7,409 
Impairment of goodwill 189  — 
Restructuring 244  — 
Total operating expenses 18,361  23,403 
Loss from operations (13,291) (16,639)
Other (expense) income, net:
Interest expense (139) (384)
Finance cost associated with warrant issuance (329) (1,096)
(Loss) gain on warrant liabilities (3,056) 6,376 
Loss on modification of warrants —  (257)
Other income (expense), net 990  (132)
Total other (expense) income, net (2,534) 4,507 
Net loss (15,825) (12,132)
Foreign currency translation adjustments (897) 142 
Comprehensive loss $ (16,722) $ (11,990)
Basic and diluted net loss per share applicable to common shareholders $ (2.21) $ (2.53)
Weighted average number of shares outstanding, basic and diluted 7,164  4,794 

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements
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Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity
(In thousands)
Convertible
Preferred Stock
Common Stock Additional
Paid-in
Capital
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
Accumulated
Deficit
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
Shares Amount Shares Amount
Balance at December 31, 2018 —  $ —  4,198  $ $ 173,962  $ (92) $ (171,146) $ 2,728 
Net loss —  —  —  —  —  —  (12,132) (12,132)
Issuance of common stock under:
Equity financing, net —  —  1,534  12,442  —  —  12,444 
Equipois sales earn-out —  —  —  22  —  —  22 
Equity incentive plan —  —  12  —  228  —  —  228 
Matching contribution to 401(k) plan —  —  —  191  —  —  191 
In lieu of employee cash bonus —  —  41  —  919  —  —  919 
Stock-based compensation —  —  —  —  2,255  —  —  2,255 
Foreign currency translation adjustments —  —  —  —  —  142  —  142 
Balance at December 31, 2019 —  $ —  5,795  $ $ 190,019  $ 50  $ (183,278) $ 6,797 
Net loss —  —  —  —  —  —  (15,825) (15,825)
Issuance of common stock under:
Equity financing, net —  —  1,748  7,080  —  —  7,082 
Equity incentive plan —  —  35  —  —  —  —  — 
Exercise of warrants —  —  723  —  7,310  —  —  7,310 
Matching contribution to 401(k) plan —  —  26  —  155  —  —  155 
In lieu of cash compensation —  —  —  50  —  —  50 
Shares issued as a result of rounding due to reverse-stock split —  —  13  —  —  —  —  — 
Issuance of warrants —  —  —  —  (2,322) —  —  (2,322)
Stock-based compensation —  —  —  —  2,084  —  —  2,084 
Foreign currency translation adjustments —  —  —  —  —  (897) —  (897)
Balance at December 31, 2020 —  $ —  8,349  $ $ 204,376  $ (847) $ (199,103) $ 4,434 

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements

42

Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows
(In thousands)
Years ended December 31,
2020 2019
Operating activities
Net loss $ (15,825) $ (12,132)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities
Depreciation and amortization 620  690 
Changes in allowance for doubtful accounts 65  52 
Impairment of goodwill 189  — 
Amortization of debt discount, change in contingent liability and accretion of final payment fee 28  64 
Gain on modification of operating lease liabilities (38) — 
Loss on investment of unconsolidated affiliate 66  — 
Common stock contribution to 401(k) plan 169  142 
Stock-based compensation expense 2,410  2,255 
Finance cost attributable to issuance of warrants 329  1,096 
Loss (gain) on revaluation of warrant liabilities 3,056  (6,376)
Loss on modification of warrants —  257 
Unrealized (gain) loss on foreign currency transactions (947) 133 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable 1,754  (1,599)
Inventories 379  959 
Prepaid expense, operating lease right-of-use assets, and other assets, current and noncurrent 247  369 
Accounts payable (402) (1,231)
Accrued and lease liabilities (876) (1,135)
Deferred revenues 21  684 
Net cash used in operating activities (8,755) (15,772)
Investing activities
Acquisition of property and equipment —  (60)
Net cash used in investing activities —  (60)
Financing activities
Proceeds from issuance of common stock and warrants, net 7,082  21,188 
Principal payments on notes payable (1,278) (2,377)
Payment of remaining balance on long-term debt (1,512) — 
Proceeds from exercise of stock options —  228 
Proceeds from exercise of common stock warrants 3,334  — 
Proceeds from issuance of long-term debt, net of financing costs 3,078  — 
Net cash provided by financing activities 10,704  19,039 
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash 41  10 
Net increase in cash 1,990  3,217 
Cash at beginning of the year 10,872  7,655 
Cash at end of the year $ 12,862  $ 10,872 
Supplemental disclosure of cash flow activities
Cash paid for interest $ 109  $ 309 
43

Cash paid for income taxes $ $ 23 
Supplemental disclosure of non-cash activities
Reclassification of warrant liability to equity upon exercise of warrants $ 3,976  $ — 
Share issuance for common stock contribution to 401(k) plan $ 155  $ 191 
Transfer of inventory to (from) property and equipment $ 132  $ (77)
Share issuance in lieu of cash compensation $ 50  $ 919 
Initial recognition of operating right-of-use assets $ —  $ 1,454 
Initial recognition of operating lease liabilities $ —  $ 1,498 
Share issuance for vesting of restricted stock $ —  $ 63 
Change in deferred rent associated with ASC 842 $ —  $ 44 
Equipois sales earn-out $ —  $ 22 

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements
44

Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
1. Organization

Description of Business

Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc. (the "Company"), designs, develops, sells, and rents exoskeleton products to augment human strength, endurance and mobility.

The Company’s exoskeleton technology serves multiple markets and can be utilized both by able-bodied users and persons with physical disabilities. The Company has sold and rented devices that (i) enable individuals with neurological conditions affecting gait (acquired brain injury and spinal cord injury) to rehabilitate and to walk again, (ii) assist individuals with a broad range of upper extremity impairments, and (iii) allow industrial workers to perform difficult repetitive work for extended periods.

Founded in 2005, the Company is headquartered in the San Francisco Bay area and listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “EKSO”.

Unless otherwise indicated, all dollar and share amounts included in these notes to the consolidated financial statements are in thousands.

Liquidity and Going Concern

As of December 31, 2020, the Company had an accumulated deficit of $199,103.  Largely as a result of significant research and development activities related to the development of the Company’s advanced technology and commercialization of such technology into its medical device business, the Company has incurred significant operating losses and negative cash flows from operations since inception. In the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company received net proceeds of $7,082 from a registered direct offering and of $3,334 from warrant exercises, and used $8,755 of cash in its operations. Cash on hand at December 31, 2020 was $12,862.

Subsequent to year-end through February 25, 2021 the Company received estimated net proceeds of $36,404 from an underwritten public offering, $1,416 from warrant exercises, and $664 from ATM sales. Refer to Note. 18, Subsequent Events.

