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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
     ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2021
 OR
     TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM    TO    
Commission File Number: 001-39294
ASSERTIO HOLDINGS, INC.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
Delaware 85-0598378
(STATE OR OTHER JURISDICTION OF
INCORPORATION OR ORGANIZATION)
(I.R.S. EMPLOYER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER)
100 South Saunders Road, Suite 300, Lake Forest, Illinois
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
60045
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (224) 419‑7106
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class:      Trading Symbol(s): Name of each exchange on which registered:
Common Stock, $0.0001 par value   ASRT Nasdaq Stock Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well‑known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes   No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes x No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company.  See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated Filer
Accelerated Filer Non-accelerated Filer
Smaller reporting company Emerging growth company
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C.7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b‑2 of the Act). Yes  No 
The aggregate market value of the shares of common stock held by non‑affiliates of the registrant, computed by reference to the closing price as reported on the Nasdaq Stock Market as of June 30, 2021, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was approximately $68.4 million.
The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s common stock, $0.0001 par value, as of March 1, 2022 was 45,331,803.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K incorporates by reference portions of the registrant’s Proxy Statement for its 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which Proxy Statement will be filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the registrant’s 2021 fiscal year.




ASSERTIO HOLDINGS, INC.
FORM 10‑K FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2021
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
   
 
2




In May 2020, Assertio Therapeutics, Inc. implemented a holding company reorganization through which Assertio Therapeutics, Inc. became a subsidiary of Assertio Holdings, Inc. (Assertio Reorganization) and, subsequently, Assertio Holdings, Inc. merged with Zyla Life Sciences (Zyla) in a transaction we refer to as the “Zyla Merger.” Unless otherwise noted or required by context, use of “Assertio,” “Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to Assertio Holdings, Inc. and/or its applicable subsidiary or subsidiaries.

Assertio and Zyla are registered trademarks of the Company. All other trade names, trademarks and service marks appearing in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are the property of their respective owners. We have assumed that the reader understands that all such terms are source indicating. Accordingly, such terms, when first mentioned in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, appear with the trade name, trademark or service mark notice and then throughout the remainder of this Annual Report on Form 10-K without the trade name, trademark or service mark notices for convenience only and should not be construed as being used in a descriptive or generic sense. Unless otherwise indicated, all statistical information provided about our business in this report is as of December 31, 2021.

NOTE REGARDING FORWARD‑LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
Statements made in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K that are not statements of historical fact are forward‑looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the Securities Act), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act). We may, in some cases, use terms such as “believes,” “estimates,” “anticipates,” “expects,” “plans,” “intends,” “may,” “could,” “might,” “will,” “should,” “approximately,” “goal,” “intent,” “target” and similar expressions. In addition, any statements that refer to expectations, projections or other characterizations of future events or circumstances are forward-looking statements. By their nature, forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties because they relate to events, competitive dynamics and industry change, and depend on economic or other circumstances that may or may not occur in the future or may occur on longer or shorter timelines than anticipated. Although we believe that we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement contained in this Annual Report, we caution you that forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and that our actual results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, and the development of the industry in which we operate may differ materially from the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report. In addition, even if our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, and the development of the industry in which we operate are consistent with the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report, they may not be predictive of results or developments in future periods.

Forward‑looking statements include, but are not necessarily limited to, those relating to:
 
the commercial success and market acceptance of our products, including the coverage of our products by payors and pharmacy benefit managers;

our ability to successfully develop and execute our sales, marketing and non-personal and digital promotion strategies, including developing and maintaining relationships with customers, physicians, payors and other constituencies;

the entry of generics or other products competitive with any of our products;

our ability to successfully execute business development, strategic partnerships, and investment opportunities to build and grow for the future;

our ability to achieve the expected financial performance from our product Otrexup® (methotrexate), which we recently acquired from Antares Pharma, Inc., as well as delays, challenges and expenses, and unexpected costs associated with integrating and operating the Otrexup business;

our ability to attract and retain key executive leadership;

the potential impacts of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, including volatility in prescriptions associated with elective procedures, on our liquidity, capital resources, operations and business and those of the third parties on which we rely, including suppliers and distributors;

the ability of our third-party manufacturers to manufacture adequate quantities of commercially salable inventory and active pharmaceutical ingredients for each of our products, and our ability to maintain our supply chain, which relies on single-source suppliers, in the face of global challenges such as the COVID-19 pandemic;

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the outcome of opioid-related investigations, opioid-related litigation and related claims for insurance coverage, and other disputes and litigation, and the costs and expenses associated therewith;
our compliance or non-compliance with legal and regulatory requirements related to the development or promotion of pharmaceutical products in the U.S.;

our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our products and operate our business without infringing the intellectual property rights of others;

our ability to generate sufficient cash flow from our business to make payments on our indebtedness, our ability to restructure or refinance our indebtedness, if necessary, and our compliance with the terms and conditions of the agreements governing our indebtedness;

our ability to raise additional capital or refinance our debt, if necessary;

our estimates regarding contingent consideration obligations and other expenses, future revenues, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

our counterparties’ compliance or non-compliance with their obligations under our agreements;

variations in revenues obtained from commercialization agreements, including contingent milestone payments, royalties, license fees and other contract revenues, including non-recurring revenues, and the accounting treatment with respect thereto;

the timing and results of any future research and development efforts including potential clinical studies relating to any future product candidates; and
our common stock maintaining compliance with Nasdaq’s minimum closing bid requirement of at least $1.00 per share.

Factors that could cause actual results or conditions to differ from those anticipated by these and other forward‑looking statements include those more fully described in “ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K. Forward-looking statements are made as of the date of this report. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update any forward‑looking statement, or to revise any forward‑looking statement to reflect events or developments occurring after the date of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K, even if new information becomes available in the future. Thus, you should not assume that our silence over time means that actual events are bearing out as expressed or implied in any such forward‑looking statement.



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PART I
 
ITEM 1.  BUSINESS

Our Company

We are a specialty pharmaceutical company offering differentiated products to patients utilizing a non-personal promotional model. We have built and continue to build our commercial portfolio by identifying new opportunities within our existing products as well as acquisitions or licensing of additional approved products. Our primary marketed products are:

INDOCIN® (indomethacin) Suppositories
A suppository form and oral solution of indomethacin used in the hospital as well as in the out-patient setting. Both products are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), approved for:
• Moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis including acute flares of chronic disease
• Moderate to severe ankylosing spondylitis
INDOCIN® (indomethacin) Oral Suspension
• Moderate to severe osteoarthritis
• Acute painful shoulder (bursitis and/or tendinitis)
• Acute gouty arthritis
CAMBIA® (diclofenac potassium for oral solution)
A prescription NSAID indicated for the acute treatment of migraine attacks with or without aura in adults 18 years of age or older. CAMBIA can help patients with migraine pain, nausea, photophobia (sensitivity to light), and phonophobia (sensitivity to sound). CAMBIA is not a pill, it is a powder, and combining CAMBIA with water activates the medicine in a unique way.
Otrexup® (methotrexate)
injection for subcutaneous use
A once weekly single-dose auto-injector containing a prescription medicine, methotrexate. Methotrexate is used to:
• Treat certain adults with severe, active rheumatoid arthritis, and children with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pJIA), after treatment with other medicines including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) have been used and did not work well.
• Control the symptoms of severe, resistant, disabling psoriasis in adults when other types of treatment have been used and did not work well.
SPRIX® (ketorolac tromethamine) Nasal Spray
A prescription NSAID indicated in adult patients for the short term (up to five days) management of moderate to moderately severe pain that requires analgesia at the opioid level. SPRIX is a non-narcotic nasal spray provides patients with moderate to moderately severe short-term pain a form of ketorolac that is absorbed rapidly but does not require an injection administered by a healthcare provider (HCP).
Zipsor® (diclofenac potassium) Liquid filled capsules
A prescription NSAID used for relief of mild-to-moderate pain in adults (18 years of age and older). Zipsor uses proprietary ProSorb® delivery technology to deliver a finely dispersed, rapid and consistently absorbed formulation of diclofenac.

Other commercially available products include OXAYDO® (oxycodone HCI, USP) tablets for oral use only —CII.

On December 15, 2021, we, through a newly-formed subsidiary, Otter Pharmaceuticals, LLC, entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”) with Antares Pharma, Inc. (“Antares”), and concurrently consummated the Otrexup transaction. Pursuant to the terms of the Purchase Agreement, we acquired Antares’ rights, title and interest in and to Otrexup, including certain related assets, intellectual property, contracts, and product inventory for (i) $18.0 million in cash paid at closing, (ii) $16.0 million in cash payable on May 31, 2022 and (iii) and $10.0 million in cash payable on December 15, 2022.

In September 2020, we terminated our Second Amended and Restated Nano-Reformulated Compound License Agreement (the “iCeutica License”), with iCeutica Inc. and iCeutica Pty Ltd. (collectively, “iCeutica”). The iCeutica License allowed us to utilize certain technology and intellectual property related to iCeutica’s SOLUMATRIX technology and certain other rights of iCeutica. Effective upon the termination of the iCeutica License, we ceased manufacturing products using SOLUMATRIX technology and will sell through the remaining inventory.

On May 20, 2020, we completed a Merger (the Zyla Merger) with Zyla Life Sciences (Zyla) pursuant to an Agreement and Plan of Merger (Merger Agreement), dated as of March 16, 2020. Pursuant to the Zyla Merger, we acquired our current
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commercial products INDOCIN (suppository and oral solution), SPRIX, and OXAYDO, as well as the SOLUMATRIX® products).

On February 13, 2020, we completed the sale of our remaining rights, title and interest in and to the NUCYNTA® franchise to Collegium Pharmaceutical, Inc. (Collegium) for $375.0 million, less royalties, in cash at closing.

On January 10, 2020, we completed the sale of Gralise® (gabapentin) to Golf Acquiror LLC, an affiliate to Alvogen, Inc. (Alvogen), for cash proceeds of $130.3 million. The total value included $75.0 million in cash at closing, with the remaining balance settled through June 2020.

Collaboration and License Agreements

Miravo Pharmaceuticals: In November 2010, our predecessor entered into a license agreement with Tribute Pharmaceuticals Canada Ltd. (now known as Miravo Pharmaceuticals) granting them the rights to commercially market CAMBIA in Canada. Miravo independently contracts with manufacturers to produce a specific CAMBIA formulation in Canada. We receive royalties on net sales on a quarterly basis as well as certain one-time contingent milestone payments upon the occurrence of certain events. We may receive additional one-time contingent milestone payments upon the achievement of scaling twelve-month cumulative sales targets and certain development milestones in the future.

Business Strategy

Our success depends on our people, the unique and scalable platform we have created, and the opportunities that exist in the marketplace. We believe the following key elements enable us to be commercially successful:
Leadership with a proven track record of successful results;
Significant experience in completing business development transactions in the healthcare space such as mergers, asset acquisitions, asset divestitures, and commercialization/licensing arrangements;
A strategy that leverages digital and non-personal promotion to engage our customers and drive efficiency;
Experience in key elements of commercialization including, but not limited to, market access, patient services, distribution, brand and digital marketing, non-personal promotion, analytics, and market research;
Impactful brand promise for physicians and patients that reduces hassle and improves accessibility through access programs; and
Commercial capabilities and financial position that enable us to seamlessly expand our product offerings.

Our strategy is to grow through product acquisitions, commercialization agreements, licensing or technology agreements, equity investments, and business combinations. Our products have been acquired or licensed through business development activities. We continue to seek additional products, with a preference for accretive, on-market products that have patent life or exclusivity remaining that we can add to our portfolio of medicines. Secondarily, we also remain open to late-stage assets or other investments into medical devices, informatics, or technology. We are seeking products that are a fit with our Commercial platform and can be leveraged and distributed via digital and non-personal promotional means. Our platform is specialty area agnostic and we can potentially acquire products across a number of therapeutic areas, while requiring minimal additional resources.

Impact of COVID-19 on our Business

Following the outbreak of COVID-19 in early 2020, our priority was and remains the health and safety of our employees, their families, and the patients we serve. Because COVID-19 impacted our ability to see in-person providers who prescribe our products, we transformed our commercial approach during 2020 and increased virtual visits, ultimately eliminating our in-person sales force in favor a digital sales strategy. Additionally, due to the limitations on elective surgeries and changes in patient behavior since the outbreak of COVID-19, we have experienced a decline and subsequent volatility in prescriptions associated with those elective procedures. The extent to which our operations may continue to be impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic will depend largely on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be accurately predicted, including actions by government authorities to contain the outbreak, the emergence of new COVID-19 variants and the related potential for new surges in infections and the impacts of increases in virtual physician visits on prescriber behavior. For example, although many public health restrictions have eased, future surges could result in additional restrictions or other factors that may contribute to decreases in elective procedures. The impact of the pandemic on the global financial markets may reduce our ability to access capital, which could negatively impact our liquidity. We do not yet know the full extent of potential delays or impacts on our business, financing or on healthcare systems or the global economy as a whole. However, these effects could have a material impact on our liquidity, capital resources, operations and business and those of the third parties on which we rely, including suppliers and distributors.
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Promotion of Products
 
Beginning in 2021, we transformed our commercial model. The promotion of our products is now executed by a virtual model, implementing artificial intelligence to support our omnichannel marketing and selling approach. We have also integrated our virtual sales team to maximize effectiveness with the providers and various sites-of-care that utilize our therapies.

Using virtual and digital promotion allows us to quickly scale resources to meet the needs of our growing portfolio and ensures that we can be competitive across multiple therapeutic areas. Our commercial organization is comprised of multiple capabilities, including marketing, trade and distribution, and market access. The organization’s focus is finding new and novel ways to distribute product and improve patient access to our therapies.

Seasonality

    Our product revenues have historically been lower in the first quarter of the year as compared to the fourth quarter of the preceding year. This variation is influenced by both wholesaler buying patterns and the reset of annual limits on deductibles and out-of-pocket costs of many health insurance plans and government programs at the beginning of each calendar year. For additional information, please also refer to “Item 1A. Risk Factors - Our product revenues have typically been lower in the first quarter of the year as compared to the fourth quarter of the preceding year.”

Segment and Customer Information

    We manage our business within one reportable segment. Segment information is consistent with how management reviews the business, makes investing and resource allocation decisions and assesses operating performance. To date, substantially all of our revenues are related to sales in the U.S.

Three large, national wholesale distributors represent the vast majority of our net product sales revenues. The following table reflects the percentage of consolidated revenue by customer and the percentage accounts receivable by customer related to product shipments for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020.

  Consolidated Revenue Accounts Receivable related to product shipments
For the year ended December 31, For the year ended December 31,
2021 2020 2021 2020
Cardinal Health 34  % 42  % 44  % 53  %
McKesson Corporation 24  % 14  % 23  % 20  %
AmerisourceBergen Corporation 26  % 13  % 29  % 18  %
Collegium —  % 11  % —  % —  %
All others 16  % 20  % % %
Total 100  % 100  % 100  % 100  %

The change in the percentage of consolidated revenue by customer and the percentage accounts receivable by customer related to product shipments for the year ended December 31, 2020 to December 31, 2021 was primarily driven by the impact of change in product mix as a result of the acquired products from the Zyla Merger in May 2020 as well as the sale of Gralise and NUCYNTA in January 2020 and February 2020, respectively.

Manufacturing
 
Our facilities are used for office purposes, no commercial manufacturing takes place at our facilities.

We are responsible for the supply and distribution of our marketed products. Our approved products are manufactured at contract manufacturing facilities in the U.S., Canada, and Italy. We have manufacturing, packaging and supply agreements with sole commercial suppliers for each of our marketed products, as follows:
INDOCIN Products - Patheon Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Patheon) and Cosette Pharmaceuticals, Inc;
CAMBIA - MiPharm, S.p.A. and Pharma Packaging Solutions
Otrexup - Antares Pharma, Inc. and Pharmascience Inc.
SPRIX - Jubilant HollisterStier LLC and Sharp Packaging Solutions
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Zipsor - Catalent Ontario Limited (Catalent) and Mikart Inc.
OXAYDO - UPM Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Drug Substances

The active pharmaceutical ingredient (“API”) used in SPRIX is ketorolac tromethamine and in OXAYDO is oxycodone hydrochloride. Both INDOCIN oral suspension and suppositories use indomethacin as the API. We currently procure these APIs on a purchase order basis, some of which are pursuant to an agreement with one of our suppliers. We acquire ketorolac tromethamine and indomethacin from European-based manufacturers while we secure oxycodone hydrochloride from a U.S.-based manufacturer. Both CAMBIA and Zipsor use diclofenac potassium as the API which we source from suppliers in Italy and Taiwan. OTREXUP uses Methotrexate as the API which is sourced by our supplier from Germany.

Oxycodone hydrochloride is classified as narcotic controlled substance under U.S. federal law and, as such, OXAYDO is classified as a Schedule II controlled substance by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (“DEA”). Schedule II controlled substances are classified as having the highest potential for abuse and dependence among drugs that are recognized as having an accepted medical use. Consequently, the manufacturing, shipping, dispensing and storing of OXAYDO are subject to a high degree of regulation, as described in more detail under the caption “Governmental Regulation—Controlled Substances.” 

    For additional information regarding our manufacturing, please also refer to “Item 1A. Risk Factors - We depend on one qualified supplier for the active pharmaceutical ingredient in each of our products, and we depend on third parties that are single source suppliers to manufacture our products. Insufficient availability of our products or the active pharmaceutical ingredients and other raw materials necessary to manufacture our products, or the inability of our suppliers to manufacture and supply our products, will adversely impact our sales upon depletion of the active ingredient and product inventories.”

Intellectual Property

We regard the protection of patents, designs, trademarks and other proprietary rights that we own as critical to our success and competitive position.

Our Trademarks

    Assertio™, Zyla™, INDOCIN®, Otrexup®, CAMBIA®, SPRIX®, Zipsor®, OXAYDO® are trademarks owned by or licensed to Assertio. All other trademarks and trade names referenced in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are the property of their respective owners.

Our Patents and Proprietary Rights

As of December 31, 2021, the U.S. patents we own or have in-licensed, and their expiration dates and the marketed products they cover, are as follows:
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Product U.S. Patent Nos. (Exp. Dates)
CAMBIA® (1)
7,759,394 (June 16, 2026)
  8,097,651 (June 16, 2026)
  8,927,604 (June 16, 2026)
9,827,197 (June 16, 2026)
SPRIX® (2)
8,277,781 (March 13, 2029) (3)
8,551,454 (March 13, 2029) (3)
Zipsor® (4)
7,662,858 (February 24, 2029)
  7,884,095 (February 24, 2029)
  7,939,518 (February 24, 2029)
  8,110,606 (February 24, 2029)
  8,623,920 (February 24, 2029)
  9,561,200 (February 24, 2029)
Otrexup®
8,480,631 (March 19, 2030)
8,579,865 (March 19, 2030)
8,945,063 (March 19, 2030)
9,421,333 (March 19, 2030)
9,750,881 (March 19, 2030)
9,393,367 (March 12, 2034)
10,675,400 (March 12, 2034) (3)
OXAYDO®
7,510,726 (November 26, 2023)
7,981,439 (November 26, 2023)
8,409,616 (November 26, 2023)
8,637,540 (November 26, 2023)
9,492,443 (May 26, 2024)
7,201,920 (March 16, 2025)
(1) Certain parties who have entered into settlement agreements with us will be able to market generic versions of CAMBIA starting January 2023.
(2) Directed to processes of manufacture related to SPRIX.
(3) Expiration date excludes any potential patent term adjustment.
(4) Certain parties who have entered into settlement agreements with us will be able to market generic versions of Zipsor starting in March 2022.

Our success will depend in part on our ability to obtain and maintain patent protection for our products and technologies. Our policy is to seek to protect our proprietary rights, by among other methods, filing patent applications in the U.S. and foreign jurisdictions to cover certain aspects of our technology. Our patents may not be sufficiently broad to provide protection against competitors with similar technologies and may be challenged, invalidated or circumvented, which could limit our ability to stop competitors from marketing related products or may not provide us with competitive advantages against competing products. We also rely on trade secrets and proprietary know how, which are difficult to protect. We seek to protect such information, in part, through entering into confidentiality agreements with employees, consultants, collaborative partners and others before such persons or entities have access to our proprietary trade secrets and know how. These confidentiality agreements may not be effective in certain cases. In addition, our trade secrets may otherwise become known or be independently developed by competitors. For further information regarding risks associated with the protection of our intellectual property rights, please also refer to “Item 1A. “Risk Factors - We are not always able to protect our intellectual property and are subject to risks from liability for infringing the intellectual property of others.”

Competition

We face competition and potential competition from several sources, including pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, generic drug companies, and medical devices and drug delivery companies. SPRIX and INDOCIN Products compete with currently marketed oral opioids, transdermal opioids, local anesthetic patches, stimulants and implantable and external infusion pumps that can be used for infusion of opioids and local anesthetics, non-narcotic analgesics, local and topical
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analgesics and anti-arthritics. There are no patents covering the INDOCIN Products, which means that a generic drug company could file for and obtain approval of, and launch, a generic form of these drugs at any time. CAMBIA competes with a number of triptans that are used to treat migraines and certain other headaches. Currently, eight triptans are available generically and sold in the U.S. (almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan, sumatriptan-naproxen and zolmitriptan). There are other products prescribed for or under development for the treatment or prevention of migraines that are now or may become competitive with CAMBIA, including CGRP inhibitor products. Certain parties who have entered into settlement agreements with us will be able to market generic versions of CAMBIA starting in January 2023. Zipsor competes against other drugs that are widely used to treat mild to moderate pain in the acute setting, including both branded and generic versions of diclofenac. Certain parties who have entered into settlement agreements with us will be able to market generic versions of Zipsor starting in March 2022. Otrexup competes with other branded methotrexate products, including other injection and auto-injector products. Competition in the methotrexate market also includes tablets and parenteral dosage forms. In addition, other commonly used pharmaceutical treatments for rheumatoid arthritis include analgesics, NSAIDs, corticosteroids and biologic response modifiers. Competing products developed in the future may prove superior to our products, either generally or in particular market segments. These developments could make our products noncompetitive or obsolete.

Government Regulation

FDA Approval Process

In the U.S. pharmaceutical products are subject to extensive regulation by the Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”). The Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and other federal and state statutes and regulations, govern, among other things, the research, development, testing, manufacture, storage, recordkeeping, approval, labeling, promotion and marketing, distribution, post approval monitoring and reporting, sampling, and import and export of pharmaceutical products. Failure to comply with applicable U.S. requirements may subject a company to a variety of administrative or judicial sanctions, such as FDA delay or refusal to approve pending new drug applications (“NDAs”) or other marketing applications, warning letters, product recalls, product seizures, total or partial suspension of production or distribution, injunctions, fines, civil penalties, and criminal prosecution. The FDA approval process can be time consuming and cost intensive and companies may, and often do, re-evaluate the path of a particular product or product candidate at different points in the approval and post-approval process, even deciding, in some cases, to discontinue development of a product candidate or take a product off the market.

Preclinical and Clinical Studies

Governmental approval is required of all potential pharmaceutical products prior to the commercial use of those products. The regulatory process takes several years and requires substantial funds. Pharmaceutical product development in the U.S. for a new product or changes to an approved product typically involves preclinical laboratory and animal tests, the submission to the FDA of an investigational new drug application (“IND”), which must become effective before clinical testing may commence, and adequate and well-controlled clinical trials to establish the safety and effectiveness of the drug for each indication for which FDA approval is sought. Satisfaction of FDA pre-market approval requirements typically takes many years and the actual time required may vary substantially based upon the type, complexity, and novelty of the product or disease.

Preclinical tests include laboratory evaluation of product chemistry, formulation, and toxicity, as well as animal studies to assess the characteristics and potential safety and efficacy of the product. The conduct of the preclinical tests must comply with federal regulations and requirements, including good laboratory practices. The results of preclinical testing, along with other information that is known about an investigational drug product, are submitted to the FDA as part of an IND along with other information, including information about product chemistry, manufacturing and controls, and a proposed clinical trial protocol. Longer-term preclinical tests, such as animal tests of reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity, may continue after the IND is submitted.

A 30-day waiting period after the submission of each IND is required prior to the commencement of clinical testing in humans, unless the FDA authorizes that the clinical investigations in the IND may begin sooner than 30 days after submission. If the FDA has neither commented on nor questioned the IND within this 30-day period, the clinical trial proposed in the IND may begin, as long as other necessary approvals (for example, an institutional review board (“IRB”) overseeing clinical study sites) have been granted.

Clinical trials involve the administration of the investigational new drug to human subjects under the supervision of qualified investigators in accordance with Current Good Clinical Practice (cGCP), which includes the requirement that all research subjects provide their informed consent in writing for their participation in any clinical trial. Clinical trials are conducted under protocols detailing the objectives of the trial, the parameters to be used in monitoring safety and the effectiveness criteria to be evaluated. Each protocol intended to study an investigational new drug formulation must be
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submitted to the FDA as part of the IND. Additionally, an independent IRB at each institution participating in the clinical trial must review and approve the plan for any clinical trial before it commences.