In 2020, management took several actions to alleviate the substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern that existed as of the date of issuance of the December 31, 2019 consolidated financial statements, including, but not limited to, the following:

streamlined the Company's operations and reduced its workforce by approximately 35% to lower operating expenses and reduce cash burn;
conducted a registered direct offering for net proceeds of $7,082;
paid off the entire amount of $1,512 of the Company's indebtedness to Western Alliance Bank with proceeds from a new loan of $2,000 from Pacific Western Bank. The terms of the new loan agreement include monthly interest-only payments until August 2023.
invested in the development and reliability of its products;
restructured the Company's commercial organization and strategy which has been gaining traction; and
received clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") for Acquired Brain Injury ("ABI") to market the Company's product to a larger patient population increasing the value proposition to its customers.

As described in Note 9, Notes payable, net, borrowings under the Company’s new secured term loan agreement with Pacific Western Bank have a liquidity covenant requiring minimum cash on hand equivalent to the current outstanding principal balance. As of December 31, 2020, $2,000 of cash must remain as restricted. After considering cash restrictions, effective unrestricted cash as of December 31, 2020 is approximately $10,862. With this unrestricted cash balance, the impact of management's actions described above, and additional cash received after year-end, the Company believes that it currently has sufficient cash to fund its operations beyond the look forward period of one year from the issuance of these consolidated financial statements.
The Company’s actual capital requirements may vary significantly and will depend on many factors. The Company plans to continue its investments in its (i) sales initiatives to accelerate adoption of the Ekso robotic exoskeleton in the rehabilitation
45

Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
market, (ii) research, development and commercialization activities with respect to exoskeletons for rehabilitation, and (iii) development and commercialization of able-bodied exoskeletons for industrial use. Consequently, the Company may require significant additional financing in the future, which the Company intends to raise through corporate collaborations, public or private equity offerings, debt financings, or warrant solicitations. Sales of additional equity securities by the Company could result in the dilution of the interests of existing stockholders. There can be no assurance that financing will be available when required in sufficient amounts, on acceptable terms or at all. In the event that the necessary additional financing is not obtained, the Company may be required to further reduce its discretionary overhead costs substantially, including research and development, general and administrative, and sales and marketing expenses or otherwise curtail operations.


2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Estimates

Principles of Consolidation and Basis of Presentation

The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States or U.S. GAAP. In the opinion of management, all adjustments necessary for a fair presentation of the financial position, results of operations and cash flows for the periods presented have been included and are normal and recurring in nature.

All significant intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.

Certain reclassifications have been made to prior year amounts to conform to the current year’s presentation.

All common share and per share amounts have been adjusted to reflect the one-for-fifteen reverse stock split completed on March 24, 2020. See Note 13, Capitalization and Equity Structure – Reverse Stock Split.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the balance sheet, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. For the Company, these estimates include, but are not limited to, revenue recognition, deferred revenue and the deferral of the associated costs, the valuation of warrants and employee stock options, future warranty costs, accounting for leases, useful lives assigned to long-lived assets, valuation of inventory, realizability of deferred tax assets, and contingencies. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Foreign Currency

The assets and liabilities of foreign subsidiaries and equity investments, where the local currency is the functional currency, are translated from their respective functional currencies into U.S. dollars at the rates in effect at the balance sheet date and revenue and expense amounts are translated at average rates during the period, with resulting foreign currency translation adjustments recorded in accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income as a component of stockholders’ equity. Gains and losses from the re-measurement of balances denominated in currencies other than the entities' functional currencies, are recorded in other expense, net in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.

Accumulated Other Comprehensive (Loss) Income

The Company's accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income consists of the accumulated net unrealized gains or losses on foreign currency translation adjustments. The change in accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income presented on the consolidated balance sheets for the year ended December 31, 2020, is reflected in the table below net of tax:
46

Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
Accumulated Other Comprehensive (Loss) Income
Balance at December 31, 2019 $ 50 
Net unrealized loss on foreign currency translation (897)
Balance at December 31, 2020 $ (847)

Cash

The Company places its cash in the custody of, financial institutions with high credit ratings. The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with a maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. The Company did not have any cash equivalents or investments in money market funds as of December 31, 2020 and 2019.

Concentration of Credit Risk and Other Risks and Uncertainties

Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash and accounts receivable. The Company maintains cash accounts in excess of federally insured limits. However, the Company believes it is not exposed to significant credit risk due to the financial position of the depository institutions in which these deposits are held.  The Company extends credit to customers in the normal course of business and performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers. Concentrations of credit risk with respect to accounts receivable exist to the full extent of amounts presented in the consolidated financial statements. The Company does not require collateral from its customers to secure accounts receivable.

Accounts receivable are derived from the sale of products shipped and services performed for customers primarily located in the U.S., Europe, Asia, and Australia. Invoices are aged based on contractual terms with the customer. The Company reviews accounts receivable for collectability and provides an allowance for potential credit losses. The Company has not experienced material losses related to accounts receivable during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019. Many of the sales contracts with customers outside of the U.S. are settled in a foreign currency other than the U.S. dollar. The Company does not enter into any foreign currency hedging agreements and is susceptible to gains and losses from foreign currency fluctuations. To date, the Company has not experienced significant gains or losses upon settling contracts denominated in a foreign currency.

At December 31, 2020, the Company had two customers with an accounts receivable balance totaling 10% or more of the Company’s total accounts receivable (13% and 10%, respectively), as compared with one customer at December 31, 2019 (11%).

The Company had no customers with sales of 10% or more of the Company’s total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared with one for the year ended December 31, 2019 (15%). Refer to Note 17. Segment Disclosures for more information.

Inventories

Inventories are recorded at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is computed using the standard cost method, which approximates actual cost on a first-in, first-out basis. Materials from vendors are received and recorded as raw material. Once the raw materials are incorporated in the fabrication of the product, the related value of the component is recorded as work in progress ("WIP"). Direct and indirect labor and applicable overhead costs are also allocated and recorded to WIP inventory. Finished goods are comprised of completed products that are ready for customer shipment. The Company periodically evaluates the carrying value of inventory on hand for potential excess amounts over sales and forecasted demand. Excess and obsolete inventories identified, if any, are recorded as an inventory impairment charge within the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. The Company's estimate of write-downs for excess and obsolete inventory is based on a detailed analysis which includes on-hand inventory and purchase commitments in excess of forecasted demand.  Subsequent disposals of inventories are recorded as a reduction of inventory.

Inventories consisted of the following:
47

Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
December 31,
2020 2019
Raw materials $ 1,724  $ 2,208 
Work in progress 18  29 
Finished goods 236  252 
Inventories $ 1,978  $ 2,489 

Leases

In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standard Update (“ASU”), No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), to enhance the transparency and comparability of financial reporting related to leasing arrangements. The Company adopted the standard effective January 1, 2019.