The FDA may order the temporary, or permanent, discontinuation of a clinical trial at any time, or impose other sanctions, if it believes that the clinical trial either is not being conducted in accordance with FDA requirements or presents an unacceptable risk to the clinical trial subjects. The study protocol and informed consent information for subjects in clinical trials must also be submitted to an IRB for approval. An IRB may also require the clinical trial at the site to be halted, either temporarily or permanently, for failure to comply with the IRB’s requirements, concerns about subjects, or may impose other conditions. Sponsors have ongoing submission and reporting obligations to FDA and IRBs, and FDA and IRBs may exercise continuing oversight of a clinical trial.

Marketing Approval

FDA approval of an NDA is required before a product may be marketed in the U.S. Assuming successful completion of the required clinical testing, the results of the preclinical and clinical studies, together with detailed information relating to the product’s chemistry, manufacture, controls, and proposed labeling, among other things, are submitted to the FDA requesting approval to market the product for one or more indications. If the FDA determines that the application is not sufficiently complete to permit substantive review, it may request additional information and decline to accept the application for filing until the information is provided. Once the submission is accepted for filing, the FDA begins an in-depth substantive review. The FDA reviews an NDA to determine, among other things, whether the drug is safe and effective and whether the facility in which it is manufactured, processed, packaged or held meets standards designed to assure the product’s continued safety, quality and purity. During the review process, the FDA also reviews the drug’s product labeling to ensure that appropriate information is communicated to healthcare professionals and consumers.

As part of an application, the FDA may require submission of a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (“REMS”) plan to mitigate any identified or suspected serious risks. The REMS plan could include medication guides, physician communication plans, assessment plans and elements to assure safe use, such as restricted distribution methods, patient registries or other risk minimization tools. In addition, under the Pediatric Research Equity Act of 2003, certain NDAs or supplements to an NDA must contain adequate data to assess the safety and effectiveness of the drug for the claimed indications in all relevant pediatric subpopulations, and to support dosing and administration for each pediatric subpopulation for which the product is safe and effective. The FDA may grant deferrals for submission of some or all pediatric data until after approval of the product for use in adults, or partial or full waivers from the pediatric data requirements. 

Before an NDA is approved, the FDA generally inspects one or more clinical sites and facilities at which the drug is manufactured to ensure they are in compliance with the FDA’s cGCPs and Current Good Manufacturing Practices (“cGMP”), respectively. If the FDA determines the application, data or manufacturing facilities are not acceptable, the FDA may note the deficiencies in the submission and request additional testing or information.

After evaluating the NDA, including all related information and clinical and manufacturing inspection reports, the FDA may issue an approval letter, or, in some cases, a complete response letter (“CRL”). A CRL generally contains a statement of specific conditions that must be met in order to obtain final approval of the NDA and may require additional clinical or preclinical testing in order for the FDA to reconsider the application. Even with submission of this additional information, the FDA ultimately may decide that the application does not satisfy the regulatory criteria for approval. If and when those conditions have been met to the FDA’s satisfaction, the FDA will typically issue an approval letter. An approval letter authorizes commercial marketing of the drug with specific prescribing information for specific indications.

The testing and approval process for an NDA requires substantial time, effort and financial resources. Data obtained from preclinical and clinical testing are not always conclusive and may be susceptible to varying interpretations, which could delay, limit or prevent regulatory approval. The FDA may not grant approval of an NDA on a timely basis, or at all.

If approved, the FDA may still limit the approved indications for use of the product, require that contraindications, warnings or precautions be included in the product labeling, require that post-marketing or Phase 4 clinical studies be conducted, require surveillance programs to monitor the product after commercialization, or impose other conditions, including distribution and use restrictions or other risk management mechanisms under a REMS, which can materially affect the potential market and profitability of the product. The results of post-marketing studies may cause the FDA to prevent or limit further marketing of a product. After approval, certain changes to the approved product, such as manufacturing changes, new labeling claims and new indications, are subject to additional requirements and FDA review and approval. 

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Foreign regulatory approval of a product must also be obtained prior to marketing a product internationally. The clinical testing requirements and the time required to obtain foreign regulatory approvals may differ from that required for FDA approval and the time required for approval may delay or prevent marketing in certain countries.

Post Approval Requirements

Ongoing adverse event reporting and submission of periodic reports is required following FDA approval of an NDA. The FDA also may require post marketing testing, known as Phase 4 testing, REMS, and surveillance to monitor the effects of an approved product, or the FDA may place conditions on an approval that could restrict the distribution or use of the product. In addition, quality control, drug manufacture, packaging, and labeling procedures must continue to conform to cGMPs and NDA specifications after approval. Drug manufacturers and certain of their subcontractors are required to register their establishments with FDA and obtain licenses from certain state agencies. Registration with the FDA subjects entities to periodic unannounced inspections by FDA, during which the agency inspects manufacturing facilities to assess compliance with cGMPs or other applicable laws, such as adverse event recordkeeping and reporting. Accordingly, manufacturers must continue to expend time, money, and training and compliance effort in the areas of production and quality control to maintain compliance with cGMPs or other applicable laws, such as adverse event recordkeeping and reporting requirements. Regulatory authorities may require remediation, withdraw product approvals or request product recalls if a company fails to comply with regulatory standards, if it encounters problems following initial marketing, or if previously unrecognized problems or new concerns are subsequently discovered. In addition, other regulatory action, including, among other things, warning letters, the seizure of products, injunctions, consent decrees placing significant restrictions on or suspending manufacturing operations, civil penalties, and criminal prosecution may be pursued.

Prescription Drug Marketing Act

The Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 and the Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992 govern the storage, handling, and distribution of prescription drug samples. The law prohibits the sale, purchase, or trade (including an offer to sell, purchase or trade) of prescription drug samples; it also imposes various requirements upon manufacturers, including but not limited to, proper storage of samples, documentation of request and receipt of samples, validation of a requesting practitioner’s professional licensure, periodic inventory and reconciliation of samples, notification to the FDA of loss or theft of samples, and procedures for auditing sampling activity. Some similar state laws apply. In addition, section 6004 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act also requires manufacturers to annually report the identity and quantity of drug samples that were requested and distributed to licensed HCPs in a given year.

Orange Book Listing

In seeking approval for a drug through an NDA, applicants are required to list with the FDA certain patents whose claims cover the applicant’s product, active ingredient, or method of use. Upon approval of a drug, each of the listed patents covering the approved drug is then published in the FDA’s Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations, commonly known as the Orange Book. Drugs listed in the Orange Book can, in turn, be cited by potential generic competitors in support of approval of an abbreviated new drug application (“ANDA”). An ANDA provides for marketing of a drug product that has the same active ingredient(s) in the same strengths and dosage form, with essentially the same labeling as the listed drug, and that has been shown through bioequivalence testing to be therapeutically equivalent to the listed drug. Other than the requirement for bioequivalence testing, ANDA applicants are generally not required to conduct, or submit results of, preclinical or clinical tests to prove the safety or effectiveness of their drug product. Drugs approved under an ANDA are commonly referred to as “generic equivalents” to the listed drug and often can or are required to be substituted by pharmacists fulfilling prescriptions written for the original listed drug.

The ANDA applicant is required to certify or make certain representations to the FDA concerning any patents currently listed for the approved product in the FDA’s Orange Book. Specifically, the applicant must certify that: (i) no relevant patent information has been filed, (ii) a listed patent has expired, (iii) a listed patent has not expired but will expire on a particular date and approval is sought after patent expiration, or (iv) a listed patent is invalid, unenforceable or will not be infringed by the marketing of the new product. The ANDA applicant may also elect to submit a section viii statement certifying that its proposed ANDA labeling does not contain (or carves out) any language regarding a patented method‑of‑use. If the ANDA applicant does not challenge the applicability of the listed patents, the ANDA application will not be approved until all the listed patents claiming the referenced NDA product have expired.

A certification that the ANDA product will not infringe the already approved NDA product’s listed patents, or that such patents are invalid or unenforceable, is called a Paragraph IV certification. If the ANDA applicant has provided a Paragraph IV certification to the FDA, the applicant must also send notice of the Paragraph IV certification to the NDA and
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patent holders once the ANDA has been accepted for filing by the FDA. The NDA and patent holders may then initiate a patent infringement lawsuit in response to the notice of the Paragraph IV certification. The filing of a patent infringement lawsuit within 45 days of the receipt of a Paragraph IV certification automatically prevents the FDA from approving the ANDA until the earliest of 30 months, expiration of the patent, settlement of the lawsuit, or a decision in the infringement case that is favorable to the ANDA applicant.

The ANDA application also will not be approved until any applicable non‑patent exclusivity listed in the Orange Book for the referenced product has expired.

Manufacturing Requirements

We, our suppliers, contract manufacturers and other entities involved in the manufacturing and distribution of approved drugs are required to comply with certain post-approval requirements and are subject to periodic unannounced inspections by the FDA and state agencies to assess compliance with cGMP requirements. Accordingly, manufacturers must continue to expend time, money and effort in the area of production and quality control to maintain cGMP compliance. Failure to achieve or maintain cGMP standards for our products would adversely impact their marketability.

We use third-party manufacturers to produce our products in clinical and commercial quantities, and we cannot be certain that future FDA inspections will not identify compliance issues at the facilities of our contract manufacturers that may disrupt production or distribution, or require substantial resources to correct. Additionally, new government requirements may be established that could delay or prevent regulatory approval of our products under development.

Third‑Party Payor Coverage and Reimbursement

The commercial success of our products is partially dependent on the availability of coverage and adequate reimbursement from public (i.e., federal and state government) and private (i.e., commercial) payors. These third‑party payors may deny coverage or reimbursement for a product or therapy— either in whole or in part— if they determine that the product or therapy was not medically appropriate or necessary. Also, third‑party payors will continue to control costs by limiting coverage through the use of formularies and other cost‑containment mechanisms, and the amount of reimbursement for particular procedures or drug treatments.

The cost of pharmaceutical products continues to generate substantial governmental and third‑party payor interest. We expect the pharmaceutical industry will continue to experience pricing pressures, given the trend toward managed healthcare, the increasing influence of managed care organizations, and additional regulatory and legislative proposals. Our results of operations and business could be adversely affected by current and future third‑party payor policies, as well as healthcare legislative reforms.

Some third‑party payors also require pre‑approval of coverage for new or innovative drug therapies before they will reimburse healthcare providers who use such therapies. While we cannot predict whether any proposed cost containment measures will be adopted or otherwise implemented in the future, these requirements or any announcement or adoption of such proposals could have a material adverse effect on our ability to obtain adequate prices for any future product candidates and to operate profitably.

Fraud and Abuse

The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), prohibits any U.S. individual or business from paying, offering or authorizing payment or offering of anything of value, directly or indirectly, to any foreign official, political party or candidate for influencing any act or decision of the foreign entity to assist the individual or business in obtaining or retaining business. The FCPA also obligates companies whose securities are listed in the U.S. to comply with accounting provisions requiring the companies to maintain books and records that accurately and fairly reflect all transactions of the companies, including international subsidiaries, and to devise and maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls for international operations.

Pharmaceutical companies that participate in federal healthcare programs are subject to various U.S. federal and state laws pertaining to healthcare “fraud and abuse,” including anti‑kickback and false claims laws. Violations of U.S. federal and state fraud and abuse laws may be punishable by criminal or civil sanctions, including fines, civil monetary penalties and exclusion from federal healthcare programs (including Medicare and Medicaid).

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Federal statutes that apply to us include the federal Anti‑Kickback Statute, which prohibits persons from knowingly and willfully soliciting, offering, receiving or providing remuneration in exchange for or to generate business, including the purchase or prescription of a drug, that is reimbursable by a federal healthcare program such as Medicare and Medicaid, and the Federal False Claims Act (“FCA”), which generally prohibits knowingly and willingly presenting, or causing to be presented, for payment to the federal government any false, fraudulent or medically unnecessary claims for reimbursed drugs or services. Government enforcement agencies and private whistleblowers have asserted liability under the FCA for claims submitted involving inadequate care, kickbacks, improper promotion of off‑label uses and misreporting of drug prices to federal agencies.

Similar state laws and regulations, such as state anti‑kickback and false claims laws, may apply to sales or marketing arrangements and claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by non‑governmental payors, including private insurers. These state laws may be broader in scope than their federal analogues, such as state false claims laws that apply where a claim is submitted to any third‑party payor, regardless of whether the payor is a private health insurer or a government healthcare program, and state laws that require pharmaceutical companies to certify compliance with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines.

Federal and state authorities have increased enforcement of fraud and abuse laws within the pharmaceutical industry, and private individuals have been active in alleging violations of the law and bringing suits on behalf of the government under the FCA and under state and local laws. These laws are broad in scope and there may not be regulations, guidance or court decisions that definitively interpret these laws and apply them to particular industry practices. In addition, these laws and their interpretations are subject to change.

Controlled Substances

The DEA is the federal agency responsible for domestic enforcement of the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 (“CSA”). The DEA regulates controlled substances as Schedule I, II, III, IV and V substances. Schedule I substances, by definition, have high potential for abuse, no currently accepted medical use in the U.S and lack accepted safety for use under medical supervision and may not be marketed or sold in the U.S. except for research and industrial purposes. A pharmaceutical product may be listed as Schedule II, III, IV or V, with Schedule II substances considered to present the highest risk of abuse and Schedule V substances the lowest relative risk of abuse among such substances.

Oxycodone

OXAYDO, an immediate release oxycodone product designed to discourage abuse via snorting, is regulated as a Schedule II controlled substance as defined in the CSA. Other companies’ oxycodone products have been subject to recent scrutiny, litigation, and concerns.

In addition, a DEA quota system controls and limits the availability and production of controlled substances in Schedule II. Distributions of any Schedule II controlled substance must also be accompanied by special order forms. Any of our products regulated as Schedule II controlled substances will be subject to the DEA’s production and procurement quota scheme. The DEA establishes annually an aggregate quota for how oxycodone may be produced in total in the U.S. based on the DEA’s estimate of the quantity needed to meet legitimate scientific and medicinal needs. The limited aggregate number of opioids that the DEA allows to be produced in the U.S. each year is allocated among individual companies, who must submit applications annually to the DEA for individual production and procurement quotas. Our company (and our license partners and contract manufacturers) receive an annual quota from the DEA that enables us to produce or procure specific quantities of Schedule II substances, including oxycodone hydrochloride for use in manufacturing OXAYDO. The DEA may adjust aggregate production quotas and individual production and procurement quotas from time to time during the year, although the DEA has substantial discretion in whether to make such adjustments. The quotas we are provided for specific active ingredients may not be sufficient to meet commercial demand or complete clinical trials. Any delay, limitation or refusal by the DEA in establishing our, or our contract manufacturers’, quota for controlled substances could delay or stop our clinical trials or product commercialization, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and results of operations.

To enforce these requirements, the DEA conducts periodic inspections of registered establishments that handle controlled substances. Failure to maintain compliance with applicable requirements, particularly as manifested in loss or diversion, can result in administrative, civil or criminal enforcement action, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. The DEA may seek civil penalties, refuse to renew necessary registrations, or initiate administrative proceedings to revoke those registrations. In certain circumstances, violations could result in criminal proceedings.

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Individual states also independently regulate controlled substances. We and our license partners and our contract manufacturers will be subject to state regulation on distribution of these products.

Prescription Limitations

Many states, including the Commonwealths of Massachusetts, and Virginia and the States of New York, Ohio, Arizona, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Rhode Island, Colorado, Wisconsin, Alabama, South Carolina, Washington and New Jersey, have either recently enacted, intend to enact or have pending legislation or regulations designed to, among other things, limit the duration and quantity of initial prescriptions of the immediate-release form of opiates (OXAYDO), mandate the use by prescribers of prescription drug databases and mandate prescriber education. These and other state and local laws applicable to the pharmaceutical industry may affect our business and operations as well as those of our commercialization and development partners.

Impact of Public Pressure on Drug Pricing, Healthcare Reform and Legislation Impacting Payor Coverage

The pricing and reimbursement of our pharmaceutical products is partially dependent on government regulation. We offer discounted pricing or rebates on purchases of pharmaceutical products under various federal and state healthcare programs, including: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, Medicare Part B Program and Medicare Part D Coverage Gap Discount Programs, the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs’ Federal Supply Schedule Program, and the Health Resources and Services Administration’s 340B Drug Pricing Program. We must also report specific prices to government agencies under healthcare programs, such as the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program and Medicare Part B Program. The calculations necessary to determine the prices reported are complex and the failure to report prices accurately may expose us to penalties.

In the U.S., federal and state government healthcare programs and private third-party payors routinely seek to manage utilization and control the costs of our products. In the U.S., there is an emphasis on managed healthcare, which may put additional pressure on pharmaceutical drug pricing, and reimbursement and usage, and adversely affect our future product sales and results of operations. These pressures can arise from rules and practices of managed care groups, including formulary coverage and positioning, laws and regulations related to Medicare, Medicaid and healthcare reform, pharmaceutical reimbursement policies, and pricing in general.

Efforts by federal and state government officials or legislators to implement measures to regulate prices or payment for pharmaceutical products— including legislation on drug importation— could adversely affect our business if implemented. Recently, there has been considerable public and government scrutiny of pharmaceutical pricing, resulting in proposals to address the perceived high cost of pharmaceuticals, and drug pricing continues to be an agenda item at both the federal and state level.

The U.S. pharmaceutical industry has already been significantly affected by major legislative initiatives, including, for example, the U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act (“ACA”). The ACA, among other things, imposes a significant annual fee on companies that manufacture or import branded prescription drug medicines. It also contains substantial provisions intended to broaden access to health insurance, reduce or constrain the growth of healthcare spending, and impose additional health policy reforms— any or all of which may affect our business. Since its enactment, there have been judicial and Congressional challenges to numerous provisions of the ACA. We continue to face uncertainties due to federal legislative and administrative efforts to repeal, substantially modify, or invalidate some or all of the provisions of the ACA.

Any future healthcare reform efforts, including those related specifically to the ACA, and any that further limit coverage and reimbursement of pharmaceutical products, may adversely affect our business and financial results. Any reduction in reimbursement from Medicare or other government programs may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors.

Other Healthcare Laws and Compliance Requirements

In the U.S., the research, manufacturing, distribution, sale, and promotion of drug products are potentially subject to regulation by various federal, state and local authorities in addition to the FDA, including the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (“CMS”), other divisions of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) (e.g., the Office of Inspector General, “OIG”), the U.S. Department of Justice, state Attorneys General, and other state and local government agencies. For example, pharmaceutical manufacturers’ activities (including sales and marketing activities, as well as scientific/educational grant programs, among other activities) are subject to fraud and abuse laws, such as the federal Anti‑Kickback Statute, the
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federal False Claims Act, as amended, and similar state laws. Typically, pricing and rebate programs must comply with the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program requirements of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990, as amended, and the Veterans Health Care Act of 1992, as amended. If products are made available to authorized users of the Federal Supply Schedule of the General Services Administration, additional laws and requirements apply. These activities are also potentially subject to federal and state consumer protection and unfair competition laws.

The federal Anti‑Kickback Statute prohibits any person or entity, including a prescription drug manufacturer, or a party acting on its behalf, from knowingly and willfully soliciting, receiving, offering or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, to induce another to (i) refer an individual for the furnishing of a pharmaceutical product for which payment may be made under a federal healthcare program, such as Medicare or Medicaid (“covered product”); (ii) purchase or order any covered product; (iii) arrange for the purchase or order of a covered product; or (iv) recommend a covered product. This statute has been interpreted broadly to apply to a wide range of arrangements between pharmaceutical manufacturers and others, including, but not limited to, any exchange of remuneration between a manufacturer and prescribers (such as physicians), purchasers, pharmacies, PBMs, formulary managers, group purchasing organizations, hospitals, clinics and other health care providers, and patients. The term “remuneration” has been broadly interpreted to include anything of value, including, for example, gifts, discounts, and rebates, “value-added” services, the furnishing of supplies or equipment at no charge, credit arrangements, payments of cash, waivers of payments, ownership interests, and providing anything at less than its fair market value. Although there are several statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors protecting certain business arrangements from prosecution, the exceptions and safe harbors are drawn narrowly and practices that involve remuneration intended to induce referrals, prescribing, purchasing, or recommending covered products may be subject to scrutiny if they do not qualify for an exception or safe harbor.

Additionally, many states have adopted laws like the federal Anti‑Kickback Statute, and some of these state prohibitions apply, in at least some cases, to the referral of patients for healthcare items or services reimbursed by any third‑party payor— not only the Medicare and Medicaid programs— and do not contain safe harbors. Violations of fraud and abuse laws such as the Anti-Kickback Statute may be punishable by criminal or civil sanctions and/or exclusion from federal healthcare programs (including Medicare and Medicaid). Our arrangements and practices may not, in every case, meet all criteria for applicable exceptions and/or safe harbors for the Anti‑Kickback Statute, and thus would not be immune from prosecution under the Statute. Additionally, Anti‑Kickback Statute and similar state laws are subject to differing interpretations and may contain ambiguous requirements or require administrative guidance for implementation. Finally, some of the safe harbor rules are currently under review for potential revision. Given these variables, our activities could be subject to the penalties under the Anti-Kickback Statute and similar authorities.

The federal False Claims Act imposes liability on any person or entity that, among other things, knowingly presents, or causes to be presented, a false or fraudulent claim for payment by a federal healthcare program. The “qui tam” provisions of the False Claims Act allow a private individual to bring civil actions on behalf of the federal government alleging that the defendant has violated the False Claims Act, and to share in any monetary recovery. In recent years, the number of suits brought by private individuals has increased dramatically. In addition, various states have enacted false claims laws analogous to the False Claims Act. Many of these state laws apply where a claim is submitted to any third‑party payor, not merely a federal healthcare program.

There are many potential bases for liability under the False Claims Act. Liability arises, primarily, when an entity knowingly submits, or causes another to submit, a false claim for reimbursement to the federal government. The False Claims Act has been used to assert liability based on inadequate care, kickbacks and other improper referrals, improperly reported government pricing metrics, such as Best Price or Average Manufacturer Price, improper use of Medicare numbers when detailing the provider of services, improper promotion of off‑label uses not expressly approved by FDA in a drug’s label, and allegations as to misrepresentations with respect to the services rendered. Our activities relating to the reporting of discount and rebate information and other information affecting federal, state, and third-party reimbursement of our products, and the sale and marketing of our products and our service arrangements or data purchases, among other activities, may be subject to scrutiny under these laws.

We are unable to predict whether we would be subject to actions under the False Claims Act or a similar state law, or the impact of such actions. However, the cost of defending such claims, as well as any sanctions imposed, could adversely affect our financial performance. Also, the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”) created several federal crimes, including healthcare fraud and false statements relating to healthcare matters. The healthcare fraud statute prohibits knowingly and willfully executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program, including private third‑party payors. The false statements statute prohibits knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing, or covering up a material fact or making any materially false, fictitious, or fraudulent statement about the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services.
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In addition, our marketing activities may be limited by data privacy and security regulation by both the federal government and the states in which we conduct our business. For example, HIPAA and its implementing regulations established standards for “covered entities,” which are certain healthcare providers, health plans and healthcare clearinghouses, regarding the security and privacy of protected health information. While we are not a covered entity under HIPAA, many of our customers are, and this limits the information they can share with us. The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (“HITECH”) expanded the applicability of HIPAA’s privacy, security, and breach notification standards. Among other things, HITECH makes HIPAA’s security and breach standards (and certain privacy standards) directly applicable to “business associates,” which are entities that perform certain services on behalf of covered entities involving the exchange of protected health information. HITECH also increased the civil and criminal penalties that may be imposed against covered entities, business associates, and possibly other persons, and gave state attorneys general new authority to file civil actions for damages or injunctions in federal courts to enforce the federal HIPAA laws and seek attorney’s fees and costs associated with pursuing federal civil actions. While we do not currently perform any services that would render us a business associate under HIPAA/HITECH, it is possible that we may provide such services in the future and would be subject to the applicable provisions of HIPAA/HITECH. Finally, we are likely to be directly subject to state privacy and security laws, regulations and other authorities— specifically including the California Consumer Privacy Act— which may limit our ability to use and disclose identifiable information, and may impose requirements related to safeguarding such information, as well as reporting on breaches.

Additionally, the federal Open Payments program, created under Section 6002 of the Affordable Care Act and its implementing regulations, requires that manufacturers of prescription drugs for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program (with certain exceptions) report annually to HHS information related to “payments or other transfers of value” provided to U.S. “physicians” (defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists and chiropractors) and “teaching hospitals.” The Open Payments program also requires that manufacturers and applicable group purchasing organizations report annually to HHS ownership and investment interests held in them by physicians (as defined above) and their immediate family members. Manufacturers’ reports are filed annually with the CMS by March 31, covering the previous calendar year. CMS posts disclosed information on a publicly available website annually by June 30.