At the inception of an arrangement, the Company determines whether the arrangement is or contains a lease based on the unique facts and circumstances present. Operating lease liabilities and their corresponding right-of-use assets are recorded based on the present value of lease payments over the expected lease term. The interest rate implicit in lease contracts is typically not readily determinable. As such, the Company utilizes its incremental borrowing rate, which is the rate incurred to borrow on a collateralized basis over a similar term an amount equal to the lease payments in a similar economic environment. Certain adjustments to the right-of-use asset may be required for items, such as initial direct costs paid or incentives received.

Lease expense is recognized over the expected lease term on a straight-line basis. Operating leases are recognized on the balance sheet as right-of-use assets, lease liabilities current and lease liabilities non-current. As a result, the Company no longer recognizes deferred rent on the balance sheet.

Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are not recorded on the balance sheet. The Company recognizes the lease expense for such leases on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Restructuring

In May of 2020, the Company streamlined its operations and reduced its workforce by approximately 35% to lower operating expenses and reduce cash burn. The restructuring plan was completed by the end of the second quarter of 2020.

The Company recorded restructuring expense of $244 for the year ended December 31, 2020 comprised of termination benefit costs. As of December 31, 2020, there was no accrued restructuring cost remaining on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets.

Property and Equipment, net

Property and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and are depreciated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets, generally ranging from three to ten years. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the estimated useful life or the related term of the lease. The costs of repairs and maintenance are expensed when incurred, while expenditures for refurbishments and improvements that significantly add to the productive capacity or extend the useful life of an asset are capitalized. 

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

The Company assesses the impairment of long-lived assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying value may not be recoverable from the estimated future cash flows expected to result from the Company’s use or eventual disposition. If estimates of future undiscounted net cash flows are insufficient to recover the carrying value of the assets, the Company will record an impairment loss in the amount by which the carrying value of the assets exceeds the fair value. If the assets are determined to be recoverable, but the useful lives are shorter than originally estimated, the Company will depreciate or amortize the net book value of the assets over the newly determined remaining useful lives. None of the Company’s property and equipment or intangible assets were impaired as of December 31, 2020 and 2019. No impairment loss has been recognized in the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019.

48

Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
Goodwill

The Company records goodwill when the purchase price of an acquisition exceeds the fair value of the net tangible and identified intangible assets acquired. The Company performs an annual impairment assessment, or more frequently if indicators of potential impairment exist, which includes evaluating qualitative and quantitative factors to assess the likelihood of an impairment of goodwill. The Company performs impairment tests using a fair value approach when necessary.

The Company previously maintained a goodwill balance as a result of a prior acquisition of intangible assets from Equipois, LLC in December 2015 consisting of mechanical balance and support arms technologies, including the rights to the ZeroG product.

As a result of declining sales and gross margin, combined with the overall uncertainty about the future of the ZeroG product line, the Company performed an impairment assessment of goodwill utilizing the simplified method, which resulted in an impairment of goodwill of $189 reducing the goodwill balance to zero. In estimating the fair value, the Company utilized a discounted cash flow model, which is dependent on a number of assumptions, including forecasted revenues and profit margins. The following table sets forth the changes to goodwill for the year ended December 31, 2020:
  Goodwill
Balance at December 31, 2019 $ 189 
Impairment of goodwill (189)
Balance at Balance at December 31, 2020 $ — 

Warrant Valuation

The Company generally accounts for warrants issued in connection with debt and equity financings as a component of equity, unless the warrants include a conditional obligation to issue a variable number of shares or there is a deemed possibility that it may need to settle the warrants in cash.

Where there is a possibility that the Company may have to settle warrants in cash, it estimates the fair value of the issued warrants as a liability at each reporting date and record changes in the estimated fair value as a non-cash gain or loss in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. The fair values of these warrants have been determined using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model (the “Black-Scholes Model”) and the Binomial Lattice model (the “Lattice Model”). The Black-Scholes Model requires inputs, such as the expected volatility, expected term, exercise price, risk-free interest rate, and the value of the underlying security. The Lattice Model provides for assumptions regarding expected volatility, expected term, exercise price, risk-free interest rates, the value of the underlying security, and the probability of and likely timing of a specific event within the period to maturity. These values are subject to a significant degree of the Company’s judgment. The Company’s common stock price represents a significant input that affects the valuation of the warrants.

Going Concern

The Company assesses its ability to continue as a going concern at every interim and annual period in accordance with ASC 205-40, Presentation of Financial Statements – Going Concern. The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern.

Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of promised products or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for those products or services. The Company enters into contracts that can include various combinations of products and services, which when capable of being distinct, are accounted for as separate performance obligations.

49

Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
The Company’s medical device segment (EksoHealth) revenue is primarily generated through the sale and rental of the EksoNR and EksoGT, associated software (SmartAssist and VariableAssist), the sale and rental of the EksoUE, the sale of accessories, and the sale of support and maintenance contracts (Ekso Care). Revenue from medical device product sales is recognized at the point in time when control of the product transfers to the customer. Transfer of control generally occurs upon shipment from the Company’s facility for sales of the EksoNR or EksoGT, software and accessories. Ekso Care support and maintenance contracts extend coverage beyond the Company’s standard warranty agreements. The separately priced Ekso Care contracts range from 12 to 48 months. The Company receives payment at the inception of the contract and recognizes revenue over the term of the agreement. Revenue from medical device rentals is recognized over the rental term, typically 12 months.

The Company’s industrial device segment (EksoWorks) revenue is generated through the sale and rental of the upper body exoskeletons (EksoVest and the recently introduced EVOTM) and the support arm (EksoZeroG). Revenue from industrial device sales is recognized at the point in time when control of the product transfers to the customer. Transfer of control generally occurs upon shipment from the Company’s facility. Revenue from industrial device rentals is recognized over the rental term, typically 12 months.

Government Grants

The Company accounts for nonreciprocal government grants by applying the contributions received in accordance with guidance in ASC Topic 958-605. To determine if a grant is non-reciprocal or reciprocal and whether the application of ASC 606 is required, the Company considers whether the transfer of resources is one in which commensurate value is exchanged. If commensurate value is not exchanged for the goods or services provided, the Company assesses whether the grant is conditional or unconditional.  Grants that contain both a barrier and right to return are considered conditional and revenue is deferred until such conditions are satisfied. In January 2019, the Company received a government grant from the Singapore Economic Development Board (“SEDB”) in the amount of approximately $1,500. The receipt of the funds is conditional upon certain operational milestones that must be met and maintained through December 31, 2021. Therefore, the Company has not recognized revenue related to the government grant from the SEBD nor received cash from the SEBD. The Company expects to recognize revenue related to this grant in 2021.

Research and Development

Research and development costs consist of costs incurred for internal research and development activities. These costs primarily include salaries and other personnel-related expenses, contractor fees, legal fees associated with developing and maintaining intellectual property, prototype materials, facility costs, supplies, and depreciation of equipment associated with the design and development of new products prior to the establishment of their technological feasibility. Such costs are expensed as incurred.

Income Taxes

The Company accounts for income taxes using the asset and liability method. Under this method, income tax expense or benefit is recognized for the amount of taxes payable or refundable for the current year and for deferred tax liabilities and assets for the future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in the Company's consolidated financial statements or tax returns. The Company accounts for any income tax contingencies in accordance with accounting guidance for income taxes. The measurement of current and deferred tax assets and liabilities is based on provisions of currently enacted tax laws. The effects of any future changes in tax laws or rates have not been considered.

For the preparation of the Company's consolidated financial statements included herein, the Company estimates its income taxes and tax contingencies in each of the tax jurisdictions in which it operates prior to the completion and filing of its tax returns. This process involves estimating actual current tax expense together with assessing temporary differences resulting from differing treatment of items, such as deferred revenue, for tax and accounting purposes. These differences result in net deferred tax assets and liabilities. The Company must then assess the likelihood that the deferred tax assets will be realizable, and to the extent they believe that realizability is not likely, the Company must establish a valuation allowance. In assessing the need for any additional valuation allowance, the Company considers all the evidence available to it, both positive and negative, including historical levels of income, legislative developments, expectations and risks associated with estimates of future taxable income, and ongoing prudent and feasible tax planning strategies.

50

Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
Stock-based Compensation

The Company measures stock-based compensation expense for certain stock-based awards made to employees and directors based on the estimated fair value of the award on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes Model and recognizes the fair value on a straight-line basis over the requisite service periods of the awards.

The Company’s determination of the fair value of stock options on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes Model is affected by the Company’s stock price as well as assumptions regarding a number of highly complex and subjective variables. These variables include, but are not limited to, the Company’s stock price, volatility over the term of the awards, and actual and projected employee stock option exercise behaviors (expected term). Due to the lack of sufficient historical exercise data to provide a reasonable basis upon which to estimate expected term, the Company adopted the simplified method of estimating the expected term pursuant to SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin Topic 14. On this basis, the Company estimated the expected term of options granted by taking the average of the vesting term and the contractual term of the option. 

The valuation of restricted stock units (“RSUs”) is determined at the date of grant using the Company’s closing stock price.

The Company records compensation expense for service-based awards on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period of the award, or to the date on which retirement eligibility is achieved, if shorter. For awards with performance-based conditions, at the point that it becomes probable that the performance conditions will be met, the Company records a cumulative catch-up of the expense from the grant date to the current date, and then amortizes the remainder of the expense over the remaining service period. Management evaluates when the achievement of a performance-based condition is probable based on the expected satisfaction of the performance conditions as of the reporting date. The amount of stock-based compensation expense recognized during a period is based on the value of the portion of the awards that are ultimately expected to vest.

The Company has, from time to time, modified the terms of its stock options to employees. The Company accounts for the incremental increase in the fair value over the original award on the date of the modification as an expense for vested awards or over the remaining service (vesting) period for unvested awards. The incremental compensation cost is the excess of the fair value of the modified award on the date of modification over the fair value of the original award immediately before the modification. 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standard Update ("ASU") No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments and subsequent amendments to the initial guidance under ASU 2018-19, ASU 2019-04, ASU 2019-05 and ASU 2019-10, which amends the current approach to estimate credit losses on certain financial assets, including trade and other receivables. Generally, this amendment requires entities to establish a valuation allowance for the expected lifetime losses of these certain financial assets. Upon the initial recognition of such assets, which will be based on, among other things, historical information, current conditions, and reasonable supportable forecasts. Subsequent changes in the valuation allowance are recorded in current earnings and reversal of previous losses are permitted. Currently, U.S. GAAP requires entities to write down credit losses only when losses are probable and loss reversals are not permitted. The update will be effective for the Company in the first quarter of 2023. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact the adoption of this standard will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-06, Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity's Own Equity, which simplifies the accounting for convertible instruments. ASU 2020-06 eliminates certain models that require separate accounting for embedded conversion features, in certain cases. Additionally, among other changes, the guidance eliminates certain of the conditions for equity classification for contracts in an entity’s own equity. The guidance also requires entities to use the if-converted method for all convertible instruments in the diluted earnings per share calculation and include the effect of share settlement for instruments that may be settled in cash or shares, except for certain liability-classified share-based payment awards. This guidance is effective for the Company beginning in the first quarter of 2022 and must be applied using either a modified or full retrospective approach. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact this guidance will have on its consolidated financial statements.

51

Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
Accounting Pronouncements Adopted in 2020

In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment, which eliminates the computation of the implied fair value of goodwill to measure a goodwill impairment charge. Instead, entities will record a goodwill impairment charge based on the excess of a reporting unit’s carrying amount over its fair value. The guidance is effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted. The Company adopted the new guidance as of January 1, 2020, which reduced the complexity surrounding the evaluation of goodwill for impairment. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework - Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement. The standard modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements in Topic 820 by removing the requirement to disclose the reasons for transfers between Level 1 and Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy and the policy for timing of such transfers. The standard expands the disclosure requirements for Level 3 fair value measurement, primarily focused on changes in unrealized gains and losses included in other comprehensive income. The amendments in this update became effective for the Company in the first quarter of 2020. The Company adopted ASU 2018-03 as of January 1, 2020. The adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

3. Net Loss Per Share of Common Stock

Basic net loss per share of common stock is computed using the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share is computed using the weighted average number of shares of common stock, adjusted to include conversion of certain stock options and warrants for common stock and release of common stock in connection with restricted stock units during the period, as follows:
Years ended December 31,
2020 2019
Numerator:
Net loss $ (15,825) $ (12,132)
Adjusted net loss used for dilution calculation $ (15,825) $ (12,132)
Denominator
Weighted-average number of shares outstanding 7,164  4,794 
Dilutive weighted-average number of shares outstanding 7,164  4,794 
Net loss per share
Basic $ (2.21) $ (2.53)
Diluted $ (2.21) $ (2.53)

The following table sets forth potential shares of common stock that are not included in the calculation of diluted net loss per share because to do so would be anti-dilutive as of the end of each period presented:
Years ended December 31,
2020 2019
Options to purchase common stock 529  494 
Restricted stock units 143  89 
Warrants for common stock 1,325  1,178 
Total common stock equivalents 1,997  1,761 

52

Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
4. Investment in Unconsolidated Affiliate

In May 2020, the Company, Zhejiang Youchuang Venture Capital Investment Co., Ltd and another partner (collectively, the “JV Partners”) received notice from the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (“CFIUS”) in connection with its review of the Company’s and the JV Partners’ investment in Exoskeleton Intelligent Robotics Co. Limited (the “China JV”). The notice stated that CFIUS’s prior national security concerns regarding the China JV could not be mitigated. In connection with such determination, on July 13, 2020, the Company and the JV Partners entered into a National Security Agreement (“NSA”), which, among other things, requires the termination of the Company’s agreements and role with the China JV. The Company intends to work cooperatively with the JV Partners and CFIUS to implement the terms of the NSA. On August 12, 2020, the Company and the JV Partners agreed to terminate the agreements underlying the China JV. As of December 31, 2020, all agreements related to the China JV had been terminated.