There are also an increasing number of state laws that regulate or restrict pharmaceutical manufacturers’ interactions with health care providers licensed in the respective states. Beyond prohibiting the provision of certain payments or items of value, these laws require pharmaceutical manufacturers to, among other things, establish comprehensive compliance programs, adopt marketing codes of conduct, file periodic reports with state authorities regarding sales, marketing, pricing, and other activities, and register/license their sales representatives. Laws require manufacturers to file reports regarding payments and items of value provided to health care providers (similar to the federal Open Payments program). Many of these laws contain ambiguities as to what is required to comply with the laws. These laws may affect our sales, marketing, and other promotional activities by imposing administrative and compliance burdens on us. Given the lack of clarity with respect to these laws and their implementation, despite our best efforts to act in full compliance, our reporting actions could be subject to the penalty provisions of the pertinent state and federal authorities.

Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of available statutory and regulatory exemptions, it is possible that some of our business activities could be subject to challenge under one or more of such laws. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the federal and state laws described above or any other governmental regulations that apply to us, we may be subject to penalties— including criminal and significant civil monetary penalties, damages, fines, imprisonment, exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs, injunctions, recall or seizure of products, total or partial suspension of production, denial or withdrawal of pre‑ marketing product approvals, private qui tam actions brought by individual whistleblowers in the name of the government, or refusal to allow us to enter into supply contracts including government contracts and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations— any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations. With respect to any of our products sold in a foreign country, we may be subject to similar foreign laws and regulations, which may include, for instance, applicable privacy laws and post‑marketing requirements, including safety surveillance, anti‑fraud and abuse laws, and implementation of corporate compliance programs, and reporting of payments or transfers of value to healthcare professionals.
    
For additional information and risks regarding the above-described government regulations, please also refer to “Item 1A. Risk Factors.”
 
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Employees
 
As of March 1, 2022, we had 19 full‑time employees, all employed in the U.S. None of our employees are represented by a collective bargaining agreement, nor have we experienced any work stoppage. We believe that our relations with our employees are good.

We recognize that our industry is specialized and dynamic, and a significant aspect of our success is our continued ability to execute our human capital strategy of attracting, engaging, developing and retaining highly skilled talent that our efficient operating model needs. There is fierce competition for highly skilled talent, and we offer a robust set of benefits, a flexible working environment, and career-enhancing development experiences and initiatives that are aligned with our mission, vision, and values. We offer competitive compensation for our employees and strongly embrace a pay for performance culture underpinned by our commitment to ethics and compliance.

Our Employee Handbook and Code of Business Conduct and Ethics clearly outlines our unwavering commitment to diversity and inclusion, where all employees are welcomed in an environment designed to make them feel comfortable, respected, and accepted regardless of their age, race, national origin, sex, gender, identity, religion, disability or sexual orientation. We have a set of policies explicitly setting forth our expectations for nondiscrimination and a harassment-free work environment. We are also a proud equal opportunity employer and cultivate a highly collaborative, fast paced, and entrepreneurial culture.

Corporate Information

The address of our website is http://www.assertiotx.com. We make available, free of charge through our website, our Annual Reports on Form 10‑K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10‑Q, Current Reports on Form 8‑K and other periodic Securities and Exchange (“SEC”) reports, along with amendments to all of those reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after we file the reports with the SEC.


ITEM 1A.  RISK FACTORS

In addition to other information in this report, please consider the following discussion of factors that makes an investment in our securities risky. The risks or uncertainties described in this Form 10‑K can materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition. The risks and uncertainties described below have been grouped under general risk categories, one or more of which categories may be applicable to the risk factors described. The risks and uncertainties described in this Form 10‑K are not the only ones facing us. Additional risks and uncertainties of which we are unaware or that we currently deem immaterial may also become important factors that can harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Summary of Risk Factors

The following is a summary of the risks more fully described below and should not be relied upon as an exhaustive summary of the material risks facing our business.

Risks Related to Commercial, Regulatory and Other Business Matters
We may not be successful in commercializing our products using our transformative non-personal and digital promotion strategies.
Approval for generic versions of our products, including the INDOCIN Products which may face generic competition at any time and Cambia and Zipsor which may face generic competition starting in 2023 and 2022, respectively, will have a materially adverse effect on our business.
We may not succeed in executing business development, strategic partnerships and investment opportunities.
Failure to successfully identify and acquire complementary businesses, products or technologies will limit our business growth and prospects.
Strategic transactions may fail.
We may not be able to integrate any business, product or technology we acquire.
Our success is dependent in large part upon continued services of our executive management team with whom we do not have employment agreements.
The COVID-19 pandemic has been affecting the Company’s business and operations and may continue to do so.
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We depend on one qualified supplier for the active pharmaceutical ingredient in each of our products and single source suppliers to manufacture our products.
Failure to comply with ongoing regulatory requirements for approved products could adversely impact our ability to commercialize our products and result in increased costs.
Commercial disputes may adversely affect the commercial success of our products.
We may be unable to compete successfully in the pharmaceutical industry.
We may be unable to negotiate acceptable pricing or obtain adequate reimbursement for our products.
Business interruptions can adversely impact our ability to operate our business.
Data breaches and cyber-attacks can damage to our business.
Our corporate structure may not prevent veil piercing.
We are impacted by governmental investigations, regulatory actions and lawsuits regarding Assertio Therapeutics’ historical commercialization of opioids.
We may not be able to adequately protect ourselves from product liability losses and other litigation liability.

Risks Related to Our Industry
We are impacted by changes in laws and regulations applicable to, and increased scrutiny and investigations of, the pharmaceutical industry.
We may fail to comply with applicable statutes or regulations.
We may incur significant liability if it is determined that we have promoted “off-label” use of drugs.
Healthcare reform may increase our expenses and impact our products.
We are not always able to protect our intellectual property and may be liable for infringing the intellectual property of others.
Settlements to ANDA litigation can be challenged and have the potential to lead to significant damage awards.

Risks Related to Our Financial Position
We may not have sufficient capital resources or be able to obtain future debt or equity financing necessary to fund our future operations or product acquisitions and strategic transactions.
We may be unable to generate sufficient cash flow from our business to make payments on our debt.
We have incurred operating losses in the past and may incur operating losses in the future.
We have significant amounts of long-lived assets which depend upon future positive cash flows to support the values recorded in our balance sheet.
We may be impacted by our customer concentration.
Our product revenues have typically been lower in the first quarter of the year as compared to the fourth quarter of the preceding year.
The fair value of contingent consideration obligation assumed as part of the Zyla Merger may change.
We may be unable to satisfy regulatory requirements relating to internal controls.
Our financial results are impacted by management’s assumptions and use of estimates.

Risks Related to Future Product Development
We may not obtain necessary regulatory approvals.
We are subject to risks associated with NDAs submitted under Section 505(b)(2) of the FDCA.

Risks Related to Share Ownership and Other Stockholder Matters
The price of our common stock historically has been volatile.
Our common stock may be delisted from the Nasdaq Capital Market if we are unable to maintain compliance with Nasdaq's continued listing standards.
We are a “smaller reporting company” and we take advantage of reduced disclosure and governance requirements applicable to such companies, which could result in our common stock being less attractive to investors.
We are subject to risks from future proxy fights or the actions of activist shareholders.
We are subject to risks related to unsolicited takeover attempts in the future.


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Risks Related to Commercial, Regulatory and Other Business Matters

If we do not successfully commercialize our products, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be materially and adversely affected.
In addition to the risks discussed elsewhere in this section, our ability to successfully commercialize and generate revenues from our products depends on a number of factors, including, but not limited to, our ability to:

develop and execute our digital and non-personal sales and marketing strategies for our products;
achieve, maintain and grow market acceptance of, and demand for, our products;
obtain and maintain adequate coverage, reimbursement and pricing from managed care, government and other third-party payors;
maintain, manage or scale the necessary sales, marketing, manufacturing, managed markets and other capabilities and infrastructure that are required to successfully integrate and commercialize our products;
obtain adequate supply of our products;
maintain and extend intellectual property protection for our products; and
comply with applicable legal and regulatory requirements.

In December 2020, we eliminated our in-person sales force and have since moved to a digital sales and product promotion model. We do not have prior experience with a digital-only sales model and this may be less successful than in-person promotion, particularly as pandemic restrictions ease and in-person promotion resumes, including for competing products. If we are unable to successfully achieve or perform these functions, we will not be able to maintain or increase our revenues and our business, financial condition and results of operations will be materially and adversely affected.

We have no patent protection for Indocin, while Cambia and Zipsor may face generic competition starting in 2023 and 2022, respectively. If we face competition with generic versions of our marketed products, our revenues will be adversely affected.

Under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA), the FDA can approve an abbreviated new drug application (“ANDA”) for a generic version of a branded drug without the ANDA applicant undertaking the clinical testing necessary to obtain approval to market a new drug. In place of such clinical studies, an ANDA applicant usually needs only to submit data demonstrating that its product has the same active ingredient(s) and is bioequivalent to the branded product, in addition to any data necessary to establish that any difference in strength, dosage, form, inactive ingredients or delivery mechanism does not result in different safety or efficacy profiles, as compared to the reference drug.

There are no patents covering the INDOCIN Products (which accounted for 55% of our revenue in 2021), which means that a generic drug company could file for and obtain approval of, and launch, a generic form of these drugs at any time. With respect to Cambia and Zipsor (which accounted for 23% and 9% of our revenue in 2021, respectively), we have entered into settlement agreements with generic drug companies, under which generic versions of these products can be marketed beginning in 2023 and 2022, respectively. We expect to face generic competition in the near term for one or both of these drugs and could face generic competition at any time for the INDOCIN Products.
    Any introduction of one or more generic versions of our products would harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. The filing of the ANDAs described above, or any other ANDA or similar application in respect to any of our products, could have an adverse impact on our stock price. Moreover, if the patents covering our Otrexup (which expire in 2030) are not upheld in litigation or if a generic competitor is found not to infringe these patents, the resulting generic competition for Otrexup would have a further material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our success is dependent on our executive management team’s ability to successfully execute business development, strategic partnerships and investment opportunities to build and grow for the future.

Since 2017, we have been in the process of transforming into a leading diversified, specialty pharmaceutical company with a goal of rapidly de-leveraging our balance sheet, growing our core business and opportunistically building for the future via business development. Since then, we have completed a number of transactions to advance toward achieving our stated goals. As a result of the transformation from these transactions, we have positioned ourselves to actively pursue business development, strategic partnerships, and investment opportunities to build and grow for the future. Given the near-term
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potential for generic competition with a number of our marketed products, we are focused on pursuing business development opportunities.

If our executive management team is not able, in a timely manner, to develop, implement and execute successful business strategies and plans to maintain and increase our product revenues, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be materially and adversely affected, and the existing business may be required to take steps to reduce its costs at some point in time. While our executive officers have significant industry-related experience, it may take time to develop, implement and execute our business strategies and plans. Any delay in the execution of our business plans by our executive management team, or any future changes to such management team, could affect our ability to develop, implement and execute our business strategies and plans, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Further, our future business strategies and plans may differ materially, or may continue to evolve, from those we previously pursued. If our business strategies and plans, or our efforts to realize future operational efficiencies, cause disruption in our business or operations or do not achieve the level of success or results we anticipate, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be materially and adversely affected.

Acquisition of new and complementary businesses, products and technologies is a key element of our corporate strategy. Failure to successfully identify and acquire such businesses, products or technologies will limit our business growth and prospects.
An important element of our business strategy is to actively seek to acquire products or companies and to in-license or seek co-promotion rights to additional products. In the past we have acquired Otrexup, NUCYNTA, NUCYNTA ER (both of which were subsequently divested to Collegium in February 2020), CAMBIA, Zipsor, as well as, INDOCIN Products and SPRIX. We cannot be certain that we will be able to successfully identify, pursue and complete any further acquisitions or whether we would be able to successfully integrate or develop any acquired business, product or technology or retain any key employees. If we are unable to enhance and broaden our product offerings, our business and prospects will be limited.
Strategic transactions that fail to achieve the anticipated results and synergies will cause our business to suffer.
We seek to engage in strategic transactions with third parties, such as product or company acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, divestitures or business combinations. We may face significant competition in seeking potential strategic partners and transactions, and the negotiation process for acquiring any product or engaging in strategic transactions can be time-consuming and complex. Engaging in strategic transactions, such as acquisitions of companies and product rights, divestitures and commercialization arrangements, may require us to incur non-recurring and other charges, increase our near- and long-term expenditures, pose integration challenges and fail to achieve the anticipated results or synergies or distract our management and business, which may harm our business.
As part of an effort to acquire a product or company or to enter into other strategic transactions, we conduct business, legal and financial due diligence with the goal of identifying, evaluating and assessing material risks involved in the transaction. Despite our efforts, we ultimately may be unsuccessful in ascertaining, evaluating and accurately assessing all such risks and, as a result, might not realize the intended advantages of the transaction. We may also assume liabilities and legal risks in connection with a transaction, including those relating to activities of the seller prior to the consummation of the transaction and contracts that we assume. Failure to realize the expected benefits from acquisitions or strategic transactions that we may consummate, or that we have completed, such as those described above, whether as a result of identified or unidentified risks, integration difficulties, regulatory setbacks, governmental investigations, independent actions of or financial position of our collaborative partners, litigation or other events, could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Failure to integrate any business, product or technology we acquire, will cause our business, financial condition and operating results to suffer.
Integrating any business, product or technology we acquire is expensive and time-consuming and can disrupt and adversely affect our ongoing business, including product sales, and distract our management. Our ability to successfully integrate any business, product or technology we acquire depends on a number of factors, including, but not limited to, our ability to:

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minimize the disruption and distraction of our management and other employees in connection with the integration of any acquired business, product or technology;
maintain and increase sales of our existing products;
establish or manage the transition of the manufacture and supply of any acquired product, including the necessary active pharmaceutical ingredients, excipients and components;
identify and add the necessary sales, marketing, manufacturing, regulatory and other related personnel, capabilities and infrastructure that are required to successfully integrate any acquired business, product or technology;
manage the transition and migration of all commercial, financial, legal, clinical, regulatory and other pertinent information relating to any acquired business, product or technology;
comply with legal, regulatory and contractual requirements applicable to any acquired business, product or technology;
obtain and maintain adequate coverage, reimbursement and pricing from managed care, government and other third-party payors with respect to any acquired product; and
maintain and extend intellectual property protection for any acquired product or technology.

If we are unable to perform the above functions or otherwise effectively integrate any acquired businesses, products or technologies, our business, financial condition and operating results will suffer.

Our success is dependent in large part upon the continued services of our executive management team with whom we do not have employment agreements.
Our success is dependent in large part upon the continued services of members of our executive management team, and on our ability to attract and retain key management and operating personnel. We do not have agreements with any of our executive officers that provide for their continued employment with us. Management, scientific and operating personnel are in high demand in our industry and are often subject to competing offers. The loss of the services of one or more members of management or key employees or the inability to hire additional personnel as needed could result in delays in the research, development and commercialization of our products and potential product candidates, or otherwise adversely impact our business.

The COVID-19 pandemic has been affecting our business and operations and may continue to affect these operations for a sustained period.

Because COVID-19 impacted our ability to see in-person providers who prescribe our products, we adapted our approach during 2020 and increased virtual visits, ultimately eliminating our in-person sales force in favor a fully digital sales strategy. Additionally, due to the limitations on elective surgeries and changes in patient behavior since the outbreak of COVID-19, we have experienced a decline and subsequent volatility in prescriptions associated with those elective procedures. The extent to which our operations may continue to be impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic will depend largely on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be accurately predicted, including actions by government authorities to contain the outbreak, the emergence of new COVID-19 variants and the related potential for new surges in infections and the impacts of increases in virtual physician visits on prescriber behavior. For example, although many public health restrictions have eased, future surges could result in additional restrictions or other factors that may contribute to decreases in elective procedures. The impact of the pandemic on the global financial markets may reduce our ability to access capital, which could negatively impact our liquidity. We do not yet know the full extent of potential delays or impacts on our business, financing or on healthcare systems or the global economy as a whole. However, these effects could have a material impact on our liquidity, capital resources, operations and business and those of the third parties on which we rely, including suppliers and distributors.

We depend on one qualified supplier for the active pharmaceutical ingredient in each of our products, and we depend on third parties that are single source suppliers to manufacture our products. Insufficient availability of our products or the active pharmaceutical ingredients and other raw materials necessary to manufacture our products, or the inability of our suppliers to manufacture and supply our products, will adversely impact our sales upon depletion of the active ingredient and product inventories.

We have one qualified supplier for the active pharmaceutical ingredient in each of our products. We do not have, and we do not intend to establish in the foreseeable future, internal commercial-scale manufacturing capabilities. Rather, we intend to use the facilities of third parties to manufacture products for commercialization and clinical trials. Our dependence on third
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parties for the manufacture of our products and any future product candidates may adversely affect our ability to obtain such products on a timely or competitive basis, if at all. Any stock out, quality concern or failure to obtain sufficient supplies of our products, or the necessary active pharmaceutical ingredients, excipients or components, from our suppliers, including as a result to disruptions to supplier operations resulting from factors such as supply chain delays, public health emergencies, climate events or political unrest, or failures by us to satisfy minimum order requirements due to declines in product demand or otherwise, would adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. In particular, our suppliers may be impacted by ongoing supply chain disruptions and inflationary pressures related to the COVID-19 pandemic and general macroeconomic conditions, which may result in supply delays and cost increases.

The manufacturing process for pharmaceutical products is highly regulated, and regulators may shut down manufacturing facilities that they believe do not comply with regulations. We, our third-party manufacturers and our suppliers are subject to numerous regulations, including current FDA regulations governing manufacturing processes, stability testing, record keeping, product serialization and quality standards. Similar regulations are in effect in other countries. Our third-party manufacturers and suppliers are independent entities who are subject to their own unique operational and financial risks which are out of our control. If we or any third-party manufacturer or supplier fails to perform as required or fails to comply with the regulations of the FDA and other applicable governmental authorities, our ability to deliver adequate supplies of our products to our customers on a timely basis, or to conduct clinical trials, could be adversely affected. The manufacturing processes of our third-party manufacturers and suppliers may also be found to violate the proprietary rights of others. To the extent these risks materialize and adversely affect such third-party manufacturers’ and/or suppliers’ performance obligations to us, and we are unable to contract for a sufficient supply of required products on acceptable terms, or if we encounter delays and difficulties in our relationships with manufacturers or suppliers, our business, results of operation and financial condition could be adversely affected.

Failure to comply with ongoing regulatory requirements for approved products could adversely impact our ability to commercialize our products and result in increased costs.

We are subject to numerous ongoing regulatory requirements and continual review with respect to products that have obtained regulatory approval. In addition, the discovery of previously unknown problems with a product or manufacturer may result in restrictions on the product, manufacturer or manufacturing facility, including withdrawal of the product from the market. Manufacturers of approved products are also subject to ongoing regulation and inspection, including compliance with FDA regulations governing cGMP or Quality System Regulation (QSR). The FDCA, the CSA and other federal and foreign statutes and regulations govern and influence the testing, manufacturing, packing, labeling, storing, record keeping, safety, approval, advertising, promotion, sale and distribution of our products. In addition, we and our partners are also subject to ongoing DEA regulatory obligations, including annual registration renewal, security, record keeping, theft and loss reporting, periodic inspection and annual quota allotments for the raw material for commercial production of our products. The failure to comply with these regulations could result in, among other things, warning letters, fines, injunctions, civil penalties, recall or seizure of products, total or partial suspension of production, non-renewal of marketing applications or authorizations or criminal prosecution, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We are also required to report adverse events associated with our products to the FDA and other regulatory authorities. Unexpected or serious health or safety concerns could result in labeling changes, recalls, market withdrawals or other regulatory actions. Recalls may be issued at our discretion or at the discretion of the FDA or other empowered regulatory agencies.

Our commercialization, collaborative and other arrangements may give rise to disputes over commercial terms, contract interpretation and ownership or protection of our intellectual property and may adversely affect the commercial success of our products.

We currently have or have had in the past collaboration or license arrangements with a number of companies, including commercialization or collaborative arrangements, some of which have been based on less definitive agreements, such as memoranda of understanding, material transfer agreements, options or feasibility agreements.
Commercialization and collaborative relationships are generally complex and can give rise to disputes regarding the relative rights, obligations and revenues of the parties, including the ownership of intellectual property and associated rights and obligations, especially when the applicable collaborative provisions have not been fully negotiated and documented. Such disputes have arisen in the past from time to time and, if they arise again could delay collaborative research, development or commercialization of potential products, and can lead to lengthy, expensive litigation or arbitration. The terms of such arrangements may also limit or preclude us from commercializing products or technologies developed pursuant to such collaborations. Additionally, the commercialization or collaborative partners under these arrangements might breach the terms
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of their respective agreements or fail to maintain, protect or prevent infringement of the licensed patents or our other intellectual property rights by third parties. Moreover, negotiating commercialization and collaborative arrangements often takes considerably longer to conclude than the parties initially anticipate, which could cause us to enter into less favorable agreement terms that delay or defer recovery of our development costs and reduce the funding available to support key programs. Any failure by our commercialization or collaborative partners to abide by the terms of their respective agreements with us (including their failure to accurately calculate, report or pay any royalties payable to either us or a third party or their failure to repay, in full or in part, either any outstanding receivables or any other amounts for which we are entitled to reimbursement) may adversely affect our results of operations.
We are not always able to enter into commercialization or collaborative arrangements on acceptable terms, which can harm our ability to develop and commercialize our current and potential future products and technologies. Other factors relating to collaborations that may adversely affect the commercial success of our products include:
any parallel development by a commercialization or collaborative partner of competitive technologies or products;
arrangements with commercialization or collaborative partners that limit or preclude us from developing products or technologies;
premature termination of a commercialization or collaboration agreement or the inability to renegotiate existing agreements on favorable terms; or
failure by a commercialization or collaborative partner to devote sufficient resources to the development and commercial sales of products using our current and potential future products and technologies.

Our commercialization or collaborative arrangements do not necessarily restrict our commercialization or collaborative partners from competing with us or restrict their ability to market or sell competitive products. Our current and any future commercialization or collaborative partners may pursue existing or other development-stage products or alternative technologies in preference to those being commercialized or developed in collaboration with us.

In addition, contract disputes with customers or other third parties may arise from time to time. Our commercialization or collaborative partners, or customers or other third parties, may also terminate their relationships with us or otherwise decide not to proceed with the development, commercialization or purchase of our products.
We and our commercial partners may be unable to compete successfully in the pharmaceutical industry.
Competition in the pharmaceutical industry is intense and we expect competition to increase. Competing products currently under development or developed in the future may prove superior to our products and may achieve greater commercial acceptance. Most of our principal competitors have substantially greater financial, sales, marketing, personnel and research and development resources than we and our commercial partners do.

On December 15, 2021, we acquired Otrexup. Otrexup competes with other branded methotrexate products, including other injection and auto-injector products. Competition in the methotrexate market also includes tablets and parenteral dosage forms. In addition, other commonly used pharmaceutical treatments for rheumatoid arthritis include analgesics, NSAIDs, corticosteroids and biologic response modifiers.

Pursuant to the Zyla Merger, we acquired SPRIX and two forms of INDOCIN. SPRIX is an NSAID indicated in adult patients for the short-term (up to five days) management of moderate to moderately severe pain that requires analgesia at the opioid level. INDOCIN Products are approved for moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis including acute flares of chronic disease, moderate to severe ankylosing spondylitis, moderate to severe osteoarthritis, acute painful shoulder (bursitis and/or tendinitis) and acute gouty arthritis. We face and will continue to face competition from other companies in the pharmaceutical, medical devices and drug delivery industries with respect to SPRIX and INDOCIN Products. These products compete with currently marketed oral opioids, transdermal opioids, local anesthetic patches, stimulants and implantable and external infusion pumps that can be used for infusion of opioids and local anesthetics, non-narcotic analgesics, local and topical analgesics and anti-arthritics.

An alternate formulation of diclofenac is the active ingredient in CAMBIA that is approved in the U.S. for the acute treatment of migraines in adults. CAMBIA competes with a number of triptans that are used to treat migraines and certain other headaches. Currently, eight triptans are available generically and sold in the U.S. (almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan, sumatriptan-naproxen and zolmitriptan). There are other products prescribed for or under development for the treatment or prevention of migraines that are now or may become competitive with CAMBIA, including
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CGRP inhibitor products.

Diclofenac, the active pharmaceutical ingredient in Zipsor, is an NSAID that is approved in the U.S. for the treatment of mild to moderate pain in adults, including the symptoms of arthritis. Both branded and generic versions of diclofenac are marketed in the U.S. Zipsor competes against other drugs that are widely used to treat mild to moderate pain in the acute setting. In addition, a number of other companies are developing NSAIDs in a variety of dosage forms for the treatment of mild to moderate pain and related indications. Other drugs are in clinical development to treat acute pain.

If we are unable to negotiate acceptable pricing or obtain adequate reimbursement for our products from third-party payors, our business will suffer.
Sales of our products depend significantly on the availability of acceptable pricing and adequate reimbursement from third-party payors such as:
government health administration authorities;
private health insurers;
health maintenance organizations;
managed care organizations;
pharmacy benefit management companies; and
other healthcare-related organizations.

If reimbursement is not available for our products or any future product candidates, demand for our products may be limited. Further, any delay in receiving approval for reimbursement from third‑party payors could have an adverse effect on our future revenues.
Third-party payors frequently require pharmaceutical companies to negotiate agreements that provide discounts or rebates from list prices and that protect the payors from price increases above a specified annual limit. We have agreed to provide such discounts and rebates to certain third-party payors. We expect increasing pressure to offer larger discounts and rebates or discounts and rebates to a greater number of third-party payors to maintain acceptable reimbursement levels for and access to our products for patients at co-pay levels that are reasonable and customary. Consolidation among large third-party payors may increase their leverage in negotiations with pharmaceutical companies. If we are forced to provide additional discounts and rebates to third-party payors to maintain acceptable access to our products for patients, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected. If third-party payors or wholesalers do not accurately and timely report the eligibility and utilization of our products under discounted programs, our reserves for rebates or other amounts payable to third-party payors may be lower than the amount we are invoiced and we may be required to dispute the amount payable, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. For example, we have had, and continue to have, disputes with managed care providers over rebates related to our products. Even when rebate claims made by such managed care providers are without merit, we may be forced to pay such disputed amounts to the extent our failure to do so could otherwise adversely impact our business, such as our ability to maintain a favorable position on such provider’s formulary. In addition, if competitors reduce the prices of their products, or otherwise demonstrate that they are better or more cost effective than our products, this may result in a greater level of reimbursement for their products relative to our products, which would reduce sales of our products and harm our results of operations. The process for determining whether a third-party payor will provide coverage for a product may be separate from the process for setting the price or reimbursement rate that such third-party payor will pay for the product once coverage is approved. Third-party payors may limit coverage to specific products on an approved list, or formulary, which might not include all of the approved products for a particular indication, including one or more of our products. Any third-party payor decision not to approve pricing for, or provide adequate coverage and reimbursement of, our products, including by reducing, limiting or denying reimbursement for new products or excluding products that were previously eligible for reimbursement, would limit the market acceptance and commercial prospects of our products and harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. For example, sales of SPRIX have been negatively impacted by a formulary action by a large PBM in 2020. In addition, any third-party payor decision to impose restrictions, limitations or conditions on prescribing or reimbursement of our products, including on the dosing or duration of prescriptions for our products, would harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.



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Business interruptions can limit our ability to operate our business and adversely impact the success of our commercialization partners.
Our operations and infrastructure, and those of our partners, third-party suppliers, manufacturers and vendors are vulnerable to damage or interruption from cyber-attacks and security breaches, human error, natural disasters, fire, flood, the effects of climate change, actual or threatened public health crises, power loss, telecommunications failures, equipment failures, intentional acts of theft, vandalism, terrorism, public health crises and similar events. We have not established a formal disaster recovery plan, and our back-up operations and our business interruption insurance may not be adequate to compensate us for losses that occur. A significant business interruption could result in losses or damages incurred by us and require us to cease or curtail our operations.
Data breaches and cyber-attacks can compromise our intellectual property or other sensitive information and cause significant damage to our business.
In the ordinary course of our business, we collect, maintain and transmit sensitive data on our computer networks and information technology systems, including our intellectual property and proprietary or confidential business information. The secure maintenance of this information is critical to our business. We believe that companies have been increasingly subject to a wide variety of security incidents, cyber-attacks and other attempts to gain unauthorized access, including ransomware attacks. These threats can come from a variety of sources, ranging in sophistication from an individual hacker to a state-sponsored attack and motives (including corporate espionage). Cyber threats may be generic, or they may be custom-crafted to target our information systems. Cyber-attacks are becoming increasingly more prevalent and much harder to detect and defend against. Our network and storage applications and those of our third-party vendors may be subject to unauthorized access by hackers or breached due to operator error, malfeasance or other system disruptions.

Although our Board of Directors, through our Audit Committee, regularly discusses with management our policies and practices regarding information technology systems, information management systems and related infrastructure, including our information technology and information management security, risk management and back-up policies, practices and infrastructure, it is often difficult to anticipate or immediately detect such incidents and the damage that may be caused by such incidents. These data breaches and any unauthorized access or disclosure of our information or intellectual property could compromise our intellectual property and expose sensitive business information, including our financial information or the information of our business partners. Cyber-attacks could cause us to incur significant remediation costs, result in product development delays, disrupt key business operations and divert attention of management and key information technology resources. Our network security and data recovery measures and those of our third-party vendors may not be adequate to protect against such security breaches and disruptions. These incidents could also subject us to liability, expose us to significant expense and cause significant harm to our business.
Despite our corporate structure, creditors of our operating subsidiaries could be successful in piercing the corporate veil and reaching the assets of one another, which could have an adverse effect on us and our operating results, results from continued operations, and financial condition.

Our operating subsidiaries are separate legal entities within our holding company corporate structure. There can be no assurance that our efforts to preclude corporate veil-piercing, alter ego, control person, or other similar claims by creditors of any one particular entity within our corporate structure from reaching the assets of the other entities within our corporate structure to satisfy claims will be successful. If a court were to allow a creditor to pierce the corporate veil and reach the assets of such other entities within our corporate structure, despite such entities not being directly liable for the underlying claims, it could have a material adverse effect on us and our operating results, results from continued operations, and financial condition.
Governmental investigations and inquiries, regulatory actions and lawsuits brought against us by government agencies and private parties with respect to Assertio Therapeutics’ historical commercialization of opioids can adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
As a result of the greater public awareness of the public health issue of opioid abuse, there has been increased scrutiny of, and investigation into, the commercial practices of opioid manufacturers generally by federal, state and local regulatory and governmental agencies, as well as increased legal action brought by state and local governmental entities and private parties. For example, Assertio Therapeutics is currently named as a defendant, along with numerous other manufacturers and distributors of opioid drugs, in multiple lawsuits alleging common-law and statutory causes of action for alleged misleading or otherwise improper marketing and promotion of opioid drugs. Such litigation and related matters are described in “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 13. Commitments and Contingencies.”
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In March 2017, Assertio Therapeutics received a letter from Sen. Claire McCaskill (D-MO), the then-Ranking Member on the U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, requesting certain information regarding Assertio Therapeutics’ historical commercialization of opioid products. Assertio Therapeutics voluntarily furnished information responsive to Sen. McCaskill’s request. Assertio Therapeutics has also received subpoenas or civil investigative demands focused on historical promotion and sales of Lazanda, NUCYNTA, and NUCYNTA ER from various state attorneys general seeking documents and information regarding our historical sales and marketing of opioid products. In addition, the CDI has issued a subpoena to Assertio Therapeutics seeking information relating to its historical sales and marketing of Lazanda. The CDI subpoena also seeks information on Gralise, a non-opioid product which Assertio Therapeutics divested to Alvogen in 2020. Assertio Therapeutics has also received subpoenas from the DOJ and the New York Department of Financial Services seeking documents and information regarding its historical sales and marketing of opioid products. Assertio Therapeutics also from time to time receives and complies with subpoenas from governmental authorities related to investigations primarily focused on third parties, including healthcare practitioners. Assertio Therapeutics is cooperating with the foregoing governmental investigations and inquiries. These matters are described in “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 13. Commitments and Contingencies.”

These and other governmental investigations or inquiries, as well as lawsuits, in which we are and may become involved may result in additional claims and lawsuits being brought against us by governmental agencies or private parties. It is not possible at this time to predict either the outcome or the potential financial impact of the opioid-related lawsuits mentioned above or any governmental investigations or inquiries of us or any lawsuits or regulatory responses that may result from such investigations or inquiries or otherwise. It is also not possible at this time to predict the additional expenses related to such ongoing opioid-related litigation and investigations, which may be significant. The initiation of any additional investigation, inquiry or lawsuit relating to us, the costs and expenses associated therewith, or any assertion, claim or finding of wrongdoing by us, could:
adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations;
result in reputational harm and reduced market acceptance and demand for our products;
harm our ability and our commercial partners’ ability to market our products;
cause us to incur significant liabilities, costs and expenses; and
cause our senior management to be distracted from execution of our business strategy.

Furthermore, these pending investigations, inquiries and lawsuits could negatively affect our ability to raise capital and impair our ability to engage in strategic transactions.

We face risks relating to product liability losses and other litigation liability for which we may be unable to maintain or obtain adequate protection.
We are or may be involved in various legal proceedings, lawsuits and certain government inquiries and investigations, including with respect to, but not limited to, patent infringement, product liability, personal injury, antitrust matters, securities class action lawsuits, breach of contract, Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement claims, opioid-related matters, promotional practices and compliance with laws relating to the manufacture and sale of controlled substances. For example, we, along with other opioid manufacturers and, often, distributors, have been named in lawsuits related to the manufacturing, distribution, marketing and promotion of opioids. In addition, we have also received various subpoenas and requests for information related to the distribution, marketing and sale of our former opioid products. Moreover, we recently settled coverage litigation with our primary product liability insurer regarding whether opioid litigation claims noticed by us are covered by our policies with such insurer. Such litigation and related matters are described in “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 13. Commitments and Contingencies.” If any of these legal proceedings, inquiries or investigations were to result in an adverse outcome, the impact could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We have obtained product liability insurance for sales of our products and any future clinical trials currently underway, but:

we may be unable to maintain product liability insurance on acceptable terms;
we may be unable to obtain product liability insurance for future trials;
we may be unable to obtain product liability insurance for future products; or
our insurance may not provide adequate protection against potential liabilities (including pending and future claims relating to opioid litigation), or may provide no protection at all.
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Our inability to obtain or maintain adequate insurance coverage at an acceptable cost could prevent or inhibit the commercialization of our products. Defending a lawsuit could be costly and significantly divert management’s attention from conducting our business. If third parties were to bring a successful product liability or other claims, or series of claims, against us for uninsured liabilities, or in excess of our insured liability limits, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

Risks Related to Our Industry
We are subject to risks from changes in laws and regulations applicable to, and increased scrutiny and investigations of, the pharmaceutical industry, including the opioid market, which can adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The manufacture, marketing, sale, promotion, and distribution of our products are subject to comprehensive government regulation. Changes in laws and regulations applicable to, and increased scrutiny and investigations of, the pharmaceutical industry, including the opioid market, could adversely affect our business and our ability to commercialize our products, thereby adversely affecting our financial condition and results of operations. For example, various federal and state governmental entities, including the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) and a number of state attorneys general, have launched investigations into the marketing and sales practices of pharmaceutical companies that market or have marketed opioid and non-opioid pain medications, including us. For instance, we have received subpoenas or civil investigative demands from the DOJ, several state attorneys general, the New York Department of Financial Services and other state regulators seeking documentation and information in connection with Assertio Therapeutics’ historical sales and marketing of opioid products.

Any negative regulatory request or action taken by a regulatory agency, including the FDA, with respect to our products could adversely affect our ability to commercialize such products or otherwise adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition and may result in increased administrative costs in responding to government inquiries.

The regulatory actions described above, as well as the related litigation and investigations, not only create financial and operational pressure on us, but could also put pressure on other companies in our industry and with which we have contractual arrangements. Such pressures could negatively impact our contractual counterparties and may give rise to contract cancellations, breaches or rejections in bankruptcy. Furthermore, in the event that a contract counterparty seeks to reject a contract, we may have an unsecured claim for damages, which may not be paid in full (if at all), and we may be forced to return payments made within 90 days of the date of filing for bankruptcy protection. If any of these events should occur, it may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Pharmaceutical marketing is subject to substantial regulation in the U.S. and any failure by us or our commercial and collaborative partners to comply with applicable statutes or regulations can adversely affect our business.
Our current marketing activities associated with our products, as well as marketing activities related to any other products that we may acquire, or for which we or our collaborative partners obtain regulatory approval, are and will be subject to numerous federal and state laws governing the marketing and promotion of pharmaceutical products. The FDA regulates post-approval promotional labeling and advertising to ensure that they conform to statutory and regulatory requirements. In addition to FDA restrictions, the marketing of prescription drugs is subject to laws and regulations prohibiting fraud and abuse under government healthcare programs. For example, the federal healthcare program anti-kickback statute prohibits giving things of value to induce the prescribing or purchase of products that are reimbursed by federal healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid. In addition, federal false claims laws prohibit any person from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, a false claim for payment to the federal government. Under these laws, in recent years, the federal government has brought claims against drug manufacturers alleging that certain marketing activities caused false claims for prescription drugs to be submitted to federal programs. Many states have similar statutes or regulations that apply to items and services reimbursed under Medicaid and other state programs, and, in some states, such statutes or regulations apply regardless of the payor.
Governmental authorities may also seek to hold us responsible for any failure of our commercialization or collaborative partners to comply with applicable statutes or regulations. If we, or our commercial or collaborative partners, fail to comply with applicable FDA regulations or other laws or regulations relating to the marketing of our products, we could be subject to criminal prosecution, civil penalties, seizure of products, injunctions and exclusion of our products from reimbursement under government programs, as well as other regulatory or investigatory actions against our future product candidates, our commercial or collaborative partners or us.
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We may incur significant liability if it is determined that we are promoting or have in the past promoted the “off-label” use of drugs.
Companies may not promote drugs for “off-label” use—that is, uses that are not described in the product’s labeling and that differ from those approved by the FDA. Physicians may prescribe drug products for off-label uses, and such off-label uses are common across some medical specialties. Although the FDA and other regulatory agencies do not regulate a physician’s choice of treatments, the FDCA and FDA regulations restrict communications on the subject of off-label uses of drug products by pharmaceutical companies. The Office of Inspector General of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (OIG), the FDA, and the DOJ all actively enforce laws and regulations prohibiting promotion of off-label use and the promotion of products for which marketing clearance has not been obtained. If any of the investigations of the DOJ, the attorneys general identified above, and the CDI, as well as the actions filed by states and municipalities against us, result in a finding that we engaged in wrongdoing, including sales and marketing practices for our former, current and/or future products that violate applicable laws and regulations, we would be subject to significant liabilities. Such liabilities would harm our business, financial condition and results of operations as well as divert management’s attention from our business operations and damage our reputation. For additional information regarding potential liability, see also “ - Governmental investigations and inquiries, regulatory actions and lawsuits brought against us by government agencies and private parties with respect to Assertio Therapeutics’ historical commercialization of opioids can adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.”

Healthcare reform can increase our expenses and adversely affect the commercial success of our products.

There have been, and there will continue to be, legislative, regulatory and third-party payor proposals to change the healthcare system in ways that could impact our ability to commercialize our products profitably. We anticipate that the federal and state legislatures and the private sector will continue to consider and may adopt and implement healthcare policies, such as the ACA and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, intended to curb rising healthcare costs. These cost-containment measures may include: controls on government-funded reimbursement for drugs; new or increased requirements to pay prescription drug rebates to government healthcare programs; controls on healthcare providers; challenges to or limits on the pricing of drugs, including pricing controls or limits or prohibitions on reimbursement for specific products through other means; requirements to try less expensive products or generics before a more expensive branded product; and public funding for cost effectiveness research, which may be used by government and private third-party payors to make coverage and payment decisions.

For example, the ACA includes numerous provisions that affect pharmaceutical companies. For example, the ACA seeks to expand healthcare coverage to the uninsured through private health insurance reforms and an expansion of Medicaid. The ACA also imposes substantial costs on pharmaceutical manufacturers, such as an increase in liability for rebates paid to Medicaid, new drug discounts that must be offered to certain enrollees in the Medicare prescription drug benefit and an annual fee imposed on all manufacturers of brand prescription drugs in the U.S. The ACA also requires increased disclosure obligations and an expansion of an existing program requiring pharmaceutical discounts to certain types of hospitals and federally subsidized clinics and contains cost-containment measures that could reduce reimbursement levels for pharmaceutical products. The ACA also includes provisions known as the Physician Payments Sunshine Act, which require manufacturers of drugs, biologics, devices and medical supplies covered under Medicare and Medicaid to record any transfers of value to physicians and teaching hospitals and to report this data to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for subsequent public disclosure. Similar reporting requirements have also been enacted on the state level domestically, and an increasing number of countries worldwide either have adopted or are considering similar laws requiring transparency of interactions with healthcare professionals. Failure to report appropriate data may result in civil or criminal fines and/or penalties.

Any new laws or regulations that have the effect of imposing additional costs or regulatory burden on pharmaceutical manufacturers, or otherwise negatively affect the industry, could adversely affect our ability to successfully commercialize our products and any future product candidates. The implementation of any price controls, caps on prescription drugs or price transparency requirements, whether at the federal level or state level, could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

We are subject to risks from liability for infringing the intellectual property of others.
Our ability to develop our technologies and to make commercial sales of products using our technologies also depends on not infringing other patents or intellectual property rights. We are not aware of any such intellectual property claims directly against us. The pharmaceutical industry has experienced extensive litigation regarding patents and other intellectual property rights. Patents issued to third parties could in the future be asserted against us, although we believe that we do not infringe any
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valid claim of any patents. If claims concerning any of our products were to arise and it was determined that these products infringe a third party’s proprietary rights, we or our commercial partners could be subject to substantial damages for past infringement or could be forced to stop or delay activities with respect to any infringing product, unless we or our commercial partner, as applicable, can obtain a license, or our product may need to be redesigned so that it does not infringe upon such third party’s patent rights, which may not be possible or could require substantial funds or time. Such a license may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all. Even if we, our collaborators or our licensors were able to obtain a license, the rights may be nonexclusive, which could give our competitors access to the same intellectual property. In addition, any public announcements related to litigation or interference proceedings initiated or threatened against us, even if such claims are without merit, could cause our stock price to decline.

Settlements to ANDA litigation can be challenged and have the potential to lead to significant damage awards.
In circumstances where we settle patent litigation claims asserted against generic drug companies, the terms of these settlements have the potential to generate new litigation, such as our recent litigation over a term of our Glumetza (metformin) ANDA settlement. Entry into other patent litigation settlement agreements subjects us to additional potential claims challenging these settlements under antitrust laws or other novel theories.

Risks Related to Our Financial Position

Our existing capital resources are not necessarily sufficient to fund our future operations or product acquisitions and strategic transactions that we may pursue.

We fund our operations primarily through revenues from product sales and do not have any committed sources of capital. To the extent that our existing capital resources and revenues from ongoing operations are insufficient to fund our future operations, or product acquisitions and strategic transactions that we may pursue, or our litigation-related costs, we will have to raise additional funds through the sale of our equity securities, through additional debt financing, from development and licensing arrangements or from the sale of assets. We may be unable to raise such additional capital on a timely basis and on favorable terms, or at all. If we raise additional capital by selling our equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of such securities could result in dilution of our shareholders’ equity positions.

Our failure to generate sufficient cash flow from our business to make payments on our debt would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We have significant indebtedness under the 13% senior secured notes due 2024 that we assumed in the Zyla Merger (the Secured Notes). Our ability to make scheduled payments of the principal of, to pay interest on or to refinance the Secured Notes and any additional debt obligations we may incur depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors that may be beyond our control. Our business may not generate cash flow from operations in the future sufficient to service our debt and to make necessary capital expenditures. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flow or if our results of operations cause us to fail to comply with our financial covenants, we may be required to take one or more actions, including refinancing our debt, significantly reducing expenses, renegotiating our debt covenants, restructuring our debt, selling assets or obtaining additional capital, each of which may be on terms that may be onerous, highly dilutive or disruptive to our business. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or engage in these activities on commercially reasonable or acceptable terms, which could result in a default on our obligations, including the Secured Notes.

We may seek to refinance all or a portion of our outstanding indebtedness in the future. Any such refinancing would depend on the capital markets and business and financial conditions at the time, which could affect our ability to obtain attractive terms if or when desired or at all.

In addition, our significant indebtedness, combined with our other financial obligations and contractual commitments, could have other important consequences to our business. For example, it could:
make it more difficult for us to meet our payment and other obligations under our indebtedness;
result in other events of default under our indebtedness, which events of default could result in all of our debt becoming immediately due and payable;
make us more vulnerable to adverse changes in general economic, industry and competitive conditions and adverse changes in government regulation;
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limit our ability to borrow additional amounts for working capital and other general corporate purposes, including funding possible acquisitions of, or investments in, new and complementary businesses, products and technologies, which is a key element of our corporate strategy;
subject us to the risk of increased sensitivity to interest rate increases on our indebtedness with variable interest rates;
require the dedication of a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to service our indebtedness, thereby reducing the amount of our cash flow available for other purposes, including working capital, business development activities, any future clinical trials and/or research and development, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes;
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and our industry; and
put us at a disadvantage compared to our competitors who have less debt.

Any of these factors can adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if we incur additional indebtedness, the risks related to our business and our ability to service or repay our indebtedness would increase.

We have incurred operating losses in the past and may incur operating losses in the future.
We have incurred net losses in many years. We may continue to incur operating losses in future years. Any such losses may have an adverse impact on our total assets, shareholders’ equity and working capital.

We have significant amounts of long-lived assets which depend upon future positive cash flows to support the values recorded in our balance sheet. We are subject to increased risk of future impairment charges should actual financial results differ materially from our projections.
Our consolidated balance sheet contains significant amounts of long-lived assets, including intangible assets representing the product rights which we have been acquired. We review the carrying value of our long-lived assets when indicators of impairment are present. Conditions that could indicate impairment of long-lived assets include, but are not limited to, a significant adverse change in market conditions, significant competing product launches by our competitors, significant adverse change in the manner in which the long-lived asset is being used and adverse legal or regulatory outcomes. In performing our impairment tests, which assess the recoverability of our assets, we utilize our future projections of cash flows. Projections of future cash flows are inherently subjective and reflect assumptions that may or may not ultimately be realized. Significant assumptions utilized in our projections include, but are not limited to, grouping long-lived assets at the lowest level for which there are identifiable cash flows that are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities, our evaluation of the market opportunity for our products, the current and future competitive landscape and resulting impacts to product pricing, future regulatory actions, planned strategic initiatives and the realization of benefits associated with our existing patents. Given the inherent subjectivity and uncertainty in projections, we could experience significant unfavorable variances in future periods or revise our projections downward. This would result in an increased risk that our long-lived assets may be impaired.

Our customer concentration can materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
We sell a significant amount of our products to a limited number of independent wholesale drug distributors. If we were to lose the business of one or more of these distributors, if any of these distributors failed to fulfill their obligations, if any of these distributors experienced difficulty in paying us on a timely basis, or if any of these distributors negotiated lower pricing or extended payment terms, it could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our product revenues have typically been lower in the first quarter of the year as compared to the fourth quarter of the preceding year.
Our product revenues have typically been lower in the first quarter of the year as compared to the fourth quarter of the preceding year. We believe this arises primarily as a result of wholesalers’ reductions of inventory of our products in the first quarter and annual changes in health insurance plans that occur at the beginning of the calendar year.
Our wholesalers typically end the calendar year with higher levels of inventory of our products than at the end of the first quarter of the following year. As a result, in such first quarters, net sales are typically lower than would otherwise have
31



been the case as a result of the reduction of product inventory at our wholesalers. Any material reduction by our wholesalers of their inventory of our products in the first quarter of any calendar year as compared to the fourth quarter of the preceding calendar year can adversely affect our operating results and can cause our stock price to decline.
Many health insurance plans and government programs reset annual limits on deductibles and out-of-pocket costs at the beginning of each calendar year and require participants to pay for substantially all of the costs of medical services and prescription drug products until such deductibles and annual out-of-pocket cost limits are met. In addition, enrollment in high-deductible health insurance plans has increased significantly in recent years. As a result of these factors, patients may delay filling or refilling prescriptions for our products or substitute less expensive generic products until such deductibles and annual out-of-pocket cost limits are met. Any reduction in the demand for our products, including those marketed by our commercialization partners as a result of the foregoing factors or otherwise, can adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

Changes in fair value of contingent consideration obligation assumed as part of the Zyla Merger can adversely affect our results of operations.
Contingent consideration obligations arise from the INDOCIN Product and relate to the potential future contingent milestone payments and royalties payable under the respective agreements. The contingent consideration is initially recognized at its fair value on the acquisition date and is remeasured to fair value at each reporting date until the contingency is resolved with changes in fair value recognized in earnings. The fair value of the contingent consideration is determined using an option pricing model under the income approach based on estimated INDOCIN Product revenues through January 2029 and discounted to present value. The fair value measurement is based on significant inputs not observable in the market and thus represents a Level 3 measurement as defined in fair value measurement accounting. The significant assumptions used in the calculation of the fair value included projections of future INDOCIN Product revenues, revenue volatility, discount rate, and credit spread. Significant judgment is employed in determining these assumptions as of the acquisition date and for each subsequent period. Updates to assumptions could have a significant impact on our results of operations in any given period.

If we are unable to satisfy regulatory requirements relating to internal controls, our stock price could suffer.
Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires companies to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the effectiveness of their internal control over financial reporting. At the end of each fiscal year, we must perform an evaluation of our internal control over financial reporting, include in our annual report the results of the evaluation and have our external auditors also publicly attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting.

Our ability to produce accurate financial statements and comply with applicable laws, rules and regulations is largely dependent on our maintenance of internal control and reporting systems, as well as on our ability to attract and retain qualified management and accounting personnel to further develop our internal accounting function and control policies. If we fail to effectively establish and maintain such reporting and accounting systems or fail to attract and retain personnel who are capable of designing and operating such systems, these failures will increase the likelihood that we may be required to restate our financial results to correct errors or that we will become subject to legal and regulatory infractions, which may entail civil litigation and investigations by regulatory agencies including the SEC. In addition, if material weaknesses are found in our internal controls in the future, if we fail to complete future evaluations on time or if our external auditors cannot attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, we could fail to meet our regulatory reporting requirements and be subject to regulatory scrutiny and a loss of public confidence in our internal controls, which could have an adverse effect on our stock price or expose us to litigation or regulatory proceedings, which may be costly or divert management attention.