In accordance with the above, during the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company recorded a $66 loss on investment in unconsolidated affiliate in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss related to the write-off of previously recorded direct costs related to establishing the China JV.

5. Fair Value Measurement

Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Valuation techniques used to measure fair value must maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. Three levels of inputs, of which the first two are considered observable and the last unobservable, may be used to measure fair value which are the following:
Level 1—Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities. The Company considers a market to be active when transactions for the asset occur with sufficient frequency and volume to provide pricing information on an ongoing basis.
Level 2—Inputs other than Level 1 that are observable, either directly or indirectly, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities; quoted prices in markets that are not active; or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3—Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities. The valuation of Level 3 investments requires the use of significant management judgments or estimation.

The Company’s fair value hierarchies for its financial assets and liabilities which require fair value measurement on a recurring basis are as follows:
Total Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
December 31, 2020
Liabilities
Warrant liabilities $ 6,037  $ —  $ —  $ 6,037 
December 31, 2019
Liabilities
Warrant liabilities $ 4,307  $ —  $ —  $ 4,307 
Contingent success fee liability $ $ —  $ —  $

During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, there were no transfers between Level 1, Level 2, or Level 3 assets or liabilities reported at fair value on a recurring basis and the valuation techniques used did not change compared to the Company’s established practice.

53

Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
The following table sets forth a summary of the changes in the fair value of Company’s Level 3 financial liabilities during the year ended December 31, 2020, which were measured at fair value on a recurring basis:
Warrant
Liability
Contingent
Success Fee
Liability
Balance at December 31, 2019 $ 4,307  $
Initial fair value of warrants in connection with June 2020 financing 2,650  0
Loss on revaluation of warrants issued in June 2020, December 2019, May 2019 financing, and December 2015 equity financings 3,056  0
Reclassification of warrant liability to equity upon exercise of warrants (3,976) — 
Gain on revaluation of contingent liability —  (6)
Balance at December 31, 2020 $ 6,037  $ — 

See Note 13 in the notes to consolidated financial statements under the caption Capitalization and Equity Structure – Warrants for a description of the warrants accounted for as a liability, including the method and inputs used to estimate their fair value.

6. Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of promised products or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for those products or services. The Company enters into contracts that can include various combinations of products and services, which when capable of being distinct, are accounted for as separate performance obligations. Revenue recognition is evaluated based on the following five steps: (i) identification of the contract with the customer; (ii) identification of the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determination of the transaction price; (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognition of revenue when or as a performance obligation is satisfied.

For multiple-element arrangements, revenue is allocated to each performance obligation based on its relative standalone selling price. Standalone selling prices are determined based on observable prices at which the Company separately sells its products or services. If a standalone selling price is not directly observable, the Company estimates the selling price based on market conditions and entity-specific factors including features and functionality of the product and/or services, the geography of the Company’s customers, type of the Company’s markets. Any discounts or other reductions to the transaction price are allocated proportionately to all performance obligations within the multiple-element arrangement.

Contract Balances

Timing of revenue recognition may differ from the timing of invoicing to customers and receipt of payment. For the sale of its products, the Company generally recognizes revenue at a point in time through the ship-and-bill performance obligations. For the rental of its products, the Company generally recognizes revenue over the rental term commencing upon the completion of customer training. For service agreements, the Company generally invoices customers at the beginning of the coverage period and records revenue related to the billed amounts over time, equivalent to the coverage period of the maintenance and support contract.

Deferred revenue is comprised mainly of unearned revenue related to extended support and maintenance contracts (Ekso Care), but also includes other offerings for which the Company has been paid in advance and earns revenue when the Company transfers control of the product or service.
 
54

Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
Deferred revenue consisted of the following:
December 31, 2020 December 31, 2019
Deferred extended maintenance and support $ 2,902  $ 2,837 
Deferred royalties 282  290 
Deferred device, rental revenues and advances 118  154 
Total deferred revenues 3,302  3,281 
Less current portion (1,496) (1,492)
Deferred revenues, non-current $ 1,806  $ 1,789 
 
Deferred revenue activity consisted of the following for the year ended December 31, 2020:
Beginning balance $ 3,281 
Deferral of revenue 1,922 
Recognition of deferred revenue (1,901)
Ending balance $ 3,302 
 
At December 31, 2020, the Company’s deferred revenue was $3,302. The Company expects to recognize approximately $1,496 of the deferred revenue during 2021, $908 in 2022, and $898 thereafter.

In addition to deferred revenue, the Company has non-cancellable backlog of $515 related to its contracts for rental units with its customers. These rental contracts typically have 12-month lease terms and rental income is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
 
As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts, were $3,389 and $5,208, respectively, and are included in current assets on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets. The allowance for doubtful accounts reflects the Company’s best estimate of probable losses inherent in the accounts receivable balance. The Company determines the allowance based on known troubled accounts, historical experience, and other currently available evidence. Payment terms and conditions vary by contract type, although terms generally include a requirement of payment within 30 to 90 days.
 
Disaggregation of revenue
 
The following table disaggregates the Company’s revenue by major source for the year ended December 31, 2020:
  EksoHealth EksoWorks Total
Device revenue $ 5,012  $ 689  $ 5,701 
Service and support 1,723  —  1,723 
Rentals 782  55  837 
Parts and other 294  72  366 
Collaborative arrangements 255  —  255 
  $ 8,066  $ 816  $ 8,882 

55

Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
The following table disaggregates the Company’s revenue by major source for the year ended December 31, 2019:
  EksoHealth EksoWorks Total
Device revenue $ 9,064  $ 1,726  $ 10,790 
Service and support 1,647  —  1,647 
Rentals 913  —  913 
Parts and other 259  234  493 
Collaborative arrangements 74  —  74 
  $ 11,957  $ 1,960  $ 13,917 

7. Property and Equipment, net

Property and equipment, net consisted of the following:
Estimated December 31,
Life (Years) 2020 2019
Company-owned fleet
3-4
$ 3,326  $ 3,385 
Computer software
3-5
851  851 
Leasehold improvement
5-10
631  631 
Furniture, office and leased equipment
3-7
557  554 
Machinery and equipment
3-7
291  289 
Tools, molds, dies and jigs
5
96  96 
Computers and peripherals
3-5
77  77 
5,829  5,883 
Accumulated depreciation and amortization (4,657) (4,226)
Property and equipment, net $ 1,172  $ 1,657 

Depreciation and amortization expense of property and equipment, net totaled $620 and $690 for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