Our financial results are impacted by management’s assumptions and use of estimates.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Estimates are used when accounting for amounts recorded in connection with acquisitions, including initial fair value determinations of assets and liabilities as well as subsequent fair value measurements. Additionally, estimates are used in determining items such as product returns, rebates, evaluation of impairment of intangible assets, fair value of contingent consideration obligation and taxes on income. Although management believes these estimates are based upon reasonable assumptions within the bounds of its knowledge of our business and operations, actual results could differ materially from these estimates. Refer to the Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Estimates section within “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”


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Risks Related to Future Product Development

Failure to obtain regulatory approval for our products, our raw materials or future product candidates, will limit our ability to commercialize our products, and our business will suffer.
The regulatory process is expensive and time consuming. Even after investing significant time and expenditures on clinical trials, we may not obtain regulatory approval of any future product candidates. Data obtained from clinical trials are susceptible to varying interpretations, which could delay, limit or prevent regulatory approval, and the FDA may not agree with our methods of clinical data analysis or our conclusions regarding safety and/or efficacy. Significant clinical trial delays could impair our ability to commercialize any future products and could allow our competitors to bring products to market before we do. In addition, changes in regulatory policy for product approval during the period of product development and regulatory agency review of each submitted new application may cause delays or rejections. Even if we receive regulatory approval, this approval may entail limitations on the indicated uses for which we can market a product.

We are subject to risks associated with NDAs submitted under Section 505(b)(2) of the FDCA.
The products we and our collaborative partners develop or acquire generally are or will be submitted for approval under Section 505(b)(2) of the FDCA, which was enacted as part of the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, otherwise known as the Hatch-Waxman Act. Section 505(b)(2) permits the submission of an NDA where at least some of the information required for approval comes from studies not conducted by or for the applicant and for which the applicant has not obtained a right of reference. For instance, the NDA for Cambia relies on the FDA’s prior approval of Cataflam, the diclofenac initially approved by the FDA.
For NDAs submitted under Section 505(b)(2) of the FDCA, the patent certification and related provisions of the Hatch-Waxman Act apply. In accordance with the Hatch-Waxman Act, such NDAs may be required to include certifications, known as “Paragraph IV certifications,” that certify any patents listed in the Orange Book publication in respect to any product referenced in the 505(b)(2) application are invalid, unenforceable and/or will not be infringed by the manufacture, use or sale of the product that is the subject of the 505(b)(2) application. Under the Hatch-Waxman Act, the holder of the NDA which the 505(b)(2) application references may file a patent infringement lawsuit after receiving notice of the Paragraph IV certification. Filing of a patent infringement lawsuit triggers a one-time automatic 30-month stay of the FDA’s ability to approve the 505(b)(2) application. Accordingly, we may invest a significant amount of time and expense in the development of one or more products only to be subject to significant delay and patent litigation before such products may be commercialized, if at all. A Section 505(b)(2) application may also not be approved until any non-patent exclusivity, such as exclusivity for obtaining approval of a new chemical entity, listed in the Orange Book for the referenced product has expired.

The FDA may also require us to perform one or more additional clinical studies or measurements to support the change from the approved product. The FDA may then approve the new formulation for all or only some of the indications sought by us. If the FDA disagrees with the use of the Section 505(b)(2) regulatory pathway for future product candidates, we would need to reconsider our plans and might not be able to obtain approval for any such product candidates in a timely or cost-efficient manner, or at all. The FDA may also reject our future Section 505(b)(2) submissions and may require us to file such submissions under Section 501(b)(1) of the FDCA, which could be considerably more expensive and time-consuming.
Risks Related to Share Ownership and Other Stockholder Matters

The market price of our common stock historically has been volatile. Our results of operations have and may continue to fluctuate and affect our stock price.
The trading price of our common stock has been, and is likely to continue to be, volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. Factors affecting our operating results and that could adversely affect our stock price include:

the degree of commercial success and market acceptance of our products;
the outcome of opioid-related investigations, opioid-related litigation and related claims for insurance coverage, and other disputes and litigation, and the costs and expenses associated therewith;
filings and other regulatory or governmental actions, investigations or proceedings related to our products and any future product candidates and those of our commercialization and collaborative partners;
developments concerning proprietary rights, including patents, infringement allegations, inter parties review proceedings and litigation matters;
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legal and regulatory developments in the U.S.;
actions taken by industry stakeholders affecting the market for our products;
our ability to generate sufficient cash flow from our business to make payments on our indebtedness;
our and our commercialization and collaborative partners’ compliance or noncompliance with legal and regulatory requirements and with obligations under our collaborative agreements;
our ability to successfully develop and execute our digital and non-personal sales and marketing strategies;
our plans to acquire, in-license or co-promote other products or compounds or acquire or combine with other companies, and our degree of success in realizing the intended advantages of, and mitigating any risks associated with, any such transaction;
adverse events related to our products, including recalls;
interruptions of manufacturing or supply, or other manufacture or supply difficulties;
variations in revenues obtained from commercialization and collaborative agreements, including contingent milestone payments, royalties, license fees and other contract revenues, including nonrecurring revenues, and the accounting treatment with respect thereto;
adverse events or circumstances related to our peer companies or our industry or the markets for our products;
adoption of new technologies by us or our competitors;
our compliance with the terms and conditions of the agreements governing our indebtedness;
sales of large blocks of our common stock; and
variations in our operating results, earnings per share, cash flows from operating activities, deferred revenue, and other financial metrics and non-financial metrics, and how those results are measured, presented and compare to our financial and operating projections and analyst expectations.

As a result of these and other such factors, our stock price may continue to be volatile and investors may be unable to sell their shares at a price equal to, or above, the price paid. Any significant drops in our stock price could give rise to shareholder lawsuits, which are costly and time-consuming to defend against and which may adversely affect our ability to raise capital while the suits are pending, even if the suits are ultimately resolved in our favor.
In addition, if the market for pharmaceutical stocks or the stock market in general experiences uneven investor confidence, the market price of our common stock could decline for reasons unrelated to our business, operating results or financial condition. For example, if one or more securities or industry analysts downgrades our stock or publishes an inaccurate research report about our company, the market price for our common stock would likely decline. The market price of our common stock might also decline in reaction to events that affect other companies within, or outside, our industry even if these events do not directly affect us.

Our common stock may be delisted from the Nasdaq Capital Market if we are unable to maintain compliance with Nasdaq's continued listing standards.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market. There are a number of continued listing requirements that we must satisfy in order to maintain our listing on The Nasdaq Capital Market, including the requirement to maintain a minimum bid price of at least $1.00 (the “Bid Price Rule”). If a deficiency with respect to this requirement continues for a period of 30 consecutive business days, Nasdaq may require us to satisfy a minimum bid price per share of our common stock of at least $1.00 for a period in excess of ten consecutive business days, but generally no more than 20 consecutive business days, before determining that we have demonstrated an ability to maintain long-term compliance with the Bid Price Rule. Although we are currently in compliance with the Bid Price Rule, we have been unable to comply with this rule in the past and for periods in 2021 our continued listing on the Nasdaq Capital Market required the grant of a grace period from Nasdaq and the implementation of a one-for-four reverse stock split. If we fail to comply with the Bid Price Rule in the future, there can be no assurance that we will be granted such grace periods or that we will be able to receive the necessary shareholder approval to implement an additional reverse stock split. In particular, we may encounter difficulties obtaining such shareholder approval due to our heavily retail investor shareholder base, which may also affect our ability to obtain shareholder approval of other significant corporate actions.

Any delisting of our common stock would likely adversely affect the market liquidity and market price of our common stock and our ability to obtain financing for the continuation of our operations and/or result in the loss of confidence by investors.

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We are a “smaller reporting company” and we take advantage of reduced disclosure and governance requirements applicable to such companies, which could result in our common stock being less attractive to investors.

We are a “smaller reporting company” as defined in SEC rules, and we take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not smaller reporting companies including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements. We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we will rely on these exemptions. If investors find our common stock less attractive as a result of our reduced reporting requirements, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile. We may also be unable to raise additional capital as and when we need it.

Our business could be impacted as a result of actions by activist shareholders, including as a result of a potential proxy contest for the election of directors at our annual meeting.
The Company was subjected to a proxy contest in the run up to its 2016 Annual Meeting of Shareholders, which resulted in the negotiation of changes to the Board of Directors and substantial costs being incurred. A future proxy contest would require us to incur significant legal fees and proxy solicitation expenses and require significant time and attention by management and the Board of Directors. The potential of a proxy contest could interfere with our ability to execute our strategic plan, give rise to perceived uncertainties as to our future direction, adversely affect our relationships with customers, suppliers, investors, prospective and current team members and others, result in the loss of potential business opportunities, or make it more difficult to attract and retain qualified personnel, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business and operating results.

We may also be subject, from time to time, to other legal and business challenges in the operation of our company due to actions instituted by activist shareholders. Responding to such actions could be costly and time-consuming.
We are subject to risks related to unsolicited takeover attempts in the future.
We have in the past and may in the future be subject to unsolicited attempts to gain control of our company. Responding to any such attempt would distract management attention away from our business and would require us to incur significant costs. Moreover, any unsolicited takeover attempt may disrupt our business by causing uncertainty among current and potential employees, producers, suppliers, customers and other constituencies important to our success, which could negatively impact our financial results and business initiatives. Other disruptions to our business include potential volatility in our stock price and potential adverse impacts on the timing of, and our ability to consummate, acquisitions of products and companies.

ITEM 1B.  UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

    None.
 
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
 
Our corporate headquarters is located in Lake Forest, Illinois, where we lease approximately 31,000 square feet of office space (the Lake Forest lease). We have the right to renew the term of the Lake Forest lease for one period of five years, provided that written notice is made to the Landlord no later than twelve months prior to the expiration of the initial term of the lease, which is on December 31, 2023

Prior to our corporate headquarters relocation in 2018, we had leased our previous corporate office in Newark, California (the Newark lease) which terminates at the end of November 2022 and will not be renewed. The Newark lease is currently partially subleased through the lease term.

In connection with the Zyla Merger, we assumed an operating lease for the corporate offices in Wayne, Pennsylvania, which terminated in February 2022. For additional information regarding the Lake Forest, Newark, and Wayne Leases, see “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 12. Leases.”

ITEM 3.  LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
 
For a description of our material pending legal proceedings, see “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 13. Commitments and Contingencies.”
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ITEM 4.  MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
 
Not applicable.
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PART II
 
ITEM 5.  MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
 
Market Information and Holders of Common Stock
 
Our common stock trades on the Nasdaq Capital Market (Nasdaq) under the symbol “ASRT.” As of December 31, 2021, there were 24 shareholders of record for our common stock, one of which is Cede & Co., a nominee for Depository Trust Company, or DTC. All of the shares of common stock held by brokerage firms, banks and other financial institutions as nominees for beneficial owners are deposited into participant accounts at DTC and are therefore considered to be held of record by Cede & Co. as one shareholder. Accordingly, the number of holders of record does not include beneficial owners whose shares are held by nominees in street name.
 
Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans

Information regarding securities authorized for issuance under our equity compensation plans is contained in Part III, Item 14 of this Annual Report.

Dividends

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to support our operations and finance the growth and development of our business. We do not intend to pay cash dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future. In addition, our ability to pay cash dividends on our common stock may be prohibited or limited by the terms of any future debt financing arrangement. Any return to shareholders will therefore be limited to the increase, if any, of our stock price.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

We did not sell any equity securities during the period covered by this Annual Report that were not registered under the Securities Act.

Stock Performance Graph

We are a smaller reporting company, as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act, and therefore are not required to provide the stock performance graph.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

We did not repurchase any shares of our common stock during the period covered by this Annual Report, except for shares surrendered to us, as reflected in the following table, to satisfy tax withholding obligations in connection with the vesting of equity awards.
(a)
Total Number of Shares (or Units) Purchased (1)

(b) Average Price Paid per Share

(c) Total Number of Shares (or Units) Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs

(d) Maximum Number (or Approximate Dollar Value) of Shares (or Units) that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs
October 1, 2021 – October 31, 2021 0 $0.00 N/A N/A
November 1, 2021 - November 30, 2021 1,795 $1.36 N/A N/A
December 1, 2021 - December 31, 2021 564 $1.42 N/A N/A
Total 2,359 $1.38
(1) Consists of shares withheld to pay employees’ tax liability in connection with the vesting of restricted stock units granted under the our stock-based compensation plans. These shares may be deemed to be “issuer purchases” of shares.
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ITEM 6.  [RESERVED]


ITEM 7.  MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
    The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our historical consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto included in this Annual Report. In addition to historical information, some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this Annual Report, including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business and related financing, includes forward‑looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. As a result of many factors, including those factors set forth in the “Risk Factors” section of this Annual Report, our actual results could differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward‑looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis.

Overview
    
    We are a specialty pharmaceutical company that sells commercial products to wholesale distributors and specialty pharmacies in the United States. Our primary marketed products include:

INDOCIN® (indomethacin) Suppositories
A suppository form and oral solution of indomethacin used in the hospital as well as in the out-patient setting. Both products are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), approved for:
• Moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis including acute flares of chronic disease
• Moderate to severe ankylosing spondylitis
INDOCIN® (indomethacin) Oral Suspension
• Moderate to severe osteoarthritis
• Acute painful shoulder (bursitis and/or tendinitis)
• Acute gouty arthritis
CAMBIA® (diclofenac potassium for oral solution)
A prescription NSAID indicated for the acute treatment of migraine attacks with or without aura in adults 18 years of age or older. CAMBIA can help patients with migraine pain, nausea, photophobia (sensitivity to light), and phonophobia (sensitivity to sound). CAMBIA is not a pill, it is a powder, and combining CAMBIA with water activates the medicine in a unique way.
Otrexup® (methotrexate)
injection for subcutaneous use
A once weekly single-dose auto-injector containing a prescription medicine, methotrexate. Methotrexate is used to:
• Treat certain adults with severe, active rheumatoid arthritis, and children with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pJIA), after treatment with other medicines including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) have been used and did not work well.
• Control the symptoms of severe, resistant, disabling psoriasis in adults when other types of treatment have been used and did not work well.
SPRIX® (ketorolac tromethamine) Nasal Spray
A prescription NSAID indicated in adult patients for the short term (up to five days) management of moderate to moderately severe pain that requires analgesia at the opioid level. SPRIX is a non-narcotic nasal spray provides patients with moderate to moderately severe short-term pain a form of ketorolac that is absorbed rapidly but does not require an injection administered by a healthcare provider (HCP).
Zipsor® (diclofenac potassium) Liquid filled capsules
A prescription NSAID used for relief of mild-to-moderate pain in adults (18 years of age and older). Zipsor uses proprietary ProSorb® delivery technology to deliver a finely dispersed, rapid and consistently absorbed formulation of diclofenac.

Other commercially available products include OXAYDO® (oxycodone HCI, USP) tablets for oral use only —CII.


On December 15, 2021, we, through a newly-formed subsidiary, Otter Pharmaceuticals, LLC, entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”) with Antares Pharma, Inc. (“Antares”), and concurrently consummated the transaction. Pursuant to the terms of the Purchase Agreement, we acquired Antares’ rights, title and interest in and to Otrexup, including certain related assets, intellectual property, contracts, and product inventory for (i) $18.0 million in cash payable at
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the Closing, (ii) $16.0 million in cash payable on May 31, 2022 and (iii) and $10.0 million in cash payable on December 15, 2022.

On May 18, 2021, we effected a 1-for-4 reverse stock split of its issued and outstanding common stock. The par value of the common stock was not adjusted as a result of the reverse stock split. All common stock share and per-share data included in these financial statements have been retrospectively adjusted to reflect the effect of the reverse stock split for all periods presented

On February 9, 2021, we completed a registered direct offering with certain institutional investors and accredited investors to sell 5,650,000 shares of our common stock at a purchase price of $2.48 per share on a post stock split basis. The gross proceeds from the offering were approximately $14.0 million. After placement agent fees and other offering expenses payable by us, we received net proceeds of approximately $13.1 million. On February 12, 2021, we completed a registered direct offering with certain institutional investors and accredited investors to sell 8,750,000 shares of our common stock at a purchase price of $3.92 per share on a post stock split basis. The gross proceeds from the offering were approximately $34.3 million. After placement agent fees and other offering expenses payable by us, we received net proceeds of approximately $32.2 million. We intend to use proceeds from both offerings for general corporate purposes, including general working capital.

In September 2020, we terminated our Second Amended and Restated Nano-Reformulated Compound License Agreement (the “iCeutica License”), with iCeutica Inc. and iCeutica Pty Ltd. (collectively, “iCeutica”). The iCeutica License allowed us to utilize certain technology and intellectual property related to iCeutica’s SOLUMATRIX technology and certain other rights of iCeutica. Effective the termination of the iCeutica License, we ceased manufacturing products using SOLUMATRIX technology and will sell through the remaining inventory.

On May 20, 2020, we completed a Merger (the Zyla Merger) with Zyla Life Sciences (Zyla) pursuant to an Agreement and Plan of Merger (Merger Agreement), dated as of March 16, 2020. Pursuant to the Zyla Merger, we acquired our current commercial products of INDOCIN Products, SPRIX, and OXAYDO, as well as ZORVOLEX®(diclofenac) and VIVLODEX® (meloxicam) (which are collectively known as the SOLUMATRIX® products).

On February 13, 2020, we completed the sale of our remaining rights, title and interest in and to the NUCYNTA® franchise to Collegium Pharmaceutical, Inc. (Collegium) for $375.0 million, less royalties, in cash at closing.

On January 10, 2020, we completed the sale of Gralise® (gabapentin) to Golf Acquiror LLC, an affiliate to Alvogen, Inc. (Alvogen), for cash proceeds of $130.3 million. The total value included $75.0 million in cash at closing, with the remaining balance settled through June 2020.

 
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND SIGNIFICANT ESTIMATES

Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) regulations for annual reporting. Our management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based on our consolidated financial statements. The preparation of our consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates, assumptions and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates. We base our estimates on historical experience and various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form our basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from those estimates under different assumptions or conditions. We believe the following critical accounting policies reflect the more significant judgements and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements.

A more detailed discussion of our critical accounting policies may be found in “Note 1. Organization and Significant Accounting Policies,” of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this report, and the impact and risks associated with our accounting policies are discussed throughout this Annual Report on Form 10‑K and in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
 
Revenue Recognition
 
Product sales revenue is recognized when title has transferred to the customer and the customer has assumed the risks and rewards of ownership, which typically occurs on delivery to the customer. Our performance obligation is to deliver product to the customer, and the performance obligation is completed upon delivery. The transaction price consists of a fixed invoice
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price and variable product sales allowances, which include rebates, discounts and returns. Product sales revenues are recorded net of applicable sales tax and reserves for these product sales allowances (gross-to-net sales allowances).

Product sales allowances consist primarily of provisions for product returns, managed care rebates and government rebates (collectively, rebates), wholesaler and pharmacy discounts, prompt pay discounts, patient discount programs, and chargebacks. We consider products sales allowances to be variable consideration and estimate and recognize product sales allowances as a reduction of product sales in the same period the related revenue is recognized. Product sales allowances are based on actual or estimated amounts owed on the related sales. These estimates take into consideration the terms of our agreements with customers, historical product returns, rebates or discounts taken, estimated levels of inventory in the distribution channel, the shelf life of the product and specific known market events, such as competitive pricing and new product introductions. We use the most likely method in estimating product sales allowances. If actual future results vary from our estimates, we may need to adjust the estimates, which could have an effect on product sales and earnings in the period of adjustment.

We believe our estimates related to gross‑to‑net sales adjustments for product return allowances and rebates are judgmental and are subject to change based on our experience and certain quantitative and qualitative factors. We believe that our estimates related to gross‑to‑net sales adjustments for wholesaler and pharmacy fees and discounts, prompt payment discounts, patient discount programs and chargebacks do not have a high degree of estimation complexity or uncertainty as the related amounts are settled within a relatively short period of time.

Product Return - We allow customers to return product for credit with respect to that product within 6 months before and up to 12 months after the product expiration date. We estimate product returns and associated credit based on historical return trends by product or by return trends of similar products, taking into consideration the shelf life of the product at the time of shipment, shipment and prescription trends, estimated distribution channel inventory levels and consideration of the introduction of competitive products. We do not assume financial responsibility for returns of NUCYNTA previously sold by Janssen Pharma, Lazanda product previously sold by Archimedes Pharma US Inc., or for Otrexup product previously sold by Antares Pharma. Under the Commercialization Agreement with Collegium for NUCYNTA, the divestiture of Lazanda to Slán and the divestiture of Gralise to Alvogen, we are only financially responsible for product returns for products that were sold by us, which are identified by specific lot numbers.

Shelf lives, from the respective manufacture dates, for our products range from 24 months to 48 months. Because of the shelf life of our products and its return policy of issuing credits with respect to product that is returned within six months before and up to 12 months after its product expiration date, there may be a significant period of time between when the product is shipped and when we issue credit on a returned product. Accordingly, we may have to adjust these estimates, which could have an effect on product sales and earnings in the period of adjustments. Product returns charged against gross sales were approximately $15.2 million in 2021.
Managed Care Rebates - We offer discounts under contracts with certain managed care providers. We generally pay managed care rebates one to three months after prescriptions subject to the rebate are filled. Managed care rebates charged against gross sales were approximately $8.9 million in 2021.
Government Rebates - We participate in both Medicaid and Medicare rebate programs. Medicaid provides assistance to certain low income patients based on each individual state’s guidelines regarding eligibility and services. Under the Medicaid rebate programs, we pay a rebate to each participating state, generally two to three months after the quarter in which prescriptions subject to the rebate are filled. We participate in the Medicare Part D Coverage Gap Discount Program under which it provides rebates on prescriptions that fall within the “donut hole” coverage gap. We generally pay Medicare Part D Coverage Gap rebates two to three months after the quarter in which prescriptions subject to the rebate are filled. Government rebates charged against gross sales were approximately $11.4 million in 2021.

Acquisitions

We account for acquired businesses using the acquisition method of accounting under ASC 805, Business Combinations (ASC 805), which requires that assets acquired and liabilities assumed be recorded at date of acquisition at their respective fair values. The fair value of the consideration paid, including contingent consideration, is assigned to the underlying net assets of the acquired business based on their respective fair values. Any excess of the purchase price over the estimated fair values of the net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill.

Significant judgments are used in determining the estimated fair values assigned to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed and in determining estimates of useful lives of long-lived assets. Fair value determinations and useful life estimates are
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based on, among other factors, estimates of expected future net cash flows, estimates of appropriate discount rates used to present value expected future net cash flows, the assessment of each asset’s life cycle, and the impact of competitive trends on each asset’s life cycle and other factors. These judgments can materially impact the estimates used to allocate acquisition date fair values to assets acquired and liabilities assumed and the resulting timing and amounts charged to, or recognized in current and future operating results. For these and other reasons, actual results may vary significantly from estimated results.

If the acquired net assets do not constitute a business under the acquisition method of accounting, the transaction is accounted for as an asset acquisition and no goodwill is recognized. In an asset acquisition, the amount allocated to acquired in-process research and development (IPR&D) with no alternative future use is charged to expense at the acquisition date.

On December 15, 2021, we completed the Otrexup Acquisition, which was accounted under ASC 805. See “Note 2. Acquisitions” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this report.

On May 20, 2020, we completed the Zyla Merger, which was accounted under ASC 805. See “Note 2. Acquisitions” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this report.

Contingent Consideration Obligation

Pursuant to the May 2020 Zyla Merger, we assumed a contingent consideration obligation which is measured at fair value. We have an obligations to make contingent consideration payments for future royalties to Iroko based upon annual INDOCIN Product net sales over $20.0 million at a 20% royalty through January 2029.

At each reporting date, we re-measure the contingent consideration obligation to estimated fair value which is recognized in Selling, general and administrative expense in the Company’s Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income. The fair value of the contingent consideration is determined using an option pricing model under the income approach based on estimated INDOCIN Product revenues through January 2029 and discounted to present value. The fair value measurement is based on significant inputs not observable in the market and thus represents a Level 3 measurement as defined in fair value measurement accounting. The significant assumptions used in the calculation of the fair value include projections of future INDOCIN Product revenues including the probability assigned to the achievement of those projections, revenue volatility, discount rate, and credit spread. During the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company recognized a charge of $3.9 million and $1.5 million, respectively, for the change in fair value of contingent consideration, which was recognized in Selling, general and administrative expense in the Company’s Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income. The significant assumptions used in the calculation of the fair value as of December 31, 2021 included revenue volatility of 35%, discount rate of 7.0%, credit spread of 5.2% and updated projections of future INDOCIN Product revenues.