8. Accrued Liabilities

Accrued liabilities consisted of the following:
December 31,
2020 2019
Salaries, benefits and related expenses $ 1,194  $ 1,098 
Device warranty 188  285 
Other 47  300 
Total $ 1,429  $ 1,683 

Warranty

Sales of devices generally include an initial warranty for parts and services for one year in the Americas, two years in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and one or two years in the Asia Pacific region. A liability for the estimated cost of product warranty is established at the time revenue is recognized based on the historical experience of known product failure rates and expected material and labor costs to provide warranty services. Specific additional warranty accruals may be made if unforeseen technical problems arise. Alternatively, if estimates are determined to be greater than the actual amounts necessary, a portion of the liability may be reversed in future periods. Warranty costs are reflected in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss as a component of costs of revenue. The current portion of the warranty liability is classified as a
56

Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
component of accrued liabilities, while the long-term portion of the warranty liability is classified as a component of other non-current liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets.
Warranty
2020 2019
Balance at beginning of the period $ 350  $ 319 
Additions for estimated future expense 219  416 
Incurred costs (343) (385)
Balance at end of the period $ 226  $ 350 
Current portion 188  285 
Long-term portion 38  65 
Total $ 226  $ 350 

9. Notes payable, net

WAB and PWB Term Loans

WAB Term Loan

In December 2016, the Company entered into a loan agreement with Western Alliance Bank ("WAB loan") and received a loan in the principal amount of $7,000 that bore interest on the outstanding daily balance at a floating per annum rate equal to the 30-day U.S. LIBOR plus 5.41%. The Company was required to pay accrued interest on the WAB loan on the first day of each month through and including January 1, 2018. Commencing on February 1, 2018, the Company was required to make equal monthly payments of principal, together with accrued and unpaid interest maturing on January 1, 2021. On April 29, 2020 the Company entered into a second amendment to the December 2016 WAB loan agreement to defer principal payments for three months beginning in May 2020, with adjustments when the principal payments resumed on August 1, 2020. During the three-month deferral period the Company was required to make interest only payments.

The final payment fee, debt issuance costs, and the initial fair value of the success fee combined with the stated interest resulted in an effective interest rate for the WAB loan of 8.49% for the year ended December 31, 2020. The final payment fee, initial fair value of the success fee, and debt issuance costs were accreted/amortized to interest expense using the effective interest method over the life of the loan.

PWB Term Loan

In August 2020, the Company entered into a new loan agreement (the "PWB Loan Agreement") with a different lender, Pacific Western Bank, and received a loan in the principal amount of $2,000 (the "PWB Term Loan") that bears interest on the outstanding daily balance at a rate equal to the greater of: (a) 0.50% above the variable rate of interest announced by the lender as its “prime rate” then in effect; or (b) 4.50%. The PWB Loan Agreement created a first priority security interest with respect to substantially all assets of the Company, including proceeds of intellectual property, but expressly excluding intellectual property itself.

The proceeds of the PWB Term Loan were used to pay off the entire amount of the Company's indebtedness on the WAB loan which amounted to $1,512. Pursuant to the PWB Loan Agreement, the remainder of the PWB Term Loan proceeds may be used for general corporate purposes which totaled $480, net of debt discounts and issuance costs.

The Company is required to pay accrued interest on the current loan on the 13th day of each month through and including August 13, 2023. The principal balance of the PWB Term Loan matures on August 13, 2023, at which time all unpaid principal and accrued and unpaid interest shall be due and payable in full. The interest rate of the PWB Term Loan is subject to increase in the event of late payments and after occurrence of and during the continuation of an event of default. Upon maturity, all unpaid principal and accrued and unpaid interest shall be due and payable in full. The Company may elect to prepay the PWB Term Loan at any time, in whole or in part, without penalty or premium.

57

Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
The PWB Loan Agreement contains a liquidity covenant, which requires that the Company maintain unrestricted cash and cash equivalents in accounts of the lender or subject to control agreements in favor of the lender in an amount equal to at least the outstanding balance of the PWB Term Loan, which was $2,000 as of December 31, 2020. On December 31, 2020, with cash on hand of $12,862, the Company was compliant with this liquidity covenant and all other covenants.

The debt issuance costs and debt discounts combined with the stated interest resulted in an effective interest rate of 4.64% for the year ended December 31, 2020. The debt issuance costs will be amortized to interest expense using the effective interest method over the life of the loan.


The following table presents scheduled principal payments of the Company's note payable as of December 31, 2020:
Period Amount
2021 - 2022 $ — 
2023 2,000 
Total principal payments 2,000 
Less final payment fee, discount and issuance cost 11 
Note payable, net $ 1,989 
Current portion $ — 
Long-term portion 1,989 
Note payable, net $ 1,989 

Paycheck Protection Program Loan

On April 20, 2020, the Company received an unsecured loan in the principal amount of $1,086 under the Paycheck Protection Program (the “PPP”) administered by the U.S. Small Business Administration, or the SBA, pursuant to the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”), or the PPP loan. The PPP loan provides for an interest rate of 1.00% per year, and matures two years after the date of initial disbursement. The terms of the PPP Loan were subsequently revised in accordance with the provisions of the Paycheck Protection Flexibility Act of 2020, or the PPP Flexibility Act, which was enacted on June 5, 2020. Based on management's interpretation of the the PPP Flexibility Act, the Company expects to begin making principal and interest payments on the PPP loan beginning in 2022. The overall timing of payments with respect to the amounts of principal and interest due could change based on the ultimate determination of what may or may not be forgiven. The PPP loan may be used for payroll costs, costs related to certain group health care benefits and insurance premiums, rent payments, utility payments, mortgage interest payments and interest payments on any other debt obligation that were incurred before February 15, 2020. Under the terms of the CARES Act and the PPP Flexibility Act, the Company may apply for and be granted forgiveness for all or a portion of loan granted under the PPP loan, with such forgiveness to be determined, subject to limitations (including where employees of the Company have been terminated and not re-hired by a certain date), based on the use of the loan proceeds for payment of payroll costs and any payments of mortgage interest, rent, and utilities. The terms of any forgiveness may also be subject to further requirements in regulations and guidelines adopted by the SBA. While the Company currently believes that the majority of the use of the PPP loan proceeds will meet the conditions for forgiveness under the PPP, no assurance is provided that the Company will obtain partial forgiveness of the loan. Terms of the loan may change subject to future enactments relating to the PPP.

The follow table presents the scheduled principal payments of the Company's PPP loan note payable as of December 31, 2020, shown if the loan is not forgiven:

58

Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
Period Amount
2021 $ — 
2022 1,086 
Total principal payments $ 1,086 
Current portion $ — 
Long-term portion 1,086 
Note payable, net $ 1,086 

10. Lease Obligations

The Company maintains a five-year operating lease agreement for its headquarters and manufacturing facility in Richmond, California, or the Richmond Lease, which expires in May 2022, with no further options to extend or terminate. The lease includes non-lease components (i.e. common area maintenance costs) that are paid separately from rent based on actual costs incurred. In June 2020, the Company entered into an amendment to the Richmond Lease to make a one-time payment of $300 to cover its remaining lease obligations for the remainder of 2020, resulting in a $48 abatement and a lease payment deferral of $79 to be paid in equal monthly installments in 2021.

The Company's five-year operating lease agreement for its European operations office in Hamburg, Germany expires in July 2022. It has an option to extend for another five-year term.

Through April 2019, the Company had an unoccupied leased sales office in Freiburg, Germany, which had a lease term that expired in December 2020. In April 2019, the Company entered an agreement with the lessor of the Freiburg office releasing the Company from future lease payments after April 30, 2019.

The Company’s future lease payments as of December 31, 2020 are as follows, which are presented as lease liabilities on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets:
Period Operating
Leases
2021 $ 599 
2022 237 
Total lease payments 836 
Less: imputed interest (55)
Present value of lease liabilities $ 781 
Lease liabilities, current $ 548 
Lease liabilities, noncurrent 233 
Total lease liabilities $ 781 
Weighted-average remaining term (in years) 1.44
Weighted-average discount rate 10.5  %

Lease expense under the Company’s operating leases was $537 and $551, for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

Practical Expedients

Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are not recorded on the balance sheet. The Company recognizes the lease expense for such leases on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

59

Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
As part of the transition to ASC 842, the Company elected to use the modified retrospective transition method with the new standard being applied as of the January 1, 2019 adoption date. Additionally, the Company has elected, as of the adoption date, not to reassess whether expired or existing contracts contain leases under the new definition of a lease; the lease classification for expired or existing leases; or whether previously capitalized initial direct costs would qualify for capitalization under ASC 842.

11. Employee Benefit Plan

The Company administers a 401(k) retirement plan, or the 401(k) Plan, in which all employees are eligible to participate. Each eligible employee may elect to contribute to the 401(k) Plan. The Company has made matching contributions in the form of shares of the Company's common stock to the 401(k) Plan in an amount equal to 50% of employee contributions (up to the statutory limit), subsequent to year-end. The expense related to the contribution was $169 and $142 for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

12. Related Party Transactions

One of the Company’s directors, Dr. Ted Wang, is the founder, general partner and Chief Investment Officer of Puissance Capital Management LP, or Puissance Capital, which is an affiliate of Puissance Cross-Border Opportunities II LLC, one of the Company’s largest stockholders until November 2020. Prior to Dr. Wang’s appointment to the Board in connection with the Rights Offering in September 2017, the Company entered into a one-year consulting agreement with Angel Pond Capital LLC, or Angel Pond, an entity solely owned and managed by Dr. Wang and affiliated with Puissance Capital. Angel Pond provides consulting services to the Company with respect to strategic positioning in the Asia Pacific region, including introduction to potential strategic partners and the development of strategic partnerships for the sale and manufacture of the Company’s products in that market. During the year ended December 31, 2019, Angel Pond provided consulting services amounting to $30 during, which was expensed in the consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss.

During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company sold EksoVest raw material inventory and tooling to the China JV for
$45.

13. Capitalization and Equity Structure

Reverse Stock Split

After the close of the stock market on March 24, 2020, the Company effected a 1-for-15 reverse split of its common stock (the "Reverse Stock Split"). As a result, all common stock share amounts included in this filing have been retroactively reduced by a factor of fifteen, rounded up to the nearest whole share, and all common stock per share amounts have been increased by a factor of fifteen, with the exception of the Company's common stock par value and the Company's authorized shares. Amounts affected include common stock outstanding, restricted stock units, common stock underlying stock options and warrants.

As previously disclosed, on September 16, 2019, the Company received a written notice from the Listing Qualifications Department of The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (“Nasdaq”) informing the Company that because the closing bid price for the Company’s common stock listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market was below $1.00 per share for 30 consecutive business days, the Company did not meet the minimum closing bid price requirement for continued listing on the Nasdaq Capital Market. The reverse stock split was effected in order to raise the per share trading price of its common stock above $1.00 and regain compliance with Nasdaq’s listing requirements. On April 7, 2020, the Company regained compliance with the minimum bid price requirement required by the Nasdaq listing rules.

Summary

The Company’s authorized capital stock at December 31, 2020 consisted of 141,429 shares of common stock and 10,000 shares of preferred stock. The authorized capital was not reduced in connection with the Reverse Stock Split. At December 31, 2020, there were 8,349 shares of common stock issued and outstanding and no shares of preferred stock issued and outstanding.

Common Stock

60

Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
The holders of outstanding shares of common stock are entitled to receive dividends out of assets or funds legally available for the payment of dividends at such times and in such amounts as the Board of Directors may determine. Holders of common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. There is no cumulative voting for the election of directors. The common stock is not entitled to preemptive rights and is not subject to conversion or redemption. Upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Company, the assets legally available for distribution to stockholders are distributable ratably among the holders of the common stock after payment of liquidation preferences, if any, on any outstanding payment of other claims of creditors. Each outstanding share of common stock is duly and validly issued, fully paid, and non-assessable.

June 2020 Common Stock and Warrants to Purchase Common Stock Offering

In June 2020, the Company entered into a securities purchase agreement, or the June 2020 Purchase Agreement, with certain purchasers. Pursuant to the June 2020 Purchase Agreement, the Company sold in a registered direct offering, or the June 2020 Offering, an aggregate of 1,748 shares of its common stock. Pursuant to such agreement, the Company also sold, in a concurrent private placement offering, warrants to purchase 874 shares of its common stock, or the June 2020 Investor Warrants. The gross proceeds of the June 2020 Offering and the concurrent private placement offering were $7,890, the June 2020 Gross Proceeds. Each June 2020 Investor Warrant has an exercise price of $5.18 per share, subject to adjustment in certain circumstances, and is exercisable immediately and will expire five and one-half years from issuance, or on December 10, 2025.

As compensation for services provided by the placement agent for the June 2020 Offering, or the Placement Agent, the Company paid a cash fee equal to 7.0% of the June 2020 Gross Proceeds ($552) and a management fee equal to 1.0% of the June 2020 Gross Proceeds ($79), and issued, in a concurrent private placement offering, warrants to purchase shares of the Company's common stock, or the June 2020 Placement Agent Warrants, in an amount equal to up to 7.0% of the aggregate number of shares of common stock sold in the June 2020 Offering, or 122 shares in the aggregate, in substantially the same form as the June 2020 Investor Warrants, except that the June 2020 Placement Agent Warrants will expire five years from the effective date of the June 2020 Offering, or on June 7, 2025, and have an exercise price per share equal to $5.64. In connection with the June 2020 Offering, the Company also incurred $98 in other expenses of the Placement Agent paid for or reimbursed by the Company.