Impairment of Long-lived Assets

We evaluate long-lived assets, including property and equipment and acquired intangible assets consisting of product rights, for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset may not be recoverable. An impairment loss would be recognized when estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset and its eventual disposition are less than its carrying amount. The impairment loss is calculated as the excess of the carrying amount over the fair value. Estimating future cash flows and fair value related to an intangible asset involves significant estimates and assumptions. If our assumptions are not correct, there could be an impairment loss or, in the case of a change in the estimated useful life of the asset, a change in amortization expense.

As of December 31, 2021, we determined that there was an indicator of impairment present based on our market capitalization as of December 31, 2021 compared to our carrying value. After grouping the long-lived assets, including purchased developed technology and trademarks, at the lowest level for which there are identifiable cash flows that are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities, we estimated the future net undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated from the use of the long-lived asset group and its eventual disposition. We then compared the estimated undiscounted cash flows to the carrying amount of the long-lived asset group. Based on this test, we determined that the estimated undiscounted cash flows were in excess of the carrying amount of the long-lived asset group and, accordingly, the long-lived asset group is fully recoverable.

As of December 31, 2020, we determined there were indicators of impairment present related to the declining revenues due to the adverse impact of COVID-19 on our business as well as unfavorable changes in product payor mix, resulting in our announcement of a restructuring plan. These factors contributed to higher operating losses and cash used by operating activities during the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to the prior year. In addition, during the fourth quarter of 2020, our
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market capitalization declined from approximately $72.0 million as of September 30, 2020 to $38.0 million as of December 31, 2020. As a result of these recent events, we determined indicators of impairment were present and, accordingly, performed a test for recoverability of long-lived assets to be held and used pursuant to ASC 360, Impairment Testing: Long Lived Assets Classified as Held and Used. After grouping the long-lived assets, including purchased developed technology and trademarks, at the lowest level for which there are identifiable cash flows that are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities, we estimated the future net undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated from the use of the long-lived asset group and its eventual disposition. We then compared the estimated undiscounted cash flows to the carrying amount of the long-lived asset group. Based on this test, we determined that the estimated undiscounted cash flows were in excess of the carrying amount of the long-lived asset group and, accordingly, the long-lived asset group is fully recoverable.

Goodwill

Under the purchase method of accounting pursuant to ASC 805, Goodwill is calculated as the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed. Goodwill is recognized within other long-term assets, and is not amortized but subject to an annual review for impairment. Goodwill is tested for impairment at the reporting unit level at least annually or when a triggering event occurs that could indicate a potential impairment by assessing qualitative factors or performing a quantitative analysis in determining whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of net assets are below their carrying amounts. A reporting unit is the same as, or one level below, an operating segment. Our operations are currently comprised of a single reporting unit.

As of December 31, 2020, we determined, due to declining revenues and a decrease in our market capitalization, that it is more likely than not that the fair value of net assets are below their carrying amounts and, therefore, we performed the required goodwill impairment test under ASC 350, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other. First, we estimated the fair value of the reporting unit to which goodwill is assigned using a combination of the income and market approach. We then compared the carrying amount of the reporting unit, including goodwill, to its fair value. Since the fair value was less than the reporting unit’s carrying amount, we calculated the goodwill impairment as the difference between the reporting unit’s fair value and the carrying amount, not to exceed the carrying amount of goodwill. Accordingly, we recorded an impairment charge of $17.4 million, recognized within total costs and expenses in the Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income, to impair the carrying amount of goodwill as of December 31, 2020.

Income Taxes
 
We record the estimated future tax effects of temporary differences between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and amounts reported in our accompanying consolidated balance sheets, as well as operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. We follow the guidelines set forth in the applicable accounting guidance regarding the recoverability of any tax assets recorded on the consolidated balance sheet and provide any necessary allowances as required. Determining necessary allowances requires us to make assessments about the timing of future events, including the probability of expected future taxable income and available tax planning opportunities. When we determine that it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized in the future, the deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance. The valuation allowance is sufficient to reduce the deferred tax assets to the amount that we determine is more likely than not to be realized.

We are subject to examination of our income tax returns by various tax authorities on a periodic basis. We regularly assess the likelihood of adverse outcomes resulting from such examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for income taxes. We have applied the provisions of the applicable accounting guidance on accounting for uncertainty in income taxes, which requires application of a more‑likely‑than‑not threshold to the recognition and de‑recognition of uncertain tax positions. If the recognition threshold is met, the applicable accounting guidance permits us to recognize a tax benefit measured at the largest amount of tax benefit that, in our judgment, is more than 50 percent likely to be realized upon settlement. It further requires that a change in judgment related to the expected ultimate resolution of uncertain tax positions be recognized in earnings in the period of such change.

We recognize tax liabilities in accordance with ASC Topic 740, Tax Provisions and we adjust these liabilities when our judgment changes as a result of the evaluation of new information not previously available. Due to the complexity of some of these uncertainties, the ultimate resolution may result in a payment that is materially different from our current estimate of the tax liabilities. These differences will be reflected as increases or decreases to income tax expense in the period in which they are determined. Refer to “Note 20. Income Taxes” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this report.


RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
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The following table reflects our results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 (in thousands):

2021 2020
Revenues:
Product sales, net $ 109,420  $ 92,090 
Commercialization agreement, net —  11,258 
     Royalties and milestones 2,579  1,519 
Other revenue (985) 1,408 
Total revenues 111,014  106,275 
Costs and expenses:
Cost of sales 15,832  19,872 
Research and development expenses —  4,213 
Selling, general and administrative expenses 56,555  104,324 
Amortization of intangible assets 28,114  24,783 
Loss on impairment of goodwill —  17,432 
 Restructuring charges 1,089  17,806 
Total costs and expenses 101,590  188,430 
Income (loss) from operations 9,424  (82,155)
Other (expense) income:
Interest expense (10,220) (15,926)
Other gain (loss) 243  (3,225)
    Gain on sale of Gralise —  126,655 
Loss on debt extinguishment —  (56,113)
Loss on sale of NUCYNTA —  (14,749)
Total other (expense) income (9,977) 36,642 
Net loss before income taxes (553) (45,513)
Income tax (expense) benefit (728) 17,369 
Net loss and Comprehensive loss $ (1,281) $ (28,144)
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Revenues

The following table reflects total revenues, net for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 (in thousands):
 
Year ended December 31,
2021 2020
Product sales, net:    
INDOCIN products (1)
$ 60,557 $ 31,684
CAMBIA 24,972 28,350
Zipsor 10,185 13,286
SPRIX (1)
8,676 11,077
Other products 5,030 7,693
Total product sales, net 109,420 92,090
Commercialization agreement revenue, net 11,258
Royalties and milestone revenue 2,579 1,519
Other revenue (985) 1,408
Total revenues $ 111,014 $ 106,275

(1)Products acquired in connection with May 20, 2020 Zyla Merger.
Product Sales, net

For the year ended December 31, 2021, product sales primarily consisted of sales from INDOCIN Products, CAMBIA, Zipsor and SPRIX. We began shipping and recognizing product sales for INDOCIN Products and SPRIX upon the Zyla Merger on May 20, 2020.

The increase in INDOCIN net products sales for the year ended December 31, 2021 of $28.9 million from $31.7 million to $60.6 million as compared to the same period in 2020 was primarily due to INDOCIN Products sales only beginning upon the Zyla Merger on May 20, 2020 as well the impact of the price increase in the fourth quarter of 2021.

CAMBIA net product sales for the year ended December 31, 2021 decreased $3.4 million from $28.4 million to $25.0 million as compared to the same period in 2020, primarily due to lower volume partially offset by favorable payor mix.
 
Zipsor net product sales for the year ended December 31, 2021 decreased $3.1 million from $13.3 million to $10.2 million as compared to the same period in 2020, primarily due to lower volume partially offset by favorable payor mix. Certain parties who have entered into settlement agreements with us will be able to market generic versions of Zipsor starting in 2022.

SPRIX net product sales for the year ended December 31, 2021 decreased $2.4 million from $11.1 million to $8.7 million as compared to the same period in 2020, primarily due to lower volume partially offset by the impact of 2020 as product sales only began upon the Zyla Merger on May 20, 2020.

Other products net sales includes product sales for non-promoted products (OXAYDO and SOLUMATRIX) which were acquired from Zyla in May 2020. In September 2020, we terminated our iCeutica License and as a result will no longer manufacture products using SOLUMATRIX technology and will sell through the remaining inventory.

Commercialization Agreement Revenue, net

We ceased recognizing commercialization revenue and related costs for NUCYNTA effective the closing of the transaction to divest our rights, title and interest in and to the NUCYNTA franchise to Collegium on February 13, 2020. During the year ended December 31, 2020, we recognized net revenue from the Commercialization Agreement of $11.3 million. This included variable royalty revenue of $13.1 million partially offset by the amortization of the $1.8 million net contract asset in connection with the termination of the Commercialization Agreement.
    
Royalties & Milestone

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    In November 2010, we entered into a license agreement with Tribute Pharmaceuticals Canada Ltd. (now known as Miravo Pharmaceuticals) granting them the rights to commercially market CAMBIA in Canada. We receive royalties on net sales as well as certain one-time contingent milestone payments. During the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, we recognized $2.5 million and $1.5 million of revenue related to CAMBIA in Canada, respectively.

Other Revenue

Other revenue consists of sales adjustments for previously divested products. Sales adjustments for previously divested products primarily include Gralise, which was divested in January 2020, as well as Nucynta and Lazanda, and were $(1.0) million and $1.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2021, and 2020, respectively.
    
Cost of Sales (excluding amortization of intangible assets)

Cost of sales consists of costs of the active pharmaceutical ingredient, contract manufacturing and packaging costs, royalties payable to third parties, inventory write downs, product quality testing, internal employee costs related to the manufacturing process, distribution costs and shipping costs related to our product sales. Cost of sales excludes the amortization of intangible assets described below under “Amortization of Intangible Assets.” Fair value of inventories acquired through business combination or asset acquisition include an inventory step-up within the value of inventories. The inventory step-up value is amortized, as the related inventory is sold, and included in cost of sales.

Cost of sales decreased $4.0 million from $19.9 million to $15.8 million during the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the same period in 2020 primarily due to lower cost of sales as a result of the Gralise divestiture in the first quarter of 2020 and lower Zyla Merger related inventory step-up expense in current period, partially offset by higher net product sales.

During the year ended December 31, 2021 cost of sales include $0.6 million amortization of inventory step-up related to Zyla acquired inventories sold. The year ended December 31, 2020 cost of sales included $4.1 million of amortization of inventory step-up related to Zyla acquired inventories sold.

Research and Development Expenses
 
Our research and development (R&D) expenses include salaries, clinical trial costs, consultant fees, supplies, manufacturing costs for research and development programs and allocations of corporate costs. It is difficult to predict the scope and magnitude of future research and development expenses for our product candidates in research and development, as it is difficult to determine the nature, timing and extent of clinical trials and studies and the FDA’s requirements for a particular drug. As potential products proceed through the development process, each step is typically more extensive, and therefore more expensive, than the previous step. Therefore, success in development generally results in increasing expenditures until actual product approval.
 
As a result of the December 2020 restructuring plan, we did not incur any research and development costs in 2021. Research and development expense decreased for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the same period in 2020 primarily due to the completion of all material research and development activities in 2020.

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
 
Selling, general and administrative (“SG&A”) expenses primarily consist of personnel, contract personnel, marketing and promotion expenses associated with our commercial products, personnel expenses to support our administrative and operating activities, facility costs, and professional expenses, such as legal fees. In addition, the change in fair value of our contingent consideration liability, which is remeasured quarterly based on the likelihood of the contingent earn-out payments, is recognized within SG&A.

Selling, general, and administrative expenses decreased $47.8 million from $104.3 million to $56.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, as compared to the same period in 2020 primarily due to lower employee costs in 2021 as a result of prior restructuring plans, one-time transaction costs in 2020 not repeating, receipt of insurance reimbursement in the first quarter of 2021 for previous opioid-related expenses, partially offset by additional expense for loss contingency provision recognized in 2021.    

Intangible Assets
    
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    The following table reflects amortization of intangible assets for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 (in thousands):
Year ended December 31,
2021 2020
Amortization of intangible assets—INDOCIN $ 12,842  $ 7,812 
Amortization of intangible assets—CAMBIA 7,247  5,136 
Amortization of intangible assets—SPRIX 5,571  3,389 
Amortization of intangible assets—Zipsor 2,337  2,337 
Amortization of intangible assets—OXAYDO 117  183 
Amortization of intangible assets—NUCYNTA —  5,926 
Total amortization of intangible assets $ 28,114  $ 24,783 
 
Amortization expense during the year ended December 31, 2021 increased $3.3 million from $24.8 million to $28.1 million as compared to the same period in 2020 primarily due to the timing of Zyla Merger in May 2020 partially offset by the February 2020 divestiture of our rights, title and interest to the NUCYNTA franchise of products to Collegium. As a result, we derecognized the remaining carrying value of the NUCYNTA product rights and ceased recognizing related amortization.

Loss on Impairment of Goodwill and Intangible Asset

No impairment loss on goodwill was recognized during the year ended December 31, 2021. During the year ended December 31, 2020, we recognized an impairment loss of $17.4 million on goodwill to reduce the carrying value to its estimated fair value in accordance with ASC 350.

Restructuring Charges

We continually evaluate our operations to identify opportunities to streamline operations and optimize operating efficiencies in anticipation of changes in the business environment.

On December 15, 2020, we announced the December 2020 Plan which was designed to substantially reduce the Company’s operating footprint through the reduction of its staff at our headquarters office and remote sales force. We substantially completed the workforce reduction in the first quarter of 2021.

In May 2020, we began implementing reorganization plans of our workforce and other restructuring activities to realize the synergies of the Zyla Merger and to re-align resources to strategic areas and drive growth (Zyla Merger Reorganization). We completed the restructuring activities in 2020 and did not incur significant costs related to the Zyla Merger Reorganization in 2021. For the year ended December 31, 2021 restructuring charges incurred were $1.1 million. The restructuring charges cost and one-time termination costs incurred for the year ended December 31, 2020 were $17.8 million.

 Other (Expense) Income

    The following table reflects Other (expense) income: for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 (in thousands):
Year ended December 31,
2021 2020
Interest expense $ (10,220) $ (15,926)
Other gain (loss) 243  (3,225)
    Gain on sale of Gralise —  126,655 
Loss on debt extinguishment —  (56,113)
Loss on sale of NUCYNTA —  (14,749)
Total other (expense) income $ (9,977) $ 36,642 

Other (expense) income: changed by $46.6 million from other income of $36.6 million to other expense of $10.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the same period in 2020 primarily due to the prior year gain on the sale of Gralise, loss on sale of NUCYNTA, loss on debt extinguishment and change in fair value of Collegium warrants not repeating. Sublease income offset by sublease expense is recorded in Other gain (loss) within the above table.
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The following table reflects interest expense for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 (in thousands):
Year ended December 31,
2021 2020
Interest payable on Convertible Notes $ $ 1,727 
Interest payable on 13% Senior Secured Notes due 2024 10,020  6,870 
Interest payable on Senior Notes —  1,648 
Amortization of debt discounts, and royalty rights 194  5,680 
Other — 
Total interest expense $ 10,220  $ 15,926 

For the year ended December 31, 2021, total interest expense decreased $5.7 million as compared to the same period in 2020 primarily due the settlement of the remaining principal of our Senior Secured Notes and the repurchase of our 2021 and 2024 Convertible Notes in the third quarter of 2020 partially offset by interest expense associated with 13% Senior Secured Notes assumed from the Zyla Merger in May 2020.

Income Tax Provision

During the year ended December 31, 2021, we recorded an income tax expense of approximately $0.7 million, which represents an effective tax rate of (131.6)%. The difference between the income tax expense of $0.7 million and the tax at the statutory rate of 21% is principally due to the recording of a valuation allowance for current year movement in deferred tax assets.

During the year ended December 31, 2020, we recorded an income tax benefit of approximately $17.4 million, which represents an effective tax rate of 38.2%. The difference between the income tax benefit of $17.4 million and the tax at the statutory rate of 21.0% is principally due to the carryback of our 2020 federal net operating loss (“NOL”) to our 2018 and 2019 tax years under the NOL carryback provisions enacted as part of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (“CARES”) Act in early 2020 and the current year reversal of valuation allowance related to the utilization of our deferred tax assets (“DTA”) to offset the deferred tax liabilities (“DTL”) of Zyla recorded through acquisition accounting.

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
 
     Historically and through December 31, 2021, we have financed our operations and business development efforts primarily from product sales, private and public sales of equity securities, including convertible debt securities, the proceeds of secured borrowings, the sale of rights to future royalties and milestones, upfront license, milestone and fees from collaborative and license partners.

On December 17, 2021, we entered into a Sales Agreement with Roth Capital Partners, LLC (“Roth”) as sales agent to sell shares of our common stock, from time to time, through an “at-the-market offering” program having an aggregate offering price of up to $25.0 million. Roth will be entitled to aggregate compensation equal to 3.0% of the gross sales price of the shares sold through it pursuant to the Sales Agreement. As of December 31, 2021, we have not sold any shares under this program.

On February 9, 2021, we completed a registered direct offering with certain institutional investors and accredited investors to sell 5,650,000 shares of our common stock at a purchase price of $2.48 per share on a post stock split basis. The gross proceeds from the offering were approximately $14.0 million. After placement agent fees, we received net proceeds of approximately $13.1 million. On February 12, 2021, we completed a registered direct offering with certain institutional investors and accredited investors to sell 8,750,000 shares of our common stock at a purchase price of $3.92 per share on a post stock split basis. The gross proceeds from the offering were approximately $34.3 million. After placement agent fees, we received net proceeds of approximately $32.2 million. We also incurred $0.5 million direct incremental cost to complete both registered direct offerings. We intend to use proceeds from both offerings for general corporate purposes, including general working capital.

We may incur operating losses in future years. We believe that our existing cash will be sufficient to fund our operations and make the required payments under our debt agreements due for the next twelve months from the date of this filing. We base this expectation on our current operating plan, which may change as a result of many factors.
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Our cash needs may vary materially from our current expectations because of numerous factors, including:

acquisitions or licenses of complementary businesses, products, technologies or companies;
sales of our marketed products;
expenditures related to our commercialization of our products;
milestone and royalty revenue we receive under our collaborative development arrangements;
interest and principal payments on our current and future indebtedness;
financial terms of definitive license agreements or other commercial agreements we may enter into
changes in the focus and direction of our business strategy and/or research and development programs;
potential expenses relating to any litigation matters, including relating to Assertio Therapeutics’ prior opioid product franchise for which we have not accrued any reserves due to an inability to estimate the magnitude and/or probability of such expenses, and former drug Glumetza; and
effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on our operations.

The inability to raise any additional capital that may be required to fund our future operations, payments due under our debt agreements, or product acquisitions and strategic transactions which we may pursue could have a material adverse effect on our company.
 
The following table reflects summarized cash flow activities for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 (in thousands)::
  Year ended December 31,
  2021 2020
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities $ 5,523  $ (65,572)
Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities (18,525) 512,801 
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities 29,026  (468,550)
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents $ 16,024  $ (21,321)
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of year 20,786 42,107
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period $ 36,810  $ 20,786 

Cash Flows from Operating Activities
 
Cash provided by operating activities was $5.5 million during the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to cash used of $65.6 million in the same period in 2020. The increase in cash provided from operating activities is primarily due to combination of lower net loss after non-cash adjustments and favorable working capital cash flows.

Cash Flows from Investing Activities
 
Cash used in investing activities was $18.5 million during the year ended December 31, 2021 which included $18.0 million paid related to the Otrexup acquisition. Cash provided from investing activities was $512.8 million during the year ended December 31, 2020, which included cash received for the sales of NUCYNTA, Gralise and Collegium warrants as well as cash acquired in Zyla Merger.

Cash Flows from Financing Activities
 
Cash provided by financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2021 was $29.0 million, which primarily consisted of proceeds from the registered direct offerings in February 2021 partially offset by payments of our debt as well as our contingent consideration obligation. Cash used in financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2020 was $468.6 million, which was primarily due to the settlement of our Senior Notes and the repurchase of our outstanding 2021 Notes and 2024 Notes.

Contractual Obligations
 
Our principal material cash requirements consist of obligations related to the deferred cash payments for Otrexup acquisition, debt obligations related to Secured Notes and Royalty Rights, continent consideration obligation, payments for rebates, returns and discounts, third-party consent payments, remaining compensation under our restructuring programs, and non-cancelable leases for our office space. Refer to Note 2, Note 10, Note 19, Note 1, Note 18, Note 11 and Note 12, respectively, to the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements.
48




Additionally, we have non-cancelable contractual obligations for our purchase commitments, see Note 13 to the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements.

RECENTLY ADOPTED ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
 
    See “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplemental Data - Note 1. Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” for additional information on recent accounting pronouncements.

ITEM 7A.  QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

 We are a smaller reporting company, as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act, and therefore are not required to provide the information called for by this Item 7A.
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ITEM 8.  FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

We are a smaller reporting company, as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act, and therefore we are permitted to provide scaled Item 8 disclosure.

ASSERTIO HOLDINGS, INC.
INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 

50




Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

Board of Directors and Shareholders
Assertio Holdings, Inc.

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheet of Assertio Holdings, Inc. (a Delaware corporation) and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2021, the related consolidated statements of comprehensive income, shareholders’ equity, and cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2021, and the related notes and financial statement schedule (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2021, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2021, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021, based on criteria established in the 2013 Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”), and our report dated March 10, 2022 expressed an unqualified opinion.

Basis for Opinion

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audit included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audit also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matters

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of a critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.

Contingent consideration
As described further in Note 2 and Note 19 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company's contingent consideration liability consists of future royalty payments to Iroko based on annual INDOCIN Product revenues over $20.0 million. The liability was assumed as a result of the May 2020 Zyla Merger and is $37.9 million as of December 31, 2021. The Company uses an option pricing model to estimate the fair value of the liability each reporting period, which requires significant management judgment given the use of significant unobservable inputs and assumptions. We identified the valuation of the contingent consideration liability as a critical audit matter.

The principal consideration for our determination that the valuation of the contingent consideration liability is a critical audit matter was the significant auditor judgment required to evaluate the projections of future INDOCIN Product revenues and the probability assigned to the achievement of agreed upon milestones, used to determine the fair value.

Addressing the matter involved performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence in connection with forming our overall opinion on the consolidated financial statements. Our audit procedures related to the valuation of the contingent consideration liability included the following, among others.

We obtained an understanding and tested the design and operating effectiveness of relevant controls within the Company’s process to value the contingent consideration liability including the Company’s controls over the development of the projections.

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We evaluated the reasonableness of the Company’s assumptions related to revenue and the probability of achieving certain milestones by (1) comparing forecasts to current and historical results and (2) comparing Company forecasts to industry forecasts of peer companies.

We involved our valuation professionals with specialized skills and knowledge, to evaluate key inputs and assumptions used to determine fair value, which included the projections as well as the probability weighting within the valuation model. Our valuation professionals compared the projections against historical, market and industry information and performed sensitivity analysis to determine if the information was reasonable.

/s/ GRANT THORNTON LLP

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2021.
Chicago, Illinois
March 10, 2022
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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of Assertio Holdings, Inc.

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheet of Assertio Holdings, Inc. (the Company) as of December 31, 2020, the related consolidated statements of comprehensive income, shareholders' equity and cash flows for the year then ended, and the related notes and financial statement schedule listed in the Index at Item 15(a)(2) (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at December 31, 2020, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for the year then ended, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

Basis for Opinion

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audit included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audit also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audit provide a reasonable basis for our opinion

/s/ Ernst & Young LLP


We have served as the Company’s auditor from 1997 to 2021.