Of the $7,890 in proceeds, $2,650 was allocated to the June 2020 Investor Warrants and June 2020 Placement Agent Warrants, or, collectively, the June 2020 Warrants, based on the fair value method, with the remaining proceeds of $5,240 allocated to the common stock shares sold in the June 2020 Offering. In connection with the June 2020 Offering and concurrent private placement offerings, the Company incurred approximately $1,117 in direct financing costs, including a fair value of $309 of June 2020 Placement Agent Warrants. Financing costs of $808, excluding the fair value of the June 2020 Placement Agents Warrants, were allocated on the fair value basis between the common stock shares sold in the June 2020 Offering and the June 2020 Warrants, as follows: $329 was allocated to the June 2020 Warrants and expensed immediately in other income (expense), net in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss) and $479 was allocated to the common stock shares sold in the June 2020 Offering and recorded as a reduction to additional paid in capital. The direct financing cost of $309 associated with the June 2020 Placement Agent warrants was also allocated to the common stock shares sold in the June 2020 Offering and recorded as a reduction to additional paid in capital.

At the Market Offering

In October 2020, the Company entered into an At The Market Offering Agreement (the "ATM Agreement") with H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC (the "Agent"), under which the Company may issue and sell shares of its common stock, from time to time, to or through the Agent. Offers and sales of shares of common stock by the Company through the Agent may be made by any method deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined under SEC Rule 415 or in privately negotiated transactions, subject to certain conditions. Such shares may be offered pursuant to the registration statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-239203) (the “Registration Statement”), which was declared effective by the SEC on June 26, 2020, and a related prospectus supplement filed with the SEC on October 9, 2020 (the “ATM Prospectus”). Pursuant to the Registration Statement and the ATM Prospectus, shares having an aggregate offering price of up to $7,500 may be offered and sold, subject to certain SEC rules limiting the amount of shares of the Company’s common stock that may be sold by the Company under the Registration Statement. Under the ATM Agreement, shares of the Company's common stock may not be sold for a price lower than $6.75 per share.

61

Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
In August 2018, the Company entered into a Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. (the "Cantor Agreement"). Prior to entering into the ATM Agreement, the Company terminated the Cantor Agreement in September 2020.

The Company did not sell any shares of common stock under the Cantor Agreement or the ATM Agreement during the year ended December 31, 2020.

Preferred Stock

The Company may issue shares of preferred stock from time to time in one or more series, each of which will have such distinctive designation or title as shall be determined by its Board of Directors and will have such voting powers, full or limited, or no voting powers, and such preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights and such qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, as shall be stated in such resolution or resolutions providing for the issue of such class or series of preferred stock as may be adopted from time to time by the Board of Directors.

Warrants

Warrant shares outstanding as of December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2020 were as follows:
Source Exercise
Price
Term
(Years)
December 31, 2019 Issued Expired Exercised December 31, 2020
June 2020 Investor Warrants $ 5.18  5.5 —  874  —  (477) 397 
June 2020 Placement Agent Warrants $ 5.64  5 —  122  —  —  122 
December 2019 Warrants $ 8.10  5 556  —  —  —  556 
December 2019 Placement Agent Warrants $ 8.44  5 52  —  —  —  52 
May 2019 Warrants $ 3.52  5 444  —  —  (246) 198 
2017 Information Agent Warrants $ 22.50  3 13  —  (13) —  — 
2015 Warrants $ 41.25  5 107  —  (107) —  — 
Pre-2014 warrants $ 144.90 
9-10
—  (6) —  — 
  1,178  996  (126) (723) 1,325 

June 2020 Investor Warrants

In June 2020, the Company issued the June 2020 Investor Warrants, exercisable for up to 874 shares of the Company’s common stock at an exercise price of $5.18 per share. The June 2020 Warrants were issued as exercisable immediately, and will expire five and one-half years from the date of issuance, or on December 10, 2025.

In addition, the June 2020 Investor Warrants contain a cashless exercise provision, whereby, if, at the time a holder exercises its June 2020 Investor Warrants, a registration statement registering the issuance or the resale of the shares of common stock underlying the June 2020 Investor Warrants under the Securities Act is not then effective or available for the issuance of such shares, then in lieu of making the cash payment otherwise contemplated to be made to the Company upon such exercise in payment of the aggregate exercise price, the holder may elect to instead receive, upon such exercise (either in whole or in part), the net number of shares of the Company’s common stock determined according to a formula set forth in the June 2020 Investor Warrant. The June 2020 Investor Warrants will be automatically exercised on a cashless basis on their expiration date.
The June 2020 Investor Warrants could also require payment of liquidated damages by the Company in the form of cash payments in the event of a failure by the Company to timely deliver shares of common stock upon exercise of such warrants. During the year ended December 31, 2020, 477 shares of the June 2020 Warrants were exercised.

The June 2020 Investor Warrants also contain a put option, under which, if the Company enters into a Fundamental Transaction, as defined in the June 2020 Investor Warrants, as defined in the June 2020 Investor Warrants, the holders of the June 2020 Investor Warrants will be entitled to receive upon exercise of the June 2020 Investor Warrants the kind and amount
62

Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
of securities, cash or other property that the holders would have received had they exercised the June 2020 Investor Warrants immediately prior to such fundamental transaction. Alternatively, the Company or any successor entity will, at the option of a holder of a June 2020 Investor Warrant, exercisable concurrently with or at any time within 30 days after the consummation of such Fundamental Transaction, purchase such holder’s June 2020 Investor Warrant by paying to such holder an amount of cash equal to the Black-Scholes value of the remaining unexercised portion of such holder’s June 2020 Investor Warrant. Because of this put-option provision, the June 2020 Investor Warrants are classified as a liability and are marked to market at each reporting date.

The warrant liability related to the June 2020 Investor Warrants is measured at fair value upon issuance and at each reporting date using certain estimated inputs, which are classified within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy. The following assumptions were used in the Black-Scholes Model to measure the fair value of the June 2020 Investor Warrants:
December 31, 2020 June 10, 2020
Current share price $ 6.13  $ 3.81 
Conversion price $ 5.18  $ 5.18 
Risk-free interest rate 0.35  % 0.39  %
Expected term (years) 4.94 5.5
Volatility of stock 105.3  % 96.4  %

June 2020 Placement Agent Warrants

In June 2020, the Company issued the June 2020 Placement Agent Warrants, exercisable for up to 122 shares of the Company’s common stock, to the placement agent for such offering. The June 2020 Placement Agent Warrants have substantially the same form as the June 2020 Investor Warrants, including the put option described above, except that they have an exercise price per share equal to $5.64, subject to adjustment in certain circumstances, and will expire on June 7, 2025.

Because of the put-option provision in the June 2020 Placement Agent Warrants, these warrants are classified as a liability and are marked to market at each reporting date.