Chicago, Illinois
March 12, 2021,
except for the effects of the 1-for-4 reverse stock split and for the effect of the reclassification discussed in Note 1, as to which the date is
March 10, 2022
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ASSERTIO HOLDINGS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands, except share and per share data) 
December 31,
  2021 2020
ASSETS    
Current assets:    
Cash and cash equivalents $ 36,810  $ 20,786 
Accounts receivable, net 44,361  44,350 
Inventories, net 7,489  11,712 
Prepaid and other current assets 14,838  17,406 
Total current assets 103,498  94,254 
Property and equipment, net 1,527  2,437 
Intangible assets, net 216,054  200,082 
Other long-term assets 5,468  6,501 
Total assets $ 326,547  $ 303,274 
LIABILITIES AND SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable $ 6,685  $ 14,808 
Accrued rebates, returns and discounts 52,662  63,114 
Accrued liabilities 14,699  28,864 
Long-term debt, current portion 12,174  11,942 
Contingent consideration, current portion 14,500  6,776 
Other current liabilities 34,299  7,182 
Total current liabilities 135,019  132,686 
Long-term debt 61,319  72,160 
Contingent consideration 23,159  31,776 
Other long-term liabilities 4,636  11,138 
Total liabilities 224,133  247,760 
Commitments and contingencies
Shareholders’ equity:
Common stock, $0.0001 par value, 200,000,000 shares authorized; 44,640,444 and 28,392,149 shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively
Additional paid-in capital 531,636  483,456 
Accumulated deficit (429,226) (427,945)
Total shareholders’ equity 102,414  55,514 
Total liabilities and shareholders' equity $ 326,547  $ 303,274 











The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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ASSERTIO HOLDINGS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME 
(in thousands, except per share data)
 
  Year Ended December 31,
  2021 2020
Revenues:    
Product sales, net $ 109,420  $ 92,090 
Commercialization agreement, net —  11,258 
     Royalties and milestones 2,579  1,519 
Other revenue (985) 1,408
Total revenues 111,014  106,275 
Costs and expenses:
Cost of sales 15,832  19,872 
Research and development expenses —  4,213 
Selling, general and administrative expenses 56,555  104,324 
Amortization of intangible assets 28,114  24,783 
Loss on impairment of goodwill —  17,432 
 Restructuring charges 1,089  17,806 
Total costs and expenses 101,590  188,430 
Income (loss) from operations 9,424 (82,155)
Other (expense) income:
Interest expense (10,220) (15,926)
Other gain (loss) 243  (3,225)
    Gain on sale of Gralise —  126,655 
Loss on debt extinguishment —  (56,113)
Loss on sale of NUCYNTA (14,749)
Total other (expense) income (9,977) 36,642 
Net loss before income taxes (553) (45,513)
Income tax (expense) benefit (728) 17,369 
Net loss and Comprehensive loss $ (1,281) $ (28,144)
Basic net loss per share $ (0.03) $ (1.07)
Diluted net loss per share $ (0.03) $ (1.07)
Shares used in computing basic net loss per share 43,169  26,209 
Shares used in computing diluted net loss per share 43,169  26,209 












The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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ASSERTIO HOLDINGS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(in thousands)
  Common Stock Additional Paid-In Capital* Accumulated
Deficit
Shareholders’
Equity
  Shares* Amount*
Balances as of December 31, 2019 20,222  $ $ 457,757  $ (399,801) $ 57,958 
Issuance of common stock under employee stock purchase plan 46  —  87  —  87 
Issuance of common stock in conjunction with vesting of restricted stock units, net of employee's withholding liability 234  —  (336) —  (336)
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of warrant 1,521  —  —  —  — 
Reacquisition of equity component of 2021 and 2024 Notes —  —  (19,532) —  (19,532)
Issuance of common stock in connection with the Zyla Merger 6,370  22,930  —  22,931 
Issuance of warrants and stock options in conjunction with the Zyla Merger —  —  11,626  —  11,626 
Stock-based compensation —  —  10,924  —  10,924 
     Net loss and Comprehensive loss —  —  —  (28,144) (28,144)
Balances as of December 31, 2020 28,393  483,456  (427,945) 55,514 
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of options 73  —  193  —  193 
Issuance of common stock in connection with stock offering 14,400  44,860  —  44,861 
Issuance of common stock in conjunction with vesting of restricted stock units, net of employee's withholding liability 583  —  (418) —  (418)
Issuance of common stock in conjunction with vesting of performance stock units 13  —  —  —  — 
Issuance of common stock under employee stock purchase plan —  —  —  — 
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of warrant 1,192  —  —  —  — 
Stock split fractional shares settlement (18) —  —  —  — 
Stock-based compensation —  —  3,545  —  3,545 
Net loss and Comprehensive loss —  —  —  (1,281) (1,281)
Balances as of December 31, 2021 44,640  $ $ 531,636  $ (429,226) $ 102,414 

(*) Adjusted to reflect the 1-for-4 reverse stock split effected on May 18, 2021.















The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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ASSERTIO HOLDINGS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(in thousands)
Year Ended December 31,
2021 2020
Operating Activities
Net loss $ (1,281) $ (28,144)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization 29,077  26,431 
Amortization of debt discount, debt issuance costs and royalty rights 194  5,680 
Stock-based compensation 3,545  10,924 
Provisions for inventory and other assets 1,368  3,817 
Impairment of goodwill —  17,432 
Loss on disposal of equipment and early termination of leases —  1,588 
Income tax provision —  (8,424)
Gain on sale of Gralise —  (126,655)
Loss on sale of NUCYNTA —  14,749 
Loss on extinguishment of Convertible Notes —  47,880 
Loss on prepayment of Senior Notes —  8,233 
Recurring fair value measurement of assets and liabilities 3,913  5,129 
Changes in assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable (11) 19,800 
Inventories 4,268  (291)
Prepaid and other assets 3,079  10,797 
Income taxes 522  (8,973)
Accounts payable and other accrued liabilities (28,699) (36,479)
Accrued rebates, returns and discounts (10,452) (29,066)
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities 5,523  (65,572)
Investing Activities
Cash acquired in Zyla Merger —  7,585 
Proceeds from sale of NUCYNTA —  368,965 
Proceeds from sale of Gralise —  130,261 
Purchases of property and equipment (53) (10)
Purchase of Otrexup (18,472) — 
Proceeds from sale of investments —  6,000 
Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities (18,525) 512,801 
Financing Activities
Payment of contingent consideration (4,807) (3,016)
Payment of Royalty Rights (968) (500)
Payments in connection with Senior Notes settlement —  (171,775)
Payments in connection with convertible notes (335) (264,731)
Payment in connection with Series A-1 and A-2 debt (9,500) (14,750)
Payments on Promissory Note —  (3,000)
Payments on Revolver —  (10,000)
Proceeds from issuance of common stock 44,861  88 
Proceeds from exercise of stock options 193  — 
Shares withheld for payment of employee's withholding tax liability (418) (866)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities 29,026  (468,550)
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents
16,024  (21,321)
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of year 20,786  42,107 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period $ 36,810  $ 20,786 
Supplemental Disclosure of Cash Flow Information
Net cash refund of income taxes $ —  $ 1,136 
Cash paid for interest $ 10,124  $ 17,598 
Supplemental Disclosure of Non-Cash Investing Activities
Acquisition of Otrexup intangible assets $ 26,021  $ — 



The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

NOTE 1. ORGANIZATION AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
 
Organization
 
In May 2020, Assertio Therapeutics, Inc. implemented a holding company reorganization through which Assertio Therapeutics, Inc. became a subsidiary of Assertio Holdings, Inc. (Assertio Reorganization) and, subsequently, Assertio Holdings, Inc. merged with Zyla Life Sciences (Zyla) in a transaction we refer to as the “Zyla Merger.” Unless otherwise noted or required by context, use of “Assertio,” “Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to Assertio Holdings, Inc. and/or its applicable subsidiary or subsidiaries.

Assertio is a specialty pharmaceutical company that sells commercial products to wholesale distributors and specialty pharmacies in the United States (“U.S.”). The Company’s primary marketed products include:

INDOCIN® (indomethacin) Suppositories
A suppository form and oral solution of indomethacin used in the hospital as well as in the out-patient setting. Both products are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), approved for:
• Moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis including acute flares of chronic disease
• Moderate to severe ankylosing spondylitis
INDOCIN® (indomethacin) Oral Suspension
• Moderate to severe osteoarthritis
• Acute painful shoulder (bursitis and/or tendinitis)
• Acute gouty arthritis
CAMBIA® (diclofenac potassium for oral solution)
A prescription NSAID indicated for the acute treatment of migraine attacks with or without aura in adults 18 years of age or older. CAMBIA can help patients with migraine pain, nausea, photophobia (sensitivity to light), and phonophobia (sensitivity to sound). CAMBIA is not a pill, it is a powder, and combining CAMBIA with water activates the medicine in a unique way.
Otrexup® (methotrexate)
injection for subcutaneous use
A once weekly single-dose auto-injector containing a prescription medicine, methotrexate. Methotrexate is used to:
• Treat certain adults with severe, active rheumatoid arthritis, and children with active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pJIA), after treatment with other medicines including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) have been used and did not work well.
• Control the symptoms of severe, resistant, disabling psoriasis in adults when other types of treatment have been used and did not work well.
SPRIX® (ketorolac tromethamine) Nasal Spray
A prescription NSAID indicated in adult patients for the short term (up to five days) management of moderate to moderately severe pain that requires analgesia at the opioid level. SPRIX is a non-narcotic nasal spray provides patients with moderate to moderately severe short-term pain a form of ketorolac that is absorbed rapidly but does not require an injection administered by a healthcare provider (HCP).
Zipsor® (diclofenac potassium) Liquid filled capsules
A prescription NSAID used for relief of mild-to-moderate pain in adults (18 years of age and older). Zipsor uses proprietary ProSorb® delivery technology to deliver a finely dispersed, rapid and consistently absorbed formulation of diclofenac.

Other commercially available products include OXAYDO® (oxycodone HCI, USP) tablets for oral use only —CII.

On December 15, 2021, the Company, through a newly-formed subsidiary, Otter Pharmaceuticals, LLC, entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”) with Antares Pharma, Inc. (“Antares”), and concurrently consummated the transaction. Pursuant to the terms of the Purchase Agreement, the Company acquired Antares’ rights, title and interest in and to Otrexup, including certain related assets, intellectual property, contracts, and product inventory for (i) $18.0 million in cash paid at closing, (ii) $16.0 million in cash payable on May 31, 2022 and (iii) and $10.0 million in cash payable on December 15, 2022.

On February 9, 2021, the Company completed a registered direct offering with certain institutional investors and accredited investors to sell 5,650,000 shares of our common stock at a purchase price of $2.48 per share on a post stock split basis. The gross proceeds from the offering were approximately $14.0 million. After placement agent fees and other offering expenses payable by the Company, Assertio received net proceeds of approximately $13.1 million. On February 12, 2021, the
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Company completed a registered direct offering with certain institutional investors and accredited investors to sell 8,750,000 shares of our common stock at a purchase price of $3.92 per share on a post stock split basis. The gross proceeds from the offering were approximately $34.3 million. After placement agent fees and other offering expenses payable by the Company, Assertio received net proceeds of approximately $32.2 million. The Company intends to use proceeds from both offerings for general corporate purposes, including general working capital.

In September 2020, the Company terminated its Second Amended and Restated Nano-Reformulated Compound License Agreement as of January 27, 2020 (the “iCeutica License”), with iCeutica Inc. and iCeutica Pty Ltd. (collectively, “iCeutica”). The iCeutica License allowed the Company to utilize certain technology and intellectual property related to iCeutica’s SOLUMATRIX technology and certain other rights of iCeutica. Effective the termination of the iCeutica License, the Company ceased manufacturing products using SOLUMATRIX technology and will sell through its remaining inventory.

On February 13, 2020, the Company completed the sale of its remaining rights, title and interest in and to the NUCYNTA® franchise to Collegium Pharmaceutical, Inc. (Collegium) for $375.0 million, less royalties, in cash at closing.
Collegium assumed certain contracts, liabilities and obligations relating to the NUCYNTA products, including those related to manufacturing and supply, post-market commitments and clinical development costs. Collegium also paid for certain inventories relating to the products.

On January 10, 2020, the Company completed the sale of Gralise® (gabapentin) to Golf Acquiror LLC, an affiliate to Alvogen, Inc. (Alvogen), for cash proceeds of $130.3 million. The total value included $75.0 million in cash at closing, with the balance receivable as 75% of Alvogen’s first $70.0 million of Gralise net sales after the closing (consideration receivable). Alvogen also paid for certain inventories relating to Gralise. On June 3, 2020, the Company entered into an agreement with Alvogen to settle the remaining balance of $39.7 million in consideration receivable, whereby the Company reduced the consideration receivable by $0.9 million and Alvogen paid $38.8 million in cash.

Basis of Presentation
 
The Company’s consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S. GAAP) and U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) regulations for annual reporting. Certain amounts in prior periods have been reclassified to conform with current period presentation.

In connection with the preparation of the financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2021, the Company evaluated whether there were conditions and events, considered in the aggregate, which raised substantial doubt as to the entity's ability to continue as a going concern within twelve months after the date of the issuance of these financial statements noting that there did not appear to be evidence of substantial doubt of the entity's ability to continue as a going concern.

Stock Split

On May 18, 2021, the Company effected a 1-for-4 reverse stock split of its issued and outstanding common stock. The par value of the common stock was not adjusted as a result of the reverse stock split. All common stock share and per-share data included in these financial statements have been retrospectively adjusted to reflect the effect of the reverse stock split for all periods presented.

Revenue Reclassification

During the third quarter of 2021, the Company made certain reclassifications within Total Revenues related to product sales adjustments for previously divested products. Product sales adjustments for previously divested products were reclassified from Product sales, net to Other revenue on the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income, which impacted previously reported amounts for the year ended December 31, 2020. The reclassifications were made so the line item Product sales, net would reflect net sales of the Company’s current commercialized products. Prior period results were recast to conform with these changes and resulted in an increase to Other revenue and an equal and offsetting decrease to Product sales, net of $1.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, respectively. Total net revenue as previously reported remains unchanged.

Impact of COVID-19 on our Business

Following the outbreak of COVID-19 during early 2020, the Company’s priority was and remains the health and safety of its employees, their families, and the patients it serves. Because COVID-19 impacted the Company’s ability to see in-person providers who prescribe our products, the Company transformed its commercial approach during 2020 and increased virtual visits, ultimately eliminating its in-person sales force in favor of a digital sales strategy. Additionally, due to the
59



limitations on elective surgeries and changes in patient behavior since the outbreak of COVID-19, the Company has experienced a decline and subsequent volatility in prescriptions associated with those elective procedures. The extent to which the Company’s operations may continue to be impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic will depend largely on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be accurately predicted, including actions by government authorities to contain the outbreak, the emergence of new COVID-19 variants and the related potential for new surges in infections and the impacts of increases in virtual physician visits on prescriber behavior. For example, although many public health restrictions have eased, future surges could result in additional restrictions or other factors that may contribute to decreases in elective procedures. The impact of the pandemic on the global financial markets may reduce the Company’s ability to access capital, which could negatively impact its liquidity. The Company does not yet know the full extent of potential delays or impacts on its business, financing or on healthcare systems or the global economy as a whole. However, these effects could have a material impact on the Company’s liquidity, capital resources, operations and business and those of the third parties on which it relies, including suppliers and distributors.

Principles of Consolidation

The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

Use of Estimates
 
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Estimates are used when accounting for amounts recorded in connection with acquisitions, including initial fair value determinations of assets and liabilities as well as subsequent fair value measurements. Additionally, estimates are used in determining items such as product returns, rebates, evaluation of impairment of intangible assets, fair value of contingent consideration obligation and taxes on income. Although management believes these estimates are based upon reasonable assumptions within the bounds of its knowledge of the Company, actual results could differ materially from these estimates.

Segment Information

The Company manages its business within one reportable segment. Segment information is consistent with how management reviews the business, makes investing and resource allocation decisions and assesses operating performance. To date, substantially all of the Company’s revenues from product sales are related to sales in the U.S.

Cash, Cash Equivalents
 
Cash and cash equivalents include cash in readily available checking and money market funds. We consider all highly liquid investments purchased with a maturity of three months or less on the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents are carried at cost, which approximates fair value.
 
Accounts Receivable
 
Trade accounts receivable are recorded net of allowances for cash discounts for prompt payment. To date the Company has not recorded a bad debt allowance since the majority of its product revenue comes from sales to a limited number of financially sound companies who have historically paid their balances timely. The need for a bad debt allowance is evaluated each reporting period based on the Company’s assessment of the credit worthiness of its customers or any other potential circumstances that could result in bad debt.
 
Inventories
 
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value with cost determined by specific manufactured lot. Inventories consist of costs of the active pharmaceutical ingredient, contract manufacturing and packaging costs. Additionally, the Company writes off the value of inventory for potentially excess, dated or obsolete inventories based on an analysis of inventory on hand and projected demand.

Cost of sales includes the cost of inventory sold or reserved, which includes manufacturing and supply chain costs, product shipping and handling costs, and product royalties.


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Property and Equipment
 
Property and equipment are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the respective assets, as follows:
 
Furniture and office equipment
3 - 5 years
Machinery and equipment
5 - 7 years
Laboratory equipment
3 - 5 years
Leasehold improvements Shorter of estimated useful life or lease term

Intangible Assets (other than goodwill)
 
Intangible assets, other than goodwill, consist of product rights that are accounted for as definite-lived intangible assets subject to amortization. The Company determines the fair value of acquired intangible assets as of the acquisition date. Discounted cash flow models are typically used in these valuations, which require the use of significant estimates and assumptions, including but not limited to, developing appropriate discount rates and estimating future cash flows from product sales and related expenses. The fair value recorded is amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life of the asset. The Company estimated the useful life of the assets by considering competition by products prescribed for the same indication, the likelihood and estimated future entry of non-generic and generic competition for the same or similar indication and other related factors.

Impairment of Long-lived Assets

The Company evaluates long-lived assets, including property and equipment and product rights, for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset may not be recoverable. Pursuant to ASC 360, Impairment Testing: Long Lived Assets Classified as Held and Used, the Company groups its long-lived assets, including purchased developed technology and trademarks, at the lowest level for which there are identifiable cash flows that are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities. The Company estimates the future net undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated from the use of the long-lived asset group and its eventual disposition. An impairment loss would be recognized when estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset and its eventual disposition are less than its carrying amount. The impairment loss is calculated as the excess of the carrying amount over the fair value.

Acquisitions

The Company accounts for acquired businesses using the acquisition method of accounting under ASC 805, Business Combinations (ASC 805), which requires that assets acquired and liabilities assumed be recorded at date of acquisition at their respective fair values. The fair value of the consideration paid, including contingent consideration, is assigned to the underlying net assets of the acquired business based on their respective fair values. Any excess of the purchase price over the estimated fair values of the net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill.

Significant judgments are used in determining the estimated fair values assigned to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed and in determining estimates of useful lives of long-lived assets. Fair value determinations and useful life estimates are based on, among other factors, estimates of expected future net cash flows, estimates of appropriate discount rates used to present value expected future net cash flows, the assessment of each asset’s life cycle, and the impact of competitive trends on each asset’s life cycle and other factors. These judgments can materially impact the estimates used to allocate acquisition date fair values to assets acquired and liabilities assumed and the resulting timing and amounts charged to, or recognized in current and future operating results. For these and other reasons, actual results may vary significantly from estimated results.

Any changes in the fair value of contingent consideration resulting from a change in the underlying inputs is recognized in operating expenses until the contingent consideration arrangement is settled. Changes in the fair value of contingent consideration resulting from the passage of time are recorded within interest expense until the contingent consideration is settled.

If the acquired net assets do not constitute a business under the acquisition method of accounting, the transaction is accounted for as an asset acquisition and no goodwill is recognized. In an asset acquisition, the amount allocated to acquired in-process research and development with no alternative future use is charged to expense at the acquisition date.
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Goodwill

Under the purchase method of accounting pursuant to ASC 805, Goodwill is calculated as the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed. Goodwill, which is not tax-deductible, is recognized within other long-term assets, and is not amortized but subject to an annual review for impairment. Goodwill is tested for impairment at the reporting unit level at least annually or when a triggering event occurs that could indicate a potential impairment by assessing qualitative factors or performing a quantitative analysis in determining whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of net assets are below their carrying amounts. A reporting unit is the same as, or one level below, an operating segment. Our operations are currently comprised of a single reporting unit.

Revenue Recognition
 
Under ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (ASC 606), the Company recognizes revenue when its customer obtains control of the promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration which the Company expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. To determine revenue recognition for arrangements that the Company determines are within the scope of ASC 606, the Company performs the following five steps: (i) identify the contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies a performance obligation. The Company only applies the five-step model to contracts when it is probable that Company will collect the consideration it is entitled to in exchange for the goods or services it transfers to the customer. At contract inception, once the contract is determined to be within the scope of ASC 606, the Company assesses the goods or services promised within each contract and determines those that are performance obligations and assesses whether each promised good or service is distinct. The Company then recognizes as revenue the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation, when (or as) the performance obligation is satisfied. The Company assesses the term of the contract based upon the contractual period in which the Company has enforceable rights and obligations.

Variable consideration arising from sales or usage-based royalties, promised in exchange for a license of the Company’s Intellectual Property, is recognized at the later of (i) when the subsequent product sales occur or (ii) the performance obligation, to which some or all of the sales-based royalty has been allocated, has been satisfied.

The Company recognizes a contract asset relating to its conditional right to consideration for completed performance obligations. Accounts receivable are recorded when the right to consideration becomes unconditional. A contract liability is recorded for payments received in advance of the related performance obligation being satisfied under the contract.

Product Sales

The Company sells commercial products to wholesale distributors and specialty pharmacies. Product sales revenue is recognized when title has transferred to the customer and the customer has assumed the risks and rewards of ownership, which typically occurs on delivery to the customer. The Company’s performance obligation is to deliver product to the customer, and the performance obligation is completed upon delivery. The transaction price consists of a fixed invoice price and variable product sales allowances, which include rebates, discounts and returns. Product sales revenues are recorded net of applicable sales tax and reserves for these product sales allowances. Receivables related to product sales are typically collected one to two months after delivery.

Product Sales Allowances - The Company considers products sales allowances to be variable consideration and estimates and recognizes product sales allowances as a reduction of product sales in the same period the related revenue is recognized. Product sales allowances are based on actual or estimated amounts owed on the related sales. These estimates take into consideration the terms of the Company’s agreements with customers, historical product returns, rebates or discounts taken, estimated levels of inventory in the distribution channel, the shelf life of the product and specific known market events, such as competitive pricing and new product introductions. The Company uses the most likely method in estimating product sales allowances. If actual future results vary from the Company’s estimates, the Company may need to adjust these estimates, which could have an effect on product sales and earnings in the period of adjustment. The Company’s sales allowances include:

Product Returns - The Company allows customers to return product for credit with respect to that product within six months before and up to twelve months after its product expiration date. The Company estimates product returns and associated credit on Zipsor, CAMBIA, NUCYNTA, Gralise, Lazanda and products acquired from Zyla, INDOCIN Products, ZORVOLEX, VIVLODEX and OXAYDO. Estimates for returns are based on historical return trends by product or by return trends of similar products, taking into consideration the shelf life of the product at the time of shipment, shipment and prescription trends, estimated distribution channel inventory levels and consideration of the introduction of competitive
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products. The Company did not assume financial responsibility for returns of NUCYNTA previously sold by Janssen Pharma or Lazanda product previously sold by Archimedes Pharma US Inc. Under the Commercialization Agreement with Collegium for NUCYNTA, the divestiture of Lazanda to Slán and the divestiture of Gralise to Alvogen, the Company is only financially responsible for product returns for product that were sold by the Company, which are identified by specific lot numbers.

Shelf lives, from the respective manufacture dates, for the Company’s products range from 24 months to 48 months. Because of the shelf life of the Company’s products and its return policy of issuing credits with respect to product that is returned within six months before and up to 12 months after its product expiration date, there may be a significant period of time between when the product is shipped and when the Company issues credit on a returned product. Accordingly, the Company may have to adjust these estimates, which could have an effect on product sales and earnings in the period of adjustments.

Managed Care Rebates - The Company offers discounts under contracts with certain managed care providers. The Company generally pays managed care rebates one to three months after prescriptions subject to the rebate are filled.

Government Rebates - The Company participates in both Medicaid and Medicare rebate programs. Medicaid provides assistance to certain low income patients based on each individual state’s guidelines regarding eligibility and services. Under the Medicaid rebate programs, the Company pays a rebate to each participating state, generally two to three months after the quarter in which prescriptions subject to the rebate are filled. The Company participates in the Medicare Part D Coverage Gap Discount Program under which it provides rebates on prescriptions that fall within the “donut hole” coverage gap. The Company generally pays Medicare Part D Coverage Gap rebates two to three months after the quarter in which prescriptions subject to the rebate are filled.

Wholesaler and Pharmacy Discounts—The Company offers contractually determined discounts to certain wholesale distributors and specialty pharmacies that purchase directly from it. These discounts are either taken off invoice at the time of shipment or paid to the customer on a quarterly basis one to two months after the quarter in which product was shipped to the customer.

Prompt Pay Discounts - The Company offers cash discounts to its customers (generally 2% of the sales price) as an incentive for prompt payment.

Based on the Company’s experience, the Company expects its customers to comply with the payment terms to earn the cash discount.

Patient Discount Programs - The Company offers patient discount co-pay assistance programs in which patients receive certain discounts off their prescriptions at participating retail and specialty pharmacies. The discounts are reimbursed by the Company to program administrators approximately one month after the prescriptions subject to the discount are filled.

Chargebacks - The Company provides discounts to authorized users of the Federal Supply Schedule (FSS) of the General Services Administration under an FSS contract with the Department of Veterans Affairs and 340B eligible entities. These federal and 340B entities purchase products from the wholesale distributors at a discounted price, and the wholesale distributors then charge back to the Company the difference between the current retail price and the price the federal entity paid for the product.

Royalties and Milestone Revenue

For arrangements that include sales-based royalties and the license is deemed to be the predominant item to which the royalties relate, the Company recognizes royalty revenue at the later of (i) when the related sales occur, or (ii) when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied). The Company currently has the right to receive royalties based on sales of CAMBIA in Canada, which are recognized as revenue when the related sales occur as there are no continuing performance obligations by the Company under those agreements.

For arrangements that include milestones, the Company recognizes such revenue using the most likely method. At the end of each reporting period, the Company re-evaluates the probability or achievement of any potential milestone and any related constraints, and if necessary, adjusts its estimates of the overall transaction price. Any such adjustments are recorded on a cumulative catch-up basis, which would affect revenue in the period of adjustment.

Contingent Consideration Obligation

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Pursuant to the May 2020 Zyla Merger, the Company assumed a contingent consideration obligation which is measured at fair value. The Company has an obligations to make contingent consideration payments for future royalties to Iroko based upon annual INDOCIN Product net sales over $20.0 million at a 20% royalty through January 2029.

At each reporting date, the Company re-measures the contingent consideration obligation to estimated fair value and any resulting change is recognized in Selling, general and administrative expense in the Company’s Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income. The fair value of the contingent consideration is determined using an option pricing model under the income approach based on estimated INDOCIN product revenues through January 2029 and discounted to present value. The fair value measurement is based on significant inputs not observable in the market and thus represents a Level 3 measurement as defined in fair value measurement accounting.

Leases
In accordance with ASC 842, Leases, the Company assesses contracts for lease arrangements at inception. Operating right-of-use (ROU) assets and liabilities are recognized at the lease commencement date equal to the present value of future lease payments using the implicit, if readily available, or incremental borrowing rate based on the information readily available at the commencement date. ROU assets include any lease payments as of commencement and initial direct costs but exclude any lease incentives. Lease and non-lease components are generally accounted for separately and the Company recognizes operating lease expense straight-line over the term of the lease. Operating leases are included in Other long-term assets, Other current liabilities, and Other long-term liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheet.

    The Company accounts for operating leases with an initial term of twelve months or less on a straight-line basis over the lease term in the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income.

Stock Based Compensation
 
    The Company’s stock-based compensation generally includes stock options, restricted stock units (RSUs), performance share units (PSUs), and purchases under the Company’s employee stock purchase plan (ESPP), which was terminated in June 2021. The Company accounts for forfeitures as they occur for each type of award. Stock-based compensation expense related to restricted stock unit awards (RSUs) is based on the market value of the underlying stock on the date of grant and the related expense is recognized ratably over the requisite service period.

The stock-based compensation expense related to performance share units (PSUs) is estimated at grant date based on the fair value of the award. The PSU awards are measured exclusively to the relative total shareholder return (TSR) performance, which is measured against the three-year TSR of a custom index of companies. The actual number of shares awarded is adjusted to between zero and 200% of the target award amount based upon achievement in each of the three independent successive one-year tranches. TSR relative to peers is considered a market condition under applicable authoritative guidance. For PSUs granted with vesting subject to market conditions, the fair value of the award is determined at grant date using the Monte Carlo model, and expense is recognized ratably over the requisite service period regardless of whether or not the market condition is satisfied. The Monte Carlo valuation model considers a variety of potential future share prices for Assertio and our peer companies in a selected market index.

The Company uses the Black-Scholes option valuation model to determine the fair value of stock options and employee stock purchase plan (ESPP) shares. The determination of the fair value of stock-based payment awards on the date of grant using an option valuation model is affected by our stock price as well as assumptions, which include the expected term of the award, the expected stock price volatility, risk-free interest rate and expected dividends over the expected term of the award. The Company uses historical option exercise data to estimate the expected term of the options. The Company estimates the volatility of our common stock price by using the historical volatility over the expected term of the options. The Company bases the risk-free interest rate on U.S. Treasury zero coupon issues with terms similar to the expected term of the options as of the date of grant. The Company does not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future, and therefore, uses an expected dividend yield of zero in the option valuation model. Stock-based compensation expense related to the ESPP and options is recognized on a straight-line basis over its respective term.

Research and Development Expense
 
Research and development (R&D) expenses include salaries, clinical trial costs, consultant fees, supplies, manufacturing costs for research and development programs, allocations of corporate costs, as well as post-marketing clinical studies. All such costs are charged to R&D expense as incurred. These expenses result from the Company’s independent R&D efforts as well as efforts associated with collaborations. The Company reviews and accrues clinical trial expenses based on work performed, which relies on estimates of total costs incurred based on patient enrollment, completion of patient studies and
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other events. The Company follows this method since reasonably dependable estimates of the costs applicable to various stages of a research agreement or clinical trial can be made. Accrued clinical costs are subject to revisions as trials progress to completion. Revisions are charged to expense in the period in which the facts that give rise to the revision become known.
 
Advertising Costs
 
Costs associated with advertising are expensed as incurred. Advertising expense for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 were $1.8 million and $0.4 million, respectively.
 
Restructuring
 
Restructuring costs are included in Restructuring charges within the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income. The Company has accounted for these costs in accordance with ASC 420, Exit or Disposal Cost Obligations (ASC 420) and ASC 712, Compensation - Nonretirement Postemployment Benefits (ASC 712). One-time termination benefits are recorded at the time restructuring is communicated to the affected employees. Ongoing benefits are recognized when they are estimable and probable.

Income Taxes
 
The Company records the estimated future tax effects of temporary differences between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and amounts reported in its Consolidated Balance Sheets, as well as operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. The Company follows the guidelines set forth in the applicable accounting guidance regarding the recoverability of any tax assets recorded on the Consolidated Balance Sheets and provide any necessary allowances as required. Determining necessary allowances requires the Company to make assessments about the timing of future events, including the probability of expected future taxable income and available tax planning opportunities. When it is determined that it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized in the future, the deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance. The valuation allowance is sufficient to reduce the deferred tax assets to the amount determined is more likely than not to be realized. At this time, the Company has recorded a valuation allowance against its net deferred tax assets.
 
The Company is subject to examination of its income tax returns by various tax authorities on a periodic basis. The Company regularly assesses the likelihood of adverse outcomes resulting from such examinations to determine the adequacy of its provision for income taxes. The Company has applied the provisions of the applicable accounting guidance on accounting for uncertainty in income taxes, which requires application of a more‑likely‑than‑not threshold to the recognition and de‑recognition of uncertain tax positions. If the recognition threshold is met, the applicable accounting guidance permits the Company to recognize a tax benefit measured at the largest amount of tax benefit that, in its judgment, is more than 50 percent likely to be realized upon settlement. It further requires that a change in judgment related to the expected ultimate resolution of uncertain tax positions be recognized in earnings in the period of such change.
 
The Company recognizes tax liabilities in accordance with ASC Topic 740, Income Taxes, and adjusts these liabilities when its judgment changes as a result of the evaluation of new information not previously available. Due to the complexity of some of these uncertainties, the ultimate resolution may result in a payment that is materially different from our current estimate of the tax liabilities. These differences will be reflected as increases or decreases to income tax expense in the period in which they are determined.
 
Concentration of Risk

The Company is subject to credit risk from its accounts receivable related to product sales. The three large, national wholesale distributors represent the vast majority of the Company’s business and represented the following percentage of consolidated revenue by customer and the percentage accounts receivable by customer related to product shipments for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020.

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Consolidated revenue Accounts receivable related to product sales
2021 2020 2021 2020
Cardinal Health 34  % 42  % 44  % 53  %
McKesson Corporation 24  % 14  % 23  % 20  %
AmerisourceBergen Corporation 26  % 13  % 29  % 18  %
Collegium —  % 11  % —  % —  %
All others 16  % 20  % % %
Total 100  % 100  % 100  % 100  %
 

Accounts receivable balances related to product sales were $43.8 million and $40.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. To date, the Company has not experienced any significant bad debt losses with respect to the collection of its accounts receivable and believes that its accounts receivable balances are collectible.

The Company is dependent upon third-party manufacturers to supply product for commercial use. In particular, the Company relies and expects to continue to rely on a small number of manufacturers to supply it with its requirements for all commercialized products. Such production arrangements could be adversely affected by a significant interruption which would negatively impact the supply of final drug product. The Company’s sole commercial suppliers for each of its marketed products, as follows:
INDOCIN Products - Patheon Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Patheon) and Cosette Pharmaceuticals, Inc;
CAMBIA - MiPharm, S.p.A. and Pharma Packaging Solutions
Otrexup - Antares Pharma, Inc. and Pharmascience Inc.
SPRIX - Jubilant HollisterStier LLC and Sharp Packaging Solutions
Zipsor - Catalent Ontario Limited (Catalent) and Mikart Inc.
OXAYDO - UPM Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
 
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13 Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (ASU 2016-13 or Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which requires the measurement and recognition of expected credit losses for financial assets held at amortized cost. ASU 2016-13 replaces the existing incurred loss impairment model with an expected loss methodology, which will result in more timely recognition of credit losses. The Company adopted this standard on January 1, 2020 and updated its internal controls to include certain forward-looking considerations in the current process of developing and recognizing credit losses for in scope financial assets. Refer to “Note 8. Other Long Term Assets for further discussion on impact of adopting ASU 2016-13.

In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-18 Collaborative Arrangements (ASU 2018-18), which clarifies the interaction between ASC 808, Collaborative Arrangements (ASC 808) and ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (ASC 606). The update clarifies that certain transactions between participants in a collaborative arrangement should be accounted for under ASC 606 when the counterparty is a customer. In addition, the update precludes an entity from presenting consideration from a transaction in a collaborative arrangement as revenue if the counterparty is not a customer for that transaction. The Company adopted the standard as of January 1, 2020 and have applied modified retrospective transition method to the date of initial application of ASC 606. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-15, Accounting for Cloud Computing Arrangements (Subtopic 350-40), which provides new guidance on the accounting for implementation, set-up, and other upfront costs incurred in a hosted cloud computing arrangement. Under the new guidance, entities will apply the same criteria for capitalizing implementation costs as they would for an internal-use software license arrangement. Effective January 1, 2020, the Company adopted the standard using the prospective approach to eligible costs incurred on or after the date of adoption. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13 Fair Value Measurement Disclosure Framework (ASU 2018-03), which is part of a broader disclosure framework project by the FASB to improve the effectiveness of disclosures by more clearly communicating the information to the user. The Company adopted the standard as of January 1, 2020 and included these
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disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. The additional elements of this release did not impact the Company's consolidated financial statements.

In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes (ASU 2019-12): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes which simplifies the accounting for income taxes by removing certain exceptions related to the approach for intraperiod tax allocation, the methodology for calculating income taxes in an interim period, and by clarifying and amending existing guidance in order to improve consistent application of and simplify GAAP for other areas of Topic 740. ASU 2019-12 is effective for annual periods, and interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2020. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. The Company early adopted the standard effective January 1, 2020. The new standard was applied to the presentation of the Company’s reacquisition of $19.5 million in equity component of the Company’s Convertible Notes, as a result of the private purchase in February 2020 and tender offer in April 2020.

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

In May 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-04, Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Debt-Modifications and Extinguishments (Subtopic 470-50), Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718), and Derivatives and Hedging-Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Issuer’s Accounting for Certain Modifications or Exchanges of Freestanding Equity-Classified Written Call Options. The amendments in ASU 2021-04 provide guidance to clarify and reduce diversity in an issuer’s accounting for modifications or exchanges of freestanding equity-classified written call options (for example, warrants) that remain equity classified after modification or exchange. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, including interim periods therein, and early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of this principle on the Company’s consolidated financial statements

In October 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-08, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers, which requires an acquirer in a business combination to recognize and measure contract assets and contract liabilities in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification Topic 606. ASU 2021-08 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022 and early adoption is permitted. While the Company is continuing to assess the timing of adoption and the potential impacts of ASU 2021-08, it does not expect ASU 2021-08 to have a material effect on its consolidated financial statements.

NOTE 2. ACQUISITIONS

Otrexup Acquisition

On December 15, 2021, the Company, through a newly-formed subsidiary, Otter Pharmaceuticals, LLC, entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”) with Antares Pharma, Inc. (“Antares”), and concurrently consummated the transaction. Pursuant to the terms of the Purchase Agreement, the Company acquired Antares’ rights, title and interest in and to Otrexup, including certain related assets, intellectual property, contracts, and product inventory for (i) $18.0 million in cash paid at closing, (ii) $16.0 million in cash payable on May 31, 2022 and (iii) and $10.0 million in cash payable on December 15, 2022.

The following table summarizes the aggregate amount paid for the assets acquired by the Company in connection with the acquisition of Otrexup (in thousands):

Cash paid to Antares at closing $ 18,000 
Deferred cash payment due in May and December 2022 26,021 
Transaction costs 1,478 
Total purchase price of assets acquired $ 45,499 

The acquisition of Otrexup has been accounted for as an asset acquisition in accordance with FASB ASC 805-50. The Company accounted for the acquisition of Otrexup as an asset acquisition because substantially all of the fair value of the assets acquired is concentrated in a single asset, the Otrexup product rights. The Otrexup products rights consist of certain patents and trademarks, at-market contracts and regulatory approvals, customer lists, marketing assets, and other records, and are considered a single asset as they are inextricably linked. ASC 805-10-55-5A includes a screen test, which provides that if substantially all of the fair value of the assets acquired is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or group of similar identifiable assets, the assets acquired are not considered to be a business. As an asset acquisition, the cost to acquire the group of assets, including transaction costs, is allocated to the individual assets acquired or liabilities assumed based on their relative
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fair values. The relative fair values of identifiable assets from the acquisition of Otrexup are based on estimates of fair value using assumptions that the Company believes is reasonable.

The following table summarizes the fair value of assets acquired in the acquisition of Otrexup (in thousands):

Inventories $ 1,413 
Intangible assets (Otrexup product rights)
44,086 
Total assets acquired $ 45,499 

The Otrexup product rights will be amortized over an 8 year period. As of December 31, 2021, cash payable to Antares in 2022 of $26.0 million is recorded in Other current liabilities in the Company’s Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet.

Zyla Life Sciences Merger

On May 20, 2020, Assertio completed the Zyla Merger pursuant to the Agreement and Plan of Merger dated March 16, 2020. Upon consummation of the Zyla Merger, each issued and outstanding share of Zyla common stock converted into 2.5 shares of Assertio Holding’s common stock (the Exchange Ratio) on a pre-stock split basis, and each outstanding option or warrant to purchase Zyla common stock converted into the right to purchase shares of Assertio’s common stock. The company accounted for the Zyla Merger using the acquisition method of accounting under ASC 805.

The following table reflects the acquisition date fair value of the consideration transferred with respect to the Zyla Merger:

Total number of Company ordinary shares issued 6,369,635
Assertio share price as of May 20, 2020 $ 3.60 
Fair value of common shares issued (in thousands) $ 22,931 
Fair value of warrants and stock options issued (in thousands) (1)
$ 11,626 
Taxes paid by the Company on behalf of Zyla (in thousands) 529 
Total purchase consideration (in thousands) $ 35,086 
(1) Represents 1,243,091 of Zyla warrants outstanding as of May 20, 2020 at the Exchange Ratio or 3,107,728 Company warrants. The Company’s warrants were valued using the Company’s share price of $3.60 as of May 20,2020. As these shares are exercisable at any time at an exercise price of $0.0016 per share and Assertio issued replacement awards for these shares, these shares represent consideration transferred.

Costs incurred that were directly attributable to facilitating the close of the Zyla Merger were $6.6 million and were recognized during the first six months of 2020. These costs were recorded to the Selling, general and administrative expenses in the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income.

Pursuant to ASC 805, one of the companies in the transactions shall be designated as the acquirer for accounting purposes based on the evidence available. For accounting purposes, Assertio was treated as the acquiring entity. The Zyla Merger transaction was accounted for as a business combination under the acquisition method of accounting in accordance with ASC 805. Under this method, the acquisition was recorded by allocating the purchase price consideration to the tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed from Zyla, based on the estimated fair values at the acquisition date. The excess of purchase price over the fair value of the acquired net assets was recorded as goodwill. The results of operations of this transaction have been included in the Company’s consolidated financial statements from the date of acquisition.

As of the merger date in 2020, valuations were performed to assess the fair value of certain assets acquired and liabilities assumed. Accounting guidance provides that the allocation of the purchase price may be modified up to one year from the date of the merger as more information is obtained about the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed. The Company finalized the Zyla Merger purchase price allocation effective December 31, 2020.

The following table reflects the initial preliminary and final fair values of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed, and measurement period adjustments during the year ended December 31, 2020, as of the acquisition date (in thousands):

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Initial Preliminary Purchase Price Allocation (PPA) to Fair Value Measurement period adjustments Final PPA to Fair Value
Cash $ 7,585  $ —  $ 7,585 
Accounts receivable 23,133  —  23,133 
Inventories 26,742  (12,481) 14,261 
Property and equipment 4,512  (3,016) 1,496 
Intangible assets 160,900  32,500  193,400 
Other assets 9,629  (1,964) 7,665 
Total identifiable assets acquired $ 232,501  $ 15,039  $ 247,540 
Accounts payable 21,574  —  21,574 
Accrued rebates, returns and discounts 33,254  —  33,254 
Other accrued liabilities 15,434  8,424  23,858 
Contingent consideration (a) 29,400  10,500  39,900 
Debt (b) 111,900  (600) 111,300 
Total liabilities assumed $ 211,562  $ 18,324  $ 229,886 
Net identifiable assets acquired 20,939  (3,285) 17,654 
Goodwill (c) 14,147  3,285  17,432 
Net assets acquired $ 35,086  $   $ 35,086 

(a) Contingent consideration obligation was recognized and measured at an estimated fair value as of the acquisition date. The contingent consideration liability assumed is the result of Zyla’s previous acquisition of INDOCIN Products. The liability assumed included contingent consideration related to royalties payable in the form of an earnout provision based on INDOCIN Product revenue estimates and a probability assessment with respect to the likelihood of achieving the level of net sales that would trigger the contingent payment. The fair value measurement is based on significant inputs not observable in the market and thus represents a Level 3 measurement as defined in fair value measurement accounting. The key assumptions in determining the fair value are the discount rate and the probability assigned to the potential milestones being achieved. At each reporting date, the Company will subsequently re-measure the contingent consideration obligation to estimated fair value. Any changes in the fair value of contingent consideration will be recognized in operating expenses until the contingent consideration arrangement is settled.

(b) The fair value of acquired debt is comprised of the following (in thousands):

13% Senior Secured Note due 2024
$ 95,000 
Royalty rights obligation 3,300 
Promissory note 3,000 
Credit agreement 10,000 
Total debt $ 111,300 

Upon the Zyla Merger, the Company assumed and immediately paid off a $3.0 million promissory note. The promissory note was scheduled to mature on July 31, 2020. Additionally upon the Zyla Merger, the Company assumed and immediately paid off a $10.0 million credit agreement. The credit agreement was recognized by Zyla as a related party transaction as the lenders were also holders of a portion of the Zyla’s 13% Notes that were issued on January 31, 2019. The Credit Agreement was scheduled to mature on March 20, 2022. See Note 10, Debt, for further information regarding assumed Debt.
(c) The Company recognized $17.4 million of goodwill which represents the fair value of assets net of the fair value of liabilities assumed in excess of consideration paid. Goodwill arising from the Zyla Merger is not expected to be deductible for tax purposes and is subject to material revision as the purchase price allocation is completed. The goodwill recognized is attributable primarily to expected synergies and the assembled workforce of Zyla. Refer “Note 7. Intangible Assets” for discussions around related goodwill impairment.
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Stock-based Compensation Plan

On June 4, 2020, the Company filed a Registration Statement with the SEC to register the Zyla Life Sciences Amended and Restated 2019 Stock-Based Incentive Compensation Plan (the 2019 Zyla Plan). The 2019 Zyla Plan was assumed in connection with the Zyla Merger. Pursuant to the Zyla Merger Agreement, each outstanding Zyla stock option was cancelled and converted into a stock option to purchase the Company’s Common Stock on the same terms and conditions with (1) the number of shares of Company Common Stock subject to each such option equal to (i) the number of shares of the common stock subject to the option multiplied by (ii) the Merger Exchange Ratio, which was 2.5, rounded on pre-stock split basis, if necessary, to the nearest whole share and (2) an exercise price per share (rounded to the nearest whole cent) equal to the original exercise price of the Zyla stock option divided by (B) the Exchange Ratio. This resulted in the issuance of 1.3 million options with an average fair market value of $2.48 per share value on a post stock split basis, of which $0.4 million was recognized as merger consideration. The term of Zyla options may not exceed 10 years from the date of grant. An option shall be exercisable on or after each vesting date in accordance with the terms set forth in the option agreement. The right to exercise an option generally vests over three years at the rate of at least 33%, by the end of the first year and then ratably in monthly installments over the remaining vesting period of the stock option.

Warrant Agreements

Upon the Zyla Merger, the Company assumed Zyla’s warrant agreements (the “Warrant Agreements”) with Iroko Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“Iroko”) certain of Iroko’s affiliates and certain other parties entitled to receive shares of the Company’s common stock as consideration pursuant to Zyla’s prior agreements or in satisfaction of certain claims pursuant to the Zyla’s prior reorganization plan. The warrants are exercisable at any time at an exercise price of $0.0016 per share, subject to certain ownership limitations including, with respect to Iroko and its affiliates, that no such exercise may increase the aggregate ownership of the Company’s outstanding common stock of such parties above 49% of the number of shares of its common stock then outstanding for a period of 18 months. All of the Company’s outstanding warrants have similar terms whereas under no circumstance may the warrants be net-cash settled. As such, all warrants are equity-classified.

Pro Forma Information

Supplemental unaudited proforma information is based upon accounting estimates and judgments that the Company believes are reasonable. This supplemental unaudited pro forma financial information has been prepared for comparative purposes only, and is not necessarily indicative of what actual results would have occurred, or of results that may occur in the future. The following table reflects the pro forma consolidated total revenues and net loss for the periods presented, as if the acquisition of Zyla had occurred on January 1, 2020.
Unaudited
Twelve Months Ended December 31,
2020
Total revenues $ 131,969 
Net loss $ (60,105)

The unaudited proforma financial results for the year ended December 31, 2020 reflect adjustments directly attributed to the business combination and the Company’s divestiture of NUCYNTA and Gralise. See Note 3, Revenue, for revenue for the period since the acquisition date to December 31, 2020 related to Zyla acquired products. As the Company operates as one operating entity, earnings of Zyla since the acquisition date are impractical to calculate separate from the consolidated company.
NOTE 3. REVENUE

Disaggregated Revenue
 
The following table reflects summary revenue, net for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 (in thousands):
 
70



  Year ended December 31,
  2021 2020
Product sales, net:    
INDOCIN products (1)
$ 60,557  $ 31,684 
CAMBIA 24,972 28,350
Zipsor 10,185  13,286 
SPRIX (1)
8,676 11,077 
Other products 5,030  7,693 
Total product sales, net 109,420  92,090 
Commercialization agreement revenue, net —  11,258 
Royalties and milestone revenue 2,579  1,519 
Other revenue (985) 1,408 
Total revenues $ 111,014  $ 106,275 
(1)Products acquired in connection with the May 20, 2020 Zyla Merger

Product Sales, net

For the year ended December 31, 2021, product sales primarily consisted of sales from INDOCIN Products, CAMBIA, Zipsor and SPRIX. The Company began shipping and recognizing product sales for INDOCIN Products and SPRIX upon the Zyla Merger on May 20, 2020.

Other product net sales primarily includes product sales for non-promoted products (OXAYDO and SOLUMATRIX) which were acquired from Zyla in May 2020.

The Company records contract liabilities in the form of deferred revenue resulting from prepayments from customers. As of December 31, 2021, contract liabilities were $0.3 million and included in Other Current Liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheet.

Commercialization Agreement Revenue, net

The Company ceased recognizing commercialization revenue and related costs for NUCYNTA effective the closing of the transaction to sell its rights, title and interest in and to the NUCYNTA franchise to Collegium on February 13, 2020. In connection with the sale, the Commercialization Agreement terminated at closing with certain specified provisions of the Commercialization Agreement surviving in accordance with the terms of the purchase agreement. During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company recognized net revenue from the Commercialization Agreement of $11.3 million. This included variable royalty revenue of $13.1 million offset by the amortization of the $1.8 million net contract asset in connection with the termination of the Commercialization Agreement.

Royalties and Milestone Revenue

In November 2010, the Company entered into a license agreement with Tribute Pharmaceuticals Canada Ltd. (now known as Miravo Pharmaceuticals) granting them the rights to commercially market CAMBIA in Canada. Miravo independently contracts with manufacturers to produce a specific CAMBIA formulation in Canada. The Company receives royalties on net sales on a quarterly basis as well as certain one-time contingent milestone payments upon the occurrence of certain events. The Company recognized revenue related to CAMBIA in Canada of $2.5 million and $1.5 million, respectively, for the years ended December 31, 2021, and 2020.

Other Revenue
Other revenue consists of sales adjustments for previously divested products, which includes adjustments to reserves for product sales allowances (gross to-net sales allowances) and can result in reductions to total revenue during the period. Sales adjustments for previously divested products primarily include Gralise, which was divested in January 2020, Nucynta and Lazanda and were $(1.0) million and $1.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2021, and 2020, respectively.
NOTE 4. ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLES, NET
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The following table reflects accounts receivables, net, as of December 31, 2021 and 2020 (in thousands):
 
December 31,
  2021 2020
Receivables related to product sales, net $ 43,753  $ 40,784 
Receivables from Collegium 608  3,566 
Total accounts receivable, net $ 44,361  $ 44,